Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.WeldingPaintBenzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.PrintingCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)MiningCoke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Beauty CultureSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Respiratory Tract DiseasesVentilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Barbering: The occupation concerned with the cutting and dressing of the hair of customers and, of men, the shaving and trimming of the beard and mustache. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.HydrocarbonsVinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsIsocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Methylenebis(chloroaniline): Aromatic diamine used in the plastics industry as curing agent for epoxy resins and urethane rubbers. It causes bladder, liver, lung, and other neoplasms.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Coal MiningTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)SwedenLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Radon Daughters: Short-lived radioactive decay products of radon that include 216-Po, 214-Pb, 214-Bi, and 214-Po. They have an effective half-life of about 30 minutes and are solids that can deposit on the bronchial airways during inhalation and exhalation. This results in exposure of the respiratory airways to alpha radiation and can lead to diseases of the respiratory system, including lung cancer. (From Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th ed, p740)Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.LaunderingXylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Phthalic Anhydrides: Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Asbestos, Amphibole: A class of asbestos that includes silicates of magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium. The fibers are generally brittle and cannot be spun, but are more resistant to chemicals and heat than ASBESTOS, SERPENTINE. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Patch Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.PolandTrichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Mercury PoisoningInsecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.ItalyRisk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Tetraethyl Lead: A highly toxic compound used as a gasoline additive. It causes acute toxic psychosis or chronic poisoning if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.ParisNorwayBeryllium: Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.FinlandLead PoisoningBenzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.

Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions. (1/7692)

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working conditions, job control, job demands, social support at work), perceived general health (very good or good versus less than good) and demographic confounders. Data were analysed with logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: For both men and women we observed a higher odds ratio for a less than good perceived general health in the lower occupational classes (adjusted for confounders). The odds of a less than good perceived general health was larger among people reporting more hazardous physical working conditions, lower job control, lower social support at work and among those in the highest category of job demands. Results were similar for men and women. Men and women in the lower occupational classes reported more hazardous physical working conditions and lower job control as compared to those in higher occupational classes. High job demands were more often reported in the higher occupational classes, while social support at work was not clearly related to occupational class. When physical working conditions and job control were added simultaneously to a model with occupational class and confounders, the odds ratios for occupational classes were reduced substantially. For men, the per cent change in the odds ratios for the occupational classes ranged between 35% and 83%, and for women between 35% and 46%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial part of the association between occupational class and a less than good perceived general health in the working population could be attributed to a differential distribution of hazardous physical working conditions and a low job control across occupational classes. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving these working conditions might result in a reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population.  (+info)

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (2/7692)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries. (3/7692)

This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with their hands compared with 9.2% of the Chinese. Workers who ate with bare hands at least once a week had higher blood lead levels after adjusting for lead-in-air levels (mean blood lead was 30.2 and 26.4 mcg/100 ml respectively). The study indicated that the higher blood lead levels observed in the Malay workers might have been due to their higher exposure and eating with bare hands.  (+info)

Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers. (4/7692)

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

The feasibility of conducting occupational epidemiology in the UK. (5/7692)

A postal survey was carried out of 1,000 UK companies to collect information about employee biographical and work history records. The overall response rate was 46%. All companies collected surname, forenames, address, date of birth and National Insurance number--information needed for cross-sectional studies. Other biographical details such as maiden name and National Health Service number were collected less often, which could increase the cost and difficulty of tracing ex-employees. Seventy per cent reported destroying their records within 10 years of an employee leaving, rising to 82% for companies with fewer than 100 employees. The destruction of employee records creates problems for historical cohort studies and case-control studies, and may hamper ex-employees trying to claim benefit for occupational-related illness. If the scope of future occupational epidemiology is to be improved, guidelines for the collection and retention of the data required must be developed and industry encouraged to participate.  (+info)

Cohort study of art glass workers in Tuscany, Italy: mortality from non-malignant diseases. (6/7692)

