Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
Asymmetries in the topography and refractive index of the corneal surface that affect visual acuity.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Americium. A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, atomic number 95, and atomic weight 243. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
... where only part of a chromosome is missing or added. Aneuploidy can occur with sex chromosomes or autosomes. An example of ... "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer". Archived from the original on 2016-05-29. "Atlas of ... Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in cell division following meiosis or mitosis. Chromosome ... An abnormal number of chromosomes is called aneuploidy, and occurs when an individual is either missing a chromosome from a ...
In both sexes, sensorineural deafness occurs, but in females ovarian dysgenesis also occurs. The term "pure gonadal dysgenesis ... In Turner syndrome there is a demonstrable abnormality in or absence of one of the sex chromosomes that is the cause of the ... In the latter a distinct chromosomal aberration is present, while in PGD the chromosomal constellation is either 46,XX or 46,XY ... Because of the inability of the streak gonads to produce sex hormones (both estrogens and androgens), most of the secondary sex ...
... has separate sexes (i.e. these snails are dioecious). The diploid number of chromosomes (2n) is 25 in ... It is known to occur in the mainland of Italy and also in Sardinia. It occurs in Montenegro, and in Serbia. In Asia, Theodoxus ... Aberrations in the shape of operculum have been observed. In a specimen from Vouvant in France, and another from a spring near ... and cross-fertilization can occur. The sex ratio is 1:1. The structure of the flagellum of the spermatozoon is unique: the ...
An autosome is any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have the same ... Partial aneuploidy can also occur as a result of unbalanced translocations during meiosis. Deletions of part of a chromosome ... Karyograms and staining techniques can only detect large-scale disruptions to chromosomes-chromosomal aberrations smaller than ... For example, the SRY gene on the Y chromosome encodes the transcription factor TDF and is vital for male sex determination ...
... it would indicate a lethal mutation on the X-chromosome has occurred. Plants such as Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana and ... Sex-Linked Recessive Lethal Test - Males from a strain with yellow bodies are used in this test. The gene for the yellow body ... Other tests may check for various chromosomal aberrations such as chromatid and chromosomal gaps and deletions, translocations ... The chromosomes are stained and observed for any changes. Sister chromatid exchange is a symmetrical exchange of chromosome ...
... sex chromosome(s)). Certain genetic traits are linked to a person's sex and are passed on through the sex chromosomes. The ... in humans two chromosomes fused to form chromosome 2. Chromosomal aberrations are disruptions in the normal chromosomal content ... Also, variation in karyotype may occur during development from the fertilized egg. The technique of determining the karyotype ... Secondary chromosome Sex-determination system XY sex-determination system X-chromosome X-inactivation Y-chromosome Y- ...
Robertsonian translocation occurs when two non-homologous chromosomes get attached, meaning that given two healthy pairs of ... Chromosomal translocations between the sex chromosomes can also result in a number of genetic conditions, such as XX male ... In 1938, Karl Sax, at the Harvard University Biological Laboratories, published a paper entitled "Chromosome Aberrations ... The designation t(A;B)(p1;q2) is used to denote a translocation between chromosome A and chromosome B. The information in the ...
Chromosomal aberrations in the upstream control regions or residual activity of the mutant SOX9 protein could also be ... When the SRY gene of the Y chromosome is expressed in human embryos, a cascade of gene interactions controlled by SOX9 begins ... In more than half of the cases, death occurs in the neonatal period due to respiratory distress, generally related to small ... Those patients with ambiguous genitalia or sex reversal at birth, of course, maintain that state, and are either sterile or ...
"Sex chromosome transformation and the origin of a male-specific X chromosome in the creeping vole". Science. 372 (6542): 592- ... This type of empathetic behavior has previously been thought to occur only in animals with advanced cognition such as humans, ... All of these variations result in very little physical aberration; most vole species are virtually indistinguishable. In one ... Species have been found with 17 to 64 chromosomes. In some species, males and females have different chromosome numbers, a ...
... is a rare genetic disorder due to a partial chromosome deletion on chromosome 5. Its name is a French term ... There is not a specific way to treat the condition as the brain damage caused by this condition occurs in the early stages of ... Fewer than 10% of cases have other rare cytogenetic aberrations (e.g., interstitial deletions, mosaicisms, rings and de novo ... Affected females reach puberty, develop secondary sex characteristics and menstruate at the usual time. The genital tract is ...
... chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22), with the sex chromosomes (X and Y) shown last. Historically, karyotypes have been ... These include: A translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, known as the Philadelphia chromosome, occurs in about 20% of adult ... "Outcome Prediction in Pediatric Medulloblastoma based on DNA Copy Number Aberrations of Chromosomes 6q and 17q and the MYC and ... A translocation between chromosomes 4 and 11 occurs in about 4% of cases and is most common in infants under 12 months. Not all ...
The most common isochromosome is the X sex chromosome. Acrocentric autosomal chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22 are also common ... However, U-type exchange can also occur for homologous chromosomes which creates an isochromosome with homologous arms. This ... 2015). Cancer cytogenetics: chromosomal and molecular genetic aberration of tumour cells (4 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 22, 94 ... Regardless of the chromosome involved in U-type exchange, the acentric fragment of the chromosome is lost, thus creating a ...
So, in normal diploid organisms, autosomal chromosomes are present in two copies. There may, or may not, be sex chromosomes. ... Unique banding patterns are used to identify chromosomes and to diagnose chromosomal aberrations, including chromosome breakage ... Polyploidy, where there are more than two sets of homologous chromosomes in the cells, occurs mainly in plants. It has been of ... It shows: 22 homologous autosomal chromosome pairs Both the typical versions of the sex chromosome (in orange rectangle at ...
male sex, distal vs. proximal location, smaller tumor size, and negative margins upon tumor resection. Epithelioid sarcoma is a ... The SMARCB1 gene (also termed BAF47, INI1, or hSNF5) is located on chromosome 22q11.2 and codes for a member of the SWI/SNF ... A proximal version has also been described, frequently occurring in the upper extremities. Rare cases have been reported in the ... Aberrations of 18q and 8q, as well as recurrent gains at 11q13, have also been observed. ...
She identified a particular chromosome breakage event that always occurred at the same locus on maize chromosome 9, which she ... Other numerical abnormalities discovered include sex chromosome abnormalities. A female with only one X chromosome has Turner ... in micromanipulation and examination of chromosomes led to the technique of chromosome microdissection whereby aberrations in ... The great apes have 48 chromosomes. Human chromosome 2 was formed by a merger of ancestral chromosomes, reducing the number. ...
Some of the most frequent genetic disorders are abnormalities of sex chromosomes, but polysomies rarely occur. 49,XXXXY ... Paulsson K, Johansson B (February 2007). "Trisomy 8 as the sole chromosomal aberration in acute myeloid leukemia and ... X chromosome. Polysomy of sex chromosomes is caused by successive nondisjunctions in meiosis I and II. In squamous cell ... Tetrasomy 18p occurs when the short arm of the 18th chromosome appears four times, rather than twice, in the cells of the body ...
... the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing an X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) ... This occurs after the sperm first meets the egg. This lock-and-key type mechanism is species-specific and prevents the sperm ... "Meiotic interstrand DNA damage escapes paternal repair and causes chromosomal aberrations in the zygote by maternal misrepair ... Compared to mitotic chromosomes in somatic cells, sperm DNA is at least sixfold more highly condensed. The specimen contributes ...
... for determination of the sex of human preimplantation embryos and the additional ability to detect abnormal chromosome copy ... Males on the other hand only require one copy of the mutant X allele for the disease to occur in one's phenotype and therefore ... or of chromosomal structural aberrations (such as a balanced translocation). PGD helps these couples identify embryos carrying ... Sex selection. A 2006 survey found that 42 per cent of clinics that offer PGD have provided it for sex selection for non- ...
