An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.1.25.
An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate resistant pests. It acts as an uncoupling agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Simple amine found in the brain. It may be modulator of sympathetic functions. Its derivatives are adrenergic agonists and antagonists. It is also used in chemical industry.
Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.
A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A degradation product of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) fungicides. It has been found to be carcinogenic and to cause THYROID hyperplasia.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.

Long-term effects of prior heat shock on neuronal potassium currents recorded in a novel insect ganglion slice preparation. (1/228)

Brief exposure to high temperatures (heat shock) induces long-lasting adaptive changes in the molecular biology of protein interactions and behavior of poikilotherms. However, little is known about heat shock effects on neuronal properties. To investigate how heat shock affects neuronal properties we developed an insect ganglion slice from locusts. The functional integrity of neuronal circuits in slices was demonstrated by recordings from rhythmically active respiratory neurons and by the ability to induce rhythmic population activity with octopamine. Under these "functional" in vitro conditions we recorded outward potassium currents from neurons of the ventral midline of the A1 metathoracic neuromere. In control neurons, voltage steps to 40 mV from a holding potential of -60 mV evoked in control neurons potassium currents with a peak current of 10.0 +/- 2.5 nA and a large steady state current of 8.5 +/- 2.6 nA, which was still activated from a holding potential of -40 mV. After heat shock most of the outward current inactivated rapidly (peak amplitude: 8.4 +/- 2.4 nA; steady state: 3.6 +/- 2.0 nA). This current was inactivated at a holding potential of -40 mV. The response to temperature changes was also significantly different. After changing the temperature from 38 to 42 degrees C the amplitude of the peak and steady-state current was significantly lower in neurons obtained from heat-shocked animals than those obtained from controls. Our study indicates that not only heat shock can alter neuronal properties, but also that it is possible to investigate ion currents in insect ganglion slices.  (+info)

Monoamine control of the pacemaker kernel and cycle frequency in the lobster pyloric network. (2/228)

The monoamines dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), and octopamine (Oct) can each sculpt a unique motor pattern from the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. In this paper we investigate the contribution of individual network components in determining the specific amine-induced cycle frequency. We used photoinactivation of identified neurons and pharmacological blockade of synapses to isolate the anterior burster (AB) and pyloric dilator (PD) neurons. Bath application of DA, 5HT, or Oct enhanced cycle frequency in an isolated AB neuron, with DA generating the most rapid oscillations and Oct the slowest. When an AB-PD or AB-2xPD subnetworks were tested, DA often reduced the ongoing cycle frequency, whereas 5HT and Oct both evoked similar accelerations in cycle frequency. However, in the intact pyloric network, both DA and Oct either reduced or did not alter the cycle frequency, whereas 5HT continued to enhance the cycle frequency as before. Our results show that the major target of 5HT in altering the pyloric cycle frequency is the AB neuron, whereas DA's effects on the AB-2xPD subnetwork are critical in understanding its modulation of the cycle frequency. Octopamine's effects on cycle frequency require an understanding of its modulation of the feedback inhibition to the AB-PD group from the lateral pyloric neuron, which constrains the pacemaker group to oscillate more slowly than it would alone. We have thus demonstrated that the relative importance of the different network components in determining the final cycle frequency is not fixed but can vary under different modulatory conditions.  (+info)

The effect of site-directed mutagenesis of two transmembrane serine residues on agonist-specific coupling of a cloned human alpha2A-adrenoceptor to adenylyl cyclase. (3/228)

1. The effects of substitution of the Ser200 and Ser204 residues with alanine on the signalling properties of the cloned human alpha2A-adrenoceptor, stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, have been investigated using noradrenaline and the structural isomers of octopamine. 2. The Ser-->Ala200 or the Ser-->Ala204 mutant forms of the alpha2A-adrenoceptor, when expressed in cells in the absence of pertussis toxin pretreatment, are two orders of magnitude more sensitive to inhibition of cyclic AMP production by (+/-)-para-octopamine and (+/-)-meta-octopamine, respectively, than cells expressing the wild-type receptor. Binding studies indicate that the effects are not due to an increased agonist affinity for the mutant receptors and that they are likely to be due to agonist-mediated conformational changes in receptor structure. 3. After incubation with pertussis toxin, (+/-)-meta-octopamine (100 microM and above) produced a stimulation of cyclic AMP levels in cells expressing the Ser-->Ala204 mutant form of the alpha2A-adrenoceptor but showed no stimulation in cells expressing the Ser-->Ala200 mutant receptor. Under these conditions (+/-)-para-octopamine did not produce any increases in cyclic AMP production in cells expressing either of the mutant receptor forms or the wild-type receptor. 4. The results emphasise the importance of the Ser200 and Ser204 residues of the alpha2A-adrenoceptor in exerting an inhibitory influence on the ability of (+/-)-para-octopamine and (+/-)-meta-octopamine respectively, to induce a receptor-agonist conformation capable of inhibiting forskolin-stimulation of cyclic AMP levels. 5. It is clear that Ser204 also prevents meta-octopamine from generating a receptor-agonist conformation that can increase cyclic AMP levels, emphasising the importance of this residue in the agonist-specific coupling of this receptor to different second messenger systems.  (+info)

Multiple sites of associative odor learning as revealed by local brain microinjections of octopamine in honeybees. (4/228)

In a classical conditioning procedure, honeybees associate an odor with sucrose resulting in the capacity of the odor to evoke an appetitive response, the extension of the proboscis (PER). Here, we study the effects of pairing an odor with injections of octopamine (OA) as a substitute for sucrose into three putative brain sites of odor/sucrose convergence. OA injected into the mushroom body (MB) calyces or the antennal lobe but not the lateral protocerebral lobe produces a lasting, pairing-specific enhancement of PER. During pairings, OA injected into the MB calyces results in an additional pairing-specific effect, because it does not lead to an acquisition but a consolidation after conditioning. These results suggest that the neuromodulator OA has the capacity of inducing associative learning in an insect brain. Moreover, they suggest the antennal lobes and the calyces as at least partially independent sites of associating odors that may contribute differently to learning and memory consolidation.  (+info)

The trace amine tyramine is essential for sensitization to cocaine in Drosophila. (5/228)

