The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

Integrated visualization of functional and anatomic brain data: a validation study. (1/5805)

Two-dimensional SPECT display and three methods for integrated visualization of SPECT and MRI patient data are evaluated in a multiobserver study to determine whether localization of functional data can be improved by adding anatomical information to the display. METHODS: SPECT and MRI data of 30 patients were gathered and presented using four types of display: one of SPECT in isolation, two integrated two-dimensional displays and one integrated three-dimensional display. Cold and hot spots in the peripheral cortex were preselected and indicated on black-and-white hard copies of the image data. Nuclear medicine physicians were asked to assign the corresponding spots in the image data on the computer screen to a lobe and a gyrus and give a confidence rating for both localizations. Interobserver agreement using kappa statistics and average confidence ratings were assessed to interpret the reported observations. RESULTS: Both the interobserver agreement and the confidence of the observers were greater for the integrated two-dimensional displays than for the two-dimensional SPECT display. An additional increase in agreement and confidence was seen with the integrated three-dimensional display. CONCLUSION: Integrated display of SPECT and MR brain images provides better localization of cerebral blood perfusion abnormalities in the peripheral cortex in relation to the anatomy of the brain than single-modality display and increases the confidence of the observer.  (+info)

The Sock Test for evaluating activity limitation in patients with musculoskeletal pain. (2/5805)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessment within rehabilitation often must reflect patients' perceived functional problems and provide information on whether these problems are caused by impairments of the musculoskeletal system. Such capabilities were examined in a new functional test, the Sock Test, simulating the activity of putting on a sock. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Intertester reliability was examined in 21 patients. Concurrent validity, responsiveness, and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 337 patients and in subgroups of this sample. RESULTS: Intertester reliability was acceptable. Sock Test scores were related to concurrent reports of activity limitation in dressing activities. Scores also reflected questionnaire-derived reports of problems in a broad range of activities of daily living and pain and were responsive to change over time. Increases in age and body mass index increased the likelihood of Sock Test scores indicating activity limitation. Pretest scores were predictive of perceived difficulties in dressing activities after 1 year. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Sock Test scores reflect perceived activity limitations and restrictions of the musculoskeletal system.  (+info)

Identifying homologous anatomical landmarks on reconstructed magnetic resonance images of the human cerebral cortical surface. (3/5805)

Guided by a review of the anatomical literature, 36 sulci on the human cerebral cortical surface were designated as homologous. These sulci were assessed for visibility on 3-dimensional images reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brains of 20 normal volunteers by 2 independent observers. Those sulci that were found to be reproducibly identifiable were used to define 24 landmarks around the cortical surface. The interobserver and intraobserver variabilities of measurement of the 24 landmarks were calculated. These reliably reproducible landmarks can be used for detailed morphometric analysis, and may prove helpful in the analysis of suspected cerebral cortical structured abnormalities in patients with such conditions as epilepsy.  (+info)

Venous duplex scanning of the leg: range, variability and reproducibility. (4/5805)

Despite the many studies on venous haemodynamics using duplex, only a few evaluated the normal values, variability and reproducibility. Therefore, the range and variability of venous diameter, compressibility, flow and reflux were measured. To obtain normal values, 42 healthy individuals (42 limbs, 714 vein segments) with no history of venous disease were scanned by duplex. To determine the reproducibility the intra-observer variability was measured in 11 healthy individuals (187 vein segments) and the inter-observer variability in 15 healthy individuals (255 vein segments) and 13 patients (169 vein segments) previously diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis. Of the 714 normal vein segments, 708 (99%) were traceable, including the crural veins. Of the traceable vein segments, 675 (95%) were compressible and in 696 (98%) flow was present. Of the 42 common femoral vein segments, in 25 (60%) the reflux duration exceeded 1.0 s, but in the other proximal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 1.0 s (95% confidence interval 3.0-10.0). With the exception of the distal long saphenous vein, in the distal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 0.5 s (95% confidence interval 3.5-8.2). The coefficient of variation of the diameter measurements ranged from 14 to 50% and that of the reflux measurements from 28 to 60%. The kappa-coefficient of the inter-observer variability in the classification of compressibility measurements in the patients was 0. 77 and that of the reflux measurements was 0.86. This study shows that almost all veins were compressible in healthy individuals, except the distal femoral veins. In healthy individuals the duration of reflux of the proximal veins was less than 1.0 s and in the distal veins it was less than 0.5 s. The inter-observer variability of the reflux and compressibility measurements in the patients was good.  (+info)

Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom. (5/5805)