The AISSGA proposed that parents expecting a baby with sex chromosome anomalies be advised by a genetic counselor, and be given ... occurred before ten weeks, and nearly 90% occurred before twelve weeks. In contrast, a little more than 5% occurred after ... Certain genetic aberrations can be detected through this process, including Down syndrome and other aneuploidies. In many ... Aneuploidy is a chromosome mutation in which the number of chromosomes is abnormal and differs from the usual 46 chromosomes. ...
The mode of evolution of sex pheromones in Bactrocera has occurred by rapid saltational changes associated with speciation ... Carr, G. D.; Carr, R. L. (2000). A new chromosome race of Calycadenia pauciflora (Asteraceae: Heliantheae-Madiinae) from Butte ... chromosomal aberrations or other evolutionary mechanisms that cause reproductively isolated individuals to establish a new ... Saltational changes have occurred in the buccal cavity of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Some processes of epigenetic ...
"HeLa signature chromosomes". The signature chromosomes can be derived from multiple original chromosomes, making challenging ... HeLa cells have been used in a number of cancer studies, including those involving sex steroid hormones such as estradiol, ... it is almost certain that both interspecific and intraspecific contamination will occur." HeLa cell contamination has become a ... and conventional cytogenic techniques revealed that the detected chromosomal aberrations may be representative of advanced ...
... for sex-chromosome dosage compensation. In eutherians, XCI is the random inactivation of one of the X chromosomes, silencing ... X chromosome reactivation also occurs in PGCs. In the ICM of human embryos, however, X reactivation does not occur, because ... "Sensitive detection of chromosome copy number aberrations in prostate cancer by fluorescence in situ hybridization". The ... the paternal X chromosome is already partially silenced at the zygote stage by imprinted XCI, suggesting that sex-chromosome ...
Obstetric complications occur in approximately 25 to 30% of the general population and the vast majority do not develop ... On average there is a somewhat earlier onset for men than women, with the possible influence of the female sex hormone estrogen ... The paternal age is a factor in schizophrenia because of the increased likelihood of mutations in the chromosomes of cells that ... Increased paternal age has been linked to schizophrenia, possibly due to "chromosomal aberrations and mutations of the aging ...
... chromosome interchanges, [and] number of aberrations chromatid and chromosome type". Because radon is generally associated with ... A naturally-occurring gas formed as a decay product of radium, radon is one of the densest substances that remains a gas under ... the risk estimation is independent of sex, age, or smoking habit. Thus, if a smoker's chances of dying of lung cancer are 10 ... "Assessing the level of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in long-term resident children under conditions ...
This occurred in the SGP of both grandparents, or during the gestation period/infant life of the grandmothers, but not during ... The Överkalix study noted sex-specific effects; a greater body mass index (BMI) at 9 years in sons, but not daughters, of ... Another study hypothesized that epigenetic changes on the Y chromosome could explain differences in lifespan among the male ... However, the exchange of epigenetic information between generations can result in epigenetic aberrations, which are epigenetic ...
Mouse cells deficient for maturation of prelamin A show increased DNA damage and chromosome aberrations and have increased ... The theory is based on the idea that ageing occurs over time due to the damage of the DNA. As an example, studies of mammalian ... sex differences in the survival of anthropoid primates tend to correlate with the care to offspring; or an Efe infant is often ... In other words, evolution can change the speed of aging but some ageing no matter how slow will always occur. Mortality is the ...
The basal diploid number of chromosomes is 2n = 54 in this family, but with a wide variation in the chromosome number in this ... Species occur in swift-flowing streams from the lowlands up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in elevation. They can also be found in a ... In some species, there is a ZZ/ZW sex-determination system. The suckermouth exhibited by these catfish allows them to adhere to ... lenticular longitudinal spherical aberration and retinal topography" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. The Journal of ...
Two classic examples of segregation distortion involving sex chromosomes include the "Sex Ratio" X chromosomes of Drosophila ... Douglas RN, Birchler JA (2017). "B Chromosomes". In Bhat T, Wani A (eds.). Chromosome Structure and Aberrations. New Delhi: ... B chromosomes have been thoroughly studied and are estimated to occur in 15% of all eukaryotic species. In general, they appear ... Whenever sex chromosomes undergo segregation distortion, the population sex ratio is altered, making these systems particularly ...
This phenomenon is thought to occur with LFS. As the X chromosome is one of the sex chromosomes (the other being the Y ... a sometimes congenital aberration in which the velopharyngeal sphincter allows too much air into the nasal cavity during speech ... A missense mutation in the MED12 gene, located on the human X chromosome, has been established as the cause of LFS. Missense ... This means the defective gene responsible for the disorder (MED12) is located on the X chromosome, and only one copy of the ...
Elective sex selection is permitted, accounting for around 9% of all PGD cases in the U.S., as is selection for desired ... There is a race to develop new gene editing technologies that prevent off-target effects from occurring with some of the ... Bishop R (2010). "Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in detecting genetic aberrations of medical ... uses fluorescent probes which specifically bind to highly complementary sequences on chromosomes, which can then be identified ...
Some chromosomes have fragile spots where breaks occur which result in the deletion of a part of chromosome. The breaks can be ... It shows 22 homologous autosomal chromosome pairs as well as both the female (XX) and male (XY) versions of the two sex ... a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is left out during DNA replication. Any number of ... When a chromosome breaks, a part of it is deleted or lost, the missing piece of chromosome is referred to as deletion or a ...
Mouse cells deficient for maturation of prelamin A show increased DNA damage and chromosome aberrations and are more sensitive ... whereby DNA crosslinks occur when both normal cellular repair processes fail and cellular apoptosis does not occur. ... Bernstein, C.; Bernstein, H. (1991). Aging, Sex, and DNA Repair. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0120928606. Ames, B. N.; ... This has been observed in several cases of accelerated aging and may occur in normal aging too. A key aspect of hair loss with ...
Derivatives of benzene occur sufficiently often as a component of organic molecules, so much so that the Unicode Consortium has ... These aberrations can be monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes to assess the effects of ... Benzene has been shown to cause cancer in both sexes of multiple species of laboratory animals exposed via various routes. ... Eastmond, D.A.; Rupa, DS; Hasegawa, LS (2000). "Detection of hyperdiploidy and chromosome breakage in interphase human ...
... red panda and five Mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding". Chromosome Research. 10 (3): ... The domestic cat is a cosmopolitan species and occurs across much of the world. It is adaptable and now present on all ... The domestic cat has slit pupils, which allow it to focus bright light without chromatic aberration. At low light, a cat's ... Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones. When ...
Such attacks typically occur only locally and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated. Predatory attacks can occur ... Differences in coat colour between sexes is absent in Eurasia; females tend to have redder tones in North America. Black- ... "Y-chromosome microsatellite variation in Italian wolves: A contribution to the study of wolf-dog hybridization patterns". ... commensalism or singular aberration?". Zoology in the Middle East. 62: 85-87. doi:10.1080/09397140.2016.1144292. S2CID 85957777 ...
These DNA damages, chromosome aberrations and mutations may in turn cause more RecQ-independent aging phenotypes.[citation ... It occurs at a rate of about 1 in 300,000-500,000 in the United States and Europe. The mean age of death is ~12 years, although ... The function of the gene product of TTDN1 is unknown, but the sex organs of individuals with this form of TTD often produce no ... Mouse cells deficient for maturation of prelamin A show increased DNA damage and chromosome aberrations and have increased ...