This investigation studies cause-specific mortality of art glass workers employed in 17 industrial facilities in Tuscany, Italy. A cohort of 3,390 workers employed for at least 1 year was enumerated from company payrolls. Follow-up was between the start of employment in each factory and 31 December 1993. The cause-specific expected mortality was computed relative to Tuscany rates and specified for gender, 5-year age groups and calendar year. Separate analyses were carried out for the jobs of makers and formers and for batch mixers. Among males (3, 180 individuals) observed mortality for non-cancer causes was higher than expected for hypertensive disease [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 178, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) = 96-301], pneumoconiosis (SMR = 200, 90% CI = 94-376) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 169, 90% CI = 95-279). Increases for the above causes were shown also among makers and formers: hypertensive disease (SMR = 182, 90% CI = 85-341), pneumoconiosis (SMR = 250, 90% CI = 109-493) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 224, 90% CI = 121-380). For batch mixers an increase was present for cerebrovascular disease. The observed mortality for cancer causes was above the expected for cancers of the larynx, lung, stomach and brain. This study points to the existence for Tuscan glass workers of health effects in addition to cancer; previously observed carcinogenic effects were also confirmed.  (+info)

Irritant contact dermatitis due to 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in a hydrotherapy pool. Risk assessments: the need for continuous evidence-based assessments. (7/7692)

A physiotherapist working in hydrotherapy presented to occupational health with irritant contact dermatitis. Subsequent investigation revealed that the likely causative agent was 1-bromo 3-chloro 5,5 dimethylhydantoin which was used to disinfect the hydrotherapy pool. A COSHH risk assessment had been performed which failed to take full account of current knowledge and this agent had been introduced into the workplace. The development of adverse health effects among staff and other pool users lead to a review of this risk assessment and eventually a return to less hazardous chlorine-based disinfection. Had an evidence-based approach been combined with an appropriate COSHH assessment prior to and following changes in the workplace then unnecessary risk to employees would not have occurred.  (+info)

Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus. (8/7692)

