A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A BRAIN-specific substrate for PROTEIN KINASE C that binds CALMODULIN and is involved in regulation of CALCIUM SIGNALING.
Terpenes of five units of HEMITERPENES, formed from geranylfarnesyl pyrophosphate.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.
A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An increase in AMP concentration, which occurs during strenuous exercise, signals energy demand. AMP activates glycogen ... The increased calcium availability binds to the calmodulin subunit and activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase. Glycogen ...
In mammals, the first calcium wave occurs within 1-4 minutes following fertilization, and cortical granule exocytosis occurs ... Similar to Protein Kinase C, calmodulin is activated by calcium, further promoting the cortical reaction. This calcium increase ... Cortical granule formation occurs during the early stages of oocyte growth. More specifically, in the human, monkey, hamster, ... Cortical granule exocytosis has been shown to occur directly following a calcium wave. For example, in the fertilized sea ...
It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection. Symptom onset occurs between one day to over two months ... The complexation of adenylate cyclase with calmodulin removes calmodulin from stimulating calcium-triggered signaling, thus ... Globally, at least 2,000 cases occur a year. The last fatal case of natural inhalational anthrax in the United States occurred ... It also occurs more regularly in Southern Europe than elsewhere on the continent, and is uncommon in Northern Europe and North ...
They can occur in any organ, but the most common forms occur in the uterus, small bowel, and the esophagus. Malignant smooth ... These bind to a molecule called calmodulin, and form a calcium-calmodulin complex. It is this complex that will bind to MLCK to ... Crossbridge cycling cannot occur until the myosin heads have been activated to allow crossbridges to form. When the light ... Smooth muscle does not contain the protein troponin; instead calmodulin (which takes on the regulatory role in smooth muscle), ...
Calmodulin also acts directly on gap junctions through its two Ca2+ binding sites. With the binding of Ca2+, calmodulin goes ... Typically the changes occur in the development and lifecycle of the connexin protein or in the gating and structure of gap ... Calmodulin (CaM) is a protein composed of 148 amino acids that plays both an intermediary and direct role in moderating gap ... This calcium modulation is also influenced by pH and calmodulin. Vj gating governs the size of the gap junction, and is able to ...
Binding of calcium causes a conformational change to occur in the protein. Calmodulin participates in an intracellular ... The distortion occurs in the bond lengths between the copper and sulfur ligands. The Cu−S1 contact is shorter (207 pm) than Cu− ... The blue color (597 nm peak absorption) is due to the Cu−S1 bond where S(pπ) to Cu(dx2−y2) charge transfer occurs. In the ... The enzyme occurs in Rhizobium bacteria. There are three components to its action: a molybdenum atom at the active site, iron- ...
Many of Ca2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin. Calmodulin ... These influxes may occur as a single increase in concentration as seen with fish and echinoderms, or may occur with the ... Contractions of smooth muscle fiber are dependent on how a Ca2+ influx occurs. When a Ca2+ influx occurs, cross bridges form ... Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated to release Ca2+ ions from intracellular stores, and/or when Ca2+ enters the cell ...
Calmodulins, specifically CML9, have appeared as important genes to interact with ILK1 and regulate potassium levels within the ... While interactions are known to occur between CML9 and ILK1, ILK1 Is not a direct phosphorylation target of CML9. With the ... ILK1 is also affected by presence or absence of manganese (Mn2+). Autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation occurred ...
This occurs because of the decreased length of diastole with positive chronotropy. With an increased intracellular Ca++ ... This activation of SERCA2a is indirectly by the phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN) by calmodulin kinase II (CAMK). Positive ... When a higher heart rate occurs, for example due to adrenergic stimulation, the L-type calcium channel has increased activity. ...
Similarly, GAD in plants binds calmodulin as well. This interaction occurs at the 30-50bp CAM-binding domain (CaMBD) in its C ... Trobacher CP, Zarei A, Liu J, Clark SM, Bozzo GG, Shelp (Sep 2013). "Calmodulin-dependent and calmodulin-independent glutamate ... However, unlike plants and yeast, GAD in E. coli does not require calmodulin binding to function. There are also two isoforms ... Baum G, Lev-Yadun S, Fridmann Y, Arazi T, Katsnelson H, Zik M, Fromm H (Jun 1996). "Calmodulin binding to glutamate ...
When damage occurs, endothelial collagen is uncovered and is bound by GPVI receptor on platelets. This interaction activates ... The short cytosolic domain interacts with calmodulin and Src kinases Lyn and Fyn. These Src kinases phosphorylate tyrosine in ... Unlike other tyrosine-kinase receptors, maximal activation of receptors occurs 18 hours after collagen stimulation. They ... a conformational change probably occurs, which causes cytosolic kinases to rotate to face each other, and their ...
When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. The Calcium/Calmodulin binding ... calmodulin binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • voltage-gated calcium channel complex. • integral component of membrane ... "Graded Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent coupling of voltage-gated CaV1.2 channels". eLife. 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.05608. PMC 4360655. ... When calcium ions bind to calmodulin, which in turn binds to a Cav1.2 channel, it allows the Cav1.2 channels within a cluster ...
Binding of calmodulin occurs between amino acids 420 and 437 in CERK at a putative 1-8-14B calmodulin binding motif. The ... CERK was later confirmed to bind calmodulin in the presence of calcium, indicating the calmodulin first binds calcium and then ... and 14th hydrophobic amino acids where calmodulin binds. Mutation of Phe-429 results in weak calmodulin binding, while ... This is thought to occur via C-1-P interacting with and blocking functionality of acid sphingomyelinase. This results in ...
Calcium influx into the cell through NMDA receptors binds to calmodulin and activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Dendritic spines occur at a density of up to 5 spines/1 μm stretch of dendrite. Hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons may ... These include calcium-dependent calmodulin, CaMKII (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II), PKC (Protein Kinase C), PKA ( ... This stabilization occurs due to a developmentally regulated slow-down of spine elimination, a process which may underlie the ...
This interaction occurs in calcium dependent manner after the Synaptic NMDA receptor stimulation and thus this prevents nuclear ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins which share similarity to calmodulin. The ... Calcium-binding protein 1 which is a neuron -specific member of the calmodulin (CaM) superfamily which modulates Ca2+-dependent ... Masino L, Martin SR, Bayley PM (2000). "Ligand binding and thermodynamic stability of a multidomain protein, calmodulin". ...
One such example is calmodulin. One molecule of calmodulin binds four calcium ions cooperatively. Its structure presents four ... Cooperative binding occurs in binding systems containing more than one type, or species, of molecule and in which one of the ... DAPK and EGFR calmodulin binding domains interact with different calmodulin-calcium complexes". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ( ... A classical example is the binding of the lambda phage repressor to its operators, which occurs cooperatively. Other examples ...
... and to rapidly restore a normal rhythm if they do occur. As the arrhythmias in CPVT generally occur at times when the heart is ... Other genes associated with CPVT include TECRL encoding Trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase-like protein, CALM1 encoding Calmodulin, ... This can occur in very young children, presenting as sudden infant death syndrome or 'cot death'. Approximately 30% of those ... These blackouts often occur during exercise or as a response to emotional stress-situations in which chemical messengers known ...