Half of embryonic miscarriages have aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes). An inevitable miscarriage occurs when the ... Some organizations recommend delaying sex after a miscarriage until the bleeding has stopped to decrease the risk of infection ... chromosomal aberrations are found in a third of cases. Infection during the third trimester can cause a miscarriage. The age of ... Half of embryonic miscarriages (25% of all miscarriages) have an aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes). Common chromosome ...
It is now known that this classic triad of symptoms only occurs in 10-15% of cases, and is usually indicative that the renal ... The incidence of RCC varies between sexes, ages, races and geographic location around the world. Men have a higher incidence ... Both such subtypes are associated with mutations in the short-arm of chromosome 3, with the implicated genes being either ... Array-based karyotyping can be used to identify characteristic chromosomal aberrations in renal tumors with challenging ...
... does not occur in mammals, especially in humans. While humans are known to have sex characteristics that diverge from "true ... Occasionally, chimeras arise from loss or gain of individual chromosomes or chromosome fragments owing to misdivision. More ... ISBN 978-1-4875-9337-7. Turpin, Raymond; Lejeune, Jérôme (2013-10-22). Human Afflictions and Chromosomal Aberrations: ... ISBN 978-1-4831-4668-3. Dawson, Ernest Rumley (1917). The Causation of Sex in Man: A New Theory of Sex Based on Clinical ...
The fanatical Daughters of the Amazon believe that Mother Earth cleansed itself of the "aberration" of the Y chromosome. They ... The two have unprotected sex, and it is eventually revealed that she is pregnant with his child (an ultrasound shows it to be a ... However five years after the plague no attacks on Israel have occurred. She inspires others to follow her in her quest for the ... In issue #56, she and Yorick finally reconnect but, in issue #57, after having sex, Beth reveals that she had been planning to ...
The most common skeletal abnormalities occur in the head and face, but other areas are often affected such as the rib cage. The ... Von Hippel-Lindau disease results from a mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p25.3. ... and sex cord tumors with annular tubules. Primary care physicians can identify people who are at risk of a hereditary cancer ... "Aberrations of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 DNA damage sensor complex in human breast cancer: MRE11 as a candidate familial cancer- ...
... where only part of a chromosome is missing or added. Aneuploidy can occur with sex chromosomes or autosomes. An example of ... "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer". Archived from the original on 2016-05-29. "Atlas of ... Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in cell division following meiosis or mitosis. Chromosome ... An abnormal number of chromosomes is called aneuploidy, and occurs when an individual is either missing a chromosome from a ...
The disease affects the muscles with definite fiber degeneration but without evidence of morphologic aberrations. ... 13, 14] One third of cases occurs as a result of spontaneous new mutations. [15] Becker MD is the second most common form, with ... Duchenne MD is the most common MD and is sex-linked, with an inheritance pattern of 1 case per 3500 live male births. [ ... The dystrophin gene is located on the short arm of chromosome X near the p21 locus and codes for the large protein Dp427, which ...
In assessing chromosome damage, several factors of interest--sex, cigarette smoking, history of playing on the canal site, and ... Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchange (SCE) were measured in peripheral blood specimens ... similar persistence after chemical exposures may not necessarily occur (3). ... Editorial Note: In May 1980, results of an earlier cytogenetic study led to concern that chromosome damage might be increased ...
... or in in vivo assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes; Chinese Hamster bone-marrow chromosomes, and the Drosophila sex- ... If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in a supine position, and, if necessary, treated with intravenous infusion ... However, there was no increase in chromosomal aberrations at lower drug concentrations without metabolic activation or at any ... Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been volume- and/or salt-depleted as a result of prolonged ...
... or in vivo assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes, Chinese hamster bone marrow chromosomes, and the Drosophila sex-linked ... in vitro chromosome aberration with V79 cultured lung cells, and in an in vivo cytogenetic study with rat bone marrow. There ... If excessive hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in a supine position and, if necessary, treated with intravenous ... Some placental passage occurred when quinapril was administered to pregnant rats. Studies in rats indicate that quinapril and ...
Male; middle aged; sex chromosome aberrations / blood*; testosterone / blood*. allenamento corsa in musica musica per allenarsi ... This genetic disorder occurs when a male is born with an extra copy of the x chromosome and may result in low testosterone ... Testosterone levels are confounded with sex chromosome complement. Xyy mice were similar to xy mice on body weight and ... Males with xyy syndrome have 47 chromosomes because of the extra y chromosome. Testosterone is the male hormone that stimulates ...
Micci F, Haugom L, Abeler VM, Tropé CG, Danielsen HE, Heim S. Consistent numerical chromosome aberrations in thecofibromas of ... Some may contain a minor component of sex cord elements (granulosa cells, indifferent sex cord type cells, or sertoliform ... The majority occur in postmenopausal women and they are rare before puberty. These usually endocrinologically active tumors may ... Close to one-third of luteinized thecomas occur in patients under 30 years of age. Close to 50% of these tumors are estrogenic ...
A normal (human) cell line has 22 diploid chromosomes (ignoring the sex chromosomes XX or XY) and so the CN of the entire ... An inversion occurs when a segment of a chromosome is reversed relative to its original orientation (Fig. 1). ... Mitelman F, Johansson B, & Mertens F (Eds.). Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer. (2016). at ... Normal karyotypes have two copies of each chromosome 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes. In contrast, in cancer karyotypes some ...
The disease affects the muscles with definite fiber degeneration but without evidence of morphologic aberrations. ... 13, 14] One third of cases occurs as a result of spontaneous new mutations. [15] Becker MD is the second most common form, with ... Duchenne MD is the most common MD and is sex-linked, with an inheritance pattern of 1 case per 3500 live male births. [ ... The dystrophin gene is located on the short arm of chromosome X near the p21 locus and codes for the large protein Dp427, which ...
The disease affects the muscles with definite fiber degeneration but without evidence of morphologic aberrations. ... 13, 14] One third of cases occurs as a result of spontaneous new mutations. [15] Becker MD is the second most common form, with ... Duchenne MD is the most common MD and is sex-linked, with an inheritance pattern of 1 case per 3500 live male births. [ ... The dystrophin gene is located on the short arm of chromosome X near the p21 locus and codes for the large protein Dp427, which ...
... if these cases occurred randomly. If no cases of matching cytogenetic aberrations were found, this would differ significantly ... Age- and sex-specific incidence of childhood leukemia by immunophenotype in the Nordic countries. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: ... Chromosome translocations and covert leukemic clones are generated during normal fetal development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002 ... Chemotherapy is typically more effective for the malignancies that occur in these age peak groups than for those that occur ...
MOUFTAH, S.P. & SMITH, J.D. (l97l) Mitotic aberrations in bean chromosomes induced by sodium fluoride. Texas J. Sci., 22: 296 ( ... aberrations or sister chromatid exchanges in the bone marrow (Kram et al., 1978). No cytogenetic changes occurred in the ... Thus, excretion rates may increase slightly with age, but no sex difference in fluoride excretion has been found (Vandeputte et ... BURKI, K. & BUCCHI, R. (1975b) Origin of chromosome aberrations in mature sperm Drosophila: Influence of sodium fluoride on ...
2E). All Cbx3-KO cells (100%; n=97) showed some degree of asynapsis, affecting the autosomes or sex chromosomes, or both (Table ... the asynaptic phenotype in Cbx3-KO pachytene spermatocytes occurred preferentially at the centromeric ends of the chromosome ... we observed various chromosomal aberrations that potentially emanated from defects in the pairing of homologous chromosomes, ... HP1γ facilitates homologous chromosome pairing. As homologous synapsis is initiated by chromosome pairing, we went on to ...
... in vivo in assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes, Chinese hamster bone marrow chromosomes, and the Drosophila sex-linked ... Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction, rather than ... test for chromosomal aberrations, or ... Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a ... Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics. Thus latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy. ...