BACKGROUND: Sensitization to psychostimulant drugs of abuse is thought to be an important aspect of human addiction, yet how it develops is still unclear. The development of sensitization to cocaine in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is strikingly similar to that observed in vertebrates. By taking advantage of the powerful genetic approaches that are possible in Drosophila, we are able to identify and characterize mutants that fail to develop sensitization. RESULTS: We found that the Drosophila mutant inactive (iav) failed to become sensitized to cocaine. Mutant flies had reduced amounts of the trace amine tyramine in the brain because of reduced activity of the enzyme tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), which converts tyrosine to tyramine. Furthermore, cocaine exposure induced TDC enzyme activity in a time-dependent manner that paralleled the development of behavioral sensitization. The sensitization failure of iav flies could be rescued by feeding the flies with tyramine; other biogenic amines or amine precursors did not have the same effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an essential role for tyramine in cocaine sensitization in Drosophila.  (+info)

Antagonistic effects of phentolamine and octopamine on rhythmic motor output of crayfish thoracic ganglia. (6/228)

Spontaneous rhythmic motor output of crayfish thoracic ganglia consists of bursts of activity in antagonistic leg motor neurons (MNs), alternating with a rather slow cycle period (typically > or = 20 s). The most common pattern (77% of preparations) consists of long coxal promotor bursts, the duration of which was correlated strongly with cycle period, and relatively short remotor bursts independent of cycle period. Octopamine, at a concentration of 2-30 microM reversibly retarded this rhythm, increasing both cycle period and promotor burst duration. Higher concentrations of octopamine inhibited promotor nerve activity and abolished rhythmic bursting. Phentolamine (10-50 microM) had the opposite effect of decreasing cycle period, mainly by decreasing promotor burst duration. Whereas in the presence of octopamine promotor bursts were lengthened and became even more strongly related to cycle period, phentolamine promoted a more symmetrical rhythm with shorter promotor bursts that were less dependent on cycle period. When octopamine was applied in the presence of phentolamine, there was no significant increase in cycle period or burst duration, although high octopamine concentrations (100 microM) were still capable of inhibiting promotor nerve activity. To our knowledge, pharmacological modulation of a spontaneous locomotor rhythm by an amine antagonist (applied by itself) has not been reported previously. The results raise the testable possibility that phentolamine exerts its modulatory effects by acting as an octopamine antagonist in crayfish thoracic ganglia.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP mediates the elevation of proline by AKH peptides in the cetoniid beetle, Pachnoda sinuata. (7/228)

The role of cyclic nucleotides in the transduction of the hyperprolinaemic and hypertrehalosaemic signal of the endogenous neuropeptide Mem-CC was investigated in the cetoniid beetle Pachnoda sinuata. Flight and injection of Mem-CC into the haemocoel of the beetle induce an increase of cAMP levels in the fat body of the beetle. This increase is tissue-specific and does not occur in brain and flight muscles. An elevation of cAMP levels was also found when in vitro preparations of fat body tissue were subjected to Mem-CC. Elevation of the cAMP concentration after injection of Mem-CC is time- and dose-dependent: the maximum response is measured after 1 min, and a dose of 25 pmol Mem-CC is needed. Injection of cpt-cAMP, a cAMP analogue which penetrates the cell membrane, causes a stimulation of proline synthesis but no mobilisation of carbohydrate reserves. The same is measured when IBMX, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, is injected. cGMP seems not to be involved in synthesis of proline nor carbohydrate release, because injection of cpt-cGMP has no influence on the levels of proline, alanine and carbohydrates in the haemolymph. Although glycogen phosphorylase of the fat body is activated by Mem-CC in a time- and dose-dependent manner, it cannot be stimulated by cpt-cAMP. The combined data suggest that cAMP is involved in regulation of proline levels by Mem-CC but not in regulation of carbohydrates. Octopamine has no effect on metabolites in the haemolymph and is not capable of activating glycogen phosphorylase, indicating that it is not involved in the regulation of substrates in this beetle. Furthermore, the requirements of the receptor of Mem-CC are different for eliciting a hypertrehalosaemic and a hyperprolinaemic effect, respectively, suggesting that differentiation in signal transduction begins at the receptor level.  (+info)

Octopamine reverses the isolation-induced increase in trophallaxis in the carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. (8/228)

Social deprivation is an unusual situation for ants that normally maintain continuous contact with their nestmates. When a worker was experimentally isolated for 5 days and then reunited with a nestmate, she engaged in prolonged trophallaxis. It is suggested that trophallaxis allows her to restore a social bond with her nestmates and to re-integrate into the colony, particularly via the exchange of colony-specific hydrocarbons. Octopamine reduced trophallaxis in these workers as well as hydrocarbon transfer between nestmates, but not hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Administration of serotonin to such 5-day-isolated ants had no effect on the percentage of trophallaxis. Administration of phentolamine alone, an octopamine antagonist, had no effect, but when co-administrated with octopamine it reduced the effect of octopamine alone and restored trophallaxis to control levels. Moreover, the observed effect of octopamine was not due to a non-specific effect on locomotor activity. Therefore, we hypothesise that octopamine mediates behaviour patterns linked to social bonding, such as trophallaxis. On the basis of an analogy with the role of norepinephrine in vertebrates, we suggest that the levels of octopamine in the brain of socially deprived ants may decrease, together with a concomitant increase in their urge to perform trophallaxis and to experience social contacts. Octopamine administration may reduce this social deprivation effect, and octopamine could therefore be regarded as being partly responsible for the social cohesion between nestmates in ant colonies.  (+info)

Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.

Biogenic amine receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to biogenic amines, which are naturally occurring compounds that function as neurotransmitters or hormones in the human body. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, and cognition.

Examples of biogenic amines include:

1. Dopamine (DA): Dopamine receptors are involved in motor control, reward processing, and motivation. They are divided into two main classes: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).
2. Serotonin (5-HT): Serotonin receptors regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception. There are seven distinct families of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), with multiple subtypes within each family.
3. Norepinephrine (NE): Also known as noradrenaline, norepinephrine receptors play a role in the "fight or flight" response, attention, and arousal. They are divided into two main classes: α-adrenergic (α1 and α2) and β-adrenergic (β1, β2, and β3).
4. Histamine (HA): Histamine receptors regulate allergic responses, wakefulness, and appetite. There are four types of histamine receptors (H1 to H4), with distinct functions and signaling pathways.
5. Acetylcholine (ACh): While not a biogenic amine, acetylcholine is often included in this category due to its similar role as a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine receptors are involved in learning, memory, and muscle contraction. They can be further divided into muscarinic (M1-M5) and nicotinic (α and β subunits) receptor classes.

