Limb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Limb Salvage: An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Polydactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.AmputeesBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Amputation Stumps: The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Tibial Arteries: The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion: Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Amputation, Traumatic: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Notophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.WingSyndactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Foot Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Arteriosclerosis Obliterans: Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hand Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Diabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Abnormalities, MultiplePlethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Thromboangiitis Obliterans: A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle: A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy that can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. There are many forms (called LGMDs) involving genes encoding muscle membrane proteins such as the sarcoglycan (SARCOGLYCANS) complex that interacts with DYSTROPHIN. The disease is characterized by progressing wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of arms and legs around the HIPS and SHOULDERS (the pelvic and shoulder girdles).Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Inguinal Canal: The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Internal Capsule: WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Triturus: A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Foot Ulcer: Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
It also occurs secondary forests and shade coffee plantations. While a common species, it is threatened by habitat loss, and ... Some individuals have dark limb bars. The iris is gold or copper-colored. Its natural habitats are steep, rocky streams, ...
... dislocated limbs; starvation; serving of food contaminated with human and animal feces; and medical neglect of infections and ... tropical disease occurred. These details are revealed in famous accounts by McCain (Faith of My Fathers), Denton, Alvarez, Day ...
Brute physical mistreatment of prisoners was rarer than in other camps, but did occur to some Plantation prisoners. The camp ... dislocated limbs; starvation; serving of food contaminated with human and animal feces; and medical neglect of infections and ... maintained in 2000 that no torture had occurred in the POW camps. Tin stated that there were "a few physical hits like a slap ... tropical disease occurred. These details are revealed in accounts by McCain (Faith of My Fathers), Denton, Alvarez, Day, Risner ...
Limited regeneration of limbs occurs in most fishes and salamanders, and tail regeneration takes place in larval frogs and ... Salamander limb regeneration occurs in two main steps. First, the local cells dedifferentiate at the wound site into progenitor ... Once the limb skeleton has developed regeneration does not occur (Xenopus can grow a cartilaginous spike after amputation). ... Limb regeneration in salamanders occurs in two major steps. First, adult cells de-differentiate into progenitor cells which ...
Many types of changes to a body occur after death. Some of those that can be used to determine the post mortem interval are: ... stiffening of limbs; Forensic entomology - insect (especially blowfly) activity on the corpse; Vitreous humour changes - eye ...
Though variable limb thickness is assumed; over time, limb rotation and limb length become the dominant mechanisms for ... Detachment folding occurs as strain imposed on a mechanically weak layer or incompetent unit, such as shale or salt, or at the ... to limb rotation and limb lengthening. Though many models have been developed to help explain the kinematic evolution of single ... mechanical stratigraphy parameter limb lengthening, limb rotation, area balancing and anticlinal and synclinal deflection, to ...
It occurs most commonly in the cervical and thoracolumbar regions. Signs include back pain, hind limb weakness, and paralysis. ... Most commonly the narrowing occurs at the pulmonary valve but it can also occur below the valve (subvalvular) or above the ... Canine cognitive dysfunction is a progressive disease occurring in older dogs, which is similar to the dementia which occurs in ... Fly strike dermatitis occurs at the tip and folds of the ear in dogs. It is caused by bites of the stable fly, Stomoxys ...
Inter-limb angles are generally 60 degrees or less. Chevron folding preferentially occurs when the bedding regularly alternates ... Therefore, the inter-limb angle, rapidly decreasing as a function of time given larger angles begins to stabilize as the angle ... When inter-limb angles approach 60 degrees, frictional forces limit simple shear and flow deformation in less competent layers ... Chevron folds are a structural feature characterized by repeated well behaved folded beds with straight limbs and sharp hinges ...
The limbs have faint brown bars. The venter is white. Its natural habitat is cloud forest at elevations of 1,300-2,160 m (4,270 ... It occurs in low vegetation near streams. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by agriculture, logging, and human settlement ...
Limb and chest wall abnormalities sometimes occur with the syndrome. People with Möbius syndrome have normal intelligence, ... Other symptoms that sometimes occur with Möbius syndrome are: Limb abnormalities-clubbed feet, missing fingers or toes Chest- ... occurs without associated limb abnormalities. The use of drugs and a traumatic pregnancy may also be linked to the development ... There could be many reasons that a vascular disruption leading to Möbius syndrome might occur. Most cases do not appear to be ...
The stiffness begins in one limb and remains most prominent there. Sphincter and brainstem issues often occur with stiff-limb ... These spasms primarily occur in the proximal limb and axial muscles. There are co-contractions of agonist and antagonist ... Variants of the condition, such as stiff-limb syndrome which primarily affects a specific limb, are often seen. SPS was first ... SPS occurs in about one in a million people and is most commonly found in middle-aged people. A small minority of patients have ...
The posterior portion is considered part of the parietal lobe and deals with somatosensory of the distal limbs. While the ... Damage of paracentral lobule occurs from occlusion of anterior cerebral artery. Characteristic manifestations include: ... Contralateral lower limb muscle weakness Urinary incontinence Animation. Paracentral lobule is shown in red. Medial view of a ...
This may occur in Cyanide poisoning. If oxygen delivery to cells is insufficient for the demand (hypoxia), electrons will be ... For this reason, symptoms are worse when a limb is used. Pain may also be felt as a result of increased hydrogen ions leading ... Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to ... Accidental death has occurred in cases where concentrations of nitrogen in controlled atmospheres, or methane in mines, has not ...
... occurs on lateritic rises from Eneabba in the north to Katanning in the south. Much of its distribution roughly ... Flowers are golden or reddish pink, with a greenish cream limb. After flowering, heads can bear up to 5 follicles each. ... It occurs on lateritic rises from Eneabba to Katanning in the state's Southwest Botanic Province. With large pinnatifid leaves ... Inflorescences occur on short lateral branchlets; this species bears a great many inflorescences, often carrying an ...
Fat loss tends to affect the lower limbs and buttocks. Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia occur. Calf muscular ... Cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy may occur rarely. Xanthoma and nail changes may occur. Type 3 is due to mutations in the ... Fat is then gradually lost in is the limbs and trunk. Fat may accumulate around the face and between the shoulder blades. ... Fat loss is confined to the limbs and mostly in the distal parts. Central obesity may be present. Complications include ...
Gangrene of limbs can occur in meningococcal disease. Severe meningococcal and pneumococcal infections may result in ... These occur in about 15% of survivors. Some of the hearing loss may be reversible. In adults, 66% of all cases emerge without ... Meningitis may occur as the result of several non-infectious causes: spread of cancer to the meninges (malignant or neoplastic ... Meningococcal disease occurs in epidemics in areas where many people live together for the first time, such as army barracks ...
A limb anomaly is called a dysmelia. These include all forms of limbs anomalies, such as amelia, ectrodactyly, phocomelia, ... pyloric stenosis occurs more often in males while congenital hip dislocation is four to five times more likely to occur in ... When multiple effects occur in a specified order, it is known as a sequence. When the order is not known, it is a syndrome. ... Malformations often occur in the first trimester. A dysplasia is a disorder at the organ level that is due to problems with ...
The limbs are relatively long. There is a reddish dorsal stripe; some individuals have an ornate pattern where the dorsolateral ... It is an arboreal species typically occurring in the leaf axils of bromeliads. It tolerates some habitat degradation provided ...
These holes occur as result of a falling tree or large limb. The ecologist who developed this definition used two meters ... However, it must be caused by a tree or a large limb. For example, a field would not be considered a treefall gap. Tree falls ...
The aperture : A substantial varix stretches a free limb over the mouth. Beneath it are six small tubercles. On the inner lip ... This marine genus is endemic to Australia and occurs off Queensland WoRMS (2009). Eucithara monochoria Hedley, 1922. In: ...
Its limbs are more or less distinctly cross-barred; the lower parts are uniformly whitish. Males are without vocal sacs. Their ... a dark cross-band occurs between the eyes; a black band is found along the canthus rostralis, and a black temporal spot is seen ...
Genus characteristics include long limbs and toes with well-developed lamellae. Some webbing occurs on the hind limbs and toes ...
It can also occur in secondary growth and plantations. It is diurnal and terrestrial. Adult frogs are often found by rocky ... The limbs are usually mottled with yellow-greenish yellow. The ventral surfaces are mottled with extensive black pigment, often ... Phyllobates lugubris is sometimes present in the pet trade, with some illegal collection occurring. It is listed in the CITES ...
Rounded dark spots occur on the back and sides; a light spot is seen on each eardrum. The male has larger fore limbs than the ...
... occurs in areas such as in the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic where several surface currents meet. We also ... It is the sinking limb of a convection cell. Upwelling is the opposite process and together these two forces are responsible in ... Downwelling occurs at anti-cyclonic places within the ocean where warm rings are spinning clockwise creating surface ... Another way that downwelling can occur is by the wind driving the sea towards the coastline. Regions that have downwelling have ...
... and from the brachialis occasionally occur. ... Muscles of the upper limb. Hidden categories: *Articles with ...
... is a type of sleep disorder which involves involuntary movements of the limbs or legs. PLMD is considered to be a sleep ... Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Definition Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) ... Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Epidemiology. PLMD occurs in almost 4% of adults, or people aged between 15 and 100. It is more ... It often occurs alongside restless legs syndrome (80%).. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Causes. PLMD can be either primary or ...
Lymphedema may complicate the condition and contribute to the limb enlargement. Rarely, the affected limb may show atrophy ... The trait would only be expressed when a somatic mutation occurred in the normal allele at an early stage of embryogenesis, ... Limb-lengthening may present initially as gait disturbance. If the head is affected then the syndrome may cause macrocephaly ... Varicosities and limb hypertrophy are not always present at birth and may take several years to manifest. Abnormal veins and ...
Syndactyly Does Not Occur Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Arteriosclerosis, Peripheral Vascular Disease, ... 3706 1 Equal limb pain and equal functional outcomes 2 Improved limb pain and improved functional outcomes 3 Worsened limb pain ... 4,406 Possible Causes for Intermittent Claudication, Limb Pain, Syndactyly Does Not Occur * Arteriosclerosis ... Differential diagnoses, possible causes and diseases for Intermittent Claudication, Limb Pain, Syndactyly Does Not Occur listed ...
Mauch Plus Occur Lower Limb Prosthesis, 3R95 Ottobock Leichtkniegelen Lower Limb Prosthesis, 3R78 Ottobock Kniegelenk Lower ... Limb Prosthesis and Genium Ottobock Lower Limb Prosthesis offered by Saket Ortho Rehab International Private Limited, Nagpur, ... Lower Limb Prosthesis. Pioneers in the industry, we offer mauch plus occur lower limb prosthesis, 3r95 ottobock leichtkniegelen ... genium ottobock lower limb prosthesis, 3r106 ottobock lower limb prosthesis and 3r80 ottobock lower limb prosthesis from India. ...
Very few serious adverse events after a vaccination occur with another vaccination, a new study finds. ... Limb Swelling: Among 98 children who had experienced extensive limb swelling after the fourth dose of DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus ... Many things may occur after a vaccination, immediately or within a few days or weeks, that are not related to the vaccine at ... These re-occurring events "were generally less severe or equally severe compared with the initial episode," wrote a group of ...
Limbs,&,Things:,Improving,Endoscopic,Performance,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current ... Sciatica occurs when ... (Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... CitiDent and San Francisco ... using cutting-edge ... Limbs & Things Sets New Benchmark for Obstetrical Task Trainers with PROMPT Flex. 6. Cast Covers Brand Transforms Broken Limbs ... On the Limbs & Things booth #105 at SAGES, delegates will be able to both see and try the product firsthand with the use of a ...
occurs in some mice. (MGI Ref ID J:38381). Genotype: Gli3Xt-J/Gli3+. involves: C3H * CD-1. limbs/digits/tail phenotype. * ... limbs/digits/tail phenotype. *polydactyly*12% with unilateral anterior polydactyly involving the hind limbs only ... limbs/digits/tail phenotype. *polydactyly*similar to the phenotype seen in Gli3Xt-J Gas1tm2Fan double homozygotes ... limbs/digits/tail phenotype. *abnormal embryonic autopod plate morphology*at E12, mutant embryos show a widening in the ...
Upper limb amelia occurs slightly more often than lower limb amelia.. Amelia is often associated with other anomalies. The most ... Q71.0 Congenital complete absence of upper limb(s); amelia of upper limb. Q72.0 Congenital complete absence of lower limb(s); ... Q71.0 Congenital complete absence of upper limb(s); amelia of upper limb. Q72.0 Congenital complete absence of lower limb(s); ... Cases with limb-body wall complex defects should not be included as amelia. Limb-body wall spectrum defects include transverse ...
Background In a prior randomized phase II trial comparing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with four different doses ... No mortality or systemic toxicity occurred. Local toxicity (Wieberdink) attained grade 2 (16 patients), 3 (5 patients), and 4 ( ... Fifty tumor necrosis factor-based isolated limb perfusions for limb salvage in patients older than 75 years with limb- ... Local Recurrence Rate Limb Salvage Spin Echo Isolate Limb Perfusion Local Toxicity These keywords were added by machine and not ...
Visits will occur monthly. However, at the discretion of the PI, subjects may not be required to return monthly. These subjects ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Muscular Dystrophy Limb-girdle Muscular Dystrophy Limb-girdle Muscular ... Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2E Recruitment Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle. Sarcoglycanopathies. Muscular Disorders, Atrophic. Muscular Diseases. Musculoskeletal ...
Blister occurs annually :- Bufo.. Blisters, bluish, filled with red or yellow fluid (panaritium chilblains) :- Lyc. ...
In most cases, it occurs in the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs. By admin July 1, 2019 Uncategorized 0 Comments ... HomeUncategorizedIn most cases, it occurs in the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs ...
Limb ischemia. An arterial thrombus or embolus can also form in the limbs, which can lead to acute limb ischemia. ... Arterial embolism occurs when clots then migrate downstream, and can affect any organ. ... Creager, Mark A.; Kaufman, John A.; Conte, Michael S. (7 June 2012). "Acute Limb Ischemia". New England Journal of Medicine. ... Thrombosis may occur in veins (venous thrombosis) or in arteries (arterial thrombosis). Venous thrombosis leads to congestion ...
Polydactyly and Limb Duplication Occurring Naturally in the Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum ...
muscles.LIMBS.ppt - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides ... Femoral Hernia: It occurs when the intestine enters. the canal carrying the femoral artery into the upper. thigh.. Femoral ... lower limbs. Amounts of the muscles of upper limbs is bigger. Volum and weight of the muscles is bigger at the lower limbs. ... of the limbs. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. Development of the limb muscles. Peculiarities of the limb muscles. Auxiliary apparatus of the ...
Edema (tissue swelling) occurs when: Filtration > Reabsorption + Lymph Flow. Three Causes of Edema. 1) Increased capillary ... Depending on the location of an occluded vein, total limb resistance (and therefore total limb flow) may or may not change ... Reduced blood flow to one region of the limb when blood flow increases to another region. What causes it?. Requires multiple ... Study Limb Circulation flashcards from Michelle Sergi ... Occurs during exercise or when vasodilator drugs are ...
Upper limb spasticity occurs when your muscles are constantly shortened and stiff, causing spasms. Learn about the symptoms and ... Upper limb spasticity can occur from damage to the bones (vertebra) in your neck. This is known as a cervical injury. ... The most common causes of upper limb spasticity in adults are:. *Stroke. Most strokes occur when a blocked artery prevents ... Upper limb spasticity occurs when your arm muscles are constantly shortened and stiff. The contracted muscles trigger abrupt ...
The blood poisoning occurs when large amounts of bacteria enter the bloodstream. ... The toddler has already had four rounds of prosthetic limbs fittedCredit: Barcroft Media. Born a healthy baby girl, at the age ... Doctors were forced to amputate all four of Harmonies limbs, after septicaemia ravaged her little bodyCredit: Barcroft Media. ... A BRAVE toddler who lost all her limbs to the deadly brain bug meningitis is able to feed herself for the first time - thanks ...
The majority of thrombotic events occur in the deep venous system of the lower limbs, but they also have been documented ... ML, 68 years old, came to our attention after a long diagnostic iter for neurological paresthesias in the lower limbs and ... In this disease, arterial thrombosis occurs mainly in the brain. Peripheral arteries are affected less frequently. Thrombosis ... When venous or arterial thrombotic events occur in patients who do not have obvious risk factors, or in which recurrent ...
Make research projects and school reports about artificial limb easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about artificial limb at Encyclopedia.com. ... resulting from problems that occur while a baby grows in the ... Artificial Limb and Joint Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Artificial limb and joint. A limb or joint lost ... A myoelectric limb moves when it receives electrical impulses from nerves in the stump of the limb. Modern artificial limbs ...
The earliest descriptions of limb-girdle weakness are ascribed to Leyden and Möbius in 1876 and 1879, respectively. They ... 24] Scoliosis occurred rarely, but lumbar lordosis was present in as many as 70-80% of patients. The inheritance pattern is ... Autosomal Dominant Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. The classification of these relatively uncommon disorders ranges from limb- ... This form is characterized by symmetrical, proximal lower limb weakness, followed by upper limb involvement. The disease begins ...
Sore and swollen limbs. When ticks feast, they suck blood out of a particular area. On dogs, this typically occurs in their ... The effects of tick bites frequently occur between May and October, when ticks are most prevalent. ... limbs. Reduced blood in an area can lead to general tenderness and increased swelling. ...
Breathing problems may occur as the diaphragm, the main breathing muscle, deteriorates. There may be a shortage of breath, even ... Movement in affected limbs becomes more difficult.. *Limb muscles may become abnormally stiff. ...
Movements of the limbsPeriodicAmputationsMusclesProstheticMovementsAxolotl limb regenerationTetrapod limbPeripheralParts of the limbSensationsDisordersPLMDAmputeeAmputeesWhole limbCongenitalSpinalExternal genitaliaIntermittent ClaudicationSpasticityMuscular DystrophyPerfusionMalformationNumbnessComplicationsHindNerveSymptomFingersUlcersPainReorganizationVertebrateArmsBudsSalvagePeopleTumorTypically occurs
- The term "Periodic" points to the repetitive and rhythmic motion of the legs that occur in about every 20 to 40 seconds. (primehealthchannel.com)
- Another condition that is often observed alongside periodic limb movement disorder is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (primehealthchannel.com)
- To identify the prevalence of diabetes-related lower-limb amputations and its regional variations in Australia. (mja.com.au)
- Analysis of the National Hospital Morbidity Database of all hospital separations for the ICD codes 84.10-84.19 (lower-limb amputations) and 250.0-250.9 (diabetes and its complications) for the financial years 1995-96 to 1997-98. (mja.com.au)
- Number of lower-limb amputations in people with diabetes mellitus in Australia, and in each State and Territory. (mja.com.au)
- 7887 diabetes-related lower-limb amputations were reported during the study period, with a mean ± SD of 2629 ± 47 per year. (mja.com.au)
- The National Diabetic Foot Disease Management Program, as part of the National Diabetes Strategy and Implementation Plan, 4 has called for a 50% reduction in lower-limb amputations by the year 2005. (mja.com.au)
- 4 The aim of my study was to identify the prevalence of diabetes-related lower-limb amputations in Australia, as well as variations among States and Territories. (mja.com.au)
- A total of 7887 diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (68.2% in men) were recorded as occurring in the three-year period, with an annual mean of 2629 ± 47 (SD) ( Box 1 ). (mja.com.au)
- An approximately 2-fold increased risk of lower limb amputations associated with INVOKANA use was observed in CANVAS and CANVAS-R, two large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with type 2 diabetes who had established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or were at risk for CVD. (rxlist.com)
- Some patients had multiple amputations, some involving both limbs. (rxlist.com)
- Believe it or not, veterinarians have been performing equine limb amputations successfully for more than 40 years and, according to Vlahos, these should not be considered abstract or controversial procedures. (thehorse.com)
- Each year, approximately 200,000 non-traumatic amputations occur. (ajmc.com)
- It is supposed that muscles of the limbs are developed from the cells of the ventral myotomes which migrate into the mesenchyme bud of the limb. (scribd.com)
- Muscles which are inserted to the bones of free limb with both ends form the Autochthonous group of the muscles. (scribd.com)
- The third group is developed from the myotomes of the trunk and is inserted with one end to the bones of the limb forming the Trunkofugal muscles ( trapesium m., rhomboid mm., levator scapulae m., anterior serrate m). (scribd.com)
- At the lower limbs trunkofugal muscles are absent. (scribd.com)
- Trunkopetal muscles of the lower limb: greater psoas m., quadratus lumborum m. (scribd.com)
- Muscles of the upper limbs have small surface of attachment to the bones. (scribd.com)
- Upper limb spasticity occurs when your arm muscles are constantly shortened and stiff. (familydoctor.org)
- It occurs in the area of your brain that controls your muscles. (familydoctor.org)
- Myoelectricity involves using electrical signals from the patient's arm muscles to move the limb. (encyclopedia.com)
- the muscles of the affected limb were relaxed, and the limb was neither warm nor painful at palpation. (frontiersin.org)
- In many cases, affected individuals develop progressive stiffening or tightening of muscles in the limbs (progressive asymmetric rigidity). (rarediseases.org)
- A BRAVE toddler who lost all her limbs to the deadly brain bug meningitis is able to feed herself for the first time - thanks to a new prosthetic arm. (thesun.co.uk)
- The twentieth century has seen the greatest advances in prosthetic limbs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Materials such as modern plastics have yielded prosthetic devices that are strong and more lightweight than earlier limbs made of iron and wood. (encyclopedia.com)
- The most exciting development of the twentieth century has been the development of myoelectric prosthetic limbs. (encyclopedia.com)
- In recent years computers have been used to help fit amputees with prosthetic limbs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Eighty-five percent of private prosthetic facilities use a CAD/CAM to design a model of the patient's arm or leg, which can be used to prepare a mold from which the new limb can be shaped. (encyclopedia.com)
- Prosthetic limb manufacture is currently undergoing changes on many levels, some of which concern the choice of materials. (encyclopedia.com)
- Wearing a prosthetic limb might help the child functionally, but it doesn't make the limb deficiency disappear. (amputee-coalition.org)
- We identified ataxic movements such as intense trembling of the limbs and anaemia. (symptoma.com)
- Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is a sleep disorder characterized by rhythmic movements of the limbs during sleep. (medicinenet.com)
- The movement problems associated with AMRF syndrome typically begin with involuntary rhythmic shaking (tremor) in the fingers and hands that occurs at rest and is most noticeable when trying to make small movements, such as writing. (medlineplus.gov)
- The brief movements typically occur in the legs every 20 to 40 seconds. (childrens.com)
- One hundred thirty-six (136) adult subjects with RLS-associated sleep disturbance and periodic limb movements (PLM) were randomized from 23 centers in the United States. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Adjusted Mean Change From Baseline in Periodic Limb Movements Associated With Arousal (PLMAI) at Week 4/10 as Measured by Polysomnography Using LOCF [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 4/10 (representing the last week of each intervention period, i.e. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- PLMAI is defined as the number of Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs or involuntary jerks of the legs that cause a participant to arouse from sleep per hour of sleep). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Leg movements that involve one or both limbs. (webmd.com)
- The movements are rhythmic and repetitive and occur every 20-40 seconds. (webmd.com)
- The description of kinematics comprises fore- and hindlimb movements as well as sagittal spine movements including displacement patterns of limb segments, their contribution to step length, and joint movements. (biologists.org)
- The evolution of mammalian limbs is marked by the transition from a two-segmented, sprawled tetrapod limb to a three-segmented limb (for a review, see Fischer, 1999 ) and from lateromedial, undulatory movements to dorsoventral movements of the body axis ( Hildebrand, 1974 ). (biologists.org)
- According to Hildebrand ( 1985 ), sagittal spine movements occur typically in fast carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents. (biologists.org)
- It is the only movement disorder that occurs only during sleep , and it is sometimes called periodic leg (or limb) movements during sleep. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Periodic' refers to the fact that the movements are repetitive and rhythmic, occurring about every 20-40 seconds. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Movements occur periodically throughout the night and can fluctuate in severity from one night to the next. (webmd.com)
- However recent research has shown that people with a variety of medical problems, including Parkinson's disease and narcolepsy , may have frequent periodic limb movements in sleep . (webmd.com)
- Affected individuals are often unable to make voluntary, purposeful movements with the affected limb (apraxia). (rarediseases.org)
- Sudden, brief involuntary muscle spasms that cause jerky movements (myoclonus) may also occur. (rarediseases.org)
- A distinctively dynamic signaling microenvironment during the early stages of axolotl limb regeneration was accompanied by early myeloid cell recruitment. (pnas.org)
- Using these techniques, we have labeled and traced the PAX7-positive satellite cells as a major source contributing to myogenesis during axolotl limb regeneration. (pnas.org)
- Dr. Bufalino concluded that, above all, physicians need to be more aggressive with early screening and detection of peripheral vascular disease in patients with diabetes and treat them before they get to the point where their limb is in jeopardy. (endocrineweb.com)
- Numbness in only part of a limb can indicate peripheral nerve damage. (healthline.com)
- When atherosclerosis affects the limbs, this is called peripheral arterial disease, or PAD. (ajmc.com)
- The sense of reality is also strengthened by the wide range of sensations a phantom limb can have. (scientificamerican.com)
- Naturally, of all the sensations in phantom limbs, pain, which as many as 70 percent of amputees suffer, is the most frightening and disturbing. (scientificamerican.com)
- Phantom limb is the term for abnormal sensations perceived from a previously amputated limb. (encyclopedia.com)
- Pain may last up to 10 - 14 hours a day and can vary in severity from mild to debilitating The abnormal "phantom" sensations and pain are usually located in the distal parts of the missing limb. (encyclopedia.com)
- Nonpainful sensations may include changes in temperature, itching, tingling, shock-like sensations, or perceived motion of the phantom limb. (encyclopedia.com)
- Stump pain is often associated with phantom limb sensations and may be related in etiology. (encyclopedia.com)
- Restless legs syndrome is a condition involving strange sensations in the legs (and sometimes arms) while awake and an irresistible urge to move the limbs to relieve the sensations. (emedicinehealth.com)
- For years, psychologists attributed phantom-limb sensations to "wish fulfillment," a purely psychological condition. (technologyreview.com)
- The classification of these relatively uncommon disorders ranges from limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 1A to LGMD type 1F. (medscape.com)
- It often occurs with other sleep disorders , including restless legs syndrome , but the two conditions are not the same. (medicinenet.com)
- PLMD may occur with other sleep disorders . (emedicinehealth.com)
- Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is a movement disorder that occurs during sleep . (medicinenet.com)
- PLMD and RLS are both unconscious and uncontrollable needs to move the lower limbs. (childrens.com)
- What are the causes of Pediatric Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD)? (childrens.com)
- Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is repetitive cramping or jerking of the legs during sleep . (emedicinehealth.com)
- PLMD can occur at any age. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Armorers of the Middle Ages created the first sophisticated prostheses, using strong, heavy, inflexible iron to make limbs that the amputee could scarcely control. (encyclopedia.com)
- Sometimes, however, the amputee is sure the limb is stuck in some unusual position. (scientificamerican.com)
- Veterinarians did not note any neuroma formation (i.e., abnormal growth of nerve tissue that can cause pain), and 'phantom pain,' an unexplained syndrome described in human amputee patients, did not occur. (thehorse.com)
- The incidence of phantom limb pain is estimated in 50 - 80% of all amputees. (encyclopedia.com)
- Phantom limb sensation is more frequent and occurs in all amputees at some point. (encyclopedia.com)
- Studies have shown a decreased incidence of phantom limb syndrome in those born without limbs versus actual amputees. (encyclopedia.com)
- The comparison of the contributions of different segments to step length clearly shows the proximal parts (scapula, femur) to produce more than half of the propulsive movement of the whole limb at symmetrical gaits. (biologists.org)
- Fortunately, doctors are often able to remove the cancer without amputating the whole limb. (sharecare.com)
- Syndactyly is the presence of fused digits and may occur along with other congenital anomalies or as an isolated problem. (symptoma.com)
- Amelia is a congenital anomaly characterized by the complete absence of one or more limbs (see Fig. 4.36). (cdc.gov)
- Fortunately, we have a much better understanding of congenital limb deficiency now than in the past, and for peace of mind, I think it's very important to say that common day-to-day events do not cause limb deficiencies. (amputee-coalition.org)
- That being said, unfortunately, for the vast majority of children with congenital limb deficiency, we simply do not know why it occurred. (amputee-coalition.org)
- There can be a tremendous variation in the emotional impact of both congenital and acquired limb loss. (amputee-coalition.org)
- This fusion occurs in a cranial-to-caudal direction, and failure of this fusion leads to the congenital anomaly of cleft sternum. (medscape.com)
- online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) 225300), also referred to as ectrodactyly ( figure 1 ), is such a congenital defect in limb digit formation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The condition periodic limb movement disorder may be primary, having no known cause, or may occur as a result of conditions like diabetes , spinal cord injury , uremia, iron deficiency , and narcolepsy . (medicinenet.com)
- These processes of reorganization may occur in retained nerves in the amputated limbs, the spinal cord , or various parts of the brain, including the thalamus and the cerebral cortex . (encyclopedia.com)
- Spinal cord damage affecting pathways mediating sensation may also be associated with phantom limb. (encyclopedia.com)
- Salamanders have the remarkable ability to regenerate complex structures such as limbs, tails, retina, and spinal cord, along with some sections of the heart and brain, during any stage of their life cycle ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- In this study, we have established efficient CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene knockin approaches in the axolotl ( Ambystoma mexicanum ), which has allowed us to genetically mark two critical stem cell pools for limb and spinal cord regeneration. (pnas.org)
- These findings challenge the long-standing belief that the brain is immutable beyond a certain age and are leading researchers to develop new therapies for victims of phantom-limb pain and some spinal-cord injuries. (technologyreview.com)
- Such plasticity could be the key to potential therapies not only for phantom-limb pain but also other afflictions of the central nervous system as well, including spinal-cord injuries in which inflammation or pressure is blocking neural pathways. (technologyreview.com)
- Thus, the first therapeutic approach in these patients involves antispasmodic drugs orally followed by botulinum toxin type A injection (BTX-A). In this study, we study the efficacy of BTX-A and physiotherapy in lower limb spasticity due to ALS and no response to treatment with oral antispastic drugs. (mdpi.com)
- Specifically, this trial is recruiting individuals who are suspected or have been confirmed to have Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2E (LGMD2E). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The history of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy varies by type. (medscape.com)
- Mutations in all sarcoglycans, in dysferlin, and in caveolin-3, as well as mutations that cause abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan, can result in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. (medscape.com)
- In a prior randomized phase II trial comparing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with four different doses of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), no dose effect was detected for response, but systemic toxicity was far lower with low-dose TNF-α. (springer.com)
- Eggermont AM. Isolated limb perfusion in the management of locally advanced extremity soft tissue sarcoma. (springer.com)
- Isolated limb perfusion in primary and recurrent melanoma: indications and results. (springer.com)
- Grünhagen DJ, de Wilt JH, van Geel AN, Eggermont AM. Isolated limb perfusion for melanoma patients: a review of its indications and the role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha. (springer.com)
- Eggermont AM. TNF alpha in isolated perfusion systems: success in the limb, developments for the liver credits, debits and future perspectives. (springer.com)
- High-dose recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha in combination with interferon gamma and melphalan in isolation perfusion of the limbs for melanoma and sarcoma. (springer.com)
- Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor and melphalan for limb salvage in 186 patients with locally advanced soft tissue extremity sarcomas. (springer.com)
- Limb body wall complex (LBWC) is a rare fetal malformation of unknown origins. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, the extent of the SHFM malformation phenotype is highly variable, and inexplicably, zero to four limbs can be malformed in the same genetically predisposed individual in familial cases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- 7 SHFM1 locus aberrations affecting limb development without invoking mutations of the relevant DLX5 gene as the cause of malformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- What does numbness of limbs mean? (healthline.com)
- Numbness of limbs can cause various feelings in different parts of the arms and legs or throughout the limbs. (healthline.com)
- Numerous medical conditions have numbness of limbs as a possible symptom. (healthline.com)
- Women in their third trimester of pregnancy can also commonly experience tingling and numbness in the limbs due to body swelling that puts pressure on nerves. (healthline.com)
- When should I seek medical help for numbness of limbs? (healthline.com)
- How is numbness of limbs diagnosed? (healthline.com)
- Because limb numbness can be due to many factors, doctors often use a comprehensive workup to determine its cause. (healthline.com)
- Of special interest is where and to what extent someone is experiencing numbness of limbs. (healthline.com)
- How is numbness of limbs treated? (healthline.com)
- Treatments for numbness of limbs depend on the cause identified by your doctor. (healthline.com)
- If nerve damage occurs, it disrupts these signals, which can have several consequences, such as loss of sensation, numbness, or loss of movement. (ehlinelaw.com)
- Four unsuccessful attempts were performed, with the horse always returning to sternal recumbency keeping the left hind limb up. (frontiersin.org)
- At the fifth attempt, performed 120 min after the end of the general anesthesia, the horse stood up correctly but moderate ataxia and absence of weight bearing on the left hind limb were shown. (frontiersin.org)
- Occasionally, the horse flexed the affected hind limb in an exaggerated motion with marked abduction. (frontiersin.org)
- [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Chemical lumbar sympathectomy for lower limb rest pain associated with thromboangiitis obliterans. (symptoma.com)
- [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] limb pain . (symptoma.com)
- Though characterized by a sharp pain at the site of the vein, it can prove difficult to diagnose, because it can occur at random. (wikipedia.org)
- Pare, a French surgeon, noticed this phenomenon in soldiers who felt pain in their amputated limbs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Pain, swelling, redness, noticeable changes in temperature and hypersensitivity (particularly to cold and touch) usually occur first. (justgiving.com)
- Complex regional pain syndrome occasionally may spread from its source to elsewhere in your body, such as the opposite limb. (justgiving.com)
- Thus, the team examined the fin development of catsharks, and revealed that there was a shift in the balance of anterior (thumb side) and posterior (pinky side) fields in their fin buds compared to that in mouse limb buds (Fig. 1a, below). (eurekalert.org)
- A key regulator protein controlling the balance of anterior and posterior fields of limb buds of tetrapods is Gli3. (eurekalert.org)
- This protein is expressed in the anterior part of limb buds, and regulates the expression of a number of genes providing cells with information about their position along the anterior-posterior axis. (eurekalert.org)
- Usually, this means that a person has an average-size trunk and very short limbs, but some people may have a very short trunk and shortened (but disproportionately large) limbs. (mayoclinic.org)
- While Pons had studied primates who had been deafferentated for 11 years, Ramachandran found similar evidence in people whose limbs had been amputated only four weeks before the experiments. (technologyreview.com)
- It is estimated that 1 out of 3 people with diabetes 50 years of age or older has PAD, yet millions of people with diabetes don't realize they are at risk for losing a limb until it is too late. (ajmc.com)
- Life Without Limbs is a 501c3 non-profit organization supported by friends like you who want to reach out to people around the world with the hope found in Jesus Christ. (lifewithoutlimbs.org)