In most chromosomes the very long thin DNA fibers are coated with packaging proteins; in eukaryotic cells the most important of ... A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. ... Autosome Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome>. An autosome is any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. The members ... in humans two chromosomes fused to form chromosome 2.. Aberrations. In Down syndrome, there are three copies of chromosome 21. ...
... while chromosome 22 loss occurs in about 40% of adult granulosa cell tumors.59-61 A molecular study using comparative genomic ... 18 Trisomy 12 is the most frequent aberration in benign sex cord-stromal tumors, and it is suggested that trisomy 4 may be a ... sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors. Introduction. Sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors of the ovary that usually occur in the ... Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors with Annular Tubules. Sex cord-stromal tumors with annular tubules represent 1.4% of all sex cord- ...
... rat non-program Sex DNA synthesis test, mouse sister chromatid exchange test. Positive in vitro chromosome aberration (CHL cell ... These reactions may occur after the first dose. If these reactions occur when the patient is using levofloxacin hydrochloride ... 500 mg p.o. tablet, single-dose, sex and age factors:. Male 8 5.5 ± 1.1 1.2 ± 0.4 54.4 ± 18.9 166 ± 44 89 ± 13 7.5 ± 2.1 126 ± ... Tendon rupture can occur during or after treatment; there are also reports of tendon rupture months after treatment has ended. ...
1996): In this none-too-original model, the first double-strand break to occur on a chromosome is immediately assigned to the ... rather than a reaction to a perceived aberration. ... Some of you might recall Kevins work above called Chromosomes ... Labels: evolution, fun, genitalia, genomes, iowa, journals, life, penis, science, sex, webpages ... My major project will be to write a semi-popular book on the origin and evolution of sex. This will also be a great opportunity ...
... one of the two sex chromosomes. in each cell. In males, who have only one X chromosome, a mutation in the only copy of the gene ... More than 99 percent of PPM-X syndrome cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. Many of these ... Phenotypic and genotypic variability in four males with MECP2 gene sequence aberrations including a novel deletion. Pediatr Res ... In females, who have two copies of the X chromosome, one altered copy of the gene in each cell can lead to less severe features ...
957 Lovemaking chromosome abnormalities, 1068 Sex teaching, to preschool children, 151 Sexuality, 188 Sexually transmitted ... It is foremost to judge between the susceptibility to procreate epilepsy caused by a useful aberration of a gene, and epilepsy ... In uniting to the behavioral disruption that occurs as a terminate of bullying and victimization, earlier research has ... for should take measures guidance to adolescents give the normalcy of the earthy feelings and evolving core changes that occur ...
Twenty two of them are autosomal and the last pair are sex chromosomes (youre either XX or XY, sound familiar?). Recessive ... Somatic genetic mutation (i.e mutations that occur after conception) are associated with increased age, and indeed, older crows ... I thought it might be helpful to talk about how and why crows have white feathers or other kinds of color aberrations. First ... Updates* a previous version of this post contained a typo stating that humans have 24 pairs of chromosomes.. A previous version ...
Molecular Cytogenetics encompasses all aspects of chromosome biology and the ... ... sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA), other chromosome aneuploidy, copy number variation (CNV), and to provi... ... There are many reports on rearrangements occurring separately in the regions of chromosomes 9p and 15q affected in the case ... Discordant structural chromosomal aberrations in chorionic villi and amniotic fluid leading to a formation of an isochromosome ...
... through structural rearrangements in chromosomes, to aberrations of entire chromosomes. PZMs are so frequent and universal that ... cancer of the colon and the bladder in both sexes, as well as Alzheimers in men connected with loss of the Y chromosome. They ... but much less is known about the far more commonly occurring genetic aberrations acquired over the human life cycle, also ... An example of such postzygotic aberrations is the atrophy of the Y chromosome in mens leukocytes. We already know that this ...
Giri AK, Das SK, Talukder G, Sharma A (1990) Sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations induced by curcumin and ... 4-5 sister chromatid exchanges occur for a chromosome pair over one mitosis, whilst 14-100 (SCEs) is not a normal variable and ... mutations and disruption of sex ratio in Drosophila melanogaster model. However, other studies have shown that tartrazine has a ... In Wistar rats and mice the tartrazine can induce chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow [9]. Additionally, other studies have ...
Gene mutations, fusion transcript analysis and chromosome copy number aberrations of PDAC precursors. Targeted next-generation ... This can occur de novo or in a previously KRAS-mutated and gastric differentiated cell and is associated with higher frequency ... containing probes and sex probes were also filtered. Filtered datasets were normalised using the Beta Mixture Quantile dilation ... The broad genomic alterations generally involve entire chromosomes and are mostly located on chromosome 7, 8, 12, 18 and 20 ( ...
In this report, we highlight the variability that can occur in patients with TS and emphasizes the need to carefully assess ... The most frequently observed karyotype, 45, X, arises more often by loss of the paternal X or Y chromosome in meiosis or in ... early embryogenesis than by loss of the maternal X chromosome. The main clinical features of TS are short stature, gonadal ... Ogata, T. and Matsuo, N. (1995) Turner Syndrome and Female Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Deduction of the Principal Factors ...
  • There are two main types of translocations: Reciprocal translocation: Segments from two different chromosomes have been exchanged. (wikipedia.org)
  • A translocation happens when two different chromosomes "switch" end segments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Double aneuploidy is the co-occurrence of aneuploidy of two different chromosomes within the same individual. (lidsen.com)
  • 8. Multiple alleles are present (a) at the same locus of the chromosome (b) on non-sister chromatids (c) on different chromosomes (d) at different loci on the same chromosome. (recruitmenttopper.com)
  • Chromosome mutation was formerly used in a strict sense to mean a change in a chromosomal segment, involving more than one gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known human disorders include Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, which may be caused by duplication of the gene encoding peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) on chromosome 17. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dystrophin gene is located on the short arm of chromosome X near the p21 locus and codes for the large protein Dp427, which contains 3685 amino acids. (medscape.com)
  • A prenatal origin of the first cytogenetic aberration(s) in t(12;21)-positive, high-hyperdiploid and some other subsets of ALL has been suggested by mathematical modelling of the incidence curve, and demonstrated in twin studies, and by backtracking of clone-specific cytogenetic aberrations or immune gene rearrangements to the Guthrie cards from children with ALL. (nature.com)
  • In males, who have only one X chromosome, a mutation in the only copy of the gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In females, who have two copies of the X chromosome, one altered copy of the gene in each cell can lead to less severe features of the condition or may cause no signs or symptoms at all. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Psoni S, Sofocleous C, Traeger-Synodinos J, Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Kanavakis E, Fryssira-Kanioura H. Phenotypic and genotypic variability in four males with MECP2 gene sequence aberrations including a novel deletion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Primary eosinophilia: Occurs mostly in males in patients with myeloproliferative variants or PDGFRA/PDGFRB gene aberrations. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Any substance that can cause a sudden or fundamental change in the genetic material of an organism, making gene mutation or chromosomal aberration above the natural level, is collectively referred to as a mutagen. (ybstudy.com)
  • Those cells with chromosomal mutations or gene mutations can produce a genetic variation of organisms by passing the mutated genetic material to sex cells or asexual reproductive organs through cell generations. (ybstudy.com)
  • The chromosome on which the gene can be found. (dualjuridik.org)
  • The position of a gene is based on a distinctive pattern of light and dark bands that appear when the chromosome is stained in a certain way. (dualjuridik.org)
  • For example, expression of the sex-determining region Y ( SRY ) gene is elevated in dopamine neurons in human and experimental Parkinson's disease models and suppression of its expression could exert protective functions against the disease in these models [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. A gene showing codominance has (a) alleles that are recessive to each other (b) both alleles independently expressed in the heterozygote (c) one allele dominant on the other (d) alleles tightly linked on the same chromosome. (recruitmenttopper.com)