Biogenic amine receptors typically function through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, although some can also activate ion channels directly. Dysregulation of biogenic amine systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.

Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.

The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.

Synephrine is an alkaloid compound that naturally occurs in some plants, such as bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). It is similar in structure to ephedrine and is often used as a dietary supplement for weight loss, as a stimulant, and to treat low blood pressure. Synephrine acts on the adrenergic receptors, particularly the α1-adrenergic receptor, leading to vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. It also has mild stimulatory effects on the central nervous system.

It is important to note that synephrine can have potential side effects, including increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and interactions with other medications. Its use should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Tyrosine decarboxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine to form the biogenic amine tyramine. The reaction occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen and requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. Tyrosine decarboxylase is found in various bacteria, fungi, and plants, and it plays a role in the biosynthesis of alkaloids and other natural products. In humans, tyrosine decarboxylase is not normally present, but its activity has been detected in some tumors and is associated with the production of neurotransmitters in neuronal cells.

Chlorphenamidine is a first-generation antihistamine drug that is primarily used to treat allergic reactions. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Chlorphenamidine may also have some anticholinergic and sedative effects.

It's important to note that Chlorphenamidine is not commonly used in modern clinical practice due to its adverse effects such as neurotoxicity, which can cause symptoms like dizziness, unsteady gait, and in severe cases, coma. Therefore, it has been largely replaced by safer and more effective antihistamine drugs.

If you have any questions or concerns about medications, including Chlorphenamidine, it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "grasshoppers" is not a term used in medical definitions. Grasshoppers are a type of insect that belongs to the order Orthoptera and suborder Caelifera. They are known for their long hind legs which they use for jumping, and some species can jump over 20 times their own body length. If you have any questions about medical terminology or topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

2-Hydroxyphenethylamine is a chemical compound that is classified as a phenylethylamine and a hydroxyamphetamine. It is a secondary amine with a hydroxy group attached to the benzene ring, specifically at the 2-position. This compound is a derivative of phenethylamine by the replacement of one hydrogen atom by a hydroxy group.

It is worth noting that 2-hydroxyphenethylamine itself does not have a recognized medical definition or specific clinical relevance. However, it may be encountered in the context of biochemistry, pharmacology, or forensic science. Like other phenylethylamines, it has structural similarity to certain neurotransmitters and drugs, and therefore may have potential pharmacological activity.

Dibenzazepines are a class of chemical compounds that contain a dibenzazepine structure, which is a fusion of a benzene ring with a diazepine ring. Dibenzazepines have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions.

Some of the medically relevant dibenzazepines include:

1. Antipsychotics: Some antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and olanzapine, have a dibenzazepine structure. These drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
2. Antidepressants: Mianserin and mirtazapine are dibenzazepine antidepressants that work by blocking the uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain. They are used to treat depression, anxiety, and insomnia.
3. Anticonvulsants: Some anticonvulsant drugs, such as levetiracetam and brivaracetam, have a dibenzazepine structure. These drugs are used to treat epilepsy and other seizure disorders.
4. Anxiolytics: Prazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative with a dibenzazepine structure that is used to treat anxiety disorders.
5. Analgesics: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic with a dibenzazepine structure that is used to treat moderate to severe pain.

It's important to note that while these drugs have a dibenzazepine structure, they may also contain other functional groups and have different mechanisms of action. Therefore, it's essential to consider the specific pharmacological properties of each drug when prescribing or administering them.

Mianserin is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders. It functions by inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline, thereby increasing their availability in the brain and helping to alleviate symptoms of depression.

Mianserin also has additional properties, including antihistamine and anti-cholinergic effects, which can help reduce some side effects commonly associated with other antidepressants, such as insomnia and agitation. However, these same properties can also lead to side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, and orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure upon standing).

It's important to note that mianserin is not commonly prescribed due to its narrow therapeutic index and the risk of serious side effects, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), which can increase the risk of infection. As with any medication, it should only be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Thoracic nerves are the 12 paired nerves that originate from the thoracic segment (T1-T12) of the spinal cord. These nerves provide motor and sensory innervation to the trunk and abdomen, specifically to the muscles of the chest wall, the skin over the back and chest, and some parts of the abdomen. They also contribute to the formation of the sympathetic trunk, which is a part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates unconscious bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. Each thoracic nerve emerges from the intervertebral foramen, a small opening between each vertebra, and splits into anterior and posterior branches to innervate the corresponding dermatomes and myotomes.

"Gryllidae" is not a medical term. It is the family designation for crickets in the order Orthoptera, which includes various species of insects that are characterized by their long antennae and ability to produce chirping sounds. The misinterpretation might have arisen from the fact that some scientific research or studies may reference these creatures; however, it is not a medical term or concept.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nephropidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a taxonomic category in zoology, specifically a family of decapod crustaceans that includes lobsters and crayfish. If you have a question related to biology or veterinary medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with that.

Agonistic behavior is a term used in ethology, the study of animal behavior, to describe interactions between individuals that are often competitive or hostile, but stop short of direct physical contact. These behaviors can include threats, displays, and counter-threats, as well as ritualized fighting. The term comes from the Greek word "agon," which means "competition" or "contest."

In a medical context, agonistic behavior might be used to describe competitive or hostile interactions between people, particularly in the context of mental health or psychiatric disorders. For example, a person with a personality disorder might exhibit agonistic behavior towards others as part of their pattern of manipulative or controlling behaviors. However, this is less common than the use of the term in ethology.

Neuropil refers to the complex network of interwoven nerve cell processes (dendrites, axons, and their synaptic connections) in the central nervous system that forms the basis for information processing and transmission. It is the part of the brain or spinal cord where the neuronal cell bodies are not present, and it mainly consists of unmyelinated axons, dendrites, and synapses. Neuropil plays a crucial role in neural communication and is often the site of various neurochemical interactions.

In invertebrate biology, ganglia are clusters of neurons that function as a centralized nervous system. They can be considered as the equivalent to a vertebrate's spinal cord and brain. Ganglia serve to process sensory information, coordinate motor functions, and integrate various neural activities within an invertebrate organism.

Invertebrate ganglia are typically found in animals such as arthropods (insects, crustaceans), annelids (earthworms), mollusks (snails, squids), and cnidarians (jellyfish). The structure of the ganglia varies among different invertebrate groups.

