Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma
Human Growth Hormone
Carcinoma, Islet Cell
The somatostatin analog octreotide inhibits growth of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-dependent and IL-6-independent human multiple myeloma cell lines. (1/953)Somatostatin and its analogs can inhibit growth in several cell types, in part by interfering with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling. Our previous studies point to the importance of paracrine and autocrine IGF-I in the support of growth and survival of human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. In this report, we have investigated the potential role of a somatostatin analog, octreotide, in regulating growth and/or survival in MM. The results show that all MM cell lines express functional somatostatin receptors (sst). The MM cell lines express the subtypes sst2, sst3, and predominantly sst5 as determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Octreotide inhibited the growth of both the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-dependent and the IL-6-independent MM cell lines. The effect is mainly cytostatic, resulting in 25% to 45% growth inhibition, and in three of eight of the MM cell lines a weak induction of apoptosis was recorded. Our results also show that octreotide may act as an inducer of apoptosis in primary B-B4(+) plasma cells isolated from bone marrow of MM patients. In conclusion, the results show a novel pathway for growth inhibition of MM cells: the activation of somatostatin receptor signaling. (+info)
In vivo localization of [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide to human ovarian tumor xenografts induced to express the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 using an adenoviral vector. (2/953)Adenoviral vectors, encoding genes for cell surface antigens or receptors, have been used to induce their high level expression on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. These induced antigens and receptors can then be targeted with radiolabeled antibodies or peptides for potential radiotherapeutic applications. The purpose of this study was to determine a dosing schema of an adenoviral vector encoding the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (AdCMVhSSTr2) for achieving the highest tumor localization of [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, which binds to this receptor, in a human ovarian cancer model as a prelude to future therapy studies. AdCMVhSSTr2 was produced and used to induce hSSTr2 on A427 human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells and on SKOV3.ipl human ovarian cancer cells in vitro, as demonstrated by competitive binding assays using [125I]-Tyr1-somatostatin and [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide. Mice bearing i.p. SKOV3.ip1 tumors administered 1 x 10(9) plaque-forming units of AdCMVhSSTr2 i.p. 5 days after tumor cell inoculation, followed by an i.p. injection of [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide 2 days later, showed a range of 15.3-60.4% median injected dose/gram (ID/g) in tumor at 4 h after injection compared with 3.5% ID/g when [125I]-Tyr1-somatostatin was administered and 0.3% ID/g when the negative control peptide [125I]-mIP-bombesin was administered. Mice administered a control adenoviral vector encoding the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor did not have tumor localization of [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide (<1.6% ID/g), demonstrating specificity of [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide for the AdCMVhSSTr2 induced tumor cells. In another set of experiments, the tumor localization of [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was not different 1, 2, or 4 days after AdCMVhSSTr2 injection (31.8, 37.7, and 40.7% ID/g, respectively; P = 0.88), indicating that multiple injections of radiolabeled peptide can be administered with equivalent uptake over a 4-day period. [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide tumor localization in animals administered AdCMVhSSTr2 on consecutive days or 2 days apart was 22.4% ID/g and 53.2% ID/g, respectively (P = 0.009) when [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was given 1 day after the second AdCMVhSSTr2 injection. There was no difference in [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide localization after a single AdCMVhSSTr2 injection (40.7% ID/g) or two injections of AdCMVhSSTr2 given 1 (45.9% ID/g) or 2 (53.2% ID/g) days apart, where [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was given in each case 4 days after the first AdCMVhSSTr2 injection (P = 0.65). Therefore, two AdCMVhSSTr2 injections did not increase [(111)In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide tumor localization compared with one injection, which eliminates concerns about an immune response to a second dose of AdCMVhSSTr2. This will be the basis for a therapeutic protocol with multiple administrations of an octreotide analogue labeled with a therapeutic radioisotope. (+info)
Kleine-Levin and Munchausen syndromes in a patient with recurrent acromegaly. (3/953)Hypothalamic disease often affects the patients' personality and this also applies to pituitary tumors with suprasellar extension. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of recurrent acromegaly, treated with three transphenoidal operations, single field radiation therapy and bromocriptine/octreotide administration. During the course of follow-up she presented with self-inflicted anemia and Kleine-Levin syndrome (hypersomnia, hyperphagia and hypersexuality). Furthermore, she developed post-radiation necrosis within the right temporal lobe. Whether her neurological and personality disorders result - at least partially - from the acromegaly or the temporal lobe necrosis remains unclear. (+info)
Primary hepatic carcinoid in a renal transplant patient. (4/953)There seems to be a world-wide increase in the incidence of tumors among immunosuppressed patients. Of 1350 renal allografts transplanted in the past 23 years at the Department of Transplantation and Surgery, 56 cases were malignant tumors. The case of a 58-year-old female patient is reported, with disseminated primary carcinoid in the liver detected 86 days after renal transplantation. According to the literature only 39 patients with primary liver carcinoids have been reported until 1997, but this is the first where the carcinoid developed in an immunosuppressed patient. The rapid progression of the carcinoid could be associated with the immunosuppression. (+info)