  • The AZFc region, located on the distal portion of the Y chromosome long arm, is critical for male fertility as it contains many gene families required for normal spermatogenesis, and AZF deletions have been shown to have an effect on total motile sperm count (18-20). (jri.ir)
  • Present study has been designed with the aims to evaluate the frequency of chromosome variation and corelate to methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism as "risk factor" in clinically diagnosed cases of CHD using lymphocytes cultures and ARMS PCR, respectively. (biomedres.us)
  • In human, MTHFR gene is thermolabile in nature and present on chromosome 1p3 6.3. (biomedres.us)
  • The position occupied by a gene in a chromosome. (ncsu.edu)
  • An example of monosomy in humans is Turner syndrome, where the individual is born with only one sex chromosome, an X. Exposure of males to certain lifestyle, environmental and/or occupational hazards may increase the risk of aneuploid spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of the pesticide cyren on chromosomes and sperms of albino males mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The first 22 chromosomes are the same in males and females. (abroadexport.com)
  • Scientists know that AML occurs in males more often than in females and in Caucasians more frequently than in African-Americans. (vacancer.com)
  • Conventional males possess two sex chromosomes, one 'X' and the other 'Y'. Conventional females possess two 'X' chromosomes. (ihra.org.au)
  • Three groups of mice, the negative and positive control groups containing each 12 males and 12 females and the test material group containing 7 mice per sex and sampling time for each of the three doses used (total in the test material group: 42 males and 42 females). (europa.eu)
  • In this study 2150 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in males and females caused only slight toxicity symptoms but deaths occurred in all animals (2 males and 2 females) within the first 24 hours after administration. (europa.eu)
  • Males with normal karyotype, for example, should not be heterozygous for polymorphisms exclusive to the X chromosome, and normal females should show no signals for polymorphisms exclusive to the Y chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Formation of the SC between paired homologous chromosomes, a process referred to as synapsis, is complete in pachynema except for the two sex chromosomes in males. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Chromosome abnormalities may be detected or confirmed by comparing an individual's karyotype, or full set of chromosomes, to a typical karyotype for the species via genetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • A karyotype is a high level description of the genome as a set of chromosomes and the number of copies of each. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most frequently observed karyotype, 45, X, arises more often by loss of the paternal X or Y chromosome in meiosis or in early embryogenesis than by loss of the maternal X chromosome. (scirp.org)
  • Depending on context, someone might need to know your sex (karyotype). (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • He is saying that sex is strictly binary, it is entirely determined by karyotype, and it is completely distinct from gender. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between clinical presentation and karyotype variations of X chromosome in TS. (jimc.ir)
  • 1. A karyotype is a technique wherein the chromosomes are stained, photographed and then each chromosome cutout is arranged according to their size and shape. (abroadexport.com)
  • The chromosomes in the karyotype are arranged in If a karyotype shows a usual number and structure of chromosome set, it is known as a normal karyotype. (abroadexport.com)
  • In a karyotype preparation, metaphase chromosomes are spread out and stained. (abroadexport.com)
  • A karyotype is a photograph of all of an organism's chromosomes. (abroadexport.com)
  • A human karyotype is a whole set of human chromosomes, having all the genetic content or material of a cell. (abroadexport.com)
  • Karyotype is a technique performed for genetic analysis and is defined as an image of an individual's collection of chromosomes. (abroadexport.com)
  • Updated 7/28/2020 4:34:58 AM. A karyotype test uses blood or body fluids to analyze your chromosomes. (abroadexport.com)
  • Discuss changes in the quality of life for the patient, family, and caregivers A karyotype is simply a picture of a person's chromosomes. (abroadexport.com)
  • A karyotype is an individual's complete set of chromosomes. (abroadexport.com)
  • 4] 'Karyotype' also refers to the actual collection of chromosomes being examined. (abroadexport.com)
  • The ready analysis for karyotype contains such information: The number of chromosomes. (abroadexport.com)
  • (A) A tumour karyotype in a male with loss of the Y chromosome, (B) Prader-Willi Syndrome i.e. deletion in the 15q11-q12 region and (C) an arbitrary karyotype that involves a variety of autosomal and allosomal abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human karyotype with annotated bands and sub-bands as used for the nomenclature of chromosome abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian Chromosome Newsletter 1980;21:86-93. (cdc.gov)
  • Data is available from an Ames study on N-(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) trimethylenediamine itself and from in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration and mutagenicity studies based on N-oleyl trimethylenediamine. (europa.eu)
  • In vitro cytogenicity study in mammalian cells: Nickel Sulphate was positive for chromosomal aberrations in Syrian hamster embryo cells when tested at concentrations up to 5 µg/mL (Larramendy et al. (europa.eu)
  • The mechanisms that establish and maintain methylation patterns in the mammalian genome are very poorly understood, even though perturbations of methylation patterns lead to a loss of genomic imprinting, ectopic X chromosome inactivation, and death of mammalian embryos. (researchgate.net)
  • This study provides the first evidence for a specific role of ESCO2 in mammalian meiosis, identifies a particular ESCO2 dependence of sex chromosome cohesion and suggests support of autosomal synapsis by acSMC3-stabilized cohesion. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • [9] Deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5 results in Cri du chat syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Case-1, showing deletion of short arm of chromosome-18 and Robertsonian translocation between G/G chromosome association (24.00%), Case-2 showing numerical variation (trisomy-21), Case-3, includes dicentric, chromatid break in chromosome-2, deletion of short arm in chromosome-5, reciprocal translocation involving chromosome-6 and 10 and reporting first time appearance of ring of Y-chromosome. (biomedres.us)
  • Most segmental changes that happen during the progression of the disease can be categorized as deletion, tandem duplication, inversion, translocation, and deletion and duplication of entire chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A deletion is characterized by a missing segment of a chromosome, a tandem duplication happens when part of the chromosome is duplicated and thus two copies of a segment appear where normally there would only be one. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1) Deletion: segment B of the normal chromosome is deleted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schematically, a translocation on two chromosomes (A,B) and (C,D) produces the chromosomes (A,D) and (C,B). A whole chromosomal duplication (deletion) adds (removes) a copy of a complete chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 7, i(7)(q10), and an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 20, del(20)(q), are the most frequent anomalies in the bone marrow of patients with Shwac. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cancer literature often refers to the deletion of certain sections of a chromosome (e.g. "17p del" or "Del(17p)" for the deletion of chromosome 17's p-arm. (dualjuridik.org)
  • The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome in a region designated q22.3. (dualjuridik.org)
  • One of the four XYY men was shown to have an apparent gr/gr partial AZFc deletion on both Y chromosomes while Sertoli cell only syndrome was detected in another case. (jri.ir)
  • [1] Some chromosomes have fragile spots where breaks occur which result in the deletion of a part of chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a chromosome breaks, a part of it is deleted or lost, the missing piece of chromosome is referred to as deletion or a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • For synapsis to occur between a chromosome with a large intercalary deficiency and a normal complete homolog, the unpaired region of the normal homolog must loop out of the linear structure into a deletion or compensation loop . (wikipedia.org)
  • Terminal deletion - a deletion that occurs towards the end of a chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intercalary/interstitial deletion - a deletion that occurs from the interior of a chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of a number of pairs that is not evenly divisible by three will lead to a frameshift mutation , causing all of the codons occurring after the deletion to be read incorrectly during translation , producing a severely altered and potentially nonfunctional protein . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic disorder due to a partial deletion of genetic material on chromosome 5 . (mdwiki.org)
  • In the initial years of operation of the centre, researchers will examine primarily the role of PZMs in the development of breast cancer in women, prostate cancer in men, cancer of the colon and the bladder in both sexes, as well as Alzheimer's in men connected with loss of the Y chromosome. (fnp.org.pl)