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them.  (+info)

Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. (6/5805)

The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.  (+info)

The psychometric properties of clinical rating scales used in multiple sclerosis. (7/5805)

OullII;l y Many clinical rating scales have been proposed to assess the impact of multiple sclerosis on patients, but only few have been evaluated formally for reliability, validity and responsiveness. We assessed the psychometric properties of five commonly used scales in multiple sclerosis, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Scripps Neurological Rating Scale (SNRS), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Ambulation Index (AI) and the Cambridge Multiple Sclerosis Basic Score (CAMBS). The score frequency distributions of all five scales were either bimodal (EDSS and AI) or severely skewed (SNRS, FIM and CAMBS). The reliability of each scale depended on the definition of 'agreement'. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were high when 'agreement' was considered to exist despite a difference of up to 1.0 EDSS point (two 0.5 steps), 13 SNRS points, 9 FIM points, 1 AI point and 1 point on the various CAMBS domains. The FIM, AI, and the relapse and progression domains of the CAMBS were sensitive to clinical change, but the EDSS and the SNRS were unresponsive. The validity of these scales as impairment (SNRS and EDSS) and disability (EDSS, FIM, AI and the disability domain of the CAMBS) measures was established. All scales correlated closely with other measures of handicap and quality of life. None of these scales satisfied the psychometric requirements of outcome measures completely, but each had some desirable properties. The SNRS and the EDSS were reliable and valid measures of impairment and disability, but they were unresponsive. The FIM was a reliable, valid and responsive measure of disability, but it is cumbersome to administer and has a limited content validity. The AI was a reliable and valid ambulation-related disability scale, but it was weakly responsive. The CAMBS was a reliable (all four domains) and responsive (relapse and progression domains) outcome measure, but had a limited validity (handicap domain). These psychometric properties should be considered when designing further clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Cephalometric abnormalities in non-obese and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. (8/5805)

The aim of this work was to comprehensively evaluate the cephalometric features in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and severity of apnoea. Forty-eight cephalometric variables were measured in 37 healthy males and 114 male OSA patients, who were classed into 54 non-obese (body mass index (BMI) <27 kg x m(-2), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)=25.3+/-16.1 events x h(-1)) and 60 obese (BMI > or = 27 kg x m(-2), AHI=45.6+/-28.0 events h(-1)) groups. Diagnostic polysomnography was carried out in all of the OSA patients and in 19 of the normal controls. The non-obese OSA patients showed several cephalometric defects compared with their BMI-matched normal controls: 1) decreased facial A-P distance at cranial base, maxilla and mandible levels and decreased bony pharynx width; 2) enlarged tongue and inferior shift of the tongue volume; 3) enlarged soft palate; 4) inferiorly positioned hyoid bone; and 5) decreased upper airway width at four different levels. More extensive and severe soft tissue abnormalities with a few defects in craniofacial bony structures were found in the obese OSA group. For the non-obese OSA group, the stepwise regression model on AHI was significant with two bony structure variables as determinants: anterior cranial base length (S-N) and mandibular length (Me-Go). Although the regression model retained only linear distance between anterior vertebra and hyoid bone (H-VL) as an explainable determinant for AHI in the obese OSA group, H-VL was significantly correlated with soft tissue measurements such as overall tongue area (Ton), inferior tongue area (Ton2) and pharyngeal airway length (PNS-V). In conclusion, Japanese obstructive sleep apnoea patients have a series of cephalometric abnormalities similar to those described in Caucasian patients, and that the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese patients may be different from that in non-obese patients. In obese patients, upper airway soft tissue enlargement may play a more important role in the development of obstructive sleep apnoea, whereas in non-obese patients, bony structure discrepancies may be the dominant contributing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea.  (+info)