For example, in arthropods, the central nervous system consists of a pair of connected ganglia called the supraesophageal ganglion or brain, and the subesophageal ganglion, located near the esophagus. The ventral nerve cord runs along the length of the body, containing pairs of ganglia that control specific regions of the body.

In mollusks, the central nervous system is composed of several ganglia, which can be fused or dispersed, depending on the species. In cephalopods (such as squids and octopuses), the brain is highly developed and consists of several lobes that perform various functions, including learning and memory.

Overall, invertebrate ganglia are essential components of the nervous system that allow these animals to respond to environmental stimuli, move, and interact with their surroundings.

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are a type of medication that binds to and activates adrenergic alpha receptors, which are found in the nervous system and other tissues throughout the body. These receptors are activated naturally by chemicals called catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), that are released in response to stress or excitement.

When adrenergic alpha-agonists bind to these receptors, they mimic the effects of catecholamines and cause various physiological responses, such as vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased heart rate and force of heart contractions, and relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways.

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), glaucoma, nasal congestion, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of adrenergic alpha-agonists include phenylephrine, clonidine, and guanfacine.

It's important to note that adrenergic alpha-agonists can have both beneficial and harmful effects, depending on the specific medication, dosage, and individual patient factors. Therefore, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

"Mushroom bodies" is a term that is primarily used in the field of insect neuroanatomy, rather than human or mammalian medicine. They are a pair of prominent structures in the insect brain, located in the olfactory processing center and involved in sensory integration, learning, and memory.

These structures have a distinctive morphology, resembling a mushroom with a large cap-like structure (the calyx) sitting atop a stalk (the peduncle). The calyx receives input from various sensory neurons, while the peduncle and its downstream processes are involved in information processing and output.

While not directly relevant to human medicine, understanding the organization and function of insect nervous systems can provide valuable insights into the evolution of neural circuits and behaviors across species.

"Bees" are not a medical term, as they refer to various flying insects belonging to the Apidae family in the Apoidea superfamily. They are known for their role in pollination and honey production. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide relevant terms.

Arthropod antennae are the primary sensory organs found in arthropods, which include insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods. These paired appendages are usually located on the head or nearest segment to the head and are responsible for detecting various stimuli from the environment such as touch, taste, smell, temperature, humidity, vibration, and air motion.

The structure of arthropod antennae varies among different groups but generally consists of one or more segments called flagellum or funicle that may be further divided into subsegments called annuli. The number and arrangement of these segments are often used to classify and identify specific taxa.

Insect antennae, for example, typically have a distinct shape and can be thread-like, feathery, or clubbed depending on the species. They contain various sensory receptors such as olfactory neurons that detect odor molecules, mechanoreceptors that respond to touch or movement, and thermoreceptors that sense temperature changes.

Overall, arthropod antennae play a crucial role in enabling these organisms to navigate their environment, find food, avoid predators, and communicate with conspecifics.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Ethylenethiourea is defined as a white, crystalline solid with a slightly bitter taste and an odorless property. It is used as a stabilizer in certain industrial processes and products, such as rubber and pesticides. In the medical field, ethylenethiourea has been studied for its potential effects on human health.

It is known to have reproductive and developmental toxicity, and it has been classified as a possible human carcinogen by some organizations. However, exposure to ethylenethiourea through consumer products or the environment is generally low, and the risk it poses to human health is considered to be minimal.

It's important to note that this compound should be handled with care in industrial settings due to its potential hazards. As with any chemical, it's essential to follow proper safety protocols and guidelines when working with ethylenethiourea or any products containing it.

Flupenthixol is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the chemical class of diphenylbutylpiperidines. It has potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking activity and moderate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor blocking activity, which makes it effective in managing various psychiatric disorders.

Flupenthixol is primarily used for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders. It can help alleviate symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and hostility. Additionally, flupenthixol may also be used off-label to manage depression, anxiety, and aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities or dementia.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Flupenthixol decanoate) for short-term use and a long-acting depot injection (Flupenthixol dihydrochloride) that can be administered every 2-4 weeks, providing sustained therapeutic levels of the drug.

As with any medication, flupenthixol should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other drugs. Common side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), sedation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and metabolic disorders.

"Lymnaea" is a genus of freshwater snails, specifically aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks. These snails are commonly known as pond snails or ram's horn snails due to their spiral shell shape that resembles a ram's horn. They have a wide global distribution and can be found in various freshwater habitats, such as ponds, lakes, streams, and wetlands.

Some Lymnaea species are known for their use in scientific research, particularly in the fields of neurobiology and malacology (the study of mollusks). For instance, Lymnaea stagnalis is a well-studied model organism used to investigate learning and memory processes at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels.

However, it's important to note that "Lymnaea" itself does not have a direct medical definition as it refers to a genus of snails rather than a specific medical condition or disease.