  • An abnormal number of chromosomes is called aneuploidy, and occurs when an individual is either missing a chromosome from a pair (resulting in monosomy) or has more than two chromosomes of a pair (trisomy, tetrasomy, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aneuploidy can be full, involving a whole chromosome missing or added, or partial, where only part of a chromosome is missing or added. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aneuploidy can occur with sex chromosomes or autosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aneuploidy is a major category of chromosomal aberrations present in humans and is defined as any chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number [ 1. Nussbaum RL, McInnes RR, Willard HF. Thompson & Thompson Genetics in Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016. ">1 ]. (lidsen.com)
  • Whether the aneuploidy is compatible with life depends on the chromosome (dosage sensitivity of the genomic content) involved and the level of involvement, whether mosaic or non-mosaic. (lidsen.com)
  • Errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis may cause aneuploidy, which will be detrimental to the cell and if viable, the cell will gain genomic instability, possibly leading to cancer growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 12) suggested a greater incidence of sex aneuploidy in somatic cells of oligozoospermic men. (pdffox.com)
  • Numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy and polyploidy) are more common among polyploids (e.g. sugarcane, wheat, oats, triticale, potato and banana) than in diploids, since the latter cannot easily tolerate aneuploidy [10]. (fao.org)
  • Aneuploidy and polyploidy have traditionally been detected by chromosome counting in regenerated plants [11,12], but this is a time-consuming and laborious procedure. (fao.org)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that mosaic loss of Y chromosome and aberrant activation of its genes could modify the disease processes in male biased manners. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This mini review discusses the nature of the genes on the human Y chromosome and identifies two general categories of genes: those sharing dosage-sensitivity functions with their X homologues and those with testis-specific expression and functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deletions of the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions on the Y chromosome (AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc) are associated with male infertility (16), and it is thought that they arise in early embryogenesis due to variants in TSPY, mismatch repair (MMR), or X-specific genes (17). (jri.ir)
  • Conclusions In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the developmental regulation of P. endiviifolia sp B genes expression involved in the female gametophytes development and sex organ differentiation. (plcpathway.com)
  • The discovery of the homology of the key sex-determining genes doublesex in Drosophila and mab-3 in C. elegans provided the first evidence for a common evolutionary basis of sex determination in animals. (sdbonline.org)
  • Although some sex-determining genes are well conserved, many show unprecedented substitution rates. (sdbonline.org)
  • Map of position of genes in chromosomes determined by recombination relationships. (ncsu.edu)
  • Association of characters in inheritance due to location of genes in proximity on the same chromosome. (ncsu.edu)
  • Human fetuses do not develop sex-specific characteristics, like a penis or vagina, until certain genes are turned-on around week 7 of development. (umn.edu)
  • Within minutes after ionizing radiation, the of spontaneous aberrations was increased significantly by quick-response genes transcription factors such as c- the occupational publicity hypertension pathophysiology [url=http://www.sisiac.org/analytic/purchase-online-terazosin-no-rx/]order terazosin 2 mg mastercard[/url]. (ehd.org)
  • These can occur in the form of numerical abnormalities, where there is an atypical number of chromosomes, or as structural abnormalities, where one or more individual chromosomes are altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chromosome abnormalities occur as an accident in the egg cell or sperm, and therefore the anomaly is present in every cell of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Karyotyping was performed on all NIGMS Repository cell lines that were submitted with reported chromosome abnormalities. (ucsc.edu)
  • Among numerical chromosome abnormalities, 7 patients (2,7%) had aneuploidies and poliploidies. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • These partially matured "mini-brains" can be grown in a culture dish and can be used to enable the study of the early development of brain structures that occurs in utero, as well as the cellular and circuit abnormalities related to ASD-linked mutations. (hhs.gov)
  • The International System for Human Cytogenomic Nomenclature (ISCN) is an international standard for human chromosome nomenclature , which includes band names, symbols and abbreviated terms used in the description of human chromosome and chromosome abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the known examples involve the establishment of specific chromatin structures at DNA repeats or transposable elements - i.e., it occurs in very particular genomic contexts. (wiringthebrain.com)
  • Undoubtedly, advances in molecular biology will allow scientists to determine the exact genomic aberration responsible for each specific neoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • Soybean has 20 pairs of chromosomes with a predicted genome size of 1,115 Mb and is a paleopolyploid with two lineage specific whole genomic duplications. (plcpathway.com)
  • Somatic genetic mutation (i.e mutations that occur after conception) are associated with increased age, and indeed, older crows are more often seen with white feathers. (corvidresearch.blog)
  • When it is associated with changes in a larger part of the chromosome, it is called a chromosomal abnormality/Mutation. (ybstudy.com)
  • Δ ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is left out during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • While aberrations from this body plan can happen, often as the result of mutation, most animals have this body plan. (umn.edu)
  • They can be small, e.g., single nucleotide mutations, or large structural variations caused by rearrangements such as deletions, inversions, tandem duplications and chromosomal translocations, or duplication and losses of entire chromosomes [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They include a wide range of mutations, from changes in a single nucleotide, through structural rearrangements in chromosomes, to aberrations of entire chromosomes. (fnp.org.pl)
  • While mitosis involves the symmetric division of a diploid, somatic cell to yield two diploid daughter cells identical to the mother cell, meiosis or reduction division yields varying number of haploid daughter cells with chromosomes carrying new combinations of alleles due to the cross-over phenomena. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Robertsonian translocation: An entire chromosome has attached to another at the centromere - in humans, these only occur with chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ph chromosome t(9;22) translocation was present in 1,2% of children. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Specific chromosomal aberrations, including the 8:21 translocation associated with AML, have been detected in the white blood cells of benzene workers before the detection of leukemia. (vacancer.com)
  • p-Cresol was tested in-vitro in several Ames tests, a mouse lymphoma test, several chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange and UDS tests. (europa.eu)
  • The objective of this in vitro assay was to evaluate the ability of p-cresol to induce chromosomal aberrations in chnese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with and without metabolic activation. (europa.eu)
  • Although TiO2 nanoparticles have been shown to induce DNA damage (comet assay) and chromosome damage (micronucleus assay, MN) in vitro, no study has systematically assessed the influence of medium com. (researchgate.net)
  • At issue is whether the Civil Rights Laws that protect against discrimination on the basis of sex should apply to individuals whose claims are made on the basis of a professed "gender," regardless of their biological sex. (ancientfaith.com)
  • remember that humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. (corvidresearch.blog)
  • Updates* a previous version of this post contained a typo stating that humans have 24 pairs of chromosomes. (corvidresearch.blog)
  • It is more accurate to describe biological sex in humans as bimodal, but not strictly binary. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent), which you can. (abroadexport.com)
  • faq] Cause It mainly occurs in women as a result of vaginal childbirth, which strains the perineum In humans, the head of the fetus is so large in comparison to the size of the birth canal, term delivery is rarely possible without some degree of trauma. (autoprac.com)
  • Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in cell division following meiosis or mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous publications have presented cases of infertile XYY men and have suggested that the additional Y chromosome may cause disrupted meiosis leading to sperm apoptosis. (jri.ir)
