Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Abnormal fluid retention by the body due to impaired cardiac function or heart failure. It is usually characterized by increase in venous and capillary pressure, and swollen legs when standing. It is different from the generalized edema caused by renal dysfunction (NEPHROTIC SYNDROME).
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An acute disease of young pigs that is usually associated with weaning. It is characterized clinically by paresis and subcutaneous edema.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The act of constricting.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the LARYNX, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Methods used to temporarily or permanently block the flow of BODY FLUIDS through various ducts and tubules throughout the body, including BLOOD VESSELS and LYMPHATIC VESSELS such as by THERAPEUTIC EMBOLIZATION or LIGATION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
"The kappa opioid agonist niravoline decreases brain edema in the mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke". The ... It has diuretic and aquaretic effects and has been studied for its potential use for cerebral edema and cirrhosis. It exerts ...
Koizumi, J.; Y. Yoshida; T. Nakazawa; G. Ooneda (1986). "Experimental studies of ischemic brain edema. I: a new experimental ... carotid artery occlusion Two-vessel occlusion and hypotension Four-vessel occlusion Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion ... occlusion can be combined. Occluding one MCA and both CCAs is referred to as the three vessel occlusion model of focal cerebral ... MCAO avoiding craniotomy Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion Endovascular filament middle cerebral artery occlusion ( ...
... on the volume of ischemic brain damage off cytotoxic brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the feline brain". ... Traxoprodil has been researched in humans as a potential treatment to lessen the damage to the brain after stroke, but results ... Wang CX, Shuaib A (April 2005). "NMDA/NR2B selective antagonists in the treatment of ischemic brain injury". Current Drug ... functional recovery the NMDA NR2B subunit-selective receptor and reduces brain damage after cortical compression-induced brain ...
Applications in the brain: *Tract-specific localization of white matter lesions such as trauma and in defining the severity of ... DWI directly visualizes the ischemic necrosis in cerebral infarction in the form of a cytotoxic edema,[32] appearing as a high ... DWI signal within minutes of arterial occlusion.[33] With perfusion MRI detecting both the infarcted core and the salvageable ... Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is important when a tissue-such as the neural axons of white matter in the brain or muscle ...
Applications in the brain: Tract-specific localization of white matter lesions such as trauma and in defining the severity of ... DWI directly visualizes the ischemic necrosis in cerebral infarction in the form of a cytotoxic edema, appearing as a high DWI ... signal within minutes of arterial occlusion. With perfusion MRI detecting both the infarcted core and the salvageable penumbra ... This is often true, but it can be estimated that in more than 30% of the voxels in a standard resolution brain image, there are ...
In brain tumors (primary or metastatic), dexamethasone is used to counteract the development of edema, which could eventually ... central retinal vein occlusion, and uveitis. Dexamethasone has also been used with antibiotics to treat acute endophthalmitis. ... Dexamethasone is used in the treatment of high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), as well as high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE ... Nowadays evidence on the safety and efficacy of different dexamethasone in malignant brain tumor patients is still scarce and ...
It may also be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), retinal vein occlusion, ... or damage to the optic nerve causing disruption in the nerve signals sent to the brain for visual processing. It is important ... The pulling forces or traction from this adhesion on the retinal surface can sometimes cause edema within the retina, damage to ...
... is sometimes seen in individuals with brain infarctions. The damaged side of the brain conveys size information that ... Micropsia can result from retinal edema causing a dislocation of the receptor cells. Photoreceptor misalignment seems to occur ... Treatments involving the occlusion of one eye and the use of a prism fitted over an eyeglass lens have both been shown to ... by changes in the brain (such as from traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, migraines, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs), and ...
Edema, or swelling, of the brain may occur which increases intracranial pressure and may result in brain herniation. A stroke ... There are several arteries that supply oxygen to different areas of the brain, and damage or occlusion of any of them can ... The germinal matrix is a highly vascularized area within an unborn infant's brain from which brain cells, including neurons and ... The embolism prevents blood flow to the brain, which leads to a stroke.[citation needed] An aneurysm is an abnormal bulging of ...
"Taking the brain apart to put it all together again". Wyss Institute. 2018-08-20. Retrieved 2019-01-10. "Wyss Institute to ... specifically pulmonary edema, known commonly as "fluid on the lungs" - and to identify new therapeutics using this model. As an ... creation of a mechanically-activated nanotechnology for targeting clot-busting drugs to sites of vascular occlusion, and co- ... blood-brain barrier, and liver. In 2012, Ingber's team was awarded a DARPA contract to string together multiple Organ Chips to ...
Brain ischemia is insufficient blood flow to the brain, and can be acute or chronic. Acute ischemic stroke is a neurologic ... Acute arterial occlusion may develop as a result of arterial dissection in the carotid artery or aorta or as a result of ... and acute pulmonary edema. It is a disease with high mortality rate and high morbidity. Failure to treat could cause chronic ... In the highly metabolically active tissues of the heart and brain, irreversible damage to tissues can occur in as little as 3-4 ...
This occlusion of blood vessels causes localised cytotoxic edema which damages the energy-dependent pumps of the cellular ... Brain. 116 (1): 187-202. doi:10.1093/brain/116.1.187. ISSN 0006-8950. PMID 8453456. Kreling, G. A. D.; de Almeida, N. R.; dos ... Brain. 130 (6): 1690-1703. doi:10.1093/brain/awl348. ISSN 0006-8950. PMID 17264093. Schankin, C. J.; Maniyar, F. H.; Sprenger, ... often due to a blood clot formed in the heart which travels through the blood brain barrier to the brain. Usually, embolic ...
... history of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion, history of anterior uveitis, and diabetes mellitus. It ... Brain surgery involving removing the portion of the brain that is affected by the disorder can be successful in controlling the ... This reduces the amount of oxygen and blood flowing to the brain, which can affect brain tissue development.[citation needed] ... The haemangioma present on the surface of the brain is in the vast majority of cases on the same side as the birth mark and ...
The brain itself is relatively spared from pathological consequences of high pressure. However, the anterior end of the optic ... Persistent and extensive optic nerve head swelling, or optic disc edema, can lead to loss of these fibers and permanent visual ... central retinal vein occlusion, cavernous sinus thrombosis Local lesion: optic neuritis, Ischemic optic neuropathy, methanol ... Further evaluation with a CT or MRI of the brain and/or spine is usually performed. Recent research has shown that point-of- ...
Like the heart, the brain has self-protective abilities and can adapt to stress and injury (e.g., hypoxia or ischemia) by ... edema, and cell death; and improves functional outcomes. A small randomized clinical trial in severe TBI also showed that ... and damage instead results from distal embolization and side-branch occlusion. Nevertheless, myocardial damage during elective ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) shares many pathophysiological pathways with acute stroke, and ischemic preconditioning increases ...
In these models, EETs prevent arterial occlusive diseases such as heart attacks and brain strokes not only by their anti- ... Most of these studies have focused on circulating leukocytes, blood vessel endothelium, and the occlusion of blood vessels due ... this protective effect appeared due to a reduction in cerebral edema which was also presumable due to the prolongation of EET ... and brain. CYP2S1 is expressed in macrophages, liver, lung, intestine, and spleen and is abundant in human and mouse ...
... brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system may be involved. Emboli to the brain may cause stroke-like episodes, ... Increased amounts of protein in the urine may cause edema (swelling) of the skin (a combination of symptoms known as nephrotic ... Flory CM (1945). "Arterial occlusions produced by emboli from eroded aortic atheromatous plaques". Am J Pathol. 21 (3): 549-565 ...
This enables researchers to make brain maps of fiber directions to examine the connectivity of different regions in the brain ( ... It is speculated that increases in restriction (barriers) to water diffusion, as a result of cytotoxic edema (cellular swelling ... occlusions, aneurysms (vessel wall dilatations, at risk of rupture) or other abnormalities. MRA is often used to evaluate the ... It is used to understand how different parts of the brain respond to external stimuli or passive activity in a resting state, ...
This can be thought of as an example of brain edema of the "cytotoxic" type.[10] ... occlusion of the shunt is required to address the symptoms.[7] ... for proteins implicated in neural excitation and brain edema is ... Coma and seizures represent the most advanced stage; cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain tissue) leads to death.[3] ... There is increased activity of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, and the energy supply to other brain cells is ...