For example, in optical tectal neurons, dendrite arbor growth occurs approximately at the onset of retinal input. Many on the ... Among the signals studied in this system is CaMKII a calcium/calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase which is required for ... There is disagreement, however, as to how activity-dependent changes in synaptic inhibition might occur. Studies do agree that ... Injection of tetanus toxin into neonatal rats has shown that growth of apical dendrites occurs normally during signal ...
A conservative combination of several domains that occur in different proteins, such as protein tyrosine phosphatase domain and ... "calcium-binding domain of calmodulin". Because they are independently stable, domains can be "swapped" by genetic engineering ... Transitions between these states typically occur on nanoscales, and have been linked to functionally relevant phenomena such as ...
... induced NF-kappa B activation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase occurs through Akt activation associated ...
NOSs can be dimeric, calmodulin-dependent or calmodulin-containing cytochrome p450-like hemoprotein that combines reductase and ... Induction of the high-output iNOS usually occurs in an oxidative environment, and thus high levels of NO have the opportunity ... which is linked in the middle of the protein to a calmodulin-binding domain. Binding of calmodulin appears to act as a " ... In contrast, calmodulin remains tightly bound to the inducible and Ca2+-insensitive isoform (iNOS or NOS2) even at a low ...
Intersubunit interactions also occur between S1-S2 extracellular loops and S5-P and S6-P loops of the neighboring TRPV6 ... Arbabian A, Iftinca M, Altier C, Singh PP, Isambert H, Coscoy S (December 2020). "Mutations in calmodulin-binding domains of ... The conformational changes involved in channel opening are hinged around the residue Alanine 566 (A566) and occur in the pore- ... At high Ca2+ concentration, Ca2+ permeation occurs by a knock-off mechanism that involves the formation of short-lived ...
An interaction occurs between CaM and DWF1,[clarification needed] and DWF1 being unable to bind CaM is unable to produce a ... Calmodulin 1 (CALM1) Calmodulin 2 (CALM2) Calmodulin 3 (CALM3) calmodulin 1 pseudogene 1 (CALM1P1) Calmodulin-like 3 (CALML3) ... Calmodulin-like 4 (CALML4) Calmodulin-like 5 (CALML5) Calmodulin-like 6 (CALML6) Calmodulin belongs to one of the two main ... Calmodulin can also make use of the calcium stores in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Calmodulin can ...
It is known that IK channels are modulated by calmodulin, whereas BK channels are not. IK channels have shown a strong ... They also found that with blocking SK channels, current during after-hyperpolarization still occurred. It was concluded that ... This causes further hyperpolarization and closing of voltage gated calcium channels, relaxation can then occur. The knockout ... or may be through an additional calcium binding protein such as calmodulin. Knowing the structure of these channels can provide ...
Cutaneous vasoconstriction will occur because of the body's exposure to the severe cold. Examples of endogenous factors include ... The rise in intracellular calcium complexes with calmodulin, which in turn activates myosin light-chain kinase. This enzyme is ... Generalized vasoconstriction usually results in an increase in systemic blood pressure, but it may also occur in specific ... Once homeostasis is restored, the blood pressure and ATP production regulates.Vasoconstriction also occurs in superficial blood ...
... is a domain which occurs at the C-terminus of a family of eumetazoan proteins collectively defined as calmodulin-regulated ... In molecular biology, the calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated CKK domain (also known as the CKK domain) ...
This process occurs late in embryogenesis and immediately after birth over a time span of about 2 weeks in mice and 12 months ... Bähler M, Rhoads A (February 2002). "Calmodulin signaling via the IQ motif". FEBS Letters. 513 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1016/S0014- ... calmodulin and dynein promote meiotic spindle rotation independently of cortical LIN-5/GPR/Galpha". Nature Cell Biology. 11 (3 ... where it regulates spindle organization and rotation by interacting with calmodulin, dynein and NuMA-related LIN-5. One mouse ...
The transformation occurs at a catalytic site adjacent to a specific binding site of L-arginine. NO is an important regulator ... NO production by eNOS is dependent on calcium-calmodulin and other cofactors. Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) synthesize the ... occurs in the mouth, by commensal bacteria, an obligatory and necessary step. Monitoring nitric oxide status by saliva testing ...
This can occur within a lipid raft so as to compartmentalize and localize motility of filopodia in growth cones in developing ... In the case of neuromodulin, it was shown to bind calmodulin avidly. GAP43, the consensus choice for its designation, is a ... Gamby C, Waage MC, Allen RG, Baizer L (Oct 1996). "Analysis of the role of calmodulin binding and sequestration in neuromodulin ... GAP43 is also referred to as: protein F1 neuromodulin neural phosphoprotein B-50 axonal membrane protein GAP-43 calmodulin- ...
... occurring in up to 87.6% of cases, and persist for three to four weeks with a marked "crash" phase occurring during the first ... AMPH also increases intracellular calcium (Gnegy et al., 2004) that is associated with calmodulin/CamKII activation (Wei et al ... drug withdrawal - symptoms that occur upon cessation of repeated drug use. *physical dependence - dependence that involves ... This is known to occur on many genes including fosB and c-fos in response to psychostimulant exposure. ΔFosB is also ...
Definition of the calmodulin-binding domain and sites of phosphorylation by protein kinases A and C". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (41): ... phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in promoting spectrin-actin complexes and occurs in many cells, ... Calcium/calmodulin-regulated capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (14): 7986-91. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ...
In the animals, the protein occurs together with the green fluorescent protein to produce green light by resonant energy ... Such issues led to developments of other genetically encoded calcium sensors including the calmodulin-based sensor cameleon, ... and occurs even in the absence of air. This was remarkable because most bioluminescence reactions appeared to require oxygen, ... "Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin". Nature. 388 (6645): 882-87. doi:10.1038/ ...
Most of them occur at CpG sites. DNA methyltransferase is recruited to the site and adds methyl groups to the cytosine of the ... "MicroRNA-1 negatively regulates expression of the hypertrophy-associated calmodulin and Mef2a genes". Molecular and Cellular ... The hypertrophic changes that occur in cardiac muscles cells result from the required acetylation of histone tails via ...
N-linked glycosylation occurs as soon as the protein sequence passes into the ER through the translocon, where it is ... This calcium then interacts with calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases that in turn activate transcription ... Translation Attenuation and Cell Cycle Arrest by the PERK Receptor This occurs within minutes to hours of UPR activation to ...
Faux MC, Scott JD (1997). "Regulation of the AKAP79-protein kinase C interaction by Ca2+/Calmodulin". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (27): ... 1991). "Interaction of the regulatory subunit (RII) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with RII-anchoring proteins occurs through ...
LQT14, LQT15 and LQT16 are caused by variants in the genes responsible for calmodulin (CALM1, CALM2, and CALM3 respectively). ... Less dangerous arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation also occur, causing symptoms of heart racing or palpitations. However, ... Calmodulin interacts with several ion channels and its roles include modulation of the L-type calcium current in response to ...
Most diagnosis of the disease occurs when children present with kidney failure - usually between the ages of 10 and 14. There ... RPGR and calmodulin can be coimmniprecipitated from retinal extracts, and that these proteins localize to connecting cilia of ... is mutated in Senior-Loken syndrome and interacts with RPGR and calmodulin". Nat. Genet. 37 (3): 282-8. doi:10.1038/ng1520. ...