... (molecular formula C8H11NO2; also known as OA, and also norsynephrine, para-octopamine and others) is an organic ... In vertebrates no octopamine-specific receptors have been identified. Octopamine binds weakly to receptors for norepinephrine ... In the honey bee, octopamine has a major role in learning and memory. In the firefly, octopamine release leads to light ... It was observed that within a rabbit's body, the heart and kidney held the highest concentrations of octopamine. Octopamine was ...
Other names in common use include octopamine hydrolyase, and octopamine hydro-lyase (deaminating). Cuskey SM, Peccoraro V, ... The enzyme octopamine dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.87) catalyzes the chemical reaction 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-aminoethanol ⇌ {\ ...
... p-octopamine, m-octopamine, and synephrine. These share structural similarities with the three common monoamines: serotonin, ... octopamine. TAAR1 was discovered independently by Borowski et al. and Bunzow et al. in 2001. To find the genetic variants ... octopamine. Thyronamines are molecular derivatives of the thyroid hormone and are very important for endocrine system function ...
Tyramine and Octopamine (Oxyoctopamine)". Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 4 (3-4): 224-247. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1948. ... most notably serotonin and octopamine. Erspamer was born in 1909 in the small village of Val di Non in Malosco, a municipality ... and therefore named by him octopamine. Vittorio Erspamer, Società Italiana di Farmacologia (in Italian) Negri L (2006). " ...
Octopamine, discovered by Vittorio Erspamer. Oncovirus, type of virus capable of causing cancers. The experiments led by ... Tyramine and Octopamine (Oxyoctopamine)". Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 4 (3-4): 224-247. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1948. ... "Weak involvement of octopamine in aversive taste learning in a snail". Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 141: 189-198. doi: ...
Phenylethanolamine m-Tyramine p-Tyramine 3-Methoxytyramine N-Methyltyramine m-Octopamine p-Octopamine Synephrine Thyronamine ... Rank order of potency tyramine > β-phenylethylamine > octopamine = dopamine "Dopamine: Biological activity". IUPHAR/BPS guide ... octopamine). The trace amines that do not inhibit VMAT2 function in monoamine neurons do not release neurotransmitters as ...
This pathway differs from that thought to occur in animals, involving octopamine: tyramine → octopamine → synephrine, where the ... "m-Octopamine: normal occurrence with p-octopamine in mammalian sympathetic nerves". Journal of Neurochemistry. 44 (6): 1862- ... Thus, replacement of the N-methyl group in synephrine with a hydrogen atom gives octopamine; replacement of the β-hydroxy group ... In insects, synephrine has been found to be a very potent agonist at many invertebrate octopamine receptor preparations, and is ...
In July 2014 it was reported that Zabelinskaya had tested positive for octopamine at an international race in the spring. In ... "Zabelinskaya accepts 18-month suspension for octopamine positive". Cycling News. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016. ...
... (INN; also known as meta-octopamine, 3-octopamine, and 3,β-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an adrenergic agent used as ... Danielson TJ, Boulton AA, Robertson HA (December 1977). "m-Octopamine, p-octopamine and phenylethanolamine in rat brain: a ... Along with its structural isomer p-octopamine and the tyramines, norfenefrine is a naturally occurring, endogenous trace amine ... low circulating levels of octopamine in early disease stages". Neuroscience Letters. 469 (3): 348-351. doi:10.1016/j.neulet. ...
Livingstone, Margaret S.; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M.; Kravitz, Edward A. (1980-04-04). "Serotonin and Octopamine Produce ... Serotonin and octopamine are contained in different nerve endings". Journal of Neurobiology. 12 (1): 27-54. doi:10.1002/neu. ...
Around this time, the laboratory also began experimenting with the neuroamines serotonin and octopamine. By trying to ... Later, Kravitz's work with neuroamines demonstrated that serotonin and octopamine act as synaptic modulators. Kravitz continued ... injected serotonin or octopamine into two different lobsters. The results were surprising: the lobster injected with serotonin ... "Serotonin and Octopamine Produce Opposite Postures in Lobsters". Science. 208 (4439): 76-79. doi:10.1126/science.208.4439.76. ...
"Zabelinskaya accepts 18-month suspension for octopamine positive". Cycling News. 17 February 2016. Archived from the original ...
... it is replaced by octopamine, a closely related chemical with a closely related synthesis pathway. In insects, octopamine has ... Verlinden H, Vleugels R, Marchal E, Badisco L, Pflüger HJ, Blenau W, Broeck JV (2010). "The role of octopamine in locusts and ... It has been argued that octopamine evolved to replace norepinephrine rather than vice versa; however, the nervous system of ... amphioxus (a primitive chordate) has been reported to contain octopamine but not norepinephrine, which presents difficulties ...
Verlinden H, Vleugels R, Marchal E, Badisco L, Pflüger HJ, Blenau W, Broeck JV (August 2010). "The role of octopamine in ... It is the most active antagonist known of silk moth (Bombyx mori) octopamine receptor α, intermediate for Bm tyramine receptors ... octopamine receptor α and tyramine receptor 1. There appears to be a dose-dependent risk for seizures with chlorpromazine ... 1 & 2, weak for Drosophila octopamine receptor β, high for Drosophila tyramine receptor 1, intermediate for migratory locust ( ...
Microbiome of the Drosophila species is also known to promote aggression by octopamine OA signalling. The microbiome has been ... July 2015). Goodrich-Blair H (ed.). "Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression ...
Tyramine Octopamine Epinine N-Methylphenethylamine Hordenine Candicine Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace ...
However, when octopamine agonists were administered upon these sleep-deprived flies, aggression levels were seen to be ... Specifically, this occurs through the impairment of Octopamine and dopamine signaling, which are important pathways for ... "Interaction between sleep and metabolism in Drosophila with altered octopamine signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
The venom is reported to block receptors for the neurotransmitter octopamine. Once the host is incapacitated, the wasp proceeds ... Basically, it limits the effectiveness of octopamine, the neurotransmitter that controls muscle contraction in sudden movements ...
It is also precursor to octopamine and melanin in numerous organisms. Tyrosine is the precursor to the thyroid hormone ...
Ma Z, Guo X, Lei H, Li T, Hao S, Kang L (January 2015). "Octopamine and tyramine respectively regulate attractive and repulsive ... Alkema MJ, Hunter-Ensor M, Ringstad N, Horvitz HR (April 2005). "Tyramine Functions Independently of Octopamine in the ... Ohta H, Ozoe Y (2014). "Molecular Signalling, Pharmacology, and Physiology of Octopamine and Tyramine Receptors as Potential ... and octopamine does not activate alpha or beta adrenergic receptors.[medical citation needed] When using a MAO inhibitor (MAOI ...
In 2014, Češulienė was disqualified for a positive doping control for octopamine. 2005 National Road Championships 1st Road ...
p. 218: Octopamine and serotonin regulates the activity of the M3 neurons that direct contraction of the pharynx during C. ... In the nematode C. elegans, artificial depletion of serotonin or the increase of octopamine cues behavior typical of a low-food ... This olfactory response broadening was demonstrated to go along with increased serotonin and dopamine, but not octopamine in ... The released serotonin activates the muscles used for feeding, while octopamine suppresses them. Serotonin diffuses to ...
Halostachine Isoprenaline Isopropylamphetamine Methylhexanamine Octopamine Phenpromethamine Synephrine Pre-workout Anderson WG ...