Oldendorf WH (1978). "The quest for an image of brain: a brief historical and technical review of brain imaging techniques". ... Tumors can be detected by the swelling and anatomical distortion they cause, or by surrounding edema. Ambulances equipped with ... allowing radiologists to assess the extent of occlusion in the coronary arteries, usually in order to diagnose coronary artery ... Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M (eds.). Brain ...
In contrast, the most proximal occlusions result in widespread effects that can lead to significant cerebral edema, increased ... usually the right brain) Visual disorders: déviation conjuguée, a gaze preference towards the side of the lesion; contralateral ... Depending upon the location and severity of the occlusion, signs and symptoms may vary within the population affected with MCA ... leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel: the lateral aspects of frontal, ...
It also binds with a high affinity to the membranes of atrial and brain to induce hydrolysis of phosphoinositides in these ... This peribronchial edema is likely caused by impairment of left ventricular relaxation, elevating microvascular hydrostatic ... Das B, Sarkar C, Shankar PR (August 2007). "Pretreatment with sarafotoxin 6c prior to coronary occlusion protects against ... Proving this theory of edema, during investigation, abundant and frothy fluid was found in tracheal cannulas after sarafotoxin ...
... brain tissue, brain ventricles, and/or intracranial vessels). The common drawback of all these methods is that they measure ... the absence of modulation of the measured OAE phase with respiration may indicate occlusion of the cochlear aqueduct, in which ... and the level of edema. Therefore, this approach would require calibration and expert positioning. ... Brain parenchyma tissue[edit]. More recently, multivariate methods have been proposed that derive ICP by combining the transit ...
... or occlusion have the potential for further stroke by detachment of embolus and migration to an end-artery of the brain. Hence ... The corneal layers show edema and striae. There is mild anterior uveitis. A cherry-red spot may be seen in the macula, along ... Retinal artery occlusion (such as central retinal artery occlusion or branch retinal artery occlusion) leads to rapid death of ... Retinal arterial occlusion is an ophthalmic emergency, and prompt treatment is essential. Completely anoxic retina in animal ...
... traumatic vascular occlusion, and vascular dissection. A CT can detect changes in density between the brain tissue and ... Another example is if cerebral edema, a diffuse dysfunction, leads to ischemia of the brainstem, a structural issue, due to the ... Perform brain scans to observe any abnormal brain functioning using either CT or MRI scans Continue to monitor brain waves and ... An ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, or tumor may cause restriction of blood flow. Lack of blood to cells in the brain ...
Cerebral edema, brain hemorrhages and hydrocephalus exert pressure on brain tissue and impede their absorption of oxygen. ... This may be due to a variety of medical conditions such as an aneurysm that causes a hemorrhagic stroke, or an occlusion ... The brain requires approximately 3.3 ml of oxygen per 100 g of brain tissue per minute. Initially the body responds to lowered ... If cerebral hypoxia was localized to a specific part of the brain, brain damage will be localized to that region. A general ...
... a cavity at the base of the brain which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart. This is a rare disorder and ... Orbital venography is difficult to perform, but it is excellent in diagnosing occlusion of the cavernous sinus.[citation needed ... Classic presentations are abrupt onset of unilateral periorbital edema, headache, photophobia, and bulging of the eye ( ... Orbital cellulitis Internal carotid artery aneurysm Stroke Migraine headache Allergic blepharitis Thyroid exophthalmos Brain ...
This may also be used on the brain, where CT perfusion imaging can often detect poor brain perfusion well before it is detected ... Tumors can be detected by the swelling and anatomical distortion they cause, or by surrounding edema. CT scanning of the head ... allowing radiologists to assess the extent of occlusion in the coronary arteries, usually to diagnose coronary artery disease. ... Oldendorf WH (1978). "The quest for an image of brain: a brief historical and technical review of brain imaging techniques". ...
The brain combines the signals from neighboring cones to distinguish different colors. There is only one type of rod, but the ... macula histology (OCT) Macular degeneration Macular edema Macular pucker Cherry-red spot Macular hypoplasia Photic retinopathy ... In the case of occipitoparietal ischemia owing to occlusion of elements of either posterior cerebral artery, patients may ... Visual input from the macula occupies a substantial portion of the brain's visual capacity. As a result, some forms of visual ...
Cerebral edema, brain hemorrhages and hydrocephalus exert pressure on brain tissue and impede their absorption of oxygen. ... This may be due to a variety of medical conditions such as an aneurysm that causes a hemorrhagic stroke, or an occlusion ... The brain requires approximately 3.3 ml of oxygen per 100 g of brain tissue per minute. Initially the body responds to lowered ... Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is ...
Section: Changes in the Fetal Circulation and Occlusion of Fetal Vessels after Birth". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of ... "Hyperfibrinolysis increases blood-brain barrier permeability by a plasmin- and bradykinin-dependent mechanism". Blood. 128 (20 ... formerly known as hereditary angio-neurotic edema.[8] ... It also plays a role in the constriction and eventual occlusion ...
... the liver resulting in copper accumulation in the body and is characterised by abnormalities of the basal ganglia of the brain ... Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion. *Central retinal artery occlusion. *Branch retinal artery occlusion ... Macular edema. *Epiretinal membrane (Macular pucker). *Vitelliform macular dystrophy. *Leber's congenital amaurosis ...
Left atrial appendage occlusion[edit]. There is tentative evidence that left atrial appendage occlusion therapy may reduce the ... traveling to the brain resulting in small ischemic strokes without symptoms, altered blood flow to the brain, inflammation, ... which are suggestive of pulmonary edema. Examination of the heart will reveal a rapid irregular rhythm. ... Emboli in the brain may result in an ischemic stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). ...
Other causes of color blindness include brain or retinal damage caused by accidents and other traumas which produce swelling of ... Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion. *Central retinal artery occlusion. *Branch retinal artery occlusion ... Macular edema. *Epiretinal membrane (Macular pucker). *Vitelliform macular dystrophy. *Leber's congenital amaurosis ... optic nerve or parts of the brain.[2] Diagnosis is typically with the Ishihara color test; however, a number of other testing ...
Oldendorf WH (1978). "The quest for an image of brain: a brief historical and technical review of brain imaging techniques". ... Tumors can be detected by the swelling and anatomical distortion they cause, or by surrounding edema. Ambulances equipped with ... allowing radiologists to assess the extent of occlusion in the coronary arteries, usually in order to diagnose coronary artery ... Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M. Brain Stimulation: ...
Edema. general: Anasarca · Angioedema/Lymphedema · Exudate/Transudate. regional: Cerebral edema · Pulmonary edema · Hydrothorax ... Diagram of a myocardial infarction (2) of the tip of the anterior wall of the heart (an apical infarct) after occlusion (1) of ... Brain ischemia · Ischaemic heart disease · Ischemic colitis/Mesenteric ischemia. Infarction. general: Anemic infarct · ...
Brain tumor, pseudotumor cerebri (also known as Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension), cerebral venous sinus thrombosis or ... Glaucoma: central retinal vein occlusion, cavernous sinus thrombosis. *Local lesion: optic neuritis, Ischemic optic neuropathy ... Persistent and extensive optic nerve head swelling, or optic disc edema, can lead to loss of these fibers and permanent visual ... As the optic nerve sheath is continuous with the subarachnoid space of the brain (and is regarded as an extension of the ...
The goal is weight loss of no more than 1.0 kg/day for patients with both ascites and peripheral edema and no more than 0.5 kg/ ... Hepatic venous occlusion: Budd-Chiari syndrome or veno-occlusive disease. *Constrictive pericarditis ... Brain ischemia. *Ischaemic heart disease. *large intestine: Ischemic colitis. *small intestine: Mesenteric ischemia ... The goal is weight loss of no more than 1.0 kg/day for patients with both ascites and peripheral edema and no more than 0.5 kg/ ...
In cases of severe stroke, tPA can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter interstitial fluid, where it then increases ... This may be aided by fibrinolytic drugs such as Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) in instances of coronary artery occlusion. ... "TPA modulation of the blood-brain barrier: A unifying explanation for the pleiotropic effects of tPA in the CNS?". Seminars in ... excitotoxicity, potentially affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier,[10] and may even cause cerebral hemorrhaging.[11 ...
A stroke is the rapid decline of brain function due to a disturbance in the supply of blood to the brain. This can be due to ... In deep vein thrombosis this manifests as pain, redness, and swelling; in retinal vein occlusion this may result in macular ... and Edema". International Journal of Stroke. 10 (2): 143-152. doi:10.1111/ijs.12434. ISSN 1747-4930.. ... This can affect any organ; for instance, arterial embolism of the brain is one of the cause of stroke.[citation needed] ...