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Freedman, Pete (2008-10-15). "How To Piss Off A Member Of Weezer". Dallas Observer. Village Voice Media. Archived from the ... "The Greatest Man That Ever Lived (Variations on a Shaker Hymn)" is a song released as an iTunes single from American ... The song bears a resemblance to the Shaker song "Simple Gifts" hence the "(Variations on a Shaker Hymn)" in the title. ... McCarron, Rob (2009-04-11). "ROH TV report". Wrestling Observer. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Mathieson, Joe (2009-04-26). "ROH ...
The Observer thought the piece "charming and exciting". The Times said: Mr. Frederick Ashton has devised a ballet for six ... Symphonic Variations was part of that triple bill with Les Patineurs and Persephone. The dancers in Symphonic Variations were: ... Symphonic Variations is a one-act ballet by Frederick Ashton set to the eponymous music (M. 46) of César Franck. The premiere, ... During the Second World War, Ashton listened to Franck's Symphonic Variations a great deal and he decided to develop an ...
Moorman, Kelly (June-July 1976). "Variation on a Theme: More Realism?". The Space Gamer. Metagaming (6): 26-27. Ritchie, David ... Berg, Richard (October-November 1975). Forward Observer. p. 26. Moorman, Kelly (June-July 1976). "Stellar Conquest: The ...
"Walton Free-wheels", The Observer, 10 March 1963, p. 27; Elliot, J. H. "Philharmonic Anniversary Concert", The Guardian, 9 ... Variation 3. Larghetto A siciliano section, led by the woodwinds. Variation 4. Moto perpetuo Walton marks this variation "con ... Variation 1. Vivace This variation, flitting between multiple time signatures, is described by Howes as a scherzo. Variation 2 ... Variation 6. Scherzando A range of effects for percussion and harp is the main feature of this variation. Variation 7. Lento ...
p. 8. Bland, Alexander (5 April 1964). "Shakespearean Variations: Ballet". The Observer. p. 25. Cargill, Mary (Autumn 2002). "A ... Both The Times and The Observer noted that the men's roles were particularly strong. In the latter, Alexander Bland called the ...
Fiona Maddocks (30 January 2011). "Bach: Goldberg Variations, Nick Van Bloss - review , Music , The Observer". The Guardian. UK ... Bach Goldberg Variations. "Bach Goldberg Variations". Wyastone.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 19 ... In January 2010, van Bloss released a recording of the Goldberg Variations by Bach by Nimbus Records which received widespread ... Matt Savage Tony Cicoria Goldberg Variations discography Nick van Bloss (2006). Busy Body - My Life With Tourette's Syndrome. ...
Samoa Observer. Retrieved 13 August 2022. Joyetter Feagaimaali'i (16 April 2020). "$3 million variation for Ti'avea Airport not ... Soli Wilson (17 April 2020). "Ti'avea makes way for airport". Samoa Observer. Retrieved 13 August 2022. "Homes and graves to be ... Matai'a Lanuola Tusani T - Ah Tong (15 June 2019). "Flooding concerns at Ti'avea Airport". Samoa Observer. Retrieved 13 August ... Matai'a Lanuola Tusani T - Ah Tong (22 April 2022). "$17 million Ti'avea Airport in limbo". Samoa Observer. Retrieved 13 August ...
"Ashton and Elgar", The Observer, 27 October 1968, p. 27 Levin, Bernard. "Go take a running jump", The Times, 10 October 1988, p ... Enigma Variations (My Friends Pictured Within) is a one-act ballet by Frederick Ashton, to the music of the Variations on an ... Variations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0521631750. "Enigma Variations (My Friends Pictured Within) - ... "Enigma of Elgar Variations finale on record at last", The Guardian, 16 April 2003, p. 8 Rushton, Julian (1999). Elgar: 'Enigma ...
Stephen Pritchard (July 5, 2015). "Coke: Preludes and Variations review - fevered chromaticism". The Observer. Retrieved July 7 ... Fiona Maddocks (August 30, 2015). "Lang, Berio, Olivero: Song of Songs CD review - full of surprises". The Observer. Retrieved ... Stephen Pritchard (February 8, 2015). "Capuano, Rubino: Requiem CD review - a tale of two Sicilian requiems". The Observer. ... Stephen Pritchard (July 12, 2015). "Bob Chilcott: The Angry Planet review - touching innocence of young choirs". The Observer. ...
Observations over the decades have shown that its colour slightly changes and it exhibits variation in light that indicate the ... American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 2 February 2014. Sterken, C. (1997). "The δ Scuti star θ Tucanae. II ... UVBY colour variations and pulsational/orbital properties". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 325: 563-68. Bibcode:1997A&A...325.. ... AAVSO (American Association of Variable Star Observers). Retrieved 2 February 2014. Wagman, Morton (2003). Lost Stars: Lost, ...