Octreotide acetate long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome. (5/953)PURPOSE: Subcutaneous (SC) octreotide acetate effectively relieves the diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome but requires long-term multiple injections daily. A microencapsulated long-acting formulation (LAR) of octreotide acetate has been developed for once-monthly intramuscular dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized trial compared double-blinded octreotide LAR at 10, 20, and 30 mg every 4 weeks with open-label SC octreotide every 8 hours for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Seventy-nine patients controlled with treatment of SC octreotide 0.3 to 0.9 mg/d whose symptoms returned during a washout period and who returned for at least the week 20 evaluation constituted the efficacy-assessable population. RESULTS: Complete or partial treatment success was comparable in each of the four arms of the study (SC, 58.3%; 10 mg, 66.7%; 20 mg, 71.4%; 30 mg, 61.9%; P> or =.72 for all pairwise comparisons). Control of stool frequency was similar in all treatment groups. Flushing episodes were best controlled in the 20-mg LAR and SC groups; the 10-mg LAR treatment was least effective in the control of flushing. Treatment was well tolerated by patients in all four groups. CONCLUSION: Once octreotide steady-state concentrations are achieved, octreotide LAR controls the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome at least as well as SC octreotide. A starting dose of 20 mg of octreotide LAR is recommended. Supplemental SC octreotide is needed for approximately 2 weeks after initiation of octreotide LAR treatment. Occasional rescue SC injections may be required for possibly 2 to 3 months until steady-state octreotide levels from the LAR formulation are achieved. (+info)
Exogenous cysteamine increases basal pancreatic exocrine secretion in the rat. (6/953)To determine whether exocrine pancreatic secretion is regulated by endogenous somatostatin, somatostatin deficiency was induced by cysteamine. Rats were subcutaneously administered a single dose of cysteamine (30 mg/100 g body weight) 12 hr before experiment. Anesthetized rats were prepared with cannulation into bile duct, pancreatic duct, duodenum, and jugular vein and pancreatic juice was collected. For in vitro study, isolated pancreata of rats, pretreated with cysteamine, were perfused with an intraarterial infusion of Krebs-Henseleit solution (37 degrees C) at 1.2 mL/min, and pancreatic juice was collected in 15-min samples. In vivo experiment of the rat, the mean basal pancreatic secretions, including volume, bicarbonate, and protein output were significantly increased from 18.4+/-0.5 microL/30 min, 0.58+/-0.05 microEq/30 min, and 214.0+/-26.1 microg/30 min to 51.6+/-3.7 microL/30 min, 1.52+/-0.11 microEq/30 min, and 569.8+/-128.9 microg/30 min, respectively (p<0.05). In the isolated perfused pancreas, cysteamine also resulted in a significant increase in basal pancreatic secretion (p<0.05). Simultaneous intraarterial infusion of octreotide (10 pmol/hr) to isolated pancreata partially reversed the effect of cysteamine on basal pancreatic secretion. These findings suggest that endogenous somatostatin play an important role on the regulation of basal pancreatic exocrine secretion. (+info)
Expression of somatostatin receptors in oncocytic (Hurthle cell) neoplasia of the thyroid. (7/953)Ten consecutive patients with Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid (nodule/adenoma/carcinoma) were studied by (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy localized the primary Hurthle cell tumour in eight patients as distinct areas of increased uptake of radionuclide. Two patients with Hurthle cell carcinoma, previously thyroidectomized, had their metastases visualized by octreotide scintigraphy. Northern analyses showed expression of multiple somatostain receptor subtypes. Visualization of the Hurthle cell tumour may be due to a higher expression of somatostatin receptors in the lesions than in surrounding normal thyroid tissue. The tissue/blood (111)In concentration ratios for tumour samples from five patients showed clearly higher values than observed for normal connective tissue, muscle or lymph nodes. A relatively high uptake of (111)In was also observed in goiter tissue, which may lead to misinterpretations. The main indication for octreotide scintigraphy in patients with Hurthle cell carcinoma is suspicion of metastatic disease. (+info)
Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in cells of the rat immune system during adjuvant arthritis. (8/953)Somatostatin is a neuropeptide that is widely distributed throughout the body. It acts as a neurohormone and a neurotransmitter and may also have an immunomodulatory role. The genes for five subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sst) have been cloned, suggesting that the diverse effects of the peptide might be mediated by different receptors. We are interested in studying the role of sst ininflammation, using an animal model. Because of the up-regulation of sst expression in inflamed joints in human rheumatoid arthritis, we chose rat adjuvant arthritis as an experimental model. In order to determine which of the sst subtypes might be important in immune modulation, subtype expression in leukocytes isolated from different lymphoid tissues of the rat was studied. Also, the expression levels of the most abundantly expressed sst mRNAs in leukocytes from spleen and blood were compared in rats with adjuvantarthritis and controls, using a semi-quantitative approach. Furthermore, the effect of systemic administration of a long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, which binds selectively to sst subtypes 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5), on the incidence and the severity of rat adjuvant arthritis, was studied. The main sst expressed in cells of the rat immune system, both resting and activated, were found to be sst3 and sst4. This