Contrast-enhanced brain MRI and CT is generally negative in this disorder. Recent studies have shown that 3T MRI using super ... to prevent irreversible blindness secondary to ophthalmic artery occlusion. Steroids do not prevent the diagnosis from later ... Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy. *Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. *Bullous small vessel vasculitis. *Cutaneous small-vessel ...
It can cause ischemic brain injury (referred to as "delayed ischemia") and permanent brain damage due to lack of oxygen in ... and aneurysm occlusion". Lancet. 366 (9488): 809-17. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67214-5. PMID 16139655. S2CID 18777412.. ... A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema[12] where a process of increased pressure within the ... In 85 percent of spontaneous cases the cause is a cerebral aneurysm-a weakness in the wall of one of the arteries in the brain ...
The brain combines the signals from neighboring cones to distinguish different colors. There is only one type of rod, but the ... In the case of occipitoparietal ischemia owing to occlusion of elements of either posterior cerebral artery, patients may ... Visual input from the macula occupies a substantial portion of the brain's visual capacity. As a result, some forms of visual ...
... branch retinal vein occlusion (5.8%),[7] and retinal edema (6.6%).[7] However, optic atrophy was the most significant cause of ... Brain[edit]. Main article: Neuro-Behçet's disease. CNS involvement most often occurs as a chronic meningoencephalitis. Lesions ... Other fundoscopic findings include vascular sheathing (23.7%),[7] retinal hemorrhage (9%),[7] macular edema (11.3%),[7] ... Vasculitis resulting in occlusion of the vessels supplying the optic nerve may be the cause of acute optic neuropathy and ...
Other causes for floaters include cystoid macular edema and asteroid hyalosis. The latter is an anomaly of the vitreous humour ... Floaters are often caused by the normal aging process and will usually disappear as the brain learns to ignore them. Looking up ... Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion. *Central retinal artery occlusion. *Branch retinal artery occlusion ... and the brain "tunes out" stabilized images due to neural adaptation. This stabilization is often interrupted by floaters, ...
A stroke is the rapid decline of brain function due to a disturbance in the supply of blood to the brain. This can be due to ... In deep vein thrombosis this manifests as pain, redness, and swelling; in retinal vein occlusion this may result in macular ... This can affect any organ; for instance, arterial embolism of the brain is one of the cause of stroke.[citation needed] ... Alternatively, arterial occlusion occurs as a consequence of embolism of blood clots originating from the heart ("cardiogenic" ...
As the cause of the ischemia can be due to embolic or thrombotic occlusion of the mesenteric vessels or nonocclusive ischemia, ... Mesenteric edema[22]. *Bowel dilatation[22]. *Bowel wall thickening[22]. *Intramural gas[22] ... Brain ischemia. *Ischaemic heart disease. *large intestine: Ischemic colitis. *small intestine: Mesenteric ischemia ... Surgical revascularisation remains the treatment of choice for mesenteric ischaemia related to an occlusion of the vessels ...
... primarily the thalamus of the mid brain) or the cerebral cortex (the new brain), specifically the fourth visual association ... Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion. *Central retinal artery occlusion. *Branch retinal artery occlusion ... Macular edema. *Epiretinal membrane (Macular pucker). *Vitelliform macular dystrophy. *Leber's congenital amaurosis ... Cerebral achromatopsia is a form of acquired color blindness that is caused by damage to the cerebral cortex of the brain, ...
Occlusion would never be used in infants though both because of the risk of inducing stimulus deprivation amblyopia and because ... Because the nerve emerges near the bottom of the brain, it is often the first nerve compressed when there is any rise in ... Macular edema. *Epiretinal membrane (Macular pucker). *Vitelliform macular dystrophy. *Leber's congenital amaurosis ... In Millard-Gubler syndrome, a unilateral softening of the brain tissue arising from obstruction of the blood vessels of the ...
If, however, there is a tubal occlusion at the utero-tubal junction, a hydrosalpinx may go undetected. When a hydrosalpinx is ... Brain ischemia. *Ischaemic heart disease. *large intestine: Ischemic colitis. *small intestine: Mesenteric ischemia ... The major cause for distal tubal occlusion is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), usually as a consequence of an ascending ... When laparoscopy is performed, the surgeon may note the distended tubes, identify the occlusion, and may also find associated ...
... the retina separates into several layers and may detach Retinal artery occlusion Retinal vein occlusion (H35.0) Hypertensive ... the brain does not receive optical information, through various causes (H54/B73) River blindness - blindness caused by long- ... Macular edema - distorted central vision, due to a swollen macula (H35.9) Retinal disorder, unspecified (H36.0) Diabetic ... poor or blurry vision due to either no transmission or poor transmission of the visual image to the brain (H53.0) Leber's ...
... acute hemorrhagic edema of childhood, Finkelstein's disease, infantile postinfectious iris-like purpura and edema, medallion- ... brain-like heterotopia, cephalic brain-like heterotopia, glial hamartoma, heterotopic neuroglial tissue, nasal cerebral ... Narcotic dermopathy Occlusion miliaria Painful fat herniation (painful piezogenic pedal papules, piezogenic papules) Peat fire ... Acne with facial edema (solid facial edema) Blepharophyma Erythrotelangiectatic rosacea (erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, ...
Recirculation model following MCA occlusion in rats Cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular permeability, and brain edema ... Further study is required to determine thresholds of ischemic brain damage and edema formation at recirculation following focal ... Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and pupil responses are key indicators of the severity of traumatic brain damage. The aim of ... The performance of the simple GCS-P was similar to the performance of more complex methods of evaluating traumatic brain damage ...
... were determined during the 7 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. In the normal caudate-putamen (CP), 869 +/- 145 ... Brain / pathology* * Brain Edema / diagnosis * Brain Ischemia / diagnosis* * Brain Ischemia / pathology * Cerebral Arteries / ... Changes of relaxation times (T1, T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the ... were determined during the 7 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. In the normal caudate-putamen (CP), 869 +/- 145 ...
25 years have passed since a small group met for the First International Symposia on Brain Edema in Vienna. Subsequent Symposia ... Brain Oedema and Intracranial Pressure in Superior Sagittal Sinus Balloon Occlusion. An Experimental Study in Pigs ... Brain Edema VIII. Book Subtitle. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium, Bern, June 17-20, 1990. Editors. * Hans-J. ... Brain Edema VIII. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium, Bern, June 17-20, 1990. Editors: Reulen, H.-J., Baethmann ...
Erratum to: Lack of functional P2X7 receptor aggravates brain edema development after middle cerebral artery occlusion. ... Lack of functional P2X7 receptor aggravates brain edema development after middle cerebral artery occlusion. ... Behav Brain Res. 2014 Oct 15;273:16-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.06.056. Epub 2014 Jul 17. ... Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Oct;25(7):1384-92. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2011.04.005. Epub 2011 Apr 18. ...
"The kappa opioid agonist niravoline decreases brain edema in the mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke". The ... 3.[1] It has diuretic and aquaretic effects and has been studied for its potential use for cerebral edema[2] and cirrhosis.[3] ...
The XIII International Symposium on Brain Edema intracerebral hemorrhage, including the primary event and Tissue Injury was ... Protective effect of the V1a receptor antagonist SR49059 on brain edema formation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in ... Photodynamic therapy increases brain edema and intracranial pressure in a rabbit brain tumor model ... Bolus tracer delivery measured by MRI confirms edema without blood-brain barrier permeability in diffuse traumatic brain injury ...
Wistar rats were subjected to transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Eighty nine rats with substantially ... Brain edema was measured on day 5 by MRI, histochemical staining of brain sections and tissue water content determination (n=7 ... Treadmill exercise ameliorates ischemia-induced brain edema while suppressing Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 expression.. [Ryutaro Nishioka ... In this study, the effects of forced treadmill exercise with electric shock on ischemic brain edema were investigated. ...
Infarct volume, brain edema, blood brain barrier damage, white matter demyelination, and neurological deficits were assessed. ... Wild-type WNK3 and WNK3 knockout mice were subjected to ischemic stroke via transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. ... A-B. Brain water content and percentage of hemispheric swelling at 24 h after MCAO. Values are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 4-8 ... p , 0.05 vs. -15 min, #p , 0.05 vs 0 min with one-way ANOVA . Representative coronal brain sections from WT and WNK3 KO mice. ...