The octopus produces venom containing tetrodotoxin, histamine, tryptamine, octopamine, taurine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. ...
... adrenoceptors by octopamine: comparative studies in mammalian fat cells." Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 359 310-321. G ...
Selcho M, Pauls D, el Jundi B, Stocker RF, Thum AS (2012) The role of octopamine and tyramine in Drosophila larval locomotion. ... octopamine, and serotonin in the larval chemosensory system of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Comp. Neurol. 453, 157-167 47. ... octopamine, and serotonin in the larval chemosensory system ofDosophila melanogaster". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. ...
Wheaton, T. A.; Stewart, I. (June 1970). "The distribution of tyramine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, octopamine, and synephrine ...
Dopamine and octopamine are released by mushroom body interneurons, while odors directly activate neurons in the olfactory ... On the other hand octopamine does not seem to affect the MB's sleep function. We know that mushroom body structures are ... In the rut mutant, a genotype in which the rutabaga is abolished, the responses to both dopamine and octopamine were greatly ... Therefore, rut AC in mushroom body neurons works as a coincidence detector with dopamine and octopamine functioning ...
Sedlock ML, Ravitch J, Edwards DJ (August 1985). "The effects of imipramine and iprindole on the metabolism of octopamine in ... but not limited to octopamine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, fenfluramine, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, trimipramine, and ...
... such octopamine and 2-hydroxyphenethylamine). Dysregulation of the serotonin system, too, has been reported. Depletion of zinc ...
Octopamine (molecular formula C8H11NO2; also known as OA, and also norsynephrine, para-octopamine and others) is an organic ... In vertebrates no octopamine-specific receptors have been identified. Octopamine binds weakly to receptors for norepinephrine ... In the honey bee, octopamine has a major role in learning and memory. In the firefly, octopamine release leads to light ... It was observed that within a rabbits body, the heart and kidney held the highest concentrations of octopamine. Octopamine was ...
Instead, octopamine has historically been considered to be the signal for reward in insects. Here we show, using temporal ... Layered reward signalling through octopamine and dopamine in Drosophila. 28 October 2012 ... control of neural function in Drosophila, that only short-term appetitive memory is reinforced by octopamine. ...
The synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally restricted analogues of octopamine. Author: Shearer, Jacqueline A. ...
The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects ... the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine ( ...
We noted that one differentially regulated gene, octopamine receptor gene (DaOAR), is a prominent social gene in other insect ... These results provide evidence that regulation of the octopamine receptor gene influences social grouping in D. arcuata, and ... that specifically, a decrease in octopamine receptor expression triggers the larval transition from social to solitary. ... Behavioral changes associated with octopamine receptors and the ligand, octopamine, are known to play a role in a variety of ...
Octopamine. $28.50. Supports:. Petrochemical, dairy, and pesticide sensitivity including gastritis, bloating, flatulence, ... Octopamine, 4x, 6x, 12x, 30x, 12-30c; 20% Alcohol, Purified water.. Video:. https://standardenzyme.com/wp-content/uploads/ ...
Polyclonal Antibody to Octopamine Manufactured by Gentaur. Gentaur is the biggest antibody manufacturer worldwide. ... Polyclonal Antibody to Octopamine , Gentaur Gentaur Polyclonal Antibody to Octopamine , Gentaur. (No reviews yet) Write a ... Polyclonal Antibody to Octopamine , Gentaur. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 stars ...
Conjugated Octopamine. Specificity. When tested in competitive ELISA, the anti-conjugated Octopamine antibody did not show any ... Octopamine rabbit pAb - IS1033. Ref: IS1033-sp NeuromediatorsPolyclonal AntibodiesICCIFIHC. ... The IS1033 anti-Octopamine rabbit polyclonal antibody displays high affinity and specificity. When samples are prepared using ... Immunostaining of crayfish eyetalk using anti-octopamine rabbit polyclonal antibody (green) and anti-serotonin goat polyclonal ...
Octopamine Mimics. Figure 10. Compounds Affecting Octopamine Receptors. Several amidine compounds have been used for their ... Octopamine binds to a receptor that elevates levels of the second messenger cyclic AMP, and this messenger mediates cellular ... These compounds affect target species by mimicking the action of the neurotransmitter octopamine, which regulates nerve firing ...
Cedar Gard works on pheromone-driven insects by disrupting their octopamine neuroreceptors, thereby stifling their ability to ...
Moreover, octopamine-dependent memory formation requires signalling through dopamine neurons. Part of the octopamine signal ... even in flies lacking octopamine. Analysis of the β-adrenergic-like OCTβ2R receptor reveals that octopamine-dependent ... Instead, octopamine has historically been considered to be the signal for reward in insects. Here we show, using temporal ... Octopamine triggers an increase in intracellular calcium in these dopamine neurons, and their direct activation can substitute ...
Neurotransmitter candidates in the visual system of Limulus polyphemus: synthesis and distribution of octopamine. . Vision ... Neurotransmitter candidates in the visual system of ,i,Limulus polyphemus,/i,: synthesis and distribution of octopamine. ... Read more about Cellular distributions and functions of histamine, octopamine, and serotonin in the peripheral visual system, ... Cellular distributions and functions of histamine, octopamine, and serotonin in the peripheral visual system, brain, and ...
Polyclonal Antibody to Octopamine , Gentaur Gentaur. MSRP: Now: €340.00 Was: Polyclonal Antibody to Octopamine , 544-MBS2090493 ...
Octopamine and tyramine signalling in Aedes aegypti: Molecular characterization and insigh Octopamine and tyramine signalling ... In insects, the biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) are involved in controlling several physiological and ...
Salomon, M., Malka, O., Vander Meer, R. K., & Hefetz, A. (2012). The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of ... Salomon M, Malka O, Vander Meer RK, Hefetz A. The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of reproduction in ... Salomon, M, Malka, O, Vander Meer, RK & Hefetz, A 2012, The role of tyramine and octopamine in the regulation of reproduction ... Here, we explored the effect of octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) oral treatments on the propensity of treated bees to become ...
Interactions between agents stimulating and inhibiting the central dopamine receptors and octopamine. ...
octopamine (ok-to′pa-men). A sympathomimetic amine; a false neurotransmitter produced by noradrenergic neurons in the presence ...
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Putative agents include octopamine and diazepam. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as isoleucine, ...
Octopamine fuels fighting flies. Potter CJ, Luo L. Potter CJ, et al. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Sep;11(9):989-90. doi: 10.1038/nn0908- ...
During the extensive two-year review process for the 2021 version of the Code, WADA received considerable stakeholder feedback related to drugs of abuse where it was felt that the use of some substances included in the Prohibited List was often unrelated to sport practice. Accordingly, Article 4.2.3 was added to the 2021 Code defining Substances of Abuse as those "Prohibited Substances which are specifically identified as Substances of Abuse on the Prohibited List because they are frequently abused in society outside of the context of sport.". In this context, cocaine, diamorphine (heroin), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/"ecstasy") and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are designated as Substances of Abuse. These 4 substances are prohibited in competition but sometimes their use out-of-competition can be detected in-competition and lead to an Adverse Analytical Finding. If the athlete can demonstrate that the use of any of these four substances was out-of -competition and unrelated to sport ...