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

  • The Center for the Evaluation of Risk to Human Reproduction (CERHR) was established in 1998 by the National Toxicology Program and the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences to improve our understanding of potential reproductive and developmental risks associated with environmental and occupational chemical exposures. (nih.gov)
  • Nanometer long carbon nanotubes caused sustained lung inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs (i.e., lung scarring similar to what is seen in asbestos exposure). (genre.com)
  • Abstract Background The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). (uottawa.ca)
  • The Community indicative occupational exposure limit values are established as implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC . (europa.eu)
  • Chronic exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes induced apoptosis [cell death] resistance of human lung epithelial cells. (genre.com)
  • They may suggest that you take post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a type of emergency HIV treatment that prevents HIV infection. (avert.org)
  • Study participation is 90 days and will include HIV testing, STI screening, HIV/STI risk reduction counseling, clinical assessments, blood draws and surveys designed to gather knowledge and perception of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for post exposure prophylaxis," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1-52, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • At 15:00 (84 hours) , the recipient was counselled by an infectious diseases physician and commenced post-exposure prophylaxis. (mja.com.au)
  • 4 The Department of Human Services (Victoria) recommended in 1997 that post-exposure prophylaxis be initiated promptly, preferably within 1-2 hours of exposure (based on 1996 recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (mja.com.au)
  • Young TN, Arens FJ, Kennedy GE, Laurie JW, Rutherford G. Antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for occupational HIV exposure. (aafp.org)
  • San Francisco General Hospital is now offering a free, 24-hour hotline -- The National Clinician's Post Exposure Prophylaxis Hotline (PEPLine) -- to clinicians in need of advice on how to best treat healthcare workers accidentally exposed to blood-borne diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. (thebody.com)
  • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23771678_Working_Conditions_and_Exposure_to_Dust_and_Bioaerosols_in_Sisal_Processing_Factories_in_Tanzania [accessed Aug 11, 2017]. (wikibooks.org)
  • There has been a number of epidemiological studies that have investigated occupational exposure to RF EMR and a range of diseases with many of the studies focussing on occupational groups with presumed high exposure to RF (military personnel, telecommunications, physiotherapists etc. (arpansa.gov.au)
  • Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that chronic endotoxin exposure may ead to chronic bronchitis and reduced lung function. (aaem.pl)
  • The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) is pleased to provide the following comments to the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) -- Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and Food Flavorings Containing Diacetyl. (acoem.org)
  • Based on this new research, the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Diease Registry (ATSDR) recently estimated that the safe level of airborne fluoride exposure (0.02 mg/m3) should be 125 times lower than the currently allowable levels in US workplaces (2.5 mg/m3). (fluoridealert.org)
  • We report a case of recurrent headaches in a woman with a workplace exposure to airborne (misted) lubricating fluid containing Stoddard solvent. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, the exact causative agent of lung disease from airborne exposure to food flavorings remains unknown until further research can demonstrate conclusive findings. (ohsonline.com)
  • The American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH ) reminds workers and industry of the need to protect employees from exposure to hazardous materials. (webwire.com)
  • BAuA (2008b) Risk figures and exposure-risk relationships in activities involving carcinogenic hazardous substances. (springer.com)
  • http://www.baua.de/nn_79754/en/Topics-from-A-to-Z/Hazardous-Substances/TRGS/pdf/Announcement-910.pdf? (springer.com)
  • An occupational exposure limit is an upper limit on the acceptable concentration of a hazardous substance in workplace air for a particular material or class of materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of studies investigating microbiological exposures are also limited given that many have not adequately addressed potential confounders or did not assess the vaccination status of participants (hepatitis A). However, it is clear that sewage workers are occasionally exposed to significant levels of hazardous substances. (lww.com)
  • Percutaneous or mucocutaneous exposure with blood or visibly bloody fluid or other potentially infectious material. (medscape.com)
  • A blood-borne exposure incident, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a percutaneous injury (e.g. needle-stick or cut/puncture with a sharp's type of object) or contact of mucous membrane or non-intact skin (e.g. exposed skin that is chapped, abraded, or afflicted with dermatitis) with blood, tissue, or other bodily fluids (e.g. semen, vaginal secretions) that are potentially infectious. (mc3.edu)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines occupational HIV exposure as a percutaneous injury (e.g., a needlestick, cut from a sharp object) or contact of mucous membranes or nonintact skin (e.g., skin that is chapped, abraded, or affected by dermatitis) with blood, tissue, or other body fluids that are potentially infected with HIV. (aafp.org)
  • The risk of HIV transmission is approximately 0.3 percent after percutaneous exposure to infected blood and 0.09 percent after mucous membrane exposure. (aafp.org)
  • FIGURE 33.11 Effects of age and occupational noise exposure on hearing. (bartleby.com)