... of hindlimbs with femoral artery occlusion. Note that TNF-α was observed within DRG neurons of C-fiber afferent nerves. ... of hindlimbs with femoral artery occlusion. Note that TNF-α was observed within DRG neurons of C-fiber afferent nerves. ... was previously administered into the hindlimb with femoral artery occlusion, sympathetic and pressor responses induced by ... was previously administered into the hindlimb with femoral artery occlusion, sympathetic and pressor responses induced by ...
The intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is the most frequent used model among experimental ischemic ... Koizumi, J., Yoshida, Y., Nakazawa, T., Ooneda, G. Experimental studies of ischemic brain edema. I. A new experimental model of ... The brain is carefully removed and placed in a mouse brain matrix slicer, and the entire cerebrum is coronally sectioned at 2 ... Figure 1. TTC-stained serial coronal brain sections (2 mm) from mice subjected to MCA occlusion. ...
Perinatal brain injury is typically associated with hypoxia-ischemia and/or infection/inflammation. Both hypoxia-ischemia and ... Perinatal brain injury is typically associated with hypoxia-ischemia and/or infection/inflammation. Both hypoxia-ischemia and ... It is now well established that brain injury evolves over time, and shows a striking spread from injured to previously ... It is now well established that brain injury evolves over time, and shows a striking spread from injured to previously ...
Koizumi, J. Y., Nakazawa, T., Ooneda, G. Experimental studies of ischemic brain edema. Nosotchu. 8, (1), 1-8 (1986). ... Lim, C., et al. Licorice pretreatment protects against brain damage induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. ... Kumar, A., Gupta Aakriti, V. A review on animal models of stroke: an update. Brain Research Bulletin. 122, 35-44 (2016). ... Barlow, S. J. Identifying the brain regions associated with acute spasticity in patients diagnosed with an ischemic stroke. ...
Acute ischemic strokes result from vascular occlusion secondary to thromboembolic disease (see Etiology). Ischemia causes cell ... Ischemic brain edema following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. I: The time courses of the brain water, ... Imaging-guided acute ischemic stroke therapy: From "time is brain" to "physiology is brain". AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006 Apr. ... Influx of sodium and calcium ions and passive inflow of water into the cell lead to cytotoxic edema. [7, 8, 9] ...
Ischemic brain edema following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. I: The time courses of the brain water, ... Imaging-guided acute ischemic stroke therapy: From "time is brain" to "physiology is brain". AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006 Apr. ... CBF and time thresholds for the formation of ischemic cerebral edema, and effect of reperfusion in baboons. J Neurosurg. 1985 ... Old microbleeds are a potential risk factor for cerebral bleeding after ischemic stroke: a gradient-echo T2*-weighted brain MRI ...
Vascular occlusion may also result from cerebral edema, if brain herniation develops. In the post-operative patient, ischemic ... Cerebral edema and Intracerebral hemorrhage. Post-operative cerebral edema can be severe in infrequent cases. Cerebral edema or ... Brain imaging with CT or MRI is often necessary to differentiate stroke from cerebral edema and hemorrhage. Often these ... Cerebral edema is often responsible for transient deficits and occurs as a result of tissue manipulation. Cerebral edema should ...
Ischemia of the brain is a reduction of cerebral blood flow below a critical threshold necessary for maintaining normal ... Hossmann, K.-A., Schuier, F.J.: The metabolic (cytotoxic) type of brain edema following middle cerebral artery occlusion in ... Hossmann, K.-A., Schuier, F.J.: Pathophysiology of stroke edema. In: Brain and heart infarct II. Zülch, K.J. et al. (eds.). ... Hossmann, K.-A.: Total ischemia of the brain. In: Brain and heart infarct. Zülch, K.J. et al. (eds.), pp. 107-122. Berlin, ...
... brain edema and infarction volume in mice lacking the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase after transient MCA occlusion. ... 1993) A2A adenosine receptor gene expression in developing rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 20:313-327. ... The brains were post-fixed in the same solution for 2 hr and then cryoprotected in 20% glycerol. Brains were cut coronally in ... 1993) Antagonism of the NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in global versus focal brain ischemia. Prog Brain Res 96:125-135. ...
... of neurologic function persisting for more than 24 hours that is caused by an interruption of the blood supply to the brain ( ... Ischemic brain edema following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. I: The time courses of the brain water, ... leading to vasogenic edema. Vasogenic edema produces greater levels of brain swelling and mass effect that peak at 3-5 days and ... In addition to vascular occlusions, CTA source images are able to demonstrate hypoperfused brain parenchyma in acute stroke ...
Effect of nimodipine on ischemia-induced brain edema and mortality in a novel transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model ... Department of Neurology, Institute of Brain Diseases, Tohoku University School of Medicine (1990 from CiNii) ... Effect of Cerebral Arterial Occlusion on Cerebral Perivascular Innervation: A Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study in ... Effect of trazodone (KB-831) and its metabolites on brain monoamines in rat. (1989) ...
... brain edema and infarction volume in mice lacking the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase after transient MCA occlusion. ... GLP-1R is expressed in mouse brain neurons.. To determine GLP-1R expression in the brain, we performed immunohistochemical ... Brain immunocytochemistry.. Animals were deeply anesthetized and perfused transcardially with 4% paraformaldehyde. The brains ... Interactions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with the blood-brain barrier. J Mol Neurosci 2002;18:7-14pmid:11931352. ...
Brain edema continues to be a major cause of mortality after diverse types of brain pathologies such as major cerebral infarcts ... The biphasic opening of the blood-brain barrier to proteins following temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. Acta ... Angiopoietins Aquaporins Blood-brain barrier Brain edema Caveolin-1 Claudin-5 Cold injury Cytotoxic edema JAM-A Matrix ... Brain edema continues to be a major cause of mortality after diverse types of brain pathologies such as major cerebral infarcts ...
Effect of delayed albumin hemodilution on infarction volume and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in ... Second, brain swelling resulting from brain edema may be present in the 24-hour T2w images, leading to potential confounds when ... Serial MRI after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats: dynamics of tissue injury, blood-brain barrier damage, and edema ... Spatiotemporal Uptake Characteristics of [18]F-2-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose in a Rat Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Hong ...
Ischemic brain edema following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. I: The time courses of the brain water, ... Cerebral edema after temporary and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.Stroke. 26: 1061-1065, discussion 1065 ... The most suitable desalting fluid was further tested on infarcted rat brain sections where the edema-induced increase of tissue ... The brains were rapidly dissected from the cranium and snap-frozen in isopentane prechilled on dry ice. The frozen brains were ...
In control animals, cerebral blood flow was decreased 30 and 60 minutes after reperfusion and brain water (edema) was increased ... Ischemia was produced by bilateral carotid occlusion for ten minutes, followed by reperfusion for 60 minutes. ... Eicosapentaenoic acid: Effect on brain prostaglandins, cerebral blood flow and edema in ischemic gerbils. Stroke. 15(1):65-69, ... DHA protects the brain from many of the TOXIC AFTER-EFFECTS OF STROKE (this means that people who supplement with or consume ...
Intravitreal Injections in Patients With Visual Impairment Due to Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion ( ... Brain hypoxia † 1 1/357 (0.28%) Cerebrovascular accident † 1 2/357 (0.56%) ...
... of the blood-brain barrier Na-K-Cl cotransporter and decreases edema formation in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. J ... Kim JY et al. Agmatine Attenuates Brain Edema and Apoptotic Cell Death after Traumatic Brain Injury. J Korean Med Sci 30:943-52 ... Yuan J et al. Cordycepin attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced impairments of blood-brain barrier integrity in rats. Brain ... Fan YN et al. Mir-34a Mimics Are Potential Therapeutic Agents for p53-Mutated and Chemo-Resistant Brain Tumour Cells. PLoS One ...
We assessed brain damage, functional deficits, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier damage at 24 h after ischemia. For ... dose-dependently reduced brain infarct volume, behavioral deficits, brain water content, and Evans Blue (EB) leakage. DHCA ... with protective effects on ischemia-induced neuronal damage and brain edema. ... in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) rat model. The current study further investigated the protective ...
Protective effect of the V1a receptor antagonist SR49059 on brain edema formation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in ... Brain Edema Formation. Sham-operated animals showed normal brain water content 24 hours after surgery (79.0%±0.1% in vehicle- ... Effect of AVP on brain edema following traumatic brain injury. Chin J Traumatol. 2007;10:90-93. ... As a result, brain edema formation is blunted, mortality is reduced from 50% to 20%, and animals have a better functional ...
The effects of Tanshinone IIA on blood-brain barrier and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. ...