In most cases, the outlook for these patients is extremely poor, with death occurring within the first year of life. Other ... Benaim G, Villalobo A (August 2002). "Phosphorylation of calmodulin. Functional implications". European Journal of Biochemistry ... Maddux BA, Goldfine ID (January 2000). "Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 inhibition of insulin receptor function occurs via direct ... via ligand between monomers is predicted to occur (i.e. as [monomer 1 Site 1 - Insulin - monomer 2 Site (4/2')] or as [monomer ...
2001). "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)- ... palmitoylation is thought to occur near the N-terminus of the protein which would account for localisation of the protein at ... 2005). "Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B ...
This occurs in the following steps: (i) thioredoxin reductase transfers electrons from NADPH to thioredoxin via a flavin ... Other factors involved in the antioxidant gene expression include an induction of calmodulin kinase by increase in Ca2+ ... Regulation of the soxRS regulon occurs by a two-stage process: the SoxR protein is first converted to an oxidized form that ... Active species of oxygen naturally occur in aerobic cells and have both intracellular and extracellular sources. These species ...
The main electrical organ and the strong-voltage section of Hunter's organ are rich in calmodulin, a protein that is involved ... E. electricus has a vascularized respiratory system with gas exchange occurring through epithelial tissue in its buccal cavity ...
... by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (17): 17980-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... this means it was a sporadic mutation that occurred during division of the parents' gametes (meiosis) or fertilization of the ... immediately increases serine phosphorylation of the synaptic RAS-GTPase activating protein SynGAP by calcium/calmodulin- ...
Protein kinases identified thus far to phosphorylate cMyBP-C in the M motif are PKA, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II ( ... Other posttranslational modifications of cMyBP-C exist, which occur throughout the protein and are not thoroughly characterised ... naturally-occurring or transgenic animal models and more recently disease modeling using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)- ... "Phosphorylation of purified cardiac muscle C-protein by purified cAMP-dependent and endogenous Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent ...
RR is a stereoselective stain for pectic acid, insofar as the staining site occurs between each monomer unit and the next ... and Ca2+ binding proteins such as calmodulin. Ruthenium red displays nanomolar potency against several of its binding partners ...
... a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and potential antidementia agent Ibogaine - a naturally occurring ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases Laube B, Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, Kuhse J (March 1997). "Molecular ... 3,5-Dibromo-L-phenylalanine, a naturally occurring halogenated derivative of L-phenylalanine, is a weak partial NMDA receptor ... Memantine only blocks NMDA receptor associated channels during prolonged activation of the receptor, as it occurs under ...
Rellos P, Pike AC, Niesen FH, Salah E, Lee WH, von Delft F, Knapp S (2010). "Structure of the CaMKIIdelta/calmodulin complex ... Autophosphorylation may occur when a kinases' own active site catalyzes the phosphorylation reaction (cis autophosphorylation ... In eukaryotes, this process occurs by the addition of a phosphate group to serine, threonine or tyrosine residues within ... Following ligand binding, a conformational change occurs in the EGFR monomers. This leads to EGFR dimerization. Dimerization ...
The calmodulin antagonist, W7, has also been found to bind to cNTnC to act as a troponin inhibitor. All of these compounds bind ... The calcium sensitivity of the sarcomere, that is, the calcium concentration at which muscle contraction occurs, is directly ... In a typical EF-hand protein like calmodulin, Ca2+ binding induces a closed-to-open conformational transition, exposing a large ... Ca2+-binding helix-loop-helix motifs exemplified by proteins like parvalbumin and calmodulin. In cCTnC the two EF-hand motifs ...
Development can occur within 1-7 days after exposure. Inhalation, a rare but highly fatal form, is characterized by flu-like ... Like Bordetella pertussis, it forms a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as anthrax edema factor, along with ... Development occurs usually a week after exposure, but can take up to two months. Gastrointestinal, a rare but also fatal ( ... When DNA is replicated, mistakes occur which become genetic mutations. The buildup of these mutations over time leads to the ...
Calmodulin also increases the rate at which the pump extrudes Ca2+ from the cell, possibly up to tenfold. In brain tissue, it ... Three PMCA isoforms, PMCA1, PMCA2, and PMCA3, occur in the brain in varying distributions. PMCA1 is ubiquitous throughout all ... Ca2+/calmodulin binds and further activates the PMCA, increasing the affinity of the protein's Ca2+-binding site 20 to 30 times ... Schuh, Kai; Uldrijan, Stjepan; Telkamp, Myriam; Röthlein, Nicola; Neyses, Ludwig (2001). "The plasmamembrane calmodulin- ...
Fairly recently, LKB1 has been identified as a likely AMP kinase kinase, which appears to involve calcium/calmodulin signaling ... contains several naturally occurring cholesterol-lowering molecules known as monacolins. The most active of these is monacolin ... of native and protease-cleaved purified hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase by a calcium/calmodulin- ...
These mutations occur in the early stages of myeloid and/or lymphoid cell lines and are the cause of or contribute to the ... Ca2+/calmodulin-activated elements and pathways. The exact pathways and elements activated depend on the cell type being ... Amplification of FGFR1 also occurs in ~10% of estrogen receptor positive breast cancers, particularly of the luminal subtype B ... Somatic mutations and epigenetic changes in the expression of the FGFR1 gene occur in and are thought to contribute to various ...
... with cleavage occurring at the Phe=Ala bond. The Human Genome Project has revealed that more than a dozen other calpain ... calmodulin, and the cysteine protease of papaya, papain. Shortly thereafter, the activity was found to be attributable to two ...
This process occurs via G-protein coupled receptors called opsins which contain the chromophore 11-cis retinal. 11-cis retinal ... Hsu, Yi-Te; Molday, Robert S. (1993). "Modulation of the CGMP-gated channel of rod photoreceptor cells by calmodulin". Nature. ... Low intracellular Ca2+ make the Ca2+/Calmodulin complex within the cGMP-gated cation channels more sensitive to low cGMP levels ...
This type of addition of spines occurs in a specific pattern, meaning that spines added after one task will not cluster with ... Hippocampal synaptic metaplasticity requires inhibitory autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. The Journal ... Spine clustering may result in the amplification of synaptic inputs via diffusible molecular crosstalk that occurs near ... occurring within 5 hours, can be allocated to some of the same CA1 neurons that stored the first contextual memory. As a ...
In addition to calmodulin, guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTPgammaS) has been found to stimulate PIMT activity. The ... If there is any difference in the sequences between different organisms it occurs in the regions connecting the three motifs in ... It has been suggested that calmodulin may play a role in stimulating the function of PIMT, although the relationship between ... O'Connor MB, O'Connor CM (May 1998). "Complex interactions of the protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase and calmodulin ...
Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR (1997). "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent ... Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. GRCh38: ...
Most of the conserved residues in PKA interact with ATP whereas interactions of ATP with the nonconserved residues do not occur ... It exerts much less of an effect (Ki = 30 - 742 nM), if any, on Ca2+-calmodulin-regulated kinases, mitogen-activating protein ... Balanol is one of the most potent, naturally occurring inhibitors of protein kinases PKC and PKA. Balanol was originally ... While other interactions also occur, most of the polar and nonpolar interactions involve the benzophenone substituent of ...