contrasts with the human and murine situations, in which sst2 appears to be the main subtype expressed in the immune system. No quantitative differences in sst subtype mRNA levels in leukocytes from spleen and blood were found between rats with adjuvant arthritis and controls. Finally, no effect of systemic administration of octreotide on either the incidence or severity of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats was found. As octreotide binds selectively to sst2 and sst5, the absence of an immunomodulatory effect of this analogue in rat adjuvant arthritis corroborates our finding that these sst subtypes are not expressed in cells of the rat immune system. In conclusion, cells of the rat immune system appear to express a spectrum of sst (sst3 and sst4) different from that found in human granulomatous and autoimmune disease (mainly sst2). Therefore, the rat adjuvant arthritis model appears to be suitable only for studying the immunomodulatory effects of somatostatin analogues which have a high affinity for sst3 and sst4, but not for studying the immunomodulatory effects of octreotide, which has a high affinity only for sst2 and sst5. (+info)
Octreotide is a synthetic hormone that is used in the medical field to treat various conditions related to the endocrine system. It is a somatostatin analog, which means that it is similar in structure to the natural hormone somatostatin, which is produced by the pancreas and other glands in the body. Octreotide is primarily used to treat acromegaly, a hormonal disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone. It is also used to treat carcinoid tumors, which are tumors that produce excessive amounts of hormones, and to control diarrhea caused by certain medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease or radiation therapy. Octreotide is usually administered as a subcutaneous injection, which means that it is injected just under the skin. It can also be administered as an intravenous infusion or as a nasal spray. The dosage and frequency of administration depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication.
Receptors, Somatostatin are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to the hormone somatostatin and trigger a response within the cell. Somatostatin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and the hypothalamus in the brain, and it plays a role in regulating various bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, and the digestive process. The receptors for somatostatin are found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the pancreas, the liver, the gallbladder, and the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of these receptors can lead to a variety of effects, including inhibition of cell growth and division, reduction of inflammation, and slowing of the digestive process.
Somatostatin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and the hypothalamus in the brain. It is also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone (SRIF). Somatostatin plays a role in regulating the release of other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and insulin. It also has a role in controlling the digestive system, as it can inhibit the release of digestive enzymes and slow down the movement of food through the digestive tract. In the medical field, somatostatin is used to treat a variety of conditions, including acromegaly (a condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone), carcinoid syndrome (a condition in which the body produces too much serotonin), and certain types of diarrhea. It is also being studied for its potential use in treating other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer.
Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone (GH). This excess GH causes the body's tissues to grow abnormally, leading to a variety of physical and health problems. The most noticeable physical changes associated with acromegaly are the enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features, particularly the nose, lips, and jaw. Other symptoms may include joint pain, thickening of the skin, excessive sweating, and sleep apnea. Acromegaly is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests to measure GH levels, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans to visualize the pituitary gland. Treatment options for acromegaly may include surgery to remove the pituitary tumor, radiation therapy, and medications to lower GH levels. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve quality of life for individuals with acromegaly.
Pentetic acid is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a chelating agent. It is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid cysteine and is used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead poisoning, by binding to the heavy metal ions and facilitating their excretion from the body. Pentetic acid is also used to treat Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder that causes the body to accumulate excess copper, by binding to the excess copper and helping to remove it from the body. In addition, pentetic acid has been studied for its potential use in treating other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer.
Indium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element indium that are used in medical imaging and therapy. These isotopes emit radiation that can be detected by medical imaging equipment, such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Indium radioisotopes are used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Diagnostic imaging: Indium-111 is commonly used in diagnostic imaging to detect infections, tumors, and other abnormalities in the body. It is often used in conjunction with antibodies or other targeting agents to help locate specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Indium-111 is also used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is administered to the patient in the form of a radioactive compound that is taken up by cancer cells, where it emits radiation that damages the cancer cells and slows their growth. Overall, indium radioisotopes play an important role in medical imaging and therapy, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions with greater accuracy and effectiveness.