... alleviated brain edema, and increased the number of normal neurons following injury. MALDI-MSI revealed that thymoquinone ... in a model of ischemia reperfusion injury to explore the changes in small-molecule metabolites in the brain. We found that that ... and sodium ions in damaged areas of the brain following cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. In summary, based on the ... In this study, transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) was used to establish the rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion ...
  • CBF and time thresholds for the formation of ischemic cerebral edema, and effect of reperfusion in baboons. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) was used to establish the rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. (mdpi.com)
  • We investigated the effects of thymoquinone using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) in a model of ischemia reperfusion injury to explore the changes in small-molecule metabolites in the brain. (mdpi.com)
  • However, restoring the blood flow causes a series of pathophysiological cascades that can lead to further damage to the brain, a process known as ischemia reperfusion injury [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in rats by 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 23 hours reperfusion. (sid.ir)
  • Herein, we evaluated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), a guanosine 5 -triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and investigated the underlying mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • In rats with 2-h t-MCA occlusion followed by 22-h reperfusion, BHB significantly reduced cerebral infarct area, edema formation, lipid peroxidation and neurological deficits. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Taking together the results obtained in our previous study into account, these results indicate that BHB decreased cerebral edema formation and infarct area by improving of the cerebral energy metabolism during ischemia and by inhibition of lipid peroxidation after reperfusion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We investigated the neuroprotective roles of bilobalide in the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cerebral I/R injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ischemia and reperfusion can cause serious brain damage in stroke or cardiac arrest. (benbest.com)
  • I focus my attention on ischemic/reperfusion injury to the brain. (benbest.com)
  • Adult male C57BL6/J wild type (WT) and mast cell-deficient (C57BL6/J KitWsh/Wsh (Wsh)) mice underwent tMCAo and BBB breakdown, brain edema and neutrophil infiltration were examined after 4 hours of reperfusion. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Transient filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats: does the reperfusion method matter 24 hours after perfusion? (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are two widely used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) methods, which differ in the use of unilateral or bilateral carotid artery reperfusion (UNICAR and BICAR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • UNICAR and BICAR have similar capability for inducing acute brain ischemic injury and can be considered interchangeable up to 24 hours after reperfusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To test this hypothesis we compared both reperfusion methods in regards to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ) within the ischemic brain tissue during MCAO/reperfusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, little is known about the role of HET0016 in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. (qxmd.com)
  • The present study was designed to examine the effect of HET0016 in a MCAO and reperfusion rat model to determine whether it protects against brain edema and BBB disruption. (qxmd.com)
  • At 24h after reperfusion, HET0016 reduced brain edema and BBB leakage. (qxmd.com)
  • Pinocembrin attenuates blood-brain barrier injury induced by global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. (qxmd.com)
  • Effects of erythropoietin on blood-brain barrier tight junctions in ischemia-reperfusion rats. (qxmd.com)
  • A lipoxin A4 analog ameliorates blood-brain barrier dysfunction and reduces MMP-9 expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. (qxmd.com)
  • Apocynum venetum leaf extract attenuates disruption of the blood-brain barrier and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9/-2 in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. (qxmd.com)
  • Methods Following surgical induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, agmatine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 5 min after beginning of reperfusion and again once daily for the next 3 post-operative days. (oalib.com)
  • Four days after reperfusion, both motor and proprioception functions were assessed and then all rats were sacrificed for determination of brain infarct volume (2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining), apoptosis (TUNEL staining), edema (both cerebral water content and amounts of aquaporin-4 positive cells), gliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]-positive cells), and neurotoxicity (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] expression). (oalib.com)
  • Causes of cerebral edema and hemorrhage immediately after cranioplasty include reperfusion , reduction of automatic adjustment function, sinking skin flap syndrome , negative pressure due to s.c. drain , venous stasis, vascular damage following restoration of midline shift , and allergic reaction 1) . (neurosurgery.directory)
  • Importantly, after transient ischemia, brain damage results from both the ischemia and the effects of reperfusion (reperfusion injury). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) or control rats underwent 3 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 21 h reperfusion followed by evaluation of infarct size, hemorrhage and neurological outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Shamsaei N, Erfani S, Fereidoni M, Shahbazi A. Neuroprotective Effects of Exercise on Brain Edema and Neurological Movement Disorders Following the Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats. (ac.ir)
  • Evidence indicates that exercise reduces the ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain damages in animal models of stroke. (ac.ir)
  • In the present study, the effect of exercise preconditioning on brain edema and neurological movement disorders following the cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats was investigated. (ac.ir)
  • Preconditioning by exercise had neuroprotective effects against brain ischemia and reperfusion-induced edema and movement disorders. (ac.ir)
  • 9 Cerebral infarct volume and edema were measured by high-contrast silver infarct staining (SIS) 7 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), including 2 h of MCAO and 5 h of reperfusion. (asahq.org)
  • 94] achieved a similar infarct- simultaneously with the onset of myocardial reperfusion- limiting effect in rabbits by applying a single 10-min episode a phenomenon named as remote ischaemic postcondition- of ischaemia to a kidney prior to 30-min occlusion of the ing (RIPost) [1]. (deepdyve.com)
  • Therefore, we examined the behavior of HMGB1 and the expression of RAGE in non-DM and DM rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion (MCAO/Re). (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Both brain infarction and edema were evaluated at various times after reperfusion. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is the most frequent used model among experimental ischemic stroke models. (jove.com)
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion is achieved in this model by injecting particles like blood clots (thrombembolic MCAO) or artificial spheres into the carotid artery of animals as an animal model of ischemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the quality of MCAO - and thus the volume of brain infarcts - is very variable, a fact which is further aggravated by a certain rate of spontaneous lysis of injected blood clots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilobalide was administered intraperitoneally 60 min before induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Male Wistar rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cerebral edema was evaluated in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging and calculation of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). (elsevier.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed ADC ratios (ipsilateral MCAO/contralateral control) ranging from 0.577 to 0.637 in cortex and striatum, indicating substantial edema formation. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that HET0016 reduces cerebral infarction volume in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. (qxmd.com)
  • The quantitative NMR parameters T1, T2, rho, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were determined during the 7 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Suppressed Fat Appetite after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Associates with Reduced Brain μ-opioid Receptor Availability in Diet-Induced Obese Male Rats. (nih.gov)
  • Wistar rats were subjected to transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Responses of sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure are augmented during activation of the exercise pressor reflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effects of these injections on the sympathetic and pressor responses were further examined in control rats and rats with femoral artery occlusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods- The intraluminal suture middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used to induce focal cerebral ischemia in rats (n=48). (ahajournals.org)
  • 2010. The effects of Tanshinone IIA on blood-brain barrier and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (springer.com)
  • In rats, post-ischemic treatment with TC decreased cerebral infarct size and edema. (medindia.net)
  • T2-weighted imaging was performed to evaluate brain edema lesions in the stroke rats. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, the cerebroprotective effect of BHB was examined in rats with permanent (p)-occlusion and transient (t)-occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA). (nii.ac.jp)
  • In rats with p-MCA occlusion, BHB significantly reduced infarct area at 24 h after the occlusion, but not at 72 h after the occlusion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cerebralcare Granule® attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (qxmd.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of agmatine on brain apoptosis, astrogliosis and edema in the rats with transient cerebral ischemia. (oalib.com)
  • Conclusions The data suggest that agmatine may improve outcomes of transient cerebral ischemia in rats by reducing brain apoptosis, astrogliosis and edema. (oalib.com)