When CapZ is inhibited by regulating factors, microfilament polymerization or depolymerization occurs allowing lamellipodia and ... CapZ is not regulated by calcium or calmodulin, as seen with other capping proteins, such as Gelsolin. A modest reduction in ...
5). Production of ISOC, by ryanodine plus caffeine, also occurred when cellular Ca2+ was maintained at 200 nM by Ca2+-EGTA or ... calmodulin, [Ca2+]i, intracellular Ca2+ concentration;. NINAC,. neither inactivation nor afterpotential protein;. ISOC,. store- ... Calmodulin regulation of light adaptation and store-operated dark current in Drosophila photoreceptors. Assaf Arnon, Boaz Cook ... Calmodulin Regulation of Ca2+ Release from Ryanodine-Sensitive Stores Is Essential for Light Excitation.. The LIC was rescued ...
S6A; +calcium). No cross-linking product occurs in the absence of calcium (Fig. S6A; −calcium) or when CaM is replaced by egg ... The calmodulin-binding domain from a plant kinesin functions as a modular domain in conferring Ca2+-calmodulin regulation to ... 3B; Calmodulin Target Database, CTDB), as well as both a so-called 1-8-14 and a 1-14 motif (Fig. 3C). To confirm these ... Molecular and biochemical analysis of calmodulin interactions with the calmodulin-binding domain of plant glutamate ...
Note that EP24.15 rapidly interacted with CaM but dissociation occurred slowly. The Kd between these two proteins was 0.52 μM. ... Interaction with calmodulin is important for the secretion of thimet oligopeptidase following stimulation.. Russo LC1, Goñi CN ... Overexpression of calmodulin in HEK293 cells is sufficient to greatly increase the A23187-stimulated secretion of EP24.15, ... We demonstrated that, in vitro, EP24.15 and calmodulin physically interact only in the presence of Ca2+, with an estimated Kd ...
It is possible that by this stage permanent damage has occurred to the muscles. In adult insects, the calcium leakage caused by ... 2002 Calmodulin UAS constructs and the in vivo roles of calmodulin: analysis of a muscle-specific phenotype. Genesis 34: 86-90 ... Drosophila Calmodulin Mutants With Specific Defects in the Musculature or in the Nervous System. Bo Wang, Kathleen M. C. ... Drosophila Calmodulin Mutants With Specific Defects in the Musculature or in the Nervous System. Bo Wang, Kathleen M. C. ...
Calmodulin (CAM) pull-down-analysen er en effektiv måde at undersøge samspillet mellem Cam med forskellige proteiner. Denne ... An unexpected error occurred. Please check your Internet connection and reload this page. If the problem continues, please let ... Pull-down af Calmodulin-bindende proteiner. Kanwardeep S. Kaleka1, Amber N. Petersen1, Matthew A. Florence1, Nashaat Z. Gerges1 ... Calmodulin (CAM) pull-down-analysen er en effektiv måde at undersøge samspillet mellem Cam med forskellige proteiner. Denne ...
Calmodulin (CaM) pull-down assay is an effective way to investigate the interaction of CaM with various proteins. This method ... An unexpected error occurred. Please check your Internet connection and reload this page. If the problem continues, please let ... Pull-down of Calmodulin-binding Proteins. Kanwardeep S. Kaleka1, Amber N. Petersen1, Matthew A. Florence1, Nashaat Z. Gerges1 ... Calmodulin (CaM) pull-down assay is an effective way to investigate the interaction of CaM with various proteins. This method ...
No charged amino acid was allowed (the probability that this occurs by chance is P , 7 × 10−4). Amino acids with neither the ... Purification of calmodulins and Cmd1p-Myo2p-binding assay. (A) Purification of wild-type and mutant calmodulins. Purified wild- ... In the cmd1-226 cells, polarized calmodulin localization was lost (Figure 3F). The loss of calmodulin localization is a ... Amino acid requirement at position Phe92 of calmodulin: In this study, we demonstrate that Phe92 of yeast calmodulin is ...
All cotton CAMTAs were localized in the nucleus and possessed calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) as identified computationally. ... The duplication time of GaCAMTAs and GrCAMTAs was around 13.4 MYA, which possibly occurred after their divergence from T. cacao ... Isolation of a calmodulin-binding transcription factor from rice (Oryza sativa L.). The Journal of biological chemistry 280, ... Calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 mediates auxin signaling and responds to stresses in Arabidopsis. Planta 232, 165- ...
Interacts with SPHKAP (PubMed:12080051). Interacts with CIB1, the interaction occurs in a calcium-dependent manner (PubMed: ... Interacts with ACY1 (By similarity). Binds to calmodulin. ... calmodulin binding Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi ... p>This subsection of the Sequence section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The ...
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta ...
Gitelman, S. E. and Witman, G. B. (1980). Purification of calmodulin from Chlamydomonas: calmodulin occurs in cell bodies and ... Wargo et al., 2005)] to detect calmodulin binding. However, in both cases CrKCBP does not bind to calmodulin in either high or ... Using anti-calmodulin antibodies that we previously demonstrated to be highly effective in precipitating calmodulin-containing ... Abdel-Ghany et al., 2005) as the AtKCBP calmodulin-binding domain. These changes may result in a weaker affinity for calmodulin ...
Thus, other approaches should be used to confirm that the identified interactions occur under physiological conditions. ... Scanning the human proteome for calmodulin-binding proteins. Xinchun Shen, C. Alexander Valencia, Jack Szostak, Biao Dong, Rihe ... Scanning the human proteome for calmodulin-binding proteins. Xinchun Shen, C. Alexander Valencia, Jack Szostak, Biao Dong, Rihe ... Scanning the human proteome for calmodulin-binding proteins. Xinchun Shen, C. Alexander Valencia, Jack Szostak, Biao Dong, and ...
The latter occurs in calmodulin. Other posttranslational modifications include acetylation. Collagen contains hydroxylysine, ... Most amino acids occur in two possible optical isomers, called D and L. The L amino acids represent the vast majority of amino ...
Calcium transients occur spontaneously in growth cones and are linked to preaxonogenesis events (Bentley et al., 1991; ... 1998) Characterization of a calmodulin kinase II inhibitor protein in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10890-10895. ... 2002) STO-609, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. J Biol Chem 277:15813-15818. ... 1993) Purification and characterization of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V from rat cerebrum. J Biol Chem 268:9143- ...
Interacts with ACY1 (By similarity). Binds to calmodulin. Interacts with SPHKAP (PubMed:12080051). Interacts with CIB1, the ... interaction occurs in a calcium-dependent manner (PubMed:19854831). Interacts with TRAF2 (PubMed:20577214). Interacts with ...
This conformational change is similar to that which occurs on the binding of Ca(2+)-CaM to target peptides. Two hydrophobic ... CALMODULIN. A. 148. Bos taurus. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CALM, CAM. ... Trifluoperazine-induced conformational change in Ca(2+)-calmodulin.. Vandonselaar, M., Hickie, R.A., Quail, J.W., Delbaere, L.T ... Preliminary X-Ray Data for the Calmodulin(Slash)Trifluoperazine Complex. Gehrig, L.M.B., Delbaere, L.T.J., Hickie, R.A. ...
