Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 184.108.40.206.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Rats, Inbred F344Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Liver Abscess, Pyogenic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to bacterial infection within the hepatic parenchyma. It can be caused by a variety of BACTERIA, local or disseminated from infections elsewhere such as in APPENDICITIS; CHOLECYSTITIS; PERITONITIS; and after LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningBiotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GalactosamineGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.TriglyceridesOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 220.127.116.11.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Mice, Inbred BALB CGlutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cod Liver Oil: Oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Orotic AcidMicrobodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 18.104.22.168.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Clofibrate: A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 22.214.171.124), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
In the liver, gluconeogenesis occurs. From an intuitive perspective, gluconeogenesis reverses both glycolysis and fermentation ... However, normally before this happens the lactic acid is moved out of the muscles and into the liver. ... Instead of accumulating inside the muscle cells, lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation is taken up by the liver. This ... refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is ...
Severe liver toxicity has also been reported. Rage, violence. Tolerance to nitrazepam's effects occurs with regular use. ... CNS depression occurs much more frequently in the elderly and is especially common in doses above 5 mg of nitrazepam. Both ... Accumulation can occur in various body organs, including the heart; accumulation is even greater in babies. Nitrazepam rapidly ... Dependence can occur in as little as four weeks." Nitrazepam overdose may result in stereotypical symptoms of benzodiazepine ...
Naturally occurring nuclides with half-lives , 1 h (such as At-214 to 219) are not included in the table, so the claim in the ... And, under "Naturally occurring isotopes with half-lives below one hour", there is one nuclide, copernicium-285 with a half- ... 2) Some short-lived (non-primordial) naturally-occuring nuclides are very important-- atmospheric cosmogenic nuclide Be-7, C-14 ... Fr-223 (22 min) and those 6 naturally-occuring At nuclides you mention, none of which have half lives over a minute (of which 3 ...
Event occurs at 38:30. Stevenson, Bill (1989). Hallraker: Live! (CD liner). Descendents. Lawndale, California: SST Records. SST ... SST also released the Descendents live albums Liveage! (1987) and Hallraker: Live! (1989), both recorded during the final two ...
Event occurs at 0:10. Stevenson, Bill (1989). Hallraker: Live! (CD liner). Descendents. Lawndale, California: SST Records. SST ... Event occurs at 21:50. "Bonus Cut". Filmage: The Story of Descendents/All. Event occurs at 4:10. James, Patrick (2013-01-01). " ... As a result, the songs had much more of a pop sound on the album than they did when the band performed them live. "We could've ... Event occurs at 40:25. Loose Nut (CD liner). Black Flag. Lawndale, California: SST Records. 1985. SST CD 035. The Process of ...
Event occurs at 8:25. Blush, p. 310. Stevenson, Bill (1989). Hallraker: Live! (CD liner). Descendents. Lawndale, California: ... Event occurs at 38:16. "Homage: Lots of Bands Doing Descendents' Songs". Allmusic. Retrieved 2015-02-27. "Free Download: Filter ...
London Live. 24 May 2016. Event occurs at 2:45. Retrieved 31 August 2016. Peacock, Robert (23 August 2016). "Review: Spencer ... "Live from the BBC, Spencer Jones and James Acaster". BBC. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016. "Vote in the 2016 Chortle ... Jones performed his comedy act on British television for the first time in Live from the BBC, which was broadcast on BBC Two in ...
Event occurs at 32:43. Stevenson, Bill (1989). Hallraker: Live! (CD liner). Descendents. Lawndale, California: SST Records. SST ... Minnesota were released as the live albums Liveage! (1987) and Hallraker: Live! (1989). The "FinALL" tour was so-called due to ... So the idea that it was Karl, my oldest friend, and I joining this band that was so huge to us, it was like living on a cloud. ... We had nowhere to live, and you could see where a guy with the kind of brainpower he has would say 'You know what? I don't have ...
REPLAY] BIGBANG [MADE THE FULL ALBUM] COUNTDOWN LIVE". V Live. Event occurs at 21:41. "무한도전, 빅뱅 스타일 완벽 소화…'하루하루' 뮤비 도전". ...
Event occurs at 38:16. Filmage: The Story of Descendents/All. Event occurs at 13:50. Stevenson, Bill (1989). Hallraker: Live! ( ... Event occurs at 21:00. Blush, p. 310. Somery (CD liner). Descendents. Lawndale, California: SST Records. 1991. SST CD 259. Two ... Event occurs at 19:05. Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas, eds. (2002). All Music Guide to Rock: The ...
Event occurs at 1:22:30. Garrett, Joseph C. (20 January 2012). "Why Is It Important To Know My Credit Score?". Know My Credit ... Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press "India to get three new credit data bureaus". Live Mint. 1 June 2009. Experian Statutory ... Event occurs at 43:38. Hillman, Richard J. (July 31, 2003), "Statement for the Record Before the Committee on Banking, Housing ... Event occurs at 1:22:01. David Baldock (Creator), James Scurlock (Directory) (March 10, 2006). Maxed Out: Hard Times, Easy ...
This peripheral aromatization occurs predominantly in adipose tissue, but also occurs in other tissues such as bone, liver, and ... Estriol is the major urinary metabolite. Estradiol is conjugated in the liver to form estrogen conjugates like ... As a result, cellular transformation and cancer cell proliferation occurs. Other functions. Estradiol has complex ... In the liver, it is non-specifically metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9 via 2-hydroxylation into 2-hydroxyestradiol, and ...