Carcinoid tumor is a type of cancer that arises from neuroendocrine cells, which are specialized cells that produce hormones and neurotransmitters. These tumors are usually slow-growing and can occur in various parts of the body, including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. Carcinoid tumors are classified based on their location and the level of hormones they produce. They can be classified as: 1. Pulmonary carcinoid tumors: These tumors occur in the lungs and are usually small and slow-growing. 2. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors: These tumors occur in the digestive system, including the small intestine, colon, and rectum. 3. Extra-gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors: These tumors occur in organs outside the digestive system, such as the bronchus, thymus, and appendix. Carcinoid tumors can produce various hormones, including serotonin, histamine, and other substances that can cause symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea, wheezing, and heart palpitations. Treatment options for carcinoid tumors depend on the size, location, and hormone production of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Dumping syndrome is a condition that occurs when food moves too quickly from the stomach to the small intestine. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and dizziness. Dumping syndrome can be caused by certain medical conditions, such as gastrectomy (surgery to remove part or all of the stomach), or by eating certain types of foods, such as high-fat or high-sugar foods. Treatment for dumping syndrome typically involves dietary changes and medications to slow down the movement of food through the digestive system.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a type of cancer that arises from cells that produce hormones or neurotransmitters. These tumors can occur in various parts of the body, including the lungs, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. NETs are classified based on their size, location, and the level of hormones they produce. They can be further divided into two main categories: well-differentiated NETs, which are slow-growing and have a better prognosis, and poorly differentiated NETs, which are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis. The symptoms of NETs can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, as well as the hormones it produces. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, flushing, and high blood pressure. Treatment for NETs may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. The choice of treatment depends on the stage and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Malignant carcinoid syndrome is a rare and serious condition that occurs in people with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that produce excessive amounts of certain hormones. These hormones can cause a variety of symptoms, including high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, flushing of the skin, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, the condition can lead to organ damage and even death. The symptoms of malignant carcinoid syndrome are caused by the overproduction of hormones such as serotonin, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. These hormones can cause blood vessels to dilate, leading to flushing and high blood pressure. They can also cause smooth muscles in the intestines to contract, leading to diarrhea. In addition, they can cause the blood vessels in the kidneys to constrict, leading to high blood pressure and kidney damage. Malignant carcinoid syndrome is typically diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and laboratory tests. Treatment may involve medications to control the symptoms and slow the growth of the tumor. In some cases, surgery or other treatments may be necessary to remove the tumor or treat the complications of the syndrome.
Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma, also known as acromegaly, is a rare hormonal disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces excessive amounts of growth hormone (GH). The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that produces hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development. In individuals with acromegaly, the excess GH causes the bones and soft tissues to grow abnormally, leading to a variety of physical and health problems. Common symptoms of acromegaly include enlargement of the hands and feet, thickening of the skin, joint pain, and excessive sweating. The condition can also lead to other health problems, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and sleep apnea. Treatment for acromegaly typically involves surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma, followed by medication to control GH production. In some cases, radiation therapy may also be used to shrink the tumor. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for individuals with acromegaly.
Pituitary neoplasms are tumors that develop in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and regulating various hormones in the body, and when a tumor develops, it can disrupt the normal functioning of the gland and lead to a variety of symptoms. There are several types of pituitary neoplasms, including: 1. Pituitary adenomas: These are the most common type of pituitary neoplasm and are usually benign (non-cancerous). They can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as headaches, vision problems, and hormonal imbalances. 2. Pituitary carcinomas: These are rare and aggressive forms of pituitary neoplasms that can spread to other parts of the body. 3. Pituitary macroadenomas: These are larger tumors that can cause symptoms such as hormonal imbalances, headaches, and vision problems. 4. Pituitary microadenomas: These are smaller tumors that may not cause any symptoms, but can still be detected through imaging tests. Treatment for pituitary neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, and medication to manage symptoms and hormone levels. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and symptoms.
Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the endocrine system that regulate various bodily functions. They are transported through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and trigger a response. Hormones play a crucial role in regulating growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and other essential processes in the body. Examples of hormones include insulin, thyroid hormones, estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Imbalances in hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, infertility, and mood disorders.
Delayed-action preparations, also known as time-release preparations, are medications that release their active ingredients over a period of time, rather than all at once. This allows for a more sustained and even release of the medication into the bloodstream, which can help to reduce side effects and improve the effectiveness of the treatment. There are several types of delayed-action preparations, including: 1. Extended-release tablets: These tablets release their active ingredients slowly over several hours or even days. 2. Sustained-release capsules: These capsules release their active ingredients over a longer period of time than regular capsules. 3. Transdermal patches: These patches deliver medication through the skin, allowing for a slow and steady release of the medication into the bloodstream. 4. Implants: These are small devices that are implanted under the skin and release medication over a period of several months or years. Delayed-action preparations are commonly used for medications that need to be taken regularly, such as blood pressure medication or pain medication. They can also be used for medications that have a narrow therapeutic window, meaning that the dosage needs to be carefully controlled to avoid side effects or toxicity.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in children and adolescents, as well as maintaining various bodily functions in adults. In children, HGH stimulates the growth of bones, muscles, and other tissues, and helps to regulate metabolism. It also plays a role in the development of the brain and the immune system. In adults, HGH is involved in maintaining muscle mass, bone density, and overall body composition. It also plays a role in regulating metabolism and energy levels, and may help to improve cognitive function and mood. HGH deficiency can occur due to various factors, including genetic disorders, pituitary gland tumors, and aging. Treatment for HGH deficiency typically involves hormone replacement therapy, which involves administering synthetic HGH to replace the naturally occurring hormone in the body.