  • however, rats are the most commonly used animals for several reasons, including: (1) their resemblance to humans in their cerebral anatomy and physiology, (2) their small size which enables easy analysis of physiology and brain tissue, (3) their low cost, (4) the remarkable genetic homogeneity within strains, and (5) greater public and institutional ethical acceptability of use relative to larger animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Control non-DM and DM rats underwent sham operation using the same manipulation, but without insertion of the occlusion filament. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the expression of RAGE was upregulated in the brains of DM ischemic and control rats. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Liposome-entrapped CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) ameliorated ischemic brain edema and infarction in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The volume of cerebral infarction, as well as the associated neurological deficit induced by transient filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, were significantly attenuated in A 2A receptor knock-out mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Approximately 80-87% of strokes are from ischemic infarction due to thrombotic or embolic cerebrovascular occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Ischemia also directly results in dysfunction of the cerebral vasculature, with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier occurring within 4-6 hours after infarction. (medscape.com)
  • Localized reduction of brain blood flow can result in cerebral ischemia, and prolonged ischemia causes brain infarction, which in turn could result in death [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When injecting spheres into the cerebral circulation, their size determines the pattern of brain infarction: Macrospheres (300-400 µm) induce infarcts similar to those achieved by occlusion of the proximal MCA [5], whereas microsphere (~ 50 µm) injection results in distal, diffuse embolism [6]. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prospective cohort study of all patients in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, who presented with the clinical diagnosis of a large MCA infarction within 48 h of onset were subjected to CT brain, and CTP scans on admission and were followed up to determine the development of malignant infarction requiring surgical decompression. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • CTP parameters should be included in the initial evaluation of patients to predict malignant brain infarction and facilitate surgical treatment of large MCA infarctions. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • CT perfusion parameters have an important role in predicting malignant brain infarction and should be included in the initial evaluation of patients to facilitate the early identification and surgical treatment of large middle cerebral artery infarctions, to improve patient's prognosis. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • We report a case of 33-year-old African American woman with COVID-19 who developed acute malignant middle cerebral artery infarction due to thromboembolic occlusion of the left terminal internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery stem. (cdc.gov)
  • We studied the effects of the absence of T cell subsets on brain infarction after in vivo stroke and then used an in vitro coculture system of splenocytes and neurons to further identify the roles of T cell subsets in neuronal death.Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery suture occlusion in mice and infarct sizes were measured 2 days poststroke. (stanford.edu)
  • Although a functional deficiency of regulatory T cells had no effect, impaired Th1 immunity reduced infarction and impaired Th2 immunity aggravated brain injury, which may be due to an inhibited and enhanced inflammatory response in mice deficient in Th1 and Th2 immunity, respectively. (stanford.edu)
  • Vascular Occlusion: Arterial and venous thrombosis and occlusions have occurred in at least 27% of Iclusig treated patients, including fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, stenosis of large arterial vessels of the brain, severe peripheral vascular disease, and the need for urgent revascularization procedures. (thestreet.com)
  • We believe this cascading cycle of hypoperfusion and infarction leads to greater brain injury and ultimately, worse neurological function. (massgeneral.org)
  • In the present study, the effects of pH-stat and α-stat management on CBF, volume of cerebral infarction, and cerebral edema were examined during a 5-h period of hypothermia after transient cerebral ischemia. (asahq.org)
  • Subsequent brain Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV) showed superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis, multifocal areas of venous infarction, and cerebral edema. (scirp.org)
  • Oxygen-derived free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vasogenic edema and infarction caused by ischemia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • And also we have examined the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhib … More itors, L-NAME (neuronal and endothelial NOS inhibitor) and 7-NI (selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) and 7-NI (selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) on brain infarction in both mice, since nitric oxide (NO) has been considered to react with superoxide radicals and form peroxynitrite, a strong oxidant. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These resuts suggest that SOD could protect brain from severe ischemic insults causing infarction and that the NO generated by neuronal NOS results in the brain injury depending the superoxide content. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Inhibition of WNK3 Kinase Signaling Reduces Brain Damage and Accelerates Neurological Recovery After Stroke. (nih.gov)
  • Wild-type WNK3 and WNK3 knockout mice were subjected to ischemic stroke via transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that the NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which has been linked to inflammatory responses in models of ischemic stroke and various inflammatory diseases, may be one mechanism by which connexin hemichannel opening especially mediates perinatal brain injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • Old microbleeds are a potential risk factor for cerebral bleeding after ischemic stroke: a gradient-echo T2*-weighted brain MRI study. (medscape.com)
  • Together with complimentary pharmacological studies, these data suggest that A 2A receptors play a prominent role in the development of ischemic injury within brain and demonstrate the potential for anatomical and functional neuroprotection against stroke by A 2A receptor antagonists. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a clinical term that describes a sudden loss of neurologic function persisting for more than 24 hours that is caused by an interruption of the blood supply to the brain (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • Stroke was induced at 4 weeks into the treatment by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ischemic brain damage was measured by determining stroke volume and by stereologic quantifications of surviving neurons in the striatum/cortex. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mortality with ischemic stroke is less common in pediatric than in adult patients and is more likely to occur with a massive embolus from the heart to the brain rather than from atherothrombotic occlusion. (aappublications.org)
  • This study included 22 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke secondary to large-artery occlusion who underwent modified thrombectomy by using the PS for recanalization. (ajnr.org)
  • Since March 2009, the modified PS technique has been applied to 22 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke following large intracranial arterial occlusions within 8 hours of symptom onset. (ajnr.org)
  • Introduction: Brain edema is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for brain damage and mortality after ischemic stroke. (sid.ir)
  • Ischemic stroke (see the image below) is characterized by the sudden loss of blood circulation to an area of the brain, resulting in a corresponding loss of neurologic function. (medscape.com)
  • Acute ischemic stroke is caused by thrombotic or embolic occlusion of a cerebral artery and is more common than hemorrhagic stroke. (medscape.com)
  • Emergent brain imaging is essential for evaluation of acute ischemic stroke. (medscape.com)
  • They do not have a Circle of Willis and stroke can be induced by common carotid artery occlusion alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain edema predicts outcome after nonlacunar ischemic stroke. (springer.com)
  • Excessive glutamate release resulting in excessive Ca +2 entry into cells is the excitotoxicity which initiates the brain ischemic damage seen in stroke and cardiac arrest. (benbest.com)
  • And during the last decade, an abnormal expression of MMP-9 has been shown to play a deleterious role in brain injury in both animal models of cerebral ischemia and human stroke. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Little is known regarding GTPs' protective effects against the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after ischemic stroke. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuroinflammation are key events in ischemic stroke morbidity and mortality. (strath.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Silent brain infarcts (SBI), a finding on neuroimaging, are associated with higher risk of future stroke. (bvsalud.org)
  • Confluent brain endothelial cells cocultured with astrocytes were exposed to varying degrees of in vitro stroke conditions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results show that both GLUT1 and SGLT play a role at the BBB in the blood-to-brain transport of glucose during ischemic conditions, and inhibition of SGLT during stroke has the potential to improve stroke outcome. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacological modulation of this novel BBB transporter could prove to be a brain vascular target in stroke. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke provokes severe brain damage and remains a predominant disease in industrialized countries. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Acute ischemic stroke initiates a pathophysiological cascade that leads to the formation of brain edema. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The neurotoxicity of splenocytes from these immunodeficient mice was consistent with their effects on stroke in vivo, except for the mice with the paucity of CD4 or CD8 T cells, which did not alter the ratio of neuronal death.T cell subsets play critical roles in brain injury induced by stroke. (stanford.edu)
  • The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. (jove.com)
  • Given these facts, stroke is a major public health issue requiring urgent development of effective therapies: experimental models of focal brain ischemia help in achieving this goal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These models aim to satisfy the following criteria: (1) to mimic the pathophysiological changes found in human stroke, (2) to create reproducible lesions, (3) to employ procedures that are relatively simple and noninvasive, (4) to be of low financial cost, and (5) to enable monitoring of physiologic parameters and analysis of brain tissue for outcome measures [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If ischemia is prolonged, cerebral edema occurs and bleeding into the brain parenchyma known as hemorrhagic transformation (HT) ensues and worsens stroke outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By creating high specificity methods using non-invasive imaging, we have advanced our understanding of the role brain edema plays in modulating neurological recovery after stroke. (massgeneral.org)
  • These studies have revealed that brain edema may impact recovery in up to 25% of all stroke patients. (massgeneral.org)