Studies show that this activity primarily occurs in the liver. When growth hormone is bound to two dimerized GH receptors, the ... This occurs because when the ligand binds to the receptors, a conformational change occurs in them that potentially blocks the ...
Temporary damage to the liver may occur. Rarely, neurological disorders have been reported in association with Chikungunya ... Rash occurs in 40-50% of cases, generally as a maculopapular rash occurring two to five days after onset of symptoms. ... In 2014 more than a million suspected cases occurred. In 2014 it was occurring in Florida in the continental United States ... inflammation of the eyes may occur in the form of iridocyclitis, or uveitis, and retinal lesions may occur. ...
This occurred in Fantastic Four #160-163. ... It! The Living Colossus. It! The Living Colossus gets his own ... It! The Living Colossus is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Initially a ... It! The Living Colossus debuted in the 18-page science fiction story "I Created the Colossus" in the anthology series Tales of ... Clones of It the Living Colossus. Reed Richards made a duplicate of It using the "Ionic Inanimate Matter Converter". It ...
Liver dysfunction can occur in rare cases. A small percentage of children acquire HHV-6 with few signs or symptoms of the ... Most cases of HHV-6 infection get better on their own. If encephalitis occurs ganciclovir or foscarnet may be useful. ... Roseola is an infectious disease caused by certain types of virus. Most infections occur before the age of three. ... Exanthema subitum occurs in approximately 30% of children during primary HHV-6 infection. Others may show symptoms ...
This primarily occurs within the liver. The degradation pathway causes LDL to end up in endosomes and lysosomes - where TPCs ... The loss of TPCs have been found to be a cause of the yellow coloration of liver, an expression of fatty liver which indicates ... Various ailments can occur from the knockdown of these channels, from metabolic and general infectious diseases to even cancer ... TPCs have been implicated in fatty liver diseases, such as NAFLD and NASH. As TPC2 is a cation channel for endocytotic membrane ...
Event occurs at 42:00. "Trailblazer". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-11-29. Salmon, Jeremy. "Live Plus One". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009 ... A live recording of "Just Perfect" was later released on All's 1990 live album Trailblazer, sung by Smalley's successor Scott ...
Event occurs at 45:07. "Trailblazer". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-11-29. Salmon, Jeremy. "Live Plus One". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009 ... Live recordings of "She's My Ex" were later released on All's live albums Trailblazer (1990) and Live Plus One (2001), the ...
Fox Sports Live. Feb 9, 2014. Event occurs at 0:52. Retrieved February 15, 2014. Zeigler, Cyd (January 28, 2014). "Conner ...
Similar to the environmental mismatch when dark-skinned people live at high latitudes, Rickets can also occur in religious ... cod liver oil, halibut-liver oil, and viosterol are all sources of vitamin D. A sufficient amount of ultraviolet B light in ... Asian immigrants living in Europe have an increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 40% of ... Rickets occurs relatively commonly in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. It is generally uncommon in the United States and ...
"Live, Love, Grow: 15 Questions for The Daily Love's Mastin Kipp". GaiamTV.com. Gaiam TV. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 25 November ... Event occurs at 37:18 min. Retrieved 25 November 2014. Davis, Sarah (4 April 2011). "Chatting with Mastin Kipp of The Daily ... Kipp was included on Mind Body Spirit Magazine's list of "The 100 Most Spiritually Influential Living People" for 2012. In ... "The 100 Most Spiritually Influential Living People". Watkins' Mind Body Spirit Magazine Issue 29. March 2012. "Mastin Kipp - ...
Adult periodical cicadas live only for a few weeks; by mid-July, all have disappeared. Their short adult lives have one purpose ... a b Premature emergences, or "straggling" occurred in 2003 and 2006. ... The larvae have lived solely on vegetable matter of the cleanest and most whole-some sort, and supposedly, therefore, would be ... Magicicada species spend almost the full length of their long lives underground feeding on xylem fluids from the roots of ...
Death occurs by acute liver failure (ALF). In the last phase, neurological symptoms such as agitation, delirium, convulsions ... Infected patients show extensive destruction of liver tissue, with steatosis of a particular type (microsteatosis, ... where it occurs mostly in the area south of the Amazon River, in the states of Acre, Amazonas and Rondônia . The disease has ... The infection by delta virus may occur in a patient who already has the HBV, or both viruses may infect at the same time a ...
Hepatic encephalopathy occurs secondary to liver involvement. Egg hatching and production can be affected. Diagnosis relies on ... The main necropsy findings are multiple necrotic lesions on the liver and sometimes the spleen. There is no specific treatment ... Transmission is thought to be via the faeces and vertical transmission may also occur. Affected turkeys may show systemic signs ...
Event occurs at 14:02-14:33. PBS. KLRU-TV. Clark, Stuart. ZZ Living. Hot Press. January 26, 1994. Gray, Chris. R.I.P. Bill ... The presentation also included live animals such as a longhorn steer, black buffalo, two vultures, and two rattlesnakes. ...