Active calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been reported to take a critical role in the induction of ... Following stroke, a pathological neural plasticity termed postischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) often occurs over time [2 ... This increased Ca2+ binds with calmodulin to form a calcium/calmodulin complex, which in turn activates αCaMKII and promotes α ... "Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ...
2) Ca++ binds Calmodulin 3) Calmodulin-Ca++ binds & activates myoskin light chain kinase (MLCK) 4) MLCK phosphorylates myosin ... Relaxation & contraction can occur in response to stretching & filling to maintain constant pressure in smooth muscle, which ... An action potential could occur at the peak of the slow wave *THIS IS NOT AN ACTION POTENTIAL ... Smooth muscle can produce long tonic contractions that occurs for hours or days vs. rapid contraction & relaxation in skeletal ...
Calcium binds to calmodulin Calmodulin regulates MLCK activity MLCK phosphorylates the myosin head and contraction occurs ...
influx occurs rapidly. in smooth muscles, SR does release some calcium that triggers contraction, but most. enters through the ... calmodulin. cytoplasmic, calcium-binding protein. electrical conditions of a resting sarcolemma. outside positive relative to ... occur in small steps. according to size principle, gradations in muscle force are __ __ when large amounts of force are needed ... electrical event occurring only at neuromuscular junction. Ca2+. released by terminal cisternae into the sarcoplasm to bind ...
Activation of DAPK occurs via dephosphorylation of Ser-308 and subsequent association of calcium/calmodulin. DAPK is rapidly ... Reaction Buffer, DTT, Ca2+/Calmodulin Solution. Recombinant human DAPK1 (1-363) was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect ...
We demonstrated that postmenstrual symptoms occur in the premenstrual phase and cease postmenstruum in a rat model. ... b) Analysis of calmodulin (CaM) protein level (. , ). (c) Analysis of phosphorylated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (p- ... increase the levels of Ca-bound calmodulin (CaM), which in turn activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), ... Paeoniflorin, the Main Active Ingredient of Shuyu Capsule, Inhibits Cav1.2 and Regulates Calmodulin/Calmodulin-Dependent ...
Furthermore, Ca2+ loaded calmodulin activates Cx36 channels, which is unique for connexins. The NMR solution structure ... Furthermore, Ca2+ loaded calmodulin activates Cx36 channels, which is unique for connexins. The NMR solution structure ... Ca2+ loaded calmodulin, binding an overlapping site in the carboxy-terminus of Cx36. We demonstrate that CaM and CaMKII binding ... Ca2+ loaded calmodulin, binding an overlapping site in the carboxy-terminus of Cx36. We demonstrate that CaM and CaMKII binding ...
It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection. Symptom onset occurs between one day to over two months ... The complexation of adenylate cyclase with calmodulin removes calmodulin from stimulating calcium-triggered signaling, thus ... Globally, at least 2,000 cases occur a year. The last fatal case of natural inhalational anthrax in the United States occurred ... It also occurs more regularly in Southern Europe than elsewhere on the continent, and is uncommon in Northern Europe and North ...
When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. The Calcium/Calmodulin binding ... calmodulin binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • voltage-gated calcium channel complex. • integral component of membrane ... "Graded Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent coupling of voltage-gated CaV1.2 channels". eLife. 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.05608. PMC 4360655. ... When calcium ions bind to calmodulin, which in turn binds to a Cav1.2 channel, it allows the Cav1.2 channels within a cluster ...
The increased calcium availability binds to the calmodulin subunit and activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase. Glycogen ... An increase in AMP concentration, which occurs during strenuous exercise, signals energy demand. AMP activates glycogen ...
Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin- ... These phosphorylation events occur in almost every signal transduction pathway and provide regulatory points for therapeutic ... Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin- ... Crystal structure of the Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase in complex with the inhibitor STO-609. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Autophosphorylation of NtCaMK1 occurs when an autophosphorylation reaction was initiated for as little as 30 s in the presence ... cDNA encoding a calmodulin-binding protein domain similar to the calmodulin-binding region of type-II mammalian Ca2+/calmodulin ... Zielinski RE (1998) Calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49: 697-725. ... Snedden WA, Fromm H (1998) Calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and plant responses to the environment. Trends Plant Sci 3: ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... p>This subsection of the Sequence section describes the sequence of naturally occurring alternative protein isoform(s). The ... Calmodulin-bindingBy similarityAdd BLAST. 22. ,p>This subsection of the Family and domains section provides information about ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1B (EC:2.7.11.17). Alternative name(s): ...
  • Active calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been reported to take a critical role in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). (hindawi.com)
  • Functional plasticity of neuronal gap junctions involves the interaction of the neuronal connexin36 with calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). (frontiersin.org)
  • The important relationship between Cx36 and CaMKII must also be considered in the context of another protein partner, Ca 2+ loaded calmodulin, binding an overlapping site in the carboxy-terminus of Cx36. (frontiersin.org)
  • involves interaction of Cx36 with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). (frontiersin.org)
  • We previously showed that survival signaling in TNFα-treated, human THP1-derived macrophages (TDMs) has an obligatory requirement for constitutive Ca 2+ influx through a mechanism involving calmodulin/calmodulin kinase II (CAM/CAMKII). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In that instance we found that constitutive, non-regulated Ca 2+ influx couples to cell survival through a calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAM/CAMKII) axis [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inhibition of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) completely blocks the acute effect of NT3. (rupress.org)
  • Previous work has suggested that cell cycle resumption, but not cortical granule release, is mediated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII). (biologists.org)
  • This behavior is believed to be due to increased cell contractility downstream of calcium signaling, and is dependent on Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). (byu.edu)
  • CaMKII is a protein kinase that is activated by binding Ca 2+ /calmodulin, and is a known downstream component of calcium signaling. (byu.edu)
  • Kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein, KCBP, is a novel member of the C-kinesin superfamily first discovered in flowering plants. (biologists.org)
  • This family includes a unique kinesin with a calmodulin-binding domain referred to as kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP). (biologists.org)
  • The kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP) is a new member of the kinesin superfamily that appears to be present only in plants. (plantcell.org)
  • CALMODULIN, a highly conserved calcium-binding protein, has been implicated in Ca 2+ -mediated signaling cascades, including muscle contraction and neurotransmitter release ( C ohen and K lee 1988 ). (genetics.org)
  • Calmodulin is a highly conserved regulatory protein found in all eukaryotic cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One of the best characterized Ca 2+ -binding proteins is calmodulin (CaM), a highly conserved and multifunctional regulatory protein in eukaryotes. (wikiversity.org)
  • These phosphorylation events occur in almost every signal transduction pathway and provide regulatory points for therapeutic intervention [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Capillary electrophoresis of phosphoamino acids revealed that phosphorylation of NtCaMK1 occurs on Thr residues. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The increased rd1 phosducin phosphorylation coincided with increased activation of calcium/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II, which is known to utilize phosducin as a substrate. (mcponline.org)
  • Phosphorylation of a serine residue within a peptide encompassing CBS-1 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) abolishes calmodulin binding, and phosphorylation of the adjacent serine by protein kinase C appears to modulate this phosphorylation by PKA. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition, inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), which effectively raises MLC phosphorylation, can occur at a fixed cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration. (bmj.com)