Additionally I will use the chemical octopamine hydrochloride to explore neuroendocrine relationships between gustatory ... responsiveness, learning, and octopamine.. Example 2. Table 2: Example Budget and Justification. Item. Justification. Supplier/ ...
It is controlled by the two neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine, which is related to the human noradrenaline. Dopamine ... increases the activity of the circuit, i. e. increases motivation; octopamine reduces the willingness to make an effort. ...
They arent even hiding the Octopamine. I remember when that stuff was hidden in formulas. ...
Octopamine. (PDF 600 kb). (Word 66 kb). ​​Yes. ​July 2020​. This table will be updated as new assessments are finalised and ...
3] National Center for Biotechnology Information (2022). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 102484, Octopamine hydrochloride. ... Synephrine Hydrochloride, Choline Bitartrate, Octopamine Hydrochloride, Folic Acid, Cytidine Diphosphate, Choline Sodium Salt ...
Figur 5: Effekt av octopamine på bee hjertefrekvens. Grafen viser den prosentvise endringen i basal hjertefrekvens, målt i slag ... Papaefthimiou, C., Theophilidis, G. Octopamine--a single modulator with double action on the heart of two insect species (Apis ... Behandling av honningbie rygg fartøy med 100 nM octopamine ikke signifikant øke eller redusere hjertefrekvensen i forhold til ... Roeder, T. Octopamine in invertebrates. Prog Neurobiol. 59 (5), 533-561 (1999). ...
Such comparisons yielded similar results as in Drosophila: appetitive and aversive reinforcement is mediated by octopamine and ... Schwaerzel, M., Monastirioti, M., Scholz, H., Friggi-Grelin, F., Birman, S., and Heisenberg, M. (2003). Dopamine and octopamine ... These opposite memories differentially recruit the two biogenic amines octopamine and dopamine, which respectively mediate ...
Both have Octopamine but which one should I buy?. * 06-01-2005, 11:36 PM ...
  • appetitive and aversive reinforcement is mediated by octopamine and dopamine, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gal and Libersat suggest that the wasp's venom could affect certain signalling chemicals such as octopamine and dopamine, that are known to affect the movements and motivations of insects. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • It is controlled by the two neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine, which is related to the human noradrenaline. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In insects , the biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) are involved in controlling several physiological and behavioural processes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rillich J, Stevenson PA (2011) Winning Fights Induces Hyperaggression via the Action of the Biogenic Amine Octopamine in Crickets. (phys.org)
  • Immunostaining of crayfish eyetalk using anti-octopamine rabbit polyclonal antibody (green) and anti-serotonin goat polyclonal antibody (red). (immusmol.com)
  • The IS1033 anti-Octopamine rabbit polyclonal antibody displays high affinity and specificity. (immusmol.com)
  • TyrR (mixed octopamine/tyramine receptors), which are structurally and functionally similar to noradrenergic alpha-2 receptors in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors in the TyrR class, however, are generally more strongly activated by tyramine than by octopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic studies claim that in ancient bilaterians such as Platynereis dumerilii there is a co-existence of norepinephrine, tyramine and octopamine receptor signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, due to partial overlapping in their signalling functionality tyramine and octopamine receptors have been lost in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octopamine and tyramine signalling in Aedes aegypti: Molecular characterization and insight into potential physiological roles. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we explored the effect of octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) oral treatments on the propensity of treated bees to become reproductively dominant and produce queen-like pheromones in Dufour's and mandibular glands. (huji.ac.il)
  • Eight normal subjects ingested 125 mg of p-tyramine-beta,beta-2H2 hydrochloride and the 3 h and following 21 h urine collections were analysed by mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring for the deuterated metabolites: free and conjugated p-tyramine-beta,beta-2H2, free p-octopamine-beta-2H1, free and conjugated p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid-alpha-2H1 and -alpha,alpha-2H2, and free p-hydroxymandelic acid-alpha-2H1. (erowid.org)
  • Octopamine exerts its effects by binding to and activating receptors located on the surface of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates no octopamine-specific receptors have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octopamine binds weakly to receptors for norepinephrine and epinephrine, but it is not clear whether this has any functional significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects, octopamine is released by a select number of neurons, but acts broadly throughout the central brain, on all sense organs, and on several non-neuronal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, octopamine has historically been considered to be the signal for reward in insects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cedar Gard works on pheromone-driven insects by disrupting their octopamine neuroreceptors, thereby stifling their ability to detect food and mates and reproduce. (mycsainc.com)
  • Additionally I will use the chemical octopamine hydrochloride to explore neuroendocrine relationships between gustatory responsiveness, learning, and octopamine. (unr.edu)
  • Here we show, using temporal control of neural function in Drosophila, that only short-term appetitive memory is reinforced by octopamine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Octopamine Drives Endurance Exercise Adaptations in Drosophila. (ncbs.res.in)
  • In many types of invertebrates octopamine is an important neurotransmitter and hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octopamine was first discovered by Italian scientist Vittorio Erspamer in 1948 in the salivary glands of the octopus and has since been found to act as a neurotransmitter, neurohormone and neuromodulator in invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Andrés and Albert found is that the process of fibrillae erection is regulated by a neurotransmitter called octopamine - a chemical signal sent from the brain to control the mosquito ears. (wmfe.org)
  • In lobsters, octopamine seems to direct and coordinate neurohormones to some extent in the central nervous system, and it was observed that injecting octopamine into a lobster and crayfish resulted in limb and abdomen extension. (wikipedia.org)
  • One requires the monoamine octopamine, which shares functional similarities to noradrenaline in vertebrates, whereas the other relies on a cellular stress response uncovered by the phenotypic characterization of hangover (hang) mutants (Scholz, 2000, Scholz, 2005). (sdbonline.org)
  • We noted that one differentially regulated gene, octopamine receptor gene (DaOAR), is a prominent 'social' gene in other insect species, prompting us to test the hypothesis that DaOAR influences grouping behavior in D. arcuata . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (CS) (blue and green light as CS) with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US). (frontiersin.org)