"The Chopin Variations". iTunes. September 23, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2020. "Bach Interpreted: Piano Variations on Bach ... "Charlotte composer shapes classical music into something new". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved 12 December 2019. Martin, Ryan ... In 2014, Lawson released the album The Chopin Variations, a double album reinterpreting the works of Chopin (one side solo ... Lawson followed The Chopin Variations with a second classical re-imagining in 2016, this time of Bach's chorale works. From ...
doi:10.1111/j.2151-6952.1998.tb00828.x Landman, N.H., S.M. Klofak & K.B. Sarg (2003). Variation in adult size of scaphitid ... doi:10.7717/peerj.715 McDowall, C.A. (1998). Giant squid? The Marine Observer: A Quarterly Journal of Maritime Meteorology 68( ... Laptikhovsky, V. (2006). Latitudinal and bathymetric trends in egg size variation: a new look at Thorson's and Rass's rules. ... evidence from adult-size variations. Geobios 34(4): 423-435. doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(01)80006-1 Rees, W.J. (1950). On a giant ...
"Variation in Sex Characteristics (Restricted Medical Treatment) Bill 2023 , Bills". [1] [2] [3] [4] "Conversion Therapy On Kids ... Jones, Jess (10 March 2017). "Intersex activists in Australia and New Zealand publish statement of priorities". Star Observer. ... "Variation in Sex Characteristics (Restricted Medical Treatment) Bill 2023 , Bills". "Sexual activity , Lifeblood". (CS1 maint: ... Now A Crime In ACT - Star Observer". 27 August 2020. "LGBTQ conversion therapy banned in Canberra as Sexuality and Gender ...
Ozturk, Serkan (21 October 2013). "ACT marriage bill "excludes" intersex people'". Star Observer. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Busby ... Morgan (9 January 2017). "Marriage and people with intersex variations, a submission". Organisation Intersex International ...
Phillip Weiss (June 29, 1998). "The Goldberg Variations: Philip Weiss Tapes Lucianne Goldberg". Observer. Retrieved May 8, 2018 ... The Observer. London. p. 17. ProQuest 250437403. Retrieved October 27, 2022 - via ProQuest. Lloyd Grove, with Beth Berselli, ...
However, other observers have observed that the primary is the more active. This changeover may be the result of magnetic ... March 2003), "Hα variations of the RS CVn type binary ER Vulpeculae", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 400: 257-264, Bibcode:2003A&A ... Keskin, Varol (July 1990), "Lightcurve Variations of the RS-Canum Type Eclipsing Binary ER-Vulpeculae", Astrophysics and Space ... Evren, S. (January 1988), "Light curve variations of ER Vulpeculae in 1984 and 1985 observing seasons", Astrophysics and Space ...
Anna Dearing (20 November 2012). "Dance Review: Symphonic Variations, There Where She Loves and Company B". Observer Group. ... Symphonic Variations, The Dream, Enigma Variations, A Month in the Country, Jazz Calendar, Les Patineurs, A Wedding Bouquet, ... She produced Symphonic Variations again with the Dutch National Ballet after the passing of Somes, followed by the National ... "Symphonic Variations". Ballet Theater Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 25 January 2013. Anna Kisselgoff (26 November 1994). "Michael ...
Hofman MS, Smeeton NC, Rankin SC, Nunan T, O'Doherty MJ (October 2009). "Observer variation in interpreting 18F-FDG PET/CT ...
Ability in this area, which requires the use of averted vision, varies substantially from observer to observer, with both youth ... There is even variation within metropolitan areas. For those who live in the immediate suburbs of New York City, the limiting ... The limiting magnitude will depend on the observer, and will increase with the eye's dark adaptation. On a relatively clear sky ... specific to the observer and viewing situation. The very darkest skies have a zenith surface brightness of approximately 22 mag ...
One phonological variation between these two sub-dialects is that SMT replaces the Tamil sound /sa/ with /sha/. Another ... Palakidnar, Ananth (15 February 2009). "Mass resettlement of Muslims in Jaffna". Sunday Observer. Archived from the original on ... This can be seen from the large number of prominent Sri Lankan Moors who hold the surname of Marikkar (and its variations) and ... Interestingly, one can also notice ethno-regional variations in SLMT and categorise them into two major sub-dialects such as ...
... variation of Tree of life confronted-animals; Article - One figure is facing toward the observer. Nomadic Art of the Eastern ...
The 1880 cruise carried Tarleton Bean as biological observer. Bean's focus was to document the fish and other marine resources ... and to document compass variation. These activities depended on astronomical observation to determine location and direction, ... Marcus Baker was the astronomical observer for all three trips. Another focus was the collection of biological specimens. ...
The observer noted that the brightness variation occurred within 2 hours or less. In 2014, Pilcher revisited Paeonia at his ...