  • Contraction is modulated in many striated muscles by Ca2+-calmodulin dependent phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, Ca 2+ loaded calmodulin activates Cx36 channels, which is different to other connexins. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, where calmodulin binds in ACVIII and how the binding activates this cyclase have not yet been investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The signal for eNOS activation is a transient increase in intracellular calcium, which activates the enzyme through binding of a calcium-calmodulin complex (Ca-Cam). (biologists.org)
  • An increase in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca 2+ leads to Ca 2+ -calmodulin complex formation which activates MLC kinase (MLCK). (bmj.com)
  • Calcium ions bind to an enzyme complex on myosin, called calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Activator Ca 2+ binds to calmodulin, leading to activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLC kinase). (biology-online.org)
  • Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer we have produced a novel biosensor allowing simultaneous determination of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) localization and its [Ca 2+ ] 4 /calmodulin-binding state in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, our results demonstrate a novel mechanism of direct inhibition of the calcineurin/calmodulin complex that may explain some of the known immunosuppressive effects associated with barbiturate treatment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here we test the hypothesis that calmodulin (CaM), a physiologic RyR binding partner that is lost during incorporation into lipid bilayers, is required for dantrolene inhibition of RyR channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • From the shift of concentration-response curves when corticosterone and ethanol were present in combination, the interaction between steroid stimulation and ethanol inhibition occurred in an additive relationship over the range of their effective concentrations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ER-type inhibition by cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin), and (c) direct activation of PM-type pumps by calmodulin. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This Go/Gi-mediated inhibition also occurred in the presence of a 500-fold molar excess of calmodulin over added G protein. (biochemj.org)
  • These results demonstrate: (1) that beta gamma subunits may not be completely released upon G protein activation, and (2) that inhibition of calmodulin-stimulated adenylate cyclase by beta gamma subunits does not appear to be mediated by a direct beta gamma-calmodulin interaction. (biochemj.org)
  • Smooth muscle relaxation occurs either as a result of removal of the contractile stimulus or by the direct action of a substance that stimulates inhibition of the contractile mechanism. (biology-online.org)
  • To test whether CrKCBP is involved in additional microtubule-based processes not observed in plants, we generated antibodies against the putative calmodulin-binding domain and used these antibodies in biochemical and localization studies. (biologists.org)
  • We have located two putative calmodulin-binding sites in ACVIII. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calmodulin specifically binds to the putative targeting site in a calcium-dependent manner. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Note: Assembly of the putative homotetramer occurs primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum. (antibodies-online.com)
  • As a consequence, it binds to calmodulin with higher affinity, becomes activated, phosphorylates its downstream substrate proteins, and mediates apoptosis. (genetex.com)
  • Several calmodulin-dependent enzymes, including protein kinases and protein phosphatases, have been studied in yeast. (genetics.org)
  • Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. (proteopedia.org)
  • DMI3 , a Medicago truncatula gene that acts immediately downstream of calcium spiking in this signaling pathway and is required for both nodulation and mycorrhizal infection, has high sequence similarity to genes encoding calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs). (sciencemag.org)
  • Gel overlay assay shows that a mutant calmodulin with the F92A alteration has severely reduced binding affinity to a GST-Myo2p fusion protein. (genetics.org)
  • Results: The presence of volatile anesthetics altered the Calcium 2 + -binding affinity of calmodulin in a dose-dependent fashion. (asahq.org)
  • At 0.57% (0.25 mM) halothane and 1.7% (0.66 mM) isoflurane, the affinity of calmodulin for Calcium 2 + relative to control was decreased. (asahq.org)
  • The interactions between guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins and the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin were studied using calmodulin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. (biochemj.org)
  • We have succeeded in creating mice genetically invcreasing the affinity of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This autophosphorylation, which occurs in cells at the basal state, lowers the affinity of DAPK for calmodulin and thus the kinase is inactive. (genetex.com)
  • This conformational change is similar to that which occurs on the binding of Ca(2+)-CaM to target peptides. (rcsb.org)
  • Trifluoperazine-induced conformational change in Ca(2+)-calmodulin. (proteopedia.org)
  • Vandonselaar M, Hickie RA, Quail JW, Delbaere LT. Trifluoperazine-induced conformational change in Ca(2+)-calmodulin. (proteopedia.org)
  • Chelating agents strip Ca 2+ from the calmodulin, reversing the conformational change that exposed the protein binding sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Random replacement and site-directed mutagenesis at position 92 of calmodulin indicate that hydrophobic and aromatic residues are allowed at this position, suggesting an importance of hydrophobic interaction between calmodulin and Myo2p. (genetics.org)
  • Conclusions: These data demonstrate a complex interaction of two hydrophobic volatile anesthetics with calmodulin. (asahq.org)
  • Calmodulin, an EF-hand Calcium 2 + -binding protein, undergoes a conformational shift when binding Calcium 2 +, exposing several hydrophobic residues. (asahq.org)
  • Functional dynamics of the hydrophobic cleft in the N-domain of calmodulin. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • CaM(1-77)) of Ca2+-loaded calmodulin (CaM) show that a solvent exposed hydrophobic cleft in the crystal structure of CaM exhibits transitions from an exposed (open) to a buried (closed) state over a time scale of nanoseconds. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Calmodulin binds proteins principally through their interactions with hydrophobic sites on its surface. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Remove free calmodulin from the sample by hydrophobic interaction chromatography in the presence of Ca 2+ on HiTrap Phenyl FF (high sub) or by ion exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q FF. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We have studied lethal mutations in the single calmodulin gene ( Cam ) of Drosophila to gain insight into the in vivo functions of this important calcium sensor. (genetics.org)
  • THE small calcium sensor protein calmodulin (CaM) is one of the major mediators of the complex interactions that underlie calcium regulation (see V an E ldik and W atterson 1998 for review). (genetics.org)
  • The cellular calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) likely participates in the desensitization of TRPV1. (rupress.org)
  • Calmodulin: a prototypical calcium sensor. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Calcineurin activity is regulated by the intracellular concentration of calcium and calmodulin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This novel architecture, in which the three lobes bind with three membrane associated proteins, and the location of calmodulin binding sites provide insight into how the protein 4.1R core domain interacts with membrane proteins and dynamically regulates cell shape in response to changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration regulate calmodulin in three distinct ways. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • When INOSITOL TRIPHOSPHATE levels are increased, an increase in the mobilization of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum or another intracellular pool occurs. (dailypeloton.com)
  • Briefly, signaling by Wnt-5a can trigger the noncanonical Wnt/Ca 2+ pathway, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca 2+ and activation of calcium-sensitive enzymes, such as calcineurin, and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-regulated kinase II ( 31 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. (nih.gov)
  • NO formation occurs via NO synthase, a Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent enzyme that transforms L-arginine into NO and citrulline ( 3 , 4 ). (wiley.com)
  • The binding of enzymes may be enhanced if the enzyme substrate is present and enzyme-substrate-calmodulin-Ca 2+ complexes are particularly stable. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Epigenetic control of gene expression lasts through multiple cell divisions without alterations in primary DNA sequence and can occur via mechanisms that include histone modification and DNA methylation. (stanford.edu)
  • Phylogeny was assessed using partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing, and mating type was determined by PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the fungus stimulates the expression of the calmodulin-binding protein gene Cbp60g, and this response is severely reduced in the rop mutants. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants. (wikiversity.org)
  • The calmodulin-stimulated adenylate cyclase ADCY8 sets the sensitivity of zebrafish retinal axons to midline repellents and is required for normal midline crossing. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To assess the functional significance of the binding of bovine brain beta gamma subunits to calmodulin, the ability of purified beta gamma and of beta gamma in unactivated and activated Go/Gi to inhibit partially purified calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase was determined. (biochemj.org)
  • Purified beta gamma was highly effective in inhibiting calmodulin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. (biochemj.org)
  • However, unactivated Go/Gi and preactivated Go/Gi inhibited calmodulin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity to the same extent. (biochemj.org)
  • Recently, a calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTA transcription factor family has been shown to play an important role in the plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Normally, PSP stimulates the protein kinase A- and so the ER Ca2+ release-, PTP stimulates the cell growth and differentiation and calcineurin will migrate to the cytoplasm for binding to the Ca2+ and stimulates the formation of Ca2+/calmodulin complex. (wikipathways.org)
  • Journal Article] Stabilizing cardiac ryanodine receptor prevents the development of cardiac dysfunction and lethal arrhythmia in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδc transgenic mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition, production of chimeric kinesins containing the calmodulin-binding domain have shown that this domain can act as a regulatory module in animal chimeric kinesins including N-kinesins that are plus-end-directed motors ( Reddy and Reddy, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclases also promote synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory via activation of cAMP-regulated protein kinase A (PKA) and the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which PKA phosphorylates on the regulatory Ser133 residue ( Shaywitz and Greenberg, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Smooth muscle does not contain the protein troponin , ( calmodulin takes on the regulatory role in smooth muscle) and caldesmon and calponin are significant proteins expressed within smooth muscle. (wikidoc.org)
  • It has a subdomain typical of serine/threonine kinases, a Ca 2+ /calmodulin regulatory domain, eight ankyrin repeats followed by two P-loop motifs and a typical death domain module. (genetex.com)
  • DAPK was found to be negatively regulated by autophosphorylation at Ser308 which is in the calmodulin regulatory domain. (genetex.com)
  • We demonstrated that, in vitro, EP24.15 and calmodulin physically interact only in the presence of Ca2+, with an estimated Kd value of 0.52 mum. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, a large number of calmodulin-binding proteins possessing diverse activities in vitro have been identified so far ( C ohen and K lee 1988 ). (genetics.org)
  • This minus-end-directed kinesin exhibits Ca 2+ -calmodulin-sensitive motor activity in vitro and has been implicated in trichome morphogenesis and cell division. (biologists.org)
  • These opposite neurochemical actions between ethanol and the steroids in vitro are consistent with glucocorticoid antagonism of ethanol-induced sedation reported to occur in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In vitro, EMT occurs in two steps. (byu.edu)
  • A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, regucalcin can inhibit the activity of Ca2+/calmodulin complex and the NOS. (wikipathways.org)
  • One of four intragenic complementing groups of temperature-sensitive yeast calmodulin mutations, cmd1A , results in a characteristic functional defect in actin organization. (genetics.org)
  • O hya and A nraku 1989 ), essential functions of yeast calmodulin can be regarded as the archetype of vertebrates. (genetics.org)
  • Two essential calmodulin targets have thus far been identified in yeast. (genetics.org)
  • First, ACA2p was expressed in yeast and shown to have a Ca 2+ and calmodulin-stimulated ATPase activity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We previously succeeded in systematic isolation of 14 temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutations by phenylalanine-to-alanine mutagenesis ( O hya and B otstein 1994b ). (genetics.org)
  • The most striking finding from systematic mutagenesis of calmodulin was that the mutations formed four intragenic complementation groups ( O hya and B otstein 1994a ). (genetics.org)
  • Thus, each complementation group of calmodulin mutations can be thought of as producing a functional defect by loss of interaction with different essential target ligands. (genetics.org)
  • CALM_BOVIN ] Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels and other proteins by Ca(2+). (proteopedia.org)
  • Calmodulin-like protein AtCML3 mediates dimerization of peroxisomal processing protease AtDEG15. (deepdyve.com)
  • Each group has a characteristic functional defect in actin organization ( cmd1A ), calmodulin localization ( cmd1B ), nuclear division ( cmd1C ), or bud emergence ( cmd1D ). (genetics.org)
  • Myosin forms crossbridges with actin (as occurs in skeletal muscle). (howstuffworks.com)
  • This kinase phosphorylates the light chain of myosin, and, in conjunction with actin, cross-bridge cycling occurs, initiating shortening of the smooth muscle cell. (biology-online.org)
  • In wild-type roots, P. indica stimulates the formation of F-actin bundles and this does not occur in the rop1 rop6 knockout line. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4), a serine/threonine kinase expressed in T cells ( 6 ), regulates the activity of several transcription factors including CREM ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Remove proteases as quickly as possible from the sample as the calmodulin-binding sites on proteins are frequently very susceptible to protease action (see page 54, Purifcation or removal of serine proteases, e.g. thrombin and trypsin, and zymogens ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Interaction with calmodulin is important for the secretion of thimet oligopeptidase following stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we identified a novel calcium-dependent interaction between EP24.15 and calmodulin, which is important for the stimulated, but not constitutive, secretion of EP24.15. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these data suggest that the interaction between EP24.15 and calmodulin is regulated within cells and is important for the stimulated secretion of EP24.15 from HEK293 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Calmodulin (CaM) pull-down assay is an effective way to investigate the interaction of CaM with various proteins. (jove.com)
  • The Calcium/Calmodulin binding to the C-terminal pre-IQ domain of the Cav1.2 channel promotes interaction between channels that are beside each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cDNA encoding a calcium (Ca 2+ )/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) from tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ), NtCaMK1 , was isolated by protein-protein interaction-based screening of a cDNA expression library using 35 S-labeled CaM as a probe. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Journal Article] 2.Mutation-linked excessively tight interaction between the calmodulin-binding domain and c-terminal domain of the cardiac ryanodine receptor as a novel cause of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The naturally occurring ATPase inhibitor protein from ox heart mitochondria was cross-linked to its binding site on the mitochondrial ATPase using 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylamino)propyl carbodiimide. (portlandpress.com)
  • Nevertheless, as expected for type IIB pumps, at least some plant homologs have calmodulin-dependent Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Third, a partial deletion of the N-terminal domain resulted in a constitutively active Ca 2+ -ATPase (i.e. calmodulin independent). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The calmodulin (CaM) -stimulated plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) plays a critical role in regulating [Ca2+]i. (ku.edu)
  • Calmodulin Sepharose 4B provides a convenient method for the isolation of many of the calmodulin binding proteins involved in these pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Calmodulin seems to regulate the full activation of Raf-1 after Ras activation, since functional Ras is necessary for Raf-1 activation after nerve growth factor stimulation and calmodulin-Sepharose is able to precipitate Raf-1 in a calcium-dependent manner. (asm.org)
  • Like calmodulin, CLP is thought to regulate cellular processes via Ca(2+)-dependent interactions with specific target proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • An ER location makes ACA2p distinct from all other calmodulin-regulated pumps identified in plants or animals. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The kinases that phosphorylate the RLC are regulated by distinct upstream signals, such as [Ca 2+ ] 4 /calmodulin and Rho family GTPases. (rupress.org)
  • When calcium ions bind to calmodulin, which in turn binds to a Cav1.2 channel, it allows the Cav1.2 channels within a cluster to interact with each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In smooth muscle, calcium ions bind to calmodulin which, via activation of a protein kinase, phosphorylates myosin. (bmj.com)
  • On the contrary, beta gamma subunits produced in an activated Go/Gi preparation did not bind to calmodulin-Sepharose. (biochemj.org)
  • Ca2+ released by the ER can also bind to calmodulin to form the Ca2+/calmodulin complex that stimulates IP3, JNK, NOS, RGPR-p117 (SEC16B) and NF1. (wikipathways.org)
  • Our investigation of Ca 2+ -signaling pathways involved in axon formation using cultured hippocampal neurons demonstrates a role for Ca 2+ /calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK) and its downstream target Ca 2+ /calmodulin kinase I (CaMKI). (jneurosci.org)
  • Platelet-surface sheddases, particularly of the metalloproteinase-disintegrin (ADAM) family, can be regulated by many of the same mechanisms that control receptor function, such as calmodulin association or activation of signaling pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this system, we investigate the hitherto unknown physiological roles of calmodulin (CaM) in light adaptation and in regulation of the inward current that is brought about by depletion of cellular Ca 2+ stores. (pnas.org)
  • Where does contraction regulation occur in smooth muscle? (brainscape.com)
  • Normal regulation of rod cGMP-gated cation channels occurs through cGMP fluctuations generated by the phototransduction cascade ( 5 , 6 ), and the cGMP accumulation found in rd1 rods is therefore a likely cause for the abnormally high Ca 2+ levels detected in the rd1 retina ( 7 , 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The results suggest that calcium signaling is involved in the regulation of fruit development and ripening through calcium/calmodulin/SlSR interactions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This Ca 2 -calmodulin regulation of motor domain interactions with microtubules was abolished in the presence of antibodies specific to the calmodulin binding region. (plantcell.org)
  • David is limited the Integration, Verification and Validation own Measuring Calcium and Calmodulin Inside and Outside Cells 2001 gut for Boeing Defense, Space and Security since 2007. (tanganyikawildernesscamps.com)
  • Journal Article] Ryanodine receptor-bound calmodulin is essential to protect against catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • [15] These activation and inactivation mechanisms both involve Ca 2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) in the IQ domain in the C-terminal tail of these channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • We observed that calcium and calmodulin are both necessary for the acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases after TrkA stimulation. (asm.org)
  • We analyzed the elements of the pathway that lead to this activation, and we observed that calmodulin antagonists completely block the initial Raf-1 activation without affecting the function of upstream elements, such as Ras, Grb2, Shc, and Trk. (asm.org)
  • We have broadened our study to other stimuli that activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases through tyrosine kinase receptors, and we have observed that calmodulin also modulates the activation of such kinases after epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation in PC12 cells and after TrkB stimulation in cultured chicken embryo motoneurons. (asm.org)
  • The different functional properties of purified beta gamma subunits and beta gamma subunits produced in situ by activation of G proteins indicates that extrapolation from the effects of purified subunits to events occurring in membranes should be done with caution. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition, Plcz1 -/- males are subfertile but not sterile, suggesting that in the absence of PLCζ, spontaneous egg activation can eventually occur via an alternative route. (biologists.org)
  • Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4 H -1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. (mdpi.com)
  • Ca2+ stimulation of adenylyl cyclase type VIII (ACVIII) occurs through loosely bound calmodulin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The motor domain with or without the calmodulin binding domain bound to microtubules. (plantcell.org)
  • Purified bovine brain beta gamma subunits bound to calmodulin-Sepharose in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. (biochemj.org)
  • In contrast to bovine brain G proteins, both purified transducin beta gamma subunits and beta gamma released from rhodopsin-activated transducin bound to calmodulin-Sepharose in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. (biochemj.org)
  • In this system, neuronal polarity is initiated by axon formation that occurs within the first 24-48 h. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV/Gr (CaMKIV/Gr) is of particular interest in neuronal Ca 2+ signaling because of its expression profile and its function as a transcriptional activator. (jneurosci.org)
  • We are also interested in the changes that occur in neuronal circuits in conditions of hyperarousal such as stress and drug addiction. (stanford.edu)
  • ERYTHROPOIETIN [EPO] is a naturally occurring hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells (RBC). (dailypeloton.com)
  • Cortical granule formation occurs during the early stages of oocyte growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, some pre-fertilization cortical granule exocytotic events occur in the cell's cleavage furrow simultaneously with polar body formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, KCBP has a unique calmodulin-binding domain (CBD) at the C terminus adjacent to the motor domain. (biologists.org)
  • The KCBP is unique in its ability to interact with calmodulin in a Ca 2 -dependent manner. (plantcell.org)
  • Residues Lys 75 -Asp 80 have J H N H α values in the 6-7 Hz range, suggesting that a break in the 'central helix' occurs at the same position as previously observed in solution NMR studies of Ca 2+ -ligated calmodulin. (springer.com)
  • Second, a calmodulin-binding sequence was mapped within 36 residues of the N terminus, indicating that the pump could interact directly with calmodulin. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Phage display has been used to isolate CaM-binding sequences from short synthetic peptide libraries, but the selected CaM-binding sequences were poorly correlated with naturally occurring proteins ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Overexpression of calmodulin in HEK293 cells is sufficient to greatly increase the A23187-stimulated secretion of EP24.15, which can be inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium. (nih.gov)
  • Channel activity seems to be regulated by a calmodulin-dependent mechanism with a negative feedback mechanism. (antibodies-online.com)
  • All cotton CAMTAs were localized in the nucleus and possessed calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) as identified computationally. (nature.com)
  • The CAMTAs are a family of well-characterized Calmodulin (CaM) binding transcription factors that are reported to be evolutionarily conserved from plants to animals 1 . (nature.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTAs are important for modulation of disease resistance, cold sensitivity and wounding response in vegetative tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence of calmodulin was measured at an excitation wavelength of 280 nm and an emission wavelength of 320 nm. (asahq.org)
  • Among a number of Ca 2+ sensors in the eukaryotic cell, calmodulin (CaM) is the most widespread and the best studied. (pnas.org)
  • Differences in the binding properties of activated bovine brain G proteins versus those of transducin could be explained by differences in the gamma subunit between the proteins, or by differences in affinities of the alpha and beta gamma subunits for each other and for calmodulin. (biochemj.org)
  • Bovine testicular calmodulin coupled to Sepharose 4B by the CNBr method. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A reduction in the delivery of oxygen to the kidneys may occur when the hematocrit (Hct) is low, or as a result of changes in the way that hemoglobin (Hb) and oxygen interact. (dailypeloton.com)
  • Glucocorticoid interactions with ethanol effects on synaptic plasma membranes: influence on [125I]calmodulin binding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since some non-specific ionic interactions can occur, a low salt concentration (0.05-0.20 M NaCl) is recommended to promote binding to the ligand while eliminating any non-specific binding. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. (wikiversity.org)