Chylothorax is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of chyle (a milky fluid containing fat, proteins, and lymphocytes) in the pleural space, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This accumulation can cause the pleural space to become distended, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up fluid. Chylothorax can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the thoracic duct (which carries chyle from the small intestine to the bloodstream), cancer, infections, and certain medications. It is typically diagnosed through imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and treatment may involve draining the fluid from the pleural space, dietary changes to reduce the production of chyle, or surgery to repair or remove the cause of the chylothorax.
Antidiarrheals are medications that are used to treat diarrhea, which is characterized by loose, watery stools. They work by slowing down the movement of food through the digestive tract, reducing the number of bowel movements, and thickening the stool. Antidiarrheals are often used to treat acute diarrhea, which is typically caused by an infection or food poisoning, as well as chronic diarrhea, which can be caused by a variety of underlying medical conditions. Some common examples of antidiarrheal medications include loperamide (Imodium), atorvastatin (Lomotil), and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). It is important to note that antidiarrheals should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone.
Gigantism is a rare medical condition characterized by excessive growth and height due to an overproduction of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that produces hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development. In gigantism, the overproduction of GH leads to an increase in the size of bones and cartilage, resulting in excessive growth and height. This condition usually occurs during childhood or adolescence, and affected individuals may grow to be much taller than their peers. Gigantism can also cause other symptoms, such as enlarged hands and feet, thickening of the facial features, and an enlarged tongue. In some cases, gigantism can also lead to health problems such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and sleep apnea. Treatment for gigantism typically involves surgery to remove the pituitary tumor that is causing the overproduction of GH. In some cases, medications may also be used to reduce GH levels and slow down growth.
A pancreatic fistula is a abnormal connection between the pancreas and another body cavity or surface, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, or abdominal wall. This can occur due to injury, surgery, or infection, and can lead to the leakage of digestive enzymes and fluids from the pancreas into the surrounding tissue. Symptoms of a pancreatic fistula may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula and managing any complications that may arise. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the fistula.
Chylous ascites is a condition characterized by the accumulation of chyle, a milky fluid containing fat, in the abdominal cavity. It occurs when there is damage to the lymphatic system, which normally transports chyle from the digestive tract to the bloodstream. This damage can be caused by various factors, including surgery, trauma, infections, and certain medical conditions such as cancer or lymphoma. Chylous ascites is typically diagnosed through imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, which can show the presence of a fluid in the abdominal cavity. The fluid is usually clear or slightly milky in appearance and has a characteristic fat content that can be detected through laboratory tests. Treatment for chylous ascites typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as surgery or chemotherapy. In some cases, dietary changes or medications may also be recommended to help manage symptoms and reduce the production of chyle. In severe cases, chylous ascites may require drainage of the fluid from the abdominal cavity.
Lymphangiectasis, intestinal is a medical condition characterized by the dilation and enlargement of the lymphatic vessels in the walls of the small intestine. This can lead to the accumulation of lymph fluid in the intestinal lining, which can cause swelling, inflammation, and other symptoms. The exact cause of intestinal lymphangiectasis is not always clear, but it is thought to be related to problems with the lymphatic system, which is responsible for draining excess fluid and waste products from the body's tissues. Some people may be born with a genetic defect that affects the lymphatic system, while others may develop the condition as a result of an injury, infection, or other medical condition. Symptoms of intestinal lymphangiectasis may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and malnutrition. In severe cases, the condition can lead to complications such as intestinal obstruction, infection, and anemia. Treatment for intestinal lymphangiectasis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing any underlying causes of the condition. This may include dietary changes, medications to control symptoms, and in some cases, surgery to remove affected tissue or repair damaged lymphatic vessels.
Angiodysplasia is a condition characterized by abnormal and enlarged blood vessels in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. These vessels can become dilated and tortuous, leading to bleeding and other complications. Angiodysplasia can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract, but it is most commonly found in the small intestine and colon. The exact cause of angiodysplasia is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to aging and certain medications, such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Other risk factors for angiodysplasia include a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, a family history of the condition, and certain medical conditions, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Symptoms of angiodysplasia may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. In some cases, bleeding may be severe and require immediate medical attention. Diagnosis of angiodysplasia typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging studies, such as endoscopy or angiography. Treatment of angiodysplasia depends on the severity of symptoms and the location of the affected vessels. In some cases, medications may be used to reduce bleeding or prevent future episodes. In more severe cases, surgery or endoscopic procedures may be necessary to remove or treat the abnormal vessels.
An adenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops from glandular cells. It is a type of neoplasm, which is an abnormal growth of cells. Adenomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the colon, rectum, breast, thyroid gland, and prostate gland. In the colon and rectum, adenomas are commonly referred to as polyps. They can vary in size and shape and may or may not cause symptoms. However, some adenomas can develop into cancer if left untreated, which is why they are often removed during a colonoscopy or other screening tests. In other parts of the body, adenomas may cause symptoms depending on their location and size. For example, an adenoma in the thyroid gland may cause a goiter, while an adenoma in the prostate gland may cause difficulty urinating. Treatment for adenomas depends on their size, location, and whether they are causing symptoms. Small adenomas may not require treatment, while larger ones may be removed through surgery or other procedures. In some cases, medication may be used to shrink the adenoma or prevent it from growing back.
Carcinoma, Islet Cell is a rare type of cancer that originates in the islet cells of the pancreas. These cells are responsible for producing hormones that regulate blood sugar levels. Islet cell carcinomas can be further classified into two types: functional and non-functional. Functional islet cell carcinomas produce hormones, such as insulin, gastrin, or VIP, which can cause symptoms such as weight loss, diarrhea, or high blood sugar levels. Non-functional islet cell carcinomas do not produce hormones and may not cause any symptoms until the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. The exact cause of islet cell carcinomas is not known, but some risk factors include a family history of the disease, certain genetic conditions, and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Treatment options for islet cell carcinomas may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The prognosis for islet cell carcinomas depends on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis and the patient's overall health.
Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Pancreatic neoplasms can occur in various parts of the pancreas, including the exocrine gland (which produces digestive enzymes), the endocrine gland (which produces hormones), and the ducts (which carry digestive juices from the pancreas to the small intestine). Symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and unexplained fatigue. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood tests and biopsies. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm.
Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition characterized by a temporary decrease in blood flow to the fingers, toes, and sometimes other parts of the body, such as the nose and ears. This can cause the affected area to feel cold, numb, and painful, and may turn white or blue in color. Raynaud's disease is usually triggered by cold temperatures, stress, or emotional stress, and can also be caused by certain medications or medical conditions, such as lupus, scleroderma, or thyroid disorders. In severe cases, Raynaud's disease can lead to tissue damage and even gangrene if blood flow is not restored quickly. Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves lifestyle changes, such as avoiding cold temperatures and stress, and medications to improve blood flow and reduce pain. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat underlying medical conditions that are causing the symptoms of Raynaud's disease.
Localized scleroderma, also known as morphea, is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the skin and underlying connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of thick, hard, and inflexible patches of skin, which can be painful and disfiguring. Localized scleroderma can affect any part of the body, but it most commonly affects the face, neck, and upper limbs. The skin affected by localized scleroderma may become shiny, tight, and have a mottled appearance. In severe cases, the affected skin may become so thick and rigid that its movement and function. Localized scleroderma is not contagious and does not spread from one person to another. The exact cause of localized scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Treatment for localized scleroderma depends on the severity and location of the affected skin. Mild cases may not require any treatment, while more severe cases may require medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further skin thickening. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected skin or to improve function.
Pruritus is a medical term used to describe an intense, persistent, and often uncontrollable urge to scratch or rub a particular area of the skin. It is commonly referred to as "itching" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, allergies, hormonal changes, and certain medications. Pruritus can be a symptom of many different medical conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, liver disease, kidney disease, and cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and chemotherapy drugs. Treatment for pruritus depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or ointments may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. In more severe cases, prescription medications or other treatments may be necessary. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you are experiencing persistent or severe itching, as it could be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.
Systemic Scleroderma, also known as Scleroderma, is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It causes the skin and internal organs to become hard and inflexible, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. The exact cause of Systemic Scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to be triggered by an abnormal immune response that causes the body's own tissues to be attacked and damaged. The disease can affect people of all ages and ethnicities, but it is more common in women than in men. Symptoms of Systemic Scleroderma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the disease. Common symptoms include skin thickening and hardening, Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that causes the fingers and toes to turn white or blue when exposed to cold), joint pain and stiffness, digestive problems, and lung fibrosis (scarring of the lungs). Treatment for Systemic Scleroderma typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. Medications may include immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy can help to improve flexibility and reduce pain, while lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and maintaining a healthy weight can help to slow the progression of the disease.
CREST Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. The acronym CREST stands for: - Calcinosis (calcium deposits in the skin and internal organs) - Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that causes the fingers and toes to turn white or blue when exposed to cold or stress) - Esophageal dysmotility (problems with the movement of food through the esophagus) - Sclerodactyly (thickening and hardening of the skin on the fingers and toes) - Telangiectasia (small, dilated blood vessels on the skin) CREST Syndrome is a type of scleroderma, which is a group of autoimmune disorders that cause the body's immune system to attack its own tissues. The exact cause of CREST Syndrome is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic and environmental factors. Treatment for CREST Syndrome typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications, such as heart and lung problems.