  • In diploid organisms, the four initial copies of each chromosome, that is two pairs of sister chromatids, are thereby reduced to one chromatid per cell by the process of meiosis. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Meiosis features unique chromosome structures and behaviour, most obvious during the first meiotic division. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Prophase I starts with leptonema, where meiosis-specific proteins such as SYCP3 assemble on each pair of sister chromatids to initiate the formation of axial elements (AEs), compact chromosome cores from which chromatin loops emerge. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • In meiosis, to ensure sister chromatid cohesion, to generate a proper axial-loop chromosome structure, and to allow synapsis and associated processes, the cohesin complex is required. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Chromosomes 1 through 22 (the autosomes) are designated by their chromosome number. (dualjuridik.org)
  • Unsynapsed regions of autosomes are associated with the sex chromatin and also display split AEs. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Repair of DSBs on the X and Y chromosomes is slower than on autosomes, and the unsynapsed sex chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Normal karyotypes have two copies of each chromosome 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rather it's the biological variation which exists between the polar binaries of the male and female sex. (ihra.org.au)
  • A male who identifies as a woman might still prefer female sex partners (like any other male). (ancientfaith.com)
  • The number of human chromosomes was published in 1923 by Theophilus Painter . (wikimili.com)
  • The differential diagnosis of typical thecomas include fibromas and (in cases with sex cord elements) granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-stromal cell tumors. (cap.org)
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors of the ovary that usually occur in the first two to three decades of life 1 2 and represent approximately 7% of all primary malignant ovarian tumors, 3 with the exception of adult granulosa cell tumors, which are characterized by later onset with a peak incidence between 50 and 55 years of age. (bmj.com)
  • 7 Pure sex cord tumors, such as granulosa cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and sex cord tumors with annular tubules, arise from primitive sex cord cells. (bmj.com)
  • For example, 5q is the long arm of chromosome 5, and Xp is the short arm of the X chromosome. (dualjuridik.org)
  • For example: 14q21 represents position 21 on the long arm of chromosome 14. (dualjuridik.org)
  • Interestingly, cytogenetics study shows variation in the frequency of structural and numerical chromosome aberrations with frequency in all the cases of CHD. (biomedres.us)
  • Twenty two of them are autosomal and the last pair are sex chromosomes (you're either XX or XY, sound familiar? (corvidresearch.blog)
  • Studies have shown autosomal dominance inheritance with one family genetic analysis showing aberrations in the chromosome 5q31-33. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • It shows 22 homologous autosomal chromosome pairs as well as both the female (XX) and male (XY) versions of the two sex chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, in cancer karyotypes some chromosomes may contain fragments originating from several normal chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Karyotypes are symmetrical: m and sm chromosomes are common, whereas st chromosomes are rare. (abroadexport.com)
  • Most cases of childhood ALL occur in the age group of 2-7 years, and the incidence peak reaches a maximum at 3 years, where it may be 10 times higher than in older and younger children. (nature.com)
  • Such sex differences in diseases include incidence, onset age, progression, phenotypes and treatment responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Frequency of leukemia seen in India of AML is 20 - 25 % and ALL is 15 - 25%.9 The Annual incidence rates of AML and ALL are 5.6 and 30.9 per million population respectively.10Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is primarily a disease of children and young adult, where as AML occurs primarily in adults. (imedpub.com)
  • A geographic and demographic factor as well as hereditary factors were discovered, Worldwide the incidence of renal malignancies had increased in frequency according to age, sexes and race. (amhe.org)
  • In this process, the double-strand break on one chromosome is repaired using the knowledge on the homologous, intact chromosome. (edu.pl)
  • AEs are completed and the two homologous AEs of each chromosome start to pair in zygonema and form the synaptonemal complex (SC), harboring four sister chromatids. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • A picture is taken of all 46 chromosomes, in their pairs, from one cell. (abroadexport.com)
  • 2. Which of the following pairs is wrongly matched________ (a) XO type Sex Determination: Grasshopper (b) ABO Blood grouping : Co-dominance (c) Starch synthesis in Pea: Multiple alleles. (ybstudy.com)
  • Background: Turner Syndrome (TS) is caused by the complete or partial absence/abnormality of the second X chromosome in some or all cells. (jimc.ir)
  • The abnormality at the entire or part of chromosome to bands level can be detected. (abroadexport.com)
  • Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchange (SCE) were measured in peripheral blood specimens obtained between December 1981 and February 1982 from 46 persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Fenvalerate-induced chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the bone marrow cells of mice in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These proteins are less abundant on the largely unsynapsed sex chromosomes, whose sister chromatid cohesion appears weaker throughout the meiotic prophase. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • The main paradigm is that a genome rearrangement occurs when one or more chromosomes break and a following joining event reassembles the fragments in a different order. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changes in the genome occurring during the course of one's lifetime are referred to as postzygotic mutations (PZMs). (fnp.org.pl)
  • Approximately 1000 samples from the Chromosomal Aberrations and Heritable Diseases collections of the NIGMS Repository were genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 Array and analyzed for CNVs at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research. (ucsc.edu)
  • Genome Polymorphism Scans (hereafter Scans) are defined as the typing of a set of DNA polymorphisms spanning the length of each chromosome within a genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only during the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form). (wikimili.com)
  • During metaphase the X-shaped structure is called a metaphase chromosome, which is highly condensed and thus easiest to distinguish and study. (wikimili.com)
  • In assessing chromosome damage, several factors of interest--sex, cigarette smoking, history of playing on the canal site, and history of attending an elementary school that adjoined the site--were examined as possible causes of cytogenetic variation. (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: In May 1980, results of an earlier cytogenetic study led to concern that chromosome damage might be increased among residents of the Love Canal area. (cdc.gov)
  • Although cytogenetic changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes are known to persist for years after exposure to ionizing radiation, similar persistence after chemical exposures may not necessarily occur (3). (cdc.gov)
  • For some of the chidlhood malignancies, recent evidence suggest that the proportion of children that harbor premalignant tumors or hemopoietic cells with leukemia-associated cytogenetic aberrations at birth by far exceeds the proportion of children who develop overt cancer, for example, by several folds for neuroblastoma and by at least 100-fold for childhood ALL. (nature.com)
  • The occurrence of abnormal insulin and growth hormone (HGH) responses to sustained hyperglycaemia in a disease with sex chromosome aberrations (Turner's syndrome). (dbcls.jp)
  • 14. A human female with Turner's syndrome (a) has 45 chromosomes with XO (b) has one additional X chromosome (c) exhibits male characters (d) is able to produce children with normal husband. (recruitmenttopper.com)
  • 9q22.3 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 9 is deleted in each cell. (dualjuridik.org)
  • Any number of nucleotides can be deleted, from a single base to an entire piece of chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Hamer's study sample was very small, he found a significant linkage between gays and a marker on the maternal X chromosome, Xq28. (johnnel.com)
  • Modern science already knows quite a lot about inherited mutations creating a predisposition to the development of certain cancers, but much less is known about the far more commonly occurring genetic aberrations acquired over the human life cycle, also resulting in cancer. (fnp.org.pl)
  • The selection was weighted to over-sample commonly manifested types of aberrations. (ucsc.edu)
  • Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a neutrophilic dermatosis primarily affecting the eccrine glands and occurs most commonly in patients undergoing chemotherapy for a malignancy. (annals.edu.sg)
  • The difference in coloration of the sexes within a given species is called sexual dimorphism, commonly seen in many species of birds and reptiles. (topfuturepoint.com)
  • The most commonly occurring examples of convex mirrors are the passenger-side mirrors of cars. (eagetutor.com)
  • The most commonly occurring examples of concave mirrors are shaving mirrors and makeup mirrors. (eagetutor.com)
  • Females often show a preference for exaggerated male secondary sex characteristics in mate selection. (topfuturepoint.com)
  • Affected females reach puberty, develop secondary sex characteristics and menstruate at the usual time. (mdwiki.org)