  • Brain edema, which ensues 12 to 48 hours after the initial ischemic injury, exacerbates hypoperfusion, which in turn amplifies neuronal loss within the existing stroke lesion. (massgeneral.org)
  • Using stroke cohorts with serial brain imaging, our studies seek to build evidence for each segment of this cycle. (massgeneral.org)
  • I am also unable to find any data about the prevalence of cerebral edema in the paper or supplementary appendices, and having competing stroke mechanisms can mask any effect size that may have been shown. (heart.org)
  • Arterial thrombosis and atheroscerosis with occlusion of the cerebral arteries (as a result of this atherosclerosis) is the single most common cause of stroke in more than 50 percent of patients. (aanos.org)
  • Traumatic brain edema in diffuse and focal injury: cellular or vasogenic? (springer.com)
  • Following breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, proteins and water flood into the extracellular space, leading to vasogenic edema. (medscape.com)
  • Vasogenic edema produces greater levels of brain swelling and mass effect that peak at 3-5 days and resolves over the next several weeks with resorption of water and proteins. (medscape.com)
  • The classification of edema into vasogenic, cytotoxic, hydrocephalic and osmotic has stood the test of time although it is recognized that in most clinical situations there is a combination of different types of edema during the course of the disease. (springer.com)
  • Our modern-day approach to the medical management of cerebral edema has largely revolved around, an increasingly artificial distinction between cytotoxic and vasogenic cerebral edema. (springer.com)
  • Cerebral edema cytotoxic edema vasogenic edema hyperosmolar therapy elevated ICP. (springer.com)
  • Subsequent breakdown of the blood brain barrier increases cerebral injury by the development of vasogenic edema and secondary hemorrhage known as hemorrhagic transformation (HT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 , 4 Currently available mechanical thrombectomy devices that have received US Food and Drug Administration clearance are the Merci Retriever (Concentric Medical, Mountain View, California) and the PS (Penumbra, Alameda, California), both of which are indicated for use within 8 hours of symptom onset in patients with large intracranial vessel occlusion. (ajnr.org)
  • Cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure. (springer.com)
  • This edema results in mass effect, which causes displacement of brain tissue, and an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Some causes of papilledema are serious, such as an intracranial mass lesion, brain hemorrhage, or cerebral edema. (aafp.org)
  • A brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage with intracranial hemorrhage and subdural hematoma. (neurosurgery.directory)
  • The Effect of Hydrogen Gas on a Mouse Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion. (futurewelnes.com)
  • Although there was a greater decrease in tissue specific gravity following recirculation when the ischemic period was maintained longer, edema formation was resolved by recirculation. (thejns.org)
  • The XIII International Symposium on Brain Edema intracerebral hemorrhage, including the primary event and Tissue Injury was held June 1-3, 2005, in Ann Ar- and the secondary injury that follows, prompted a o- bor, Michigan, USA. (springer.com)
  • In keeping with the outstand- sium stayed an extra day to learn about the latest - ing XII Symposium held in Hakone, Japan in 2002, we velopments in intracerebral hemorrhage research, chose to include brain tissue injury as well as brain including ongoing clinical trials and basic research - edema as the subject matter for this meeting. (springer.com)
  • Brain edema was measured on day 5 by MRI, histochemical staining of brain sections and tissue water content determination (n=7, each experiment). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Brain tissue manipulation and retraction can produce temporary focal symptoms. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Cerebral edema is often responsible for transient deficits and occurs as a result of tissue manipulation. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Fresh rat brain cryosections were washed with 70% etha-nol (EtOH), water (H 2 O), or 150 mM ammonium acetate (NH 4 Ac), and the desalting effectiveness of each fluid was evaluated by MALDI-MS profiling of PC and sphingomyelin (SM) species in tissue and in the washing runoff. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • NH 4 Ac wash also unveiled the underlying changes of PCs and SMs in the infarcted rat cortex previously masked by edema-caused increase of tissue sodium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Changes in tissue cations due to the pathological effects such as edema ( 5 , 6 ) further enhanced the ionization of alkalinated PCs and SMs in the direct MALDI profiling ( 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The most suitable desalting fluid was further tested on infarcted rat brain sections where the edema-induced increase of tissue sodium masked the revelation of underlying changes of PCs and SMs by MALDI-MS. Comparison of the MALDI-MS/MS result of an isobaric PC in the infarcted cortex revealed the change of precursor by NH 4 Ac wash and confirmed the desalting effectiveness of the chosen desalting fluid. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Further analysis indicated that CB2R activation is involved in the ability of TC to induce cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in ischemic tissue. (medindia.net)
  • Edema is the result of venous ulceration, which is often caused by an increase in tissue pressure (increased fluid within the tissue) because of increased capillary permeability. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These conditions then develop into total edema, or anasarca, of the subcutaneous tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cerebral edema is commonly associated with cerebral pathology, and the clinical manifestation is largely related to the underlying lesioned tissue. (springer.com)
  • Brain edema usually amplifies the dysfunction of the lesioned tissue and the burden of cerebral edema correlates with increased morbidity and mortality across diseases. (springer.com)
  • Classic MR imaging abnormalities include high signal intensity in the globus pallidum on T1-weighted images, likely a reflection of increased tissue concentrations of manganese, and an elevated glutamine/glutamate peak coupled with decreased myo-inositol and choline signals on proton MR spectroscopy, representing disturbances in cell-volume homeostasis secondary to brain hyperammonemia. (ajnr.org)
  • Furthermore, MMP-9 knockout models or treatment with MMP tissue inhibitors, synthetic MMP inhibitors and MMP neutralizing antibodies have been shown to protect blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduce vaso-genic edema formation and infarct size after cerebral ischemia [ 1 , 2 , 38 , 49 , 52 , 58 , 71 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many factors such as plasmin, gelatinases, free radicals, inflammatory factor, vasoactive substances, neuroglia and so on are involved in the changes of BBB permeability, resulting in a series of brain tissue damage during cerebral ischemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deleterious processes of extracellular proteolysis may contribute to the progression of tissue damage after acute brain injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • 10 ] Cerebral edema that develops associated with infarcted brain tissue is responsible for the devastating effects of this condition. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • We hypothesize that BICAR results in more abundant blood supply to the ischemic brain tissue, thereby leading to better locomotor and histological outcomes than UNICAR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2) high risk of permanent delayed brain tissue radiation damage in often very young patients and with long life expectancy. (scribd.com)
  • DWI is most applicable when the tissue of interest is dominated by isotropic water movement e.g. grey matter in the cerebral cortex and major brain nuclei, or in the body-where the diffusion rate appears to be the same when measured along any axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is important when a tissue-such as the neural axons of white matter in the brain or muscle fibers in the heart-has an internal fibrous structure analogous to the anisotropy of some crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the brain, acute tissue edema can be detected through diffusion imaging, allowing for the quantification of the "penumbra," the term used for the cerebral AAR. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Unlike the brain, the heart does not have a barrier between blood and tissue and also differs in other structural aspects. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Third, edema is a tissue footprint of the AAR lasting for up to 2 weeks after the event, enabling an extended window to assess myocardial salvage (e.g., before patients' discharge). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Brain vestigation focusing primarily on the secondary events edema, in many respects, is a marker of underlying which develop after the hemorrhage. (springer.com)
  • Acute ischemic strokes result from vascular occlusion secondary to thromboembolic disease (see Etiology). (medscape.com)
  • Acute ischemic strokes are the result of vascular occlusion secondary to thromboembolic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions- Inhibition of arginine vasopressin V 1a receptors reduces the severity of SAH and prevents rebleedings by blunting the posthemorrhagic hypertonic response (Cushing reflex), thereby reducing mortality and secondary brain damage after experimental SAH. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our imaging tools not only provide insight into the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury, but can also serve as intermediate endpoints in clinical trials as part of proof of concept studies for anti-edema treatments. (massgeneral.org)
  • Appendage edema is often treated by bandaging the area to relieve pressure on the skin and decrease venous pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although no venous occlusion was identified in the other case, radiological findings suggested venous congestion. (neurosurgery.directory)
  • The development or worsening of macular edema following full scatter photocoagulation is a well recognized occurrence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Larger occlusions, such as in this case, can cause macular edema, resulting in significant vision loss. (aafp.org)
  • Treatment options for macular edema include retinal laser therapy and intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor medications. (aafp.org)
  • Central retinal vein occlusions appear similarly to those in branch veins, except that they involve hemorrhage in all quadrants of the retina with macular edema. (aafp.org)
  • We recently reported the protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) rat model. (mdpi.com)
  • The present study investigated the effects of mast cell deficiency and stabilization on BBB breakdown and neutrophil infiltration in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). (strath.ac.uk)