Scleroderma, diffuse, also known as systemic sclerosis, is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It is characterized by the hardening and thickening of the skin and internal organs, as well as the development of fibrous tissue in the blood vessels, lungs, heart, and other organs. The exact cause of diffuse scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to be triggered by an abnormal immune response that leads to inflammation and damage to the body's connective tissue. The disease can affect people of all ages and ethnicities, but it is more common in women than in men. Symptoms of diffuse scleroderma can vary widely and may include skin thickening and hardening, Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition in which the blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict, causing them to turn white or blue), joint pain and stiffness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, and heart problems. Treatment for diffuse scleroderma typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Scleroderma, Limited, also known as CREST syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It is characterized by the presence of hard, thickened skin (scleroderma) and specific features of the fingers and toes, such as clubbing, swelling, and a tight band of skin around the finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). Other symptoms may include dry mouth, dry eyes, and digestive problems. Limited scleroderma is a subtype of the disease that affects only the skin and the blood vessels in the fingers and toes, without affecting internal organs. It is typically less severe than other forms of scleroderma and has a better prognosis. Treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications.
Lutetium (177Lu) oxodotreotide
Necrolytic migratory erythema
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
Somatostatin receptor 4
Somatostatin receptor 1
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- Octreotide acetate injection may be administered subcutaneously or intravenously. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- Subcutaneous injection is the usual route of administration of octreotide acetate injection for control of symptoms. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- Are there any uncontrolled trials for octreotide acetate? (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- Octreotide Acetate is an octapeptide analogue of somatostatin with similar properties, but with a longer duration of action. (polypeptide.com)
- We are one of the leading Manufacturers and exporter of supreme grade Octreotide Acetate Known for its effective results, this peptide is widely used for treating diarrhea or flushing in patients with tumors like carcinoid, pancreatic islet cell tumors etc. (flagshipbiotech.com)
- Octrotide Injection is available as: sterile 1-mL ampuls in 3 strengths, containing 50, 100, or 500 mcg octreotide (as acetate), and sterile 5-mL multi-dose vials in 2 strengths, containing 200 and 1000 mcg/mL of octreotide (as acetate). (flagshipbiotech.com)
- Octreotide is used for the treatment of growth hormone producing tumors (acromegaly and gigantism), when surgery is contraindicated, pituitary tumors that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropinomata), diarrhea and flushing episodes associated with carcinoid syndrome, and diarrhea in people with vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumors (VIPomas). (wikipedia.org)
- Octreotide can also be used in the treatment of acromegaly, a disorder of excessive growth hormone (GH). (wikipedia.org)
- In June 2020, Mycapssa (octreotide) was approved for medical use in the United States with an indication for the long-term maintenance treatment in acromegaly patients who have responded to and tolerated treatment with octreotide or lanreotide. (wikipedia.org)
- You may be able to become pregnant during your treatment with octreotide even if you were not able to become pregnant before your treatment because you have acromegaly. (medlineplus.gov)
- Octreotide is also used to treat a certain condition (acromegaly) that occurs when the body makes too much of a certain natural substance called growth hormone. (kaiserpermanente.org)
- Octreotide depending upon the severity generally severe diarrhea, acromegaly as well as for treating flushing in patients with tumors. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- A recent study investigating treatment for adult acromegaly patients has revealed that switching from injectable somatostatin receptor ligands to oral octreotide leads to an improvement in quality of life and more productivity at work. (patientworthy.com)
- and other symptoms) in people who have been treated successfully with octreotide injection (Sandostatin) or lanreotide injection (Somatuline). (medlineplus.gov)
- In emergency situations, octreotide may be administered undiluted by intermittent direct IV injection. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- Octreotide injection may cause side effects. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- You usually have long acting octreotide as an injection into the muscle in your bottom once every 4 weeks. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- We are considered as one of the topmost manufacturers in the industry, engaged in exporting Octreotide Injection . (cygnusspeciality.com)
- Widely used in the treatment of cancer, this Octreotide Injection is stringently tested on various standard parameters before the final delivery in market. (cygnusspeciality.com)
Stop taking oct2
- Octreotide (usually as the derivative edotreotide or DOTATOC) can also be labeled with a variety of therapeutic radionuclides, such as yttrium-90 or lutetium-177, to enable peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of unresectable neuroendocrine tumours. (wikipedia.org)
- Octreotide is used to treat severe watery diarrhea and sudden reddening of the face and neck caused by certain types of tumors (such as carcinoid tumors, vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors) that are found usually in the intestines and pancreas. (kaiserpermanente.org)
- Octreotide basically lowers the variety of hormone such as insulin, glucagon, growth hormone and others, Octreotide reduces chemical messengers such as gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide that cause disease symptoms. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- https://www.selleckchem.com/peptide/octreotide-ace. (uchatoo.com)