  • The graph shows the threshold hearing capacities (in decibels) for sounds of different frequencies (given in hertz) in a 25-year-old carpenter (blue), a 50-year-old carpenter (red), and a 50-year-old who did not have any on-the-job noise exposure (brown). (bartleby.com)
  • Based on these data would you conclude that the hearing decline in the 50-year-old carpenter was caused by age or by job-related noise exposure? (bartleby.com)
  • Whether the hearing decline in the 50-year old carpenter was caused by age or by job-related noise exposure. (bartleby.com)
  • Refer to Fig. 33.11, "Effects of age and occupational noise exposure on hearing" in the textbook. (bartleby.com)
  • Cumulative noise exposure was quantitatively assessed. (nih.gov)
  • Given the very high prevalence of excess noise exposure at work, this association deserves further attention. (nih.gov)
  • Although the number one effect of excessive noise exposure is hearing loss, other adverse non-auditory effects have been documented in the workplace including, but not limited to, psychological stress, poor job performance, hypertension and industrial accidents. (insulation.org)
  • Excessive noise exposure will injure the hair cells along the basilar membrane and result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). (insulation.org)
  • At first, excessive exposure to high levels of noise causes only a temporary threshold shift (TTS), which is measured by testing a person s hearing before and after noise exposure. (insulation.org)
  • With any herbicide exposure at work, people were more than twice as likely to develop COPD by middle age, and workplace pesticide exposure was associated with 74 percent higher odds of the common lung disease, researchers report in Thorax. (yahoo.com)
  • These studies have repeatedly found that concentrations (as low as 0.05 mg/m3) of fluoride considered "safe" by US government scientists can impair lung function within just 1 to 2 hours of exposure. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Spirometric lung function tests were performed after recruitment and at follow-up, while exposures in the workplace were estimated from the information obtained at interviews with participants in combination with an external job exposure matrix. (eurekalert.org)
  • Occupational exposure to nickel and chromium has shown a strong link to lung cancer and may increase the risk of nasal cancer. (oncolink.org)
  • Occupational exposure in the rubber manufacturing industry has been linked to an increased risk for bladder, lung, and larynx cancers, as well as leukemia. (oncolink.org)
  • Exposure to mustard gas increases risk for lung cancer. (oncolink.org)
  • Some studies show that lung cancer in individuals exposed to mustard gas tends to develop at a younger age than would be expected and that the risk decreases as more time passes from exposure. (oncolink.org)
  • Occupational exposure to dyes, paints, metal coatings and wood varnishes/stains, has been linked to an increased risk of lung and bladder cancer. (oncolink.org)
  • Examples of findings include quantification of the smoking-adjusted risk of lung cancer and myocardial infarction after occupational exposure to motor exhaust and particles. (ki.se)
  • A third concern is the severity of the impairment in function in some persons who have developed bronchiolitis obliterans after exposure to DAPORS, leading to premature disability requiring lung transplantation, 7 and even death. (acoem.org)
  • The diagnosis was supported by bibasal lung crackles on physical examination, restrictive ventilatory defect (with decreased diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide), typical radiographical findings, lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a positive exposure test performed at the workplace. (ersjournals.com)
  • To explore the effect of exposure to o- and m-toluidine among hairdressers, we determined telomere length and methylation of genes related to bladder or lung cancer. (lu.se)
  • However, no clear patterns were found between exposure as a hairdressers and hypermethylation of genes associated with bladder cancer and lung cancer. (lu.se)
  • In the proposal, the Agency made a preliminary determination based on a review of the available data that workers in hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, correctional facilities, homeless shelters, and certain other work settings are at significant risk of incurring TB infection while caring for their patients and clients or performing certain procedures potentially involving exposure to TB. (federalregister.gov)
  • The large number of potentially exposed workers led to the development of current occupational regulation regulations. (insulation.org)
  • Each incident of occupational exposure to potentially infectious blood or fluids (i.e., those requiring universal precautions) should be treated as a medical emergency because certain interventions that may be appropriate must be initiated promptly to be effective. (cdc.gov)
  • With the changing regulatory arena, shifting centers of manufacturing growth, and the move towards a more global view on occupational hygiene issues, it is important for the Occupational Hygiene profession to understand the current and growing issues impacting the continued viability of OEL's in our professional practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • A popular exposure data statistical tool called "IH STAT" is available from AIHA (American Industrial Hygiene Association). (wikipedia.org)
  • REACH Annex 1 Section 1.0.1 defines DNELs to be a level of exposure to the substance above which humans should not be exposed. (admin.ch)
  • Evaluates the carcinogenic risk to humans posed by occupational exposure during the spraying and application of insecticides. (who.int)
  • On the basis of this evaluation, the book concludes that the spraying and application of nonarsenical insecticides entail exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans. (who.int)
  • There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to chlorophenols to humans. (inchem.org)
  • The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if hairdressers have an ongoing exposure to selected carcinogenic aromatic amines. (lu.se)