  • Methods For prophylactic treatment, animals were treated intravenously with 100 mg/kg rHA-Infestin-4 or an equal volume of saline 15 min prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) of 90 min. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Since many molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of brain edema, effective treatment cannot be achieved by a single agent but will require the administration of a "magic bullet" containing a variety of agents released at different times during the course of edema in order to be successful. (springer.com)
  • It is likely that MR imaging will be increasingly used to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HE and to assess the effects of therapeutic measures focused on correcting brain edema in these patients. (ajnr.org)
  • A range of evidence suggests that blood-brain barrier damage is involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Therefore, DHCA might be one of the important metabolites of CGA and of natural products, including coffee, with protective effects on ischemia-induced neuronal damage and brain edema. (mdpi.com)
  • The cellular mechanisms of neuronal swelling underlying cytotoxic edema. (springer.com)
  • Thus, EGCG has a good prospect as a neuroprotective agent against brain ischemia due to its multi-targeted, multi-directional protective effects on the neuronal injury and BBB leakage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that brain edema is associated with a cycle of neuronal injury. (massgeneral.org)
  • In sham-operated DM rat brain, immunoreactivity of HMGB1, which was localized in the neuronal nuclei of the cortex, was markedly increased compared with that in non-DM sham-operated rat brain. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • We assessed brain damage, functional deficits, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier damage at 24 h after ischemia. (mdpi.com)
  • MMP-9 levels increased after ischemia in wild-type brain, with expression primarily present in vascular endothelium. (jneurosci.org)
  • Retinal vein occlusion is the second most common cause of vision loss due to retinal vascular disease, after diabetic retinopathy, and can include branch or central occlusion. (aafp.org)
  • 2 , 3 Systemic risk factors should be aggressively treated in patients with either type of occlusion to prevent additional vascular events. (aafp.org)
  • Diffusion-weighted images are very useful to diagnose vascular strokes in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, trace-weighted images have proven to be very useful to diagnose vascular strokes in the brain, by early detection (within a couple of minutes) of the hypoxic edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influx of sodium and calcium ions and passive inflow of water into the cell lead to cytotoxic edema. (medscape.com)
  • Influx of sodium and calcium ions and passive inflow of water into the cell ensues, resulting in cytotoxic edema. (medscape.com)
  • Treadmill exercise ameliorates ischemia-induced brain edema while suppressing Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Effect of nimodipine on ischemia-induced brain edema and mortality in a novel transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model. (nii.ac.jp)
  • WNK3 knockout mice exhibited significantly decreased infarct volume and axonal demyelination, less cerebral edema, and accelerated neurobehavioral recovery compared with WNK3 wild-type mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: Our findings show that administration of AG in early phase of transient focal cerebral ischemia reduces brain edema. (sid.ir)
  • The present study was conducted to determine (1) whether the Na-K-Cl cotransporter is located in the luminal membrane of the BBB, and (2) whether inhibition of the BBB cotransporter reduces brain edema formation. (elsevier.com)
  • The conference sented at the symposium as well as papers that were was held immediately after the Brain Edema Sym- presented at a satellite Intracerebral Hemorrhage Con- sium. (springer.com)
  • Brain water content was quantified 24 hours after SAH and neurological function and mortality were assessed daily for 7 days after hemorrhage. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Most patients die within the first 48 to 72 hours after hemorrhage due to the severity of the initial hemorrhage, rebleedings, and/or the sequelae of early brain injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rate of perihematomal edema expansion predicts outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. (springer.com)
  • Zheng H, Chen C, Zhang J, Hu Z. Mechanism and therapy of brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase prevents blood-brain barrier disruption and normalizes the expression of tight junction proteins clautin-5 and ZO-1 in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (qxmd.com)
  • No problems occurred during the operation, but cerebral edema and hemorrhage were recognized on immediate postoperative computed tomography. (neurosurgery.directory)
  • The expression of MMP-9 is elevated after cerebral ischemia which is involved in accelerating matrix degradation, disrupting the blood-brain barrier, increasing the infarct size and relating to hemorrhagic transformation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, the effects of forced treadmill exercise with electric shock on ischemic brain edema were investigated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gotoh O, Asano T, Koide T, Takakura K. Ischemic brain edema following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. (medscape.com)
  • Brain edema continues to be a major cause of mortality after diverse types of brain pathologies such as major cerebral infarcts, hemorrhages, trauma, infections and tumors. (springer.com)
  • Early brain edema is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in traumatic brain injury. (springer.com)
  • The incidence of brain tumor and cranial aneurysm co-occurrence was approximately 0.2-0.7%, and the mortality rate of the surgically treated patients was approximately 40% due to the complexity of the surgical site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Astaxanthin crosses the blood-brain barrier AND the blood-retinal barrier (beta carotene and lycopene do not), which brings antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protection to your eyes, brain and central nervous system and reducing your risk for cataracts, macular degeneration, blindness, dementia and Alzheimer's disease . (naturalsociety.com)
  • A. Branch retinal vein occlusion. (aafp.org)
  • Branch retinal vein occlusions are characterized by dilated and tortuous veins, flame-shaped and dot and blot hemorrhages, and retinal edema. (aafp.org)
  • We found that that thymoquinone significantly improved neurobehavioral scores, reduced the cerebral infarct area, alleviated brain edema, and increased the number of normal neurons following injury. (mdpi.com)
  • Using immunocytochemistry, the investigators found evidence of CB2Rs in the cortex of both control and ischemic brains, mostly in cortical neurons but also to a lesser extent in some glial cells. (medindia.net)
  • In the first minute after stoppage of blood flow to the brain, ATP in neurons is primarily regenerated from ADP by phosphate from PhosphoCreatine ( PCr ). (benbest.com)
  • Within two minutes without blood flow (due to heart stoppage or blood vessel occlusion) neurons lack the energy to power the sodium/potassium pump. (benbest.com)
  • To overcome these pharmacological limitations, we explored the consequences of deleting the A 2A adenosine receptor on brain damage after transient focal ischemia. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data demonstrate that the protective effects of MMP-9 gene knock-out after transient focal ischemia may be mediated by reduced proteolytic degradation of critical blood-brain barrier and white matter components. (jneurosci.org)
  • A new model for establishing a successful and consistent arterial recirculation has been devised following middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat. (thejns.org)
  • The Role of Blood-Brain Barrier Damage in the Pathogenesis of Contrast-Induced Encephalopathy. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This volume is a compilation of papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Brain Edema held on June 17-20, 1990 in Bern, Switzerland. (springer.com)
  • CTP parameters were generally lower in patients with malignant brain infarct (MBI) group compared to the nonMBI group. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Search for predictors of MHI with malignant edema was performed in PubMed and Cochrane data base. (bvsalud.org)
  • Study of local cerebral blood flow using carbon-14 ( 14 C)-iodoantipyrine, of cerebrovascular permeability using 14 C-aminoisobutyric acid, and of brain-water content using the microgravimetric technique was performed upon recirculation following various periods of occlusion and compared with the results in permanent ischemia. (thejns.org)
  • Moreover, in the t-MCA occlusion model, delayed administration of BHB started at 1 h after the initiation of the MCA occlusion also significantly reduced cerebral infarct area. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Simplifying the use of prognostic information in traumatic brain injury. (thejns.org)
  • Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and pupil responses are key indicators of the severity of traumatic brain damage. (thejns.org)
  • Arundine M, Tymianski M (2004) Molecular mechanisms of glutamate-dependent neurodegeneration in ischemia and traumatic brain injury. (springer.com)
  • During pathological conditions, for example, cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, or SAH, AVP is elevated in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of affected patients 7 - 9 and V 1 receptors were found to be overexpressed in an experimental model of traumatic brain injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 Pharmacological blockage of V 1 receptors resulted in a significantly improved functional outcome and reduced brain damage in animal models of cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pathophysiology and treatment of cerebral edema in traumatic brain injury. (springer.com)
  • Cerebral edema in traumatic brain injury: pathophysiology and prospective therapeutic targets. (springer.com)
  • The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, aquaporin-4, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in blood-brain barrier disruption and brain edema after traumatic brain injury. (springer.com)
  • We recently showed that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) knock-out mice were protected against ischemic and traumatic brain injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • A 51-year-old man who was a victim of traumatic brain injury underwent emergency clot removal and decompression craniectomy. (neurosurgery.directory)
  • Secondarily, it was also investigated that the brain edema formation and the induction of hsp70 and c-fos mRNA following traumatic injury using nonTg mice, and heterozygous and homozygous Tg mice (1.5,3.1, and 5.0 fold increased SOD activityies. (nii.ac.jp)
  • From these results, the increase of SOD activity could be toxic by generating hydroxyl radicals under the special circumstance although SOD has a strong brain protective effect against the ischemic and traumatic insult in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • CTA is highly accurate in detecting large- vessel stenosis and occlusions, which account for approximately one third of ischemic strokes. (medscape.com)
  • Compared to permanent occlusion, which mimic only a minority of human strokes where there is no recanalization, transient models better correlate with conditions such as therapy-induced thrombolysis, spontaneous thrombolysis, and transient ischemic attack. (biomedcentral.com)