- On November 28, aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid hydration, IV octreotide,* 2016, members of the Bay Area Mycological Society notified and IV silibinin. (cdc.gov)
- Octreotide may control your symptoms, but it will not cure your condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- If no relevant reduction in GH levels and no improvement in clinical symptoms have been achieved within 3 months of starting treatment with Octreotide, therapy should be discontinued. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- Octreotide, sold under the brand name Sandostatin among others, is an octapeptide that mimics natural somatostatin pharmacologically, though it is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone. (wikipedia.org)
- People with diabetes mellitus might need less insulin or oral antidiabetics when treated with octreotide, as it inhibits glucagon secretion more strongly and for a longer time span than insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
- The medication octreotide can be used to reduce glucagon levels, may clear up the rash, and may restore appetite, facilitating weight gain. (msdmanuals.com)
- Octreotide and related somatostatin analogs in the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary disease and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. (medscape.com)
- They were divided into two groups, one of which was given oral octreotide, and the other was given injectable somatostatin receptor ligand therapy. (patientworthy.com)
- Octreotide works by decreasing the amount of growth hormone to normal levels. (kaiserpermanente.org)
- medical citation needed] Octreotide is used in the palliative care setting to reduce gastrointestinal secretions, with the intention of alleviating vomiting associated with bowel obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
- Octreotide can reduce the intestinal reabsorption of ciclosporin, possibly making it necessary to increase the dose. (wikipedia.org)
- By decreasing watery diarrhea, octreotide helps to reduce the loss of body fluids and minerals. (kaiserpermanente.org)
- Octreotide, by preventing emptying of the gallbladder, might reduce received reports of only a few mushroom poisoning cases per recirculation of amatoxins in bile to the liver. (cdc.gov)
- Octreotide - Chemotherapy Drugs - Chemocare. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- At a press conference held in advance of the 2014 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (GICS), Dr. Fine reported that the chemotherapy combination of capecitabine plus temozolomide either stalled disease progression or shrank tumors in 97% of patients whose disease had worsened after standard high-dose octreotide ( Sandostatin , Novartis). (medscape.com)
- Octreotide is often given as an infusion for management of acute hemorrhage from esophageal varices in liver cirrhosis on the basis that it reduces portal venous pressure, though current evidence suggests that this effect is transient and does not improve survival. (wikipedia.org)
- For patients on a stable dose of Octreotide, assessment of GH and IGF-1 should be made every 6 months. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- Some of the Octreotide producers are Novartis pharmaceuticals corp. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- Octreotide is also used in mild cases of glucagonoma when surgery is not an option. (wikipedia.org)
- The use of octreotide is expected to grow because of increase in number of people diagnosed with cancer, diarrhea and tumors. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- Rats which were treated by octreotide experienced erectile dysfunction in a 1998 study. (wikipedia.org)
- When to switch to long acting octreotide depot? (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- citation needed] Octreotide has not been adequately studied for the treatment of children as well as pregnant and lactating women. (wikipedia.org)
- If you become pregnant while taking octreotide, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
- The important restraining factor for Octreotide Market is the lack research of Octreotide for the treatment of children, pregnant and lactating women. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- The octreotide acts similar to the hormone somatostatin. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- What are the side effects of octreotide? (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- Dr. Fine said that these results compare favorably with octreotide, which has a response rate of about 6% in the various neuroendocrine tumor types and about 30% to 40% in stable disease. (medscape.com)
- Octreotide helps in management of the fistula by reducing gastrointestinal secretions and inhibiting gastrointestinal motility, thus controlling and reducing its output. (wikipedia.org)
- The global Octreotide market was estimated to be around U.S $ 1.6 Bn. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- The use of octreotide in radiolabelling will substantially increase the demand for Octreotide. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- Long acting octreotide is slowly absorbed by the body. (richardvigilantebooks.com)
- But octreotide may elevate the levels of glucose in the blood even more. (msdmanuals.com)
- The global demand for octreotide is driven by growing number of people under the diagnosis of cancer. (futuremarketinsights.com)
- Schwartz, J 2007, ' Long-acting octreotide for advanced liver cancer: A well-designed negative trial - Commentary ', Evidence-Based Gastroenterology , vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 43-44. (elsevierpure.com)
- Octreotide is used in nuclear medicine imaging by labeling with indium-111 (Octreoscan) to noninvasively image neuroendocrine and other tumours expressing somatostatin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- Normal octreotide scan. (medscape.com)
- Okuyucu K, Alagoz E, Arslan N, Taslipinar A, Deveci MS, Bolu E. Thyrotropinoma with Graves' disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. (medscape.com)
- Octreotide, being a somatostatin analog, inhibits the release of GH from the pituitary gland through a process normally involved in negative feedback. (wikipedia.org)