  • In isolation, trisomy of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y may be better tolerated, whereas monosomy of X is the only such type of aberration that may be compatible with life. (lidsen.com)
  • Mechanisms like trisomy rescue or selection against aneuploidies may result in mosaicism and promote subsequent survival in live-born individuals, depending on the chromosomes involved. (lidsen.com)
  • Case-4 showing structural variations (16.00%) including dicentric, chromatid breaks and trisomy of chromosome-21. (biomedres.us)
  • Micronuclei (MN) are defined as small, round nuclei clearly separated from the main cell nucleus which forms from acentric chromosome fragments or whole chromosome(s) during cell division. (pdffox.com)
  • The simultaneous breakage of both DNA strands - what biologists often call a " double-strand break " - is a particularly troublesome type of DNA damage because it can cause chromosome rearrangements if the strands are improperly rejoined. (healthwebnew.com)
  • Malignancies have occurred in patients treated with OLUMIANT. (lilly.com)
  • however, this was only observed when LiCl treatment occurred throughout differentiation. (jbc.org)
  • The severity of breast cancer can be increased by estrogen , as sex hormones cause hyperplasia , and differentiation at estrogen receptor sites. (progenpeptide.com)
  • Duplications: A portion of the chromosome has been duplicated, resulting in extra genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inversions: A portion of the chromosome has broken off, turned upside down, and reattached, therefore the genetic material is inverted. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. (wikimili.com)
  • Down syndrome (DS), caused by an extra copy of the genetic material on chromosome 21, is the most common identifiable genetic cause of cognitive impairment, occurring in approximately one in 700 births. (cdc.gov)
  • [4] The loss of genetic material that results in this syndrome generally occurs during early development . (mdwiki.org)
  • Additional p-cresol or m/p-cresol was tested in vivo in an MNT test, a Rodent Dominant Lethal Test, a Drosophila melanogaster Sex-Linked recessive Lethal Test and an in vivo SCE test. (europa.eu)
  • Sex cord stromal-tumors are rare tumors of the ovary that include numerous tumor subtypes of variable histological features and biological behavior. (bmj.com)
  • What does the science actually say about biological sex? (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Many of those who are pushing back against trans healthcare and broader acceptance are explicitly premising their position on the claim that biological sex is strictly and obviously binary. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • This is not our "assigned gender": it's our biological sex. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Bimodal means that there are essentially two dimensions to the continuum of biological sex. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Biological sex has only two poles, with one axis of variation between them. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • It is also true that most people tend to cluster around one of the two poles of biological sex. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Eventually, the medical profession could no longer pretend that biological sex was confined to the polar binaries of male and female, but rather some infants presented characteristics of both sexes. (ihra.org.au)
  • The opposite of dimorphism is monomorphism , which occurs when both biological sexes are phenotypically indistinguishable from each other. (topfuturepoint.com)
  • The answer will show up often as we discuss evolution- by-products of similar biological pathways in male and female animals can give rise to traits that are only selected for in one sex, but will often show up in the other sex. (umn.edu)
  • Only dividing cells may be used for karyotyping since chromosomes are not visible in nondividing cells. (abroadexport.com)
  • Pituitary aplasia and dysplasias may occur as isolated anomalies or as part of major brain malformations, most frequently with septo-optic dysplasia, holoprosencephaly, and Joubert syndrome. (medlink.com)
  • Three patient-groups of monosomy X (45,X) cases, 45,X/46,XX or 45,X/46,XY mosaicism cases, and cases with other aberrations of X chromosome were compared in this study. (jimc.ir)
  • Turner Syndrome (TS) is caused by the complete or partial absence of the second X chromosome (monosomy) in some or all cells or presence of structurally abnormal X chromosome. (jimc.ir)
  • In addition, while there have been recent gains in understanding ASD developmental trajectories and the nature and prevalence of co-occurring conditions in persons with ASD, more work is needed to understand these aspects of ASD and develop strategies to target them successfully. (hhs.gov)
  • Does this mean both alleles of the chromosome were deleted for the specified cytoband (i.e., copy number analysis would show zero in this case)? (dualjuridik.org)
  • The head of the mature sperm consists mainly of the nucleus, which carries copies of the father's chromosomes. (dualjuridik.org)
  • Ejaculation occurs when muscle contractions propel sperm from the epididymis. (dualjuridik.org)
  • 11. An abnormal human baby'with 'XXX' sex chromosomes was bom due to (a) fusion of two ova and one sperm (b) fusion of two sperms and one ovum (c) formation of abnormal sperms in the father (d) formation of abnormal ova in the mother. (recruitmenttopper.com)
  • Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. (wikimili.com)
  • A family of sequence-specific DNA methyltransferases has been proposed to be responsible for the wave of de novo methylation that occurs in the early embryo, although no such enzyme has been identified. (researchgate.net)
  • Chromosome instability syndromes are a group of disorders characterized by chromosomal instability and breakage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the structure and number of chromosomes due to chromosomal breakage and reconnection are called chromosomal mutations. (ybstudy.com)
  • A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome. (uams.edu)
  • Testosterone is determined in men when reduced testosterone production is suspected, e.g. in hypogonadism, estrogen therapy, chromosome aberrations (as in the Klinefelter's syndrome) and liver cirrhosis. (cdc.gov)
  • It is prepared to reveal or study the chromosomes and related disorders if any. (abroadexport.com)
  • Neuropsychiatric events, including sleep disorders and behavior changes, may occur with ZYFLO CR. (nih.gov)
  • Human exposure may occur via inhalation due to the high vapor pressure of iodomethane. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational exposure to an intermediate in the manufacture of some pharmaceu- iodomethane may occur 8 hours per day, 5 days per week, ticals, in methylation processes, and in the field of micro- during the application season. (cdc.gov)
  • Congenital heart disease (CHD), a multifaceted disorder occurs during embryogenesis due to exposure of environmental mutagens (teratogens) exposed antenatally leading to high-risk of infant mortality. (biomedres.us)
  • When the chromosome's structure is altered, this can take several forms: Deletions: A portion of the chromosome is missing or has been deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletions that do not occur in multiples of three bases can cause a frameshift by changing the 3-nucleotide protein reading frame of the genetic sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abbreviations include a minus sign (-) for chromosome deletions, and del for deletions of parts of a chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stanozolol is a man-made steroid, similar to the a naturally occurring steroid testosterone. (simrankaur-khalsa.com)
  • Genetic mapping is the process of measuring the distance between two or more loci on a chromosome. (jrank.org)
  • Mutations can occur in any germ or body cell of an organism. (ybstudy.com)
  • Although the causes of genetic instability are poorly understood, chromosome instability is believed to be one of the most common causes of tissue culture-induced variation. (fao.org)
  • Meiotic cohesin plays additional but poorly understood roles in the formation of chromosome axial elements (AEs) and synaptonemal complexes. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • This is why chromosome studies are often performed on parents when a child is found to have an anomaly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 47,XYY sex chromosome complement occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live male births (1), making it the most common sex chromosome anomaly after Klinefelter syndrome (2-3). (jri.ir)
  • Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion is a rare genetic disorder characterized by development delay, facial dysmorphism, congenital malformations, and occasional autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A double mitosis occurring in sexual reproduction which results in production of gametes with haploid (n) chromosome number. (ncsu.edu)
  • Here, we show that levels of ESCO2, acSMC3, and the pro-cohesion factor sororin increase on meiotic chromosomes as homologs synapse. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • These compulsive-like mice exhibit heterogeneity in expression of compulsive-like and other adjunct behaviors that might serve as a valuable animal equivalent for examining the interactions of genetics, sex and environmental factors in influencing the pathophysiology of OCD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Understanding molecular changes underlying the development and progression of sex cord-stromal tumors provides valuable information for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for these tumors. (bmj.com)
  • Duplications of the pituitary also can occur. (medlink.com)