  • In larvae of the oriental armyworm, octopamine is immunologically beneficial, increasing survival rates in high-density populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the thoracic ganglia, octopamine is primarily released by DUM (dorsal unpaired median) and VUM (ventral unpaired median) neurons, which release octopamine onto neural, muscular, and peripheral targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • During flight, DUM neurons are also active and release octopamine throughout the body to synchronize energy metabolism, respiration, muscle activity and flight interneuron activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results provide evidence that regulation of the octopamine receptor gene influences social grouping in D. arcuata , and that specifically, a decrease in octopamine receptor expression triggers the larval transition from social to solitary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we test the hypothesis that a decrease in octopamine receptor expression triggers the larval transition from social to solitary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Higher amounts of injected octopamine caused a decrease in activation. (123dok.com)
  • British Library EThOS: The synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally restricted analogues of octopamine. (bl.uk)
  • To test this, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce octopamine receptor transcript abundance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mammals octopamine is found only in trace amounts, and no biological function has been solidly established for it. (wikipedia.org)
  • After aligning the octopamine gene isoforms using Clustal Omega ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa/clustalo/ ), conserved regions were used for siRNA design using Dharmacon's siDESIGN tool ( https://horizondiscovery.com/en/products/tools/siDESIGN-Center ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the nematode, octopamine is found in high concentrations in adults, decreasing egg-laying and pharyngeal pumping behaviors with an antagonistic effect to serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoforms of the octopamine receptor gene were previously found to be upregulated in socially grouping early instars of D. arcuata relative to solitary late instars [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Octopamine is often considered the major "fight-or-flight" neurohormone of invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the group has previously shown that the zombie cockroaches can be restored to their active ways by injecting them with octopamine (see video below). (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Although Erspamer discovered its natural occurrence and named it, octopamine had actually existed for many years as a pharmaceutical product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic studies claim that in ancient bilaterians such as Platynereis dumerilii there is a co-existence of norepinephrine, tyramine and octopamine receptor signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • adrenergic-like octopamine receptor in the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Characterization and functional analysis of an α-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor in the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Octopamine receptor agonist. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Octopamine targets a receptor on sensory neurons that controls the worms' aversion to scents. (nih.gov)
  • Their findings revealed that during swarm time, there is a pronounced peak in the expression of an octopamine receptor specifically in the male mosquito ear. (earth.com)
  • Having found the target receptor (the octopamine receptor), the researchers tested how various molecules worked and affected barnacle larvae behaviour. (ship-technology.com)
  • OCTR-1, a putative octopamine G protein-coupled catecholamine receptor (GPCR, G protein-coupled receptor), functioned in sensory neurons designated ASH and ASI to actively suppress innate immune responses by down-regulating the expression of noncanonical UPR genes pqn/abu in nonneuronal tissues. (elsevierpure.com)
  • also known as OA, and also norsynephrine, para-octopamine and others) is an organic chemical closely related to norepinephrine, and synthesized biologically by a homologous pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nematode, octopamine is found in high concentrations in adults, decreasing egg-laying and pharyngeal pumping behaviors with an antagonistic effect to serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rescue of major aspects of adult locomotion and startle behavior required octopamine, but a complementary role was observed for serotonin. (nih.gov)
  • Crocker A, Shahidullah M, Levitan IB, Sehgal A. Identification of a neural circuit that underlies the effects of octopamine on sleep:wake behavior. (jefferson.edu)
  • For example, the locust DUMeti neuron releases octopamine onto the extensor tibia muscle to increase muscle tension and increase relaxation rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • By identifying the octopamine pathway, we've only just begun to understand this complex system. (earth.com)
  • Do not take with other stimulants such as caffeine, synephrine, octopamine, ephedra/ine which increase blood pressure. (muscleandstrength.com)
  • In larvae of the oriental armyworm, octopamine is immunologically beneficial, increasing survival rates in high-density populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octopamine is often considered the major "fight-or-flight" neurohormone of invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition several, but not all DUM neurones studied here form neurohaemal release sites on the surface of peripheral nerves and thus represent potential sources for octopamine acting as a neurohormone. (zib.de)
  • In lobsters, octopamine seems to direct and coordinate neurohormones to some extent in the central nervous system, and it was observed that injecting octopamine into a lobster and crayfish resulted in limb and abdomen extension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through rigorous experiments and observations, the researchers pinpointed the octopamine molecule as being crucial not only for the mosquitoes' ability to hear but also for the detection of potential mates. (earth.com)
  • When the researchers started ordering these genes by function, they discovered suites of genes were being activated in concert: insulin signaling for longevity, pathways for immunity, and those leading to octopamine production, the insect equivalent of the fight or flight hormone adrenaline, for long-distance flight. (phys.org)
  • This work aims to develop a new analytical method to detect octopamine in water and human urine samples. (uai.cl)
  • The final assay was able to detect octopamine in water within the range 1 nmol·L -1 -0.1 mol·L -1 with a detection limit of 0.047 ± 0.00231 μg·mL -1 and in human urine samples within the range 1 nmol·L -1 -0.0001 mol·L -1 with a detection limit of 0.059 ± 0.00281 μg·mL -1 . (uai.cl)
  • Furthermore, this work is the first attempt to use nanoMIPs in pseudo-ELISA assays to detect octopamine. (uai.cl)
  • In all experiments, nanoMIPs presented high affinity to the target molecules and almost no cross-reactivity with analogues of octopamine such as pseudophedrine or l-Tyrosine. (uai.cl)
  • As a weight loss ingredient: Both synephrine and octopamine have been used in weight loss supplements for years, despite only the most luke-warm clinical data supporting the effectiveness of synephrine (there's no data on octopamine). (ultimatefatburner.com)
  • David J. Schulz , Tanya Pankiw , M. Kim Fondrk , Gene E. Robinson , and Robert E. Page Jr. "Comparisons of Juvenile Hormone Hemolymph and Octopamine Brain Titers in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Selected for High and Low Pollen Hoarding," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97(6), 1313-1319, (1 November 2004). (bioone.org)
  • Both octopamine and phenylethylamine decreased high prolactin levels due to swimming or immobilization stress without affecting other adenohypophysial hormones. (nih.gov)
  • Although Erspamer discovered its natural occurrence and named it, octopamine had actually existed for many years as a pharmaceutical product. (wikipedia.org)