... produces short-lived cells that remain in the extramedullary regions of lymph nodes; a secondary response produces longer-lived ... Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph ... Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). They ... and results in short-lived cells that secrete IgM antibodies. The T cell-dependent processes are subdivided into primary and ...
Colin Murray (20 September 2008). "Fighting Talk" (Podcast). BBC Radio 5 Live. Event occurs at 48:09. Retrieved 9 September ... He has also (as of 4 May 2013) made 25 appearances on the Radio 5 Live show Fighting Talk. ...
Buy Cod Liver Oil 1,000mg at discount prices from Vitamin World. ... Cod Liver Oil 1,000mg is a natural source of Vitamins A and D, ... Discontinue use and consult your doctor if any adverse reactions occur. Keep out of reach of children. Store at room ... Cod Liver Oil, sourced from the finest deep sea cold water fish. Each daily serving delivers:. • 1000 mg of Cod Liver Oil. • ... Your Grandma was right - Cod Liver Oil is a great way to support daily health!** Vitamin Worlds version of this classic tonic ...
However, pyogenic liver abscess also occurs in healthy children. We experienced a case of pyogenic liver abscess in a healthy ... Pyogenic liver abscesses are rare in children. In pediatric patients, altered host defences seem to play an important role. ... A case of pyogenic liver abscess in a 10-year-old girl. ... Keywords: Liver abscess , Child , Antibiotics , Drainage , CT ...
... cod liver oil help high blood pressure, cod liver oil tablets high blood pressure, can cod liver oil cause high blood pressure ... cod liver oil and high blood pressure medication, ... They occur in 10 - 30% of those who undergo the procedure and ... Can Cod Liver Oil Cause High Blood Pressure 07-Jan-2018. by Eladia Heidrick Also, if someone faints (syncope) and (1) has any ... Can Cod Liver Oil Cause High Blood Pressure. Its not so bad if someone is home and i talk to them when i get up. Is anyone on ...
The chronic condition may result in destruction of liver causing serious issues. The autoimmune chronic active hepatitis occurs ... Ultrasound scans of the liver Liver function or blood test: it checks enzyme activity and activity of other substances which ... A small biopsy to check inflammation of the liver and cirrhosis Other tests may be conducted to check the different liver ... Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis is a chronic disease which results in inflammation of the liver. This disease majorly ...
Vaccine Side Effects Occur Rarely, Report Finds. By Rachael Rettner 2013-05-30T09:04:20Z. Health ... Live Science is supported by its audience. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. ... Live Science is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. Visit our corporate site. ... "We have a lot of evidence that vaccine saves lives and averts a lot of suffering," Clayton said in a news conference about the ...
... TAREK HASSANEIN, JOSHUA A. PERPER, LEWIS TEPPERMAN, THOMAS E. ... Liver. 1983;3:249-260. [PubMed]. 6. Bianchi L, Ohnacker H, Beck K, Zimmerh-Ning M. Liver damage in heatstroke and its ... Should it occur, however, the cornerstone of its successful treatment is early and effective elimination of hyperthermia. Liver ... When it occurs in cases of heatstroke, death either occurs early during the first several days as a consequence of central ...
Cyclosporin A induced toxicity in mouse liver slices is only slightly aggravated by Fxr-deficiency and co-occurs with ... In the present study we investigated the effect of Fxr deficiency in mouse precision cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed to a model ... Methods: To test this hypothesis, PCLS obtained from livers of wild type mice (WT-PCLS) and Fxr-knockout mice (FXRKO-PCLS) were ... and has protective functions in the liver. ...
Living With Co-Occurring Addiction and Mental Health Disorders. $15.95. Designed inform and empower those with dual disorders, ... Be the first to review "Living With Co-Occurring Addiction and Mental Health Disorders" Cancel reply. Your email address will ... Home / Posters / Substance Abuse/Drugs / Living With Co-Occurring Addiction and Mental Health Disorders. ... SKU: 7672 Categories: Addiction/Recovery, Co-Occurring Disorders, Life Skills, Mental Health, Mental Health & Stress, Mental ...
Paneth-cell-disruption-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in mice requires live bacteria and occurs independently of TLR4 ... Paneth-cell-disruption-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in mice requires live bacteria and occurs independently of TLR4 ... Paneth-cell-disruption-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in mice requires live bacteria and occurs independently of TLR4 ... Paneth-cell-disruption-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in mice requires live bacteria and occurs independently of TLR4 ...
Identify the type of cell death that occurs ... Cirrhosis of the Liver By what mechanisms can liver cirrhosis ... Cirrhosis of the Liver By what mechanisms can liver cirrhosis occur? Identify the type of cell death that occurs to cause ... Bio 106 Module 3 Discussion 2 ACC Online.docx - Cirrhosis of the Liver By what mechanisms can liver cirrhosis occur Identify ... The death of hepatocytes and hepatic cells is a known feature of liver diseases. How does cirrhosis impact healthy liver ...
An error has occurred. Please try again later.. You are already subscribed to this email.. View all New York Times newsletters. ... But if that brain injury occurs early, and if it is restricted to one hemisphere, and if the period of seizure disorder is not ... Removing Half of Brain Improves Young Epileptics Lives. By ABIGAIL ZUGER. AUG. 19, 1997. ...
An error has occurred. Please try again later.. You are already subscribed to this email.. View all New York Times newsletters. ... The King Is Dead (Has Been for 46 Years) but Two Iraqis Hope: Long Live the King!. By JEFFREY GETTLEMAN. JAN. 28, 2005. ... 26 - Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein has had enough of the riches, the servants, the palaces and living like a king. Now, he says, ... Middle East,The King Is Dead (Has Been for 46 Years) but Two Iraqis Hope: Long Live the King!. ...
Perfect Supplements believes that liver is a superfood, but in order for it to be beneficial, the liver must come from happy ... Perfect Desiccated Liver is obtained solely from healthy grass-fed cows. ... How much fresh liver is the equivalent to a serving of Perfect Desiccated Liver?. During the liver drying process, 1 oz of ... Is there any fat in the Perfect Desiccated Liver?. We take the beef liver from grass-fed cows and dry it into a powder. Liver ...
With all living organisms composed of 60 to 90 percent water, all organisms require the substance as a basic building material ... A: Cell metabolism involves several complex biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain a normal life. ... A: Cell theory states that all living organisms are made up of cells and that the cell is the basic unit of life. It also ... With all living organisms composed of 60 to 90 percent water, all organisms require the substance as a basic building material ...
Obligatory reabsorption of water occurs in the kidneys. The reabsorption of water is a part of the process that the kidneys ... Where does the reabsorption of glucose occur?. A: The reabsorption of glucose occurs in the kidneys. Plasma and non-cell parts ... Where do filtration and reabsorption occur in the kidneys?. A: Filtration occurs in the glomerulus, while the majority of ... Obligatory reabsorption of water occurs in the kidneys. The reabsorption of water is a part of the process that the kidneys ...
The couple lived and taught for a stretch at An-Najah National University in Nablus. Then they moved to Ramallah, where Bettina ... Many others live in the West Bank and havent petitioned the court. Their request for family unification is among a handful of ... Thus, since she married and came to live in the West Bank, Zubaidi, as a German citizen, has had to continually obtain entry ... Hes Palestinian, Shes German, but Only an Israeli Stamp Lets Them Live Together in the West Bank Thousands of spouses of ...
Patch 7.2.5 has arrived, and with it comes a variety of content updates, including Black Temple Timewalking, the Deaths of Chromie, the Trial of Style, and more. Youll also soon be able to delve into the Tomb of Sargeras raid dungeon.. Learn more about the patch in our 7.2.5 Survival Guide.. ...
If these problems occur, they begin soon after vaccination and usually are mild and short-lived. People sometimes faint after ... What are the side effects that could occur?. The viruses in the nasal spray vaccine are weakened and do not cause severe ... Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV] (The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine). Brand name: FluMist Quadrivalent ... The nasal spray influenza vaccine does contain live viruses. However, the viruses are attenuated (weakened), so that they will ...
3391 Lives 3 lives impacted in the last 24 hrs Learn More ... Liver Disease Doesnt Define Her. EmpowHER Primary Biliary ... This Can pregnancy occur if during wet humping,the boy ejaculates in his underwear and the girl is also wearing underwear and ... Can pregnancy occur if during wet humping,the boy ejaculates in his underwear and the girl is also wearing underwear and girl ...
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression occurs in toxic rat liver injury and human liver disease. / Czaja, M. J ... title = "Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression occurs in toxic rat liver injury and human liver disease", ... T1 - Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression occurs in toxic rat liver injury and human liver disease ... Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression occurs in toxic rat liver injury and human liver disease. ...
Are You Living With an Accidental Identity?. Why do we form a false and negative sense of who we are? ... Why Domestic Violence Occurs and How to Stop It. Domestic abuse has increased. What can we do to help? ... A person may feel desperate to get the partner "back in line" because of feelings of not being able to live without him or her ... My exs behavior changed as soon as I tried living with him. Three months after we got together. He asked me out. He wouldnt ...
Superheated Ice Occurs Inside Live Notothenioid Fishes.. Given the pronounced melting inhibition observed in vitro, we expected ... Superheated ice occurs inside live notothenioid fishes. (A) Fraction of McMurdo Sound notothenioid fishes harboring ... Our study establishes that pronounced melting inhibition occurs in vivo (i.e., superheated ice occurs inside notothenioid ... including shallow-living T. pennellii, T. bernacchii, Trematomus hansoni, and P. borchgrevinki and the deeper living ...
Were sorry, an error occurred. We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us ... The flagship show of Diabetes Live is must-see TV!. So settle down in front of your PC and have your telephone handy to call ... Were sorry, an error occurred.. We are unable to collect your feedback at this time. However, your feedback is important to us ... Youre a natural in front of the live camera. Wasnt always sure who was interviewing whom, though. ...
Fatty Liver - Cirrhosis of liver. Fits - Sudden attack or seizure of muscle activity. Flux - An excessive flow or discharge of ... occasionally occurred. Renal colic can occur from disease in the kidney, gallstone colic from a stone in the bile duct. ... fever due to a liver disorder, See typhus. Biliousness - Jaundice associated with liver disease; A complex of symptoms ... Death frequently occurred in three to five days. Synonyms: summer complaint, weaning brash, water gripes, choleric fever of ...
BU-Led Study: CTE May Occur without Concussions. * Interactive: Campus Life Office Artifacts: Natalie McKnight. ... "With this play, Winnie asks all of us to explore how our choices shape our lives and help define who we are," says Huntington ... Huntingtons Latest Looks at Choices That Shape Lives. Choice travels through time and space, with help from Home Depot. ...
ReactionsSupportVitaminDeveloping liver diseaseHepatocytesDisordersMetabolicSevereTransplantationTransplantToxinsToxicityFibrosisInflammationSymptomsInfectionOrganDiseasesCirrhosis and liverLead to liver failureHepatitisJaundiceTransplantsHepatic arteryBile from the liverAbdomen2020AbdominalKidneyCongenitalGlucoseFulminantAlcoholProcess occursCellsCholestasisCommonlyScar tissueMiceFailure occursDehydrationDiabetesAbscessCysticDisorderToxicIntestinalDamageTissueAccumulationDetoxifyIncidencePrimaryNaturally2018Metastatic
- Vitamin World's version of this classic tonic comes in a rapid-release softgel and features Nor-Gold Premium™ Cod Liver Oil, sourced from the finest deep sea cold water fish. (vitaminworld.com)
- Found naturally in fish, eggs, strengthened milk and cod liver oil and produced naturally during exposure to the sun, low levels of vitamin d may have a role in developing high blood pressure. (thehbpsolution.com)
- The death of hepatocytes and hepatic cells is a known feature of liver diseases. (coursehero.com)
- 20% of the hepatocytes that are present in the adult liver, and liver growth continues after birth until it reaches its mature size. (aappublications.org)
- The study, to be published in the June issue of the journal Hepatology , showed that use of nitric oxide during reperfusion protected cultured rat liver cells, or hepatocytes, from cell death typically occurring as a result of reperfusion stress. (news-medical.net)
- Three months after transplantation, up to 20% of the mouse liver is repopulated by human hepatocytes, and sustained expression of lentiviral vector transduced gene can be observed. (pnas.org)
- For instance, cultured human hepatocytes display a different gene expression profile than hepatocytes in the liver. (pnas.org)
- Therefore, substantial efforts have been made to repopulate murine livers with human hepatocytes. (pnas.org)
- Drawing from an evidence-based program by internationally recognized pioneers in the integrated treatment of co-occurring disorders from the Dartmouth Medical School, this handbook is designed to inform and empower those with dual disorders. (impactpublications.com)
- Informative, thorough, and easy to follow, this book is designed to help the millions of people with co-occurring disorders thrive and be their own best recovery advocates. (impactpublications.com)
- These include conditions such as lung disease, heart disease (except isolated hypertension), kidney disease (like diabetes), kidney or liver disorders, neurologic/neuromuscular, or metabolic disorders. (cdc.gov)
- How often do motility disorders occur? (chw.org)
- There are many different types of liver disorders that affect the liver in different ways, ranging from inflammation to build-up of bile to accumulation of fat in liver cells. (chw.org)
- In addition, infections - including hepatitis A, B and C - and drug reactions may lead to childhood liver disorders. (chw.org)
- Different liver disorders progress at different rates. (chw.org)
- Although different liver disorders progress at different rates, liver disease can be life-threatening once it advances to liver failure. (chw.org)
- Chronic or acute liver failure or severe metabolic disorders may require a liver transplant . (chw.org)
- Progressive liver disorders slowly get worse and may eventually require a liver transplant. (chw.org)
- Progression leads to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is a type of liver failure that causes fatigue and potentially life-threatening metabolic problems. (verywellhealth.com)
- The developmental changes that occur in the liver's metabolic activity from birth to adolescence contribute to the varied sensitivity to toxins seen in the pediatric population. (aappublications.org)
- The developmental changes that occur in the liver determine the rate and metabolic pathways used in the disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics. (aappublications.org)
- The resultant metabolic intermediates may in themselves be toxic to the liver but may also cause detrimental effects to other organs of the body. (aappublications.org)
- Certain metabolic ailments can contribute to the development of liver failure. (medindia.net)
- Galactosemia - an uncommon hereditary condition which usually causes liver cirrhosis in infants is caused by increased levels of galactose, (which is a kind of sugar found in milk) in the blood because of deficiency of the liver enzyme required for its metabolic breakdown. (medindia.net)
- The liver plays a part in the metabolic process of breaking down proteins and fats for storage 1. (enzymedica.com)
- doses, where metabolic saturation occurs, supplies tested in the U.S. in 1982. (cdc.gov)
- The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized back to lactate. (wikipedia.org)
- The intensive consumption of ATP molecules indicates that the Cori cycle shifts the metabolic burden from the muscles to the liver. (wikipedia.org)
- In cases of severe toxicity, the patient may develop liver failure. (aappublications.org)
- Severe liver toxicity has also been reported. (wikipedia.org)
- The most severe effects of RMSF occur due to damage to the blood vessels, which become leaky. (encyclopedia.com)
- Severe neurologic signs, including coma have occurred with concurrent use of carbamazepine. (rxlist.com)
- So, what happens is, they continue their lifestyle and, at some point, develop later stage fibrosis, which can become severe cirrhosis, and a large portion become liver cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Many mushrooms can also cause severe liver damage. (news-medical.net)
- Although mild, this condition may lead to severe damage and even liver failure. (news-medical.net)
- There is severe cirrhosis that destroys the bile ducts that allow normal flow of bile thorough liver. (news-medical.net)
- Severe liver problems may occur. (webmd.com)
- The aim of this study was to assess the number and type of accident-related injuries in a population of adult patients with severe MH who live in specific institutions for the majority of the time and to establish the most appropriate accident prevention strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because of combined renal and hepatic failure, he was transferred to the Presbyterian University Hospital in Pittsburgh on his sixth day after heatstroke for possible liver and kidney transplantation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Liver transplantation may be necessary for patients whose liver failure does not resolve. (aappublications.org)
- Preventing such damage is relevant in liver transplants and essential to the success of organ transplantation in general, UNC researchers said. (news-medical.net)
- Engraftment occurs over the entire liver acinus upon transplantation. (pnas.org)
- Subsequently, he received a liver transplant with remarkable improvement in his mental status, although the rhabdomyolysis continued. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Between 400 and 500 children in the United States receive a liver transplant each year. (chw.org)
- However, transplanted livers typically incur substantial damage when blood flow is restored to the organ after the transplant. (news-medical.net)
- Use of nitric oxide after cold storage of the donated organ may help maintain normal liver function after the transplant, the study indicated. (news-medical.net)
- The researchers also want to determine if nitric oxide can be protective in an animal liver transplant model. (news-medical.net)
- The purpose of this study is to determine whether a slow withdrawal of immune system-suppressing medications is safe in two groups of subjects: those who receive a liver transplant due to HCV, and those who receive a liver transplant due to non-immune, non-viral causes of liver failure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The study will also look at whether slow withdrawal will help reduce the long-term side effects of immune system-suppressing medications and decrease the chance for HCV infection of the new liver in transplant patients with HCV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- These patients might become critically ill and require intensive care treatment, and maybe a liver transplant. (medindia.net)
- Sometimes a liver transplant is recommended as it removes the cancer and the underlying diseased liver - five-year survival after transplant can go up to 70 per cent. (tnp.sg)
- As a result of the scar tissue formed in the liver, blood flow becomes challenging, leading to an accumulation of toxins in the blood. (coursehero.com)
- Some people believe that liver stores toxins, when in fact, the liver filters toxins and stores vitamins and minerals. (perfectsupplements.com)
- The liver performs many essential functions, including the production of bile, regulation of plasma proteins and glucose, and biotransformation of drugs and toxins. (aappublications.org)
- Triple Anti-Oxidant Liver Formula, a Proactive Approach to Dealing with Environmental Toxins, is Now Available for a Complimen. (bio-medicine.org)
- Wyckoff NJ (PRWEB) July 30 2013 The liver is a decidedly unglamorous organ that quietly goes about its assigned task of removing toxins from the body to maintain/restore homeostasis. (bio-medicine.org)
- Breaking down these toxins creates byproducts that can also inflame and damage liver cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- Drugs or toxins harmful to the liver. (medindia.net)
- How does the liver get rid of toxins? (enzymedica.com)
- The second detox step combines toxins with amino acids so they can be removed from the liver through bile or urine 2. (enzymedica.com)
- Consuming toxins from our food and drinks will cause a long-term effect on our liver that can be reduced. (enzymedica.com)
- The liver functions by clearing the body of drugs toxins and poisons and metabolizing nutrients for use. (news-medical.net)
- The liver is strategically located between the intestinal tract and the rest of the body, making it a critical organ in the clearance of toxins and xenobiotics, including alcohol, that enter the portal blood. (hindawi.com)
- Liver toxicity is one of the greatest problems associated with the consumption of over-the-counter and prescription drugs. (bio-medicine.org)
- Among the prescription drugs that cause liver toxicity, the statins represent a great concern due to the widespread use of these cholesterol-lowering agents in our society. (bio-medicine.org)
- The liver is the primary site of alcohol metabolism and is therefore the major target of alcohol toxicity. (hindawi.com)
- Fibrosis (thickening of the liver tissue) then ensues. (verywellhealth.com)
- Prof. Yang and team tested their new method in mice with liver fibrosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and found that it could accurately detect these conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is 'the first robust detection of early and late stage liver fibrosis and early stage NASH in addition to heterogeneous expression of collagen by multiple imaging techniques,' write the authors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It's a revolutionary change for the field as the first robust detection of the early stage of liver fibrosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Most people do not believe they have liver fibrosis and don't want to change their lifestyle, and we cannot detect it early,' she says. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Background: The transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) governs bile acid and energy homeostasis, is involved in inflammation, and has protective functions in the liver. (wur.nl)
- It typically does not cause symptoms in the early stages, but it can cause health problems due to fat accumulation, inflammation, and scarring in the liver. (verywellhealth.com)
- A liver which has excess fat is also vulnerable to inflammation, scarring, decreased function, and liver failure. (verywellhealth.com)
- Autoimmune hepatitis where the immune system attacks its own liver cells causing inflammation and injury. (medindia.net)
- How does cirrhosis impact healthy liver function and what are the associated symptoms of this condition? (coursehero.com)
- Often, people who have fatty liver do not have symptoms until the condition progresses and liver failure occurs. (verywellhealth.com)
- Fatty liver is often detected incidentally before any symptoms occur. (verywellhealth.com)
- AIDS/HIV symptoms manifest long after the actual infection occurs. (medindia.net)
- What are the Symptoms and Signs of Liver Failure? (medindia.net)
- After an infection has occurred, the parasite may be carried by the bloodstream from the intestines to the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
- The infection occurs worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
- In patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), these medications may increase the risk of HCV infection in the transplanted liver. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A higher risk of infection seems to occur in individuals who spend time with dogs or who live near wooded or grassy areas. (encyclopedia.com)
- Long term infection with these viruses may even lead to liver cancer. (news-medical.net)
- Thereafter, he rapidly developed multisystem organ failure manifested as disseminated intra-vascular coagulation (DIC), liver and renal failure, and rhabdomyolysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In which organ does obligatory reabsorption of water occur? (reference.com)
- The gallbladder is a small organ located on the underside of the liver. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The liver is the largest internal organ in your body. (verywellhealth.com)
- Whatever we eat and drink has to pass through the liver, and it's the only organ that can provide fuel to our body when we haven't eaten in awhile. (chw.org)
- The liver is a vital organ. (chw.org)
- The liver is the first organ that comes into contact with enterally absorbed nutrients and xenobiotics via the portal vein. (aappublications.org)
- About 5,000 liver transplants are performed annually in the United States, and a key factor ensuring success is maintaining a healthy donor organ that can function effectively in the recipient. (news-medical.net)
- In order to prevent organ rejection, patients receiving liver transplants currently require life-long treatment with immune system-suppressing medications to prevent the rejection of the transplanted liver. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The liver is a dark, reddish-brown organ situated in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity. (medindia.net)
- The liver is the largest internal organ in the body, so it's safe to say we need to take good care of it. (enzymedica.com)
- The liver isn't your average internal organ. (enzymedica.com)
- More than any other organ, the liver enables us to benefit from the food we eat. (enzymedica.com)
- The liver is the largest solid organ in the human body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- What Diseases Can Occur When Having Unprotected Sex? (livestrong.com)
- context":"http:\/\/schema.org","@type":"NewsArticle","headline":"What Diseases Can Occur When Having Unprotected Sex? (livestrong.com)
- It can also occur in relation to common skin diseases, medicine reactions, and parasitic infections. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Fogel EL, Sherman S. Diseases of the gallbladder and liver. (medlineplus.gov)
- cirrhosis could inturn be caused by different liver diseases. (medindia.net)
- Vascular diseases like the Budd-Chiari syndrome can block veins of the liver. (medindia.net)
- Co-morbidities, health conditions, diseases, opportunistic infections and other clinical problems that sometimes occur in people living with HIV. (aidsmap.com)
- Polycystic liver diseases. (medscape.com)
- Chronic infections by viruses such as Hepatitis viruses (A, B and E) , Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus might eventually lead to liver failure. (medindia.net)
- These may range from common drugs like acetaminophen (fever remedy) that may lead to liver failure in overdoses. (news-medical.net)
- Typhoid, malaria, hepatitis or elevated temperature and bile emesis /fever due to a liver disorder, See typhus. (google.com)
- Hepatitis is the most common presentation, but every major type of liver pathology can occur. (aappublications.org)
- This burden on the liver could be lessened by avoiding or reducing exposure to herbicides, pesticides, pollutants, drugs & chemicals, hepatitis viruses, mycotoxins and myriad other toxic agents that enter our body. (bio-medicine.org)
- Thereafter the liver as a whole is inflammed and swollen, which gives rise to alcoholic hepatitis. (news-medical.net)
- Autoimmune hepatitis - This occurs when the body's immune system perceives the liver cells as foreign and attack it. (news-medical.net)
- Your child's doctor will first review your child's medical history and examine your child for signs of jaundice and an enlarged liver and spleen. (chw.org)
- Propoxyphene therapy has been associated with abnormal liver function tests and more rarely with instances of reversible jaundice (including cholestatic jaundice). (rxlist.com)
- Acute liver damage may manifest as jaundice, fever, nausea and vomiting. (news-medical.net)
- Other products of metabolism-substances that enter the body through other pathways and substances that are not extracted from the portal blood during the first pass-reach the liver by the hepatic artery. (aappublications.org)
- 25% of blood flows into the liver through the hepatic artery and the remaining 75% of nutrient-rich blood flows into the liver through the hepatic portal vein. (medindia.net)
- A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed the liver to be homogenous without focal abnormality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This rare condition can affect the heart, resulting in heart failure with breathlessness and ankle swelling, cause enlargement of the liver and spleen, resulting in swelling of the abdomen, and give rise to skin rashes. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- No. For the 2019-2020 influenza season, CDC and its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends annual influenza vaccination for everyone 6 months and older with any licensed age-appropriate influenza vaccine including inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) or live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) with no preference expressed for any one vaccine over another. (cdc.gov)
- Strawberry Moon lunar eclipse of 2020 occurs today. (livescience.com)
- Researchers have identified a naturally occurring compound in the brain, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), that can act to suppress binge alcohol drinking. (medindia.net)
- For example, if you live in a neighbourhood culture that promotes and supports heavier alcohol use then you might be influenced to drink more. (bio-medicine.org)
- From drugs and alcohol to unknown foreign substances, the liver helps filter and detoxify the materials not meant to be in our body. (enzymedica.com)
- When our bodies lose their liver cells, it becomes challenging for the liver to perform its regular functions. (coursehero.com)
- Cell theory states that all living organisms are made up of cells and that the cell is the basic unit of life. (reference.com)
- Isolated liver cell fractions from rats treated for 3 weeks with carbon tetrachloride revealed the major cellular source of MCP-1 mRNA to be fat-storing or Ito cells, with some expression occurring in the endothelial cell fraction. (elsevier.com)
- The researchers also discovered that nitric oxide exerts its protective effects by stimulating the liver cells to produce cell-signaling molecules - cGMP, which activates protein kinase G - required for other protective agents in the body to function. (news-medical.net)
- Our result suggests that cGMP analogues or other agents that elevate cGMP levels in liver cells may also induce this protective effect," said Lemasters. (news-medical.net)
- The demands on liver cells have reached unprecedented levels as a result of technological trends in the food and drug industries. (bio-medicine.org)
- Intertwined with the direct effect of statins on liver cells, is the effect of glyphosate residues on the metabolism of statins through the CYP 450 pathway," stated Gerald Bruno, Ph.D. founder of Ethical Alternative Products. (bio-medicine.org)
- The above added burdens on liver cells are only a fraction of the toxic compounds that must be detoxified and eliminated by the liver. (bio-medicine.org)
- Initially the liver cells swell up and there may be fat deposits. (news-medical.net)
- Besides, gingerol synergized the cytotoxic effects of DOX against liver cancer cells without influencing the cellular pharmacokinetics. (mdpi.com)
- On the other hand, if deactivation never occurs, or is incomplete, the numbers of activated T cells will inevitably increase along with attendant risks of immune dysfunction, including autoimmunity. (jimmunol.org)
- Instead of accumulating inside the muscle cells, lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation is taken up by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
- Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce insulin, which is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. (aidsmap.com)
- Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin normally (insulin resistance). (aidsmap.com)
- Fatty liver and diabetes share "insulin resistance" as their chief pathogenic determinant, underpinning the complex and bi-directional relationship linking the liver and diabetes," stated Bruno. (bio-medicine.org)
- Amebic liver abscess is a collection of pus in the liver in response to an intestinal parasite called Entamoeba histolytica . (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibiotics such as metronidazole (Flagyl) or tinidazole (Tindamax) are the usual treatment for liver abscess. (medlineplus.gov)
- Petri WA, Haque R. Entamoeba species, including amebic colitis and liver abscess. (medlineplus.gov)
- Treatment varies by liver disorder, but it can include dietary management, nutritional supplementation, medications and surgery. (chw.org)
- Primary biliary cirrhosis where the bile dusts get damaged and primary sclerosing cholangitis which is a progressive liver disorder. (medindia.net)
- Join us on March 1st at 12:00 PM EST for a Facebook Live Event on "Top 5 Tips: Advocacy for Eating Disorder Awareness and Treatment" with special guest - Kirsten Haglund. (eatingdisorderhope.com)
- 1 The newborn liver manifests many unique physiologic traits that are likely part of the normal developmental process and may predispose the liver in infants and children to the toxic effect of xenobiotics at levels that may be safe for the adult. (aappublications.org)
- The Pacific oyster Crassostreas gigas , like many other bivalve mollusks, is a filter feeder that consumes microphytoplankton, including toxic dinoflagellates when they occurred. (mdpi.com)
- This damage occurs when ischemic, or oxygen-deprived, tissue is re-introduced, or reperfused, to adequate blood flow. (news-medical.net)
- Drug induced liver damage - Some medicines may also damage the liver. (news-medical.net)
- Some drugs that lower cholesterol like Statins and Niacin also damage the liver. (news-medical.net)
- Some herbal drugs also damage the liver. (news-medical.net)
- The carbohydrates can be stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle and can also be converted to triglycerides in the liver and transferred to adipose tissue for storage. (ayurhelp.com)
- Reperfusion stress precipitates the death of the tissue, but our results suggest that the way we reperfuse the liver can reduce injury to it," said Dr. John Lemasters, professor of cell and developmental biology at UNC and senior investigator for the study. (news-medical.net)
- Increased levels of GABA in cerebral tissue and alterations in the activity state of the serotoninergic system occur as a result of nitrazepam tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
- Those were when the big events occurred, and then there were little events and connective tissue in between. (eonline.com)
- The decreased capacity of the neonatal liver to metabolize, detoxify, and excrete xenobiotics explains the prolonged action of drugs such as phenobarbital, theophyline, and phenytoin. (aappublications.org)
- Although the liver is responsible for detoxification, there are many things we can do to help further detoxify our bodies. (enzymedica.com)
- Why is it important to cleanse and detoxify our liver? (enzymedica.com)
- Liver cancer - Liver cancer may be primary, where it begins in the liver, or secondary, where it begins elsewhere. (news-medical.net)
- Primary liver cancer risk rises in people with liver cirrhosis. (news-medical.net)
- Inhalation - The primary route of Health effects are determined Long-term exposure of workers has by the dose (how much), the Vinyl chloride is a manufactured exposure for the general population and resulted in alterations in the liver substance, but it can be formed in the workers. (cdc.gov)
- HCC is the most common type of primary liver cancer. (tnp.sg)
- The statistics about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, are troubling. (tnp.sg)