Joel used variations of his father's Borg music and the Klingon theme as Worf fights hand-to-hand: 156 (Joel said that he and ... While observers are watching the Ba'ku unseen, Goldsmith employed a "spying theme". Composed of a piano, timpani percussion, ... The Ba'ku's ability to slow time uses a variation of this music.: 164 Goldsmith approached starship sequences with quick bursts ... consisting of a six note theme and variations set against a repetitious four note brass motif; the theme's bridge is ...
Frey, Hillary (March 3, 2009). "Broadway Bows Down to Power Dames Fonda, Sarandon, Lansbury". The New York Observer. Archived ... ISBN 978-0-7914-0116-3. Galtney, Smith (February 26, 2009). "33 Preludes to 33 Variations: The Early Broadway Years of Jane ... "Ted Turner, Jane Fonda Tie Knot". Observer-Reporter. December 22, 1991. Archived from the original on October 29, 2020. ... "Jane Fonda returns to Broadway in '33 Variations'". USA Today. Associated Press. November 3, 2008; retrieved July 19, 2011. ...
An outside observer might witness this as the vehicle visibly leans to the back, or squats. Conversely, under braking, weight ... It is these moments that cause variation in the load distributed between the tires. Often this is interpreted by the casual ... observer as a pitching or rolling motion of the vehicles body. A perfectly rigid vehicle, without suspension that would not ...
Fiona Maddocks (23 August 2015). "Bach: Goldberg Variations CD review - simplicity and wit from Lars Vogt". The Observer. ... 2 ; Handel variations (in no linguistic content), Helsinki: Ondine, OCLC 1222203694 Janáček, Leoš (2021), On an overgrown path ... Fiona Maddocks (14 August 2016). "Brahms: The Violin Sonatas CD review - exhilarating freedom". The Observer. Archived from the ... The Observer. Archived from the original on 7 September 2022. Retrieved 30 December 2020. ...
Variation III - Etwas belebter (Somewhat more animated) Variation IV Variation V Brahms: Variations on a Theme of Robert ... Fiona Maddocks (3 September 2011). "Schumann: Geistervariationen - review". The Observer. Retrieved 6 July 2012. Michael ... The Geistervariationen (Ghost Variations), or Theme and Variations in E-flat major for piano, WoO 24, composed in 1854, is the ... Theme - Leise, innig (Quiet, earnest) Variation I Variation II - Canonisch (Like a canon) ...
He set up a voluntary network of observers, who collected data which were returned to him for analysis. So successful was he in ... He tried different models with variations in size, shape, and height. In 1863 he began a collaboration with Michael Foster Ward ... Some countries will supplement the paid weather observer with a network of volunteers to obtain precipitation data (and other ... Due to the ever-increasing numbers of observers, standardisation of the gauges became necessary. Symons began experimenting ...
"Satellite Based Monitoring of Groundwater Storage Variations Over Indus Basin" (PDF). www.pcrwr.gov.pk. Pakistan Council of ... Sabir, Ismat (28 November 2012). "Water is Becoming Scarce". Pakistan Observer. " ...
Download the citation for this article by clicking on one of the following citation managers:. ...
... and inter-observer variation in the use of a system designed for exact measurements from standard optic nerve head photographs ... Intra- and inter-observer variation of optic nerve head measurements in glaucoma suspects using disc-data Int Ophthalmol. 1992 ... The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-observer variation in the use of a system designed for exact ... Intra-observer variance for disc area was significantly larger for the less trained of the two experienced observers. Inter- ...
Contact , Policy , Terms of Use © 2003-2023 Observer Omnimedia LLC. "Design Observer" is a registered trademark of Observer ...
Freedman, Pete (2008-10-15). "How To Piss Off A Member Of Weezer". Dallas Observer. Village Voice Media. Archived from the ... "The Greatest Man That Ever Lived (Variations on a Shaker Hymn)" is a song released as an iTunes single from American ... The song bears a resemblance to the Shaker song "Simple Gifts" hence the "(Variations on a Shaker Hymn)" in the title. ... McCarron, Rob (2009-04-11). "ROH TV report". Wrestling Observer. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Mathieson, Joe (2009-04-26). "ROH ...
Diagnosis - Observer Variation PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * A general procedure for the estimation ... Intra- and inter-observer reliability of combined segmental measurement techniques for predicting immediate post-deployment ...
... in observers with strabismus have found that asymmetry of OKN tends to occur in both eyes of observers with an early onset of ... We studied monocular OKN in ten observers with early-onset (up to 24 months of age), seven observers with late-onset (after 24 ... in observers with strabismus have found that asymmetry of OKN tends to occur in both eyes of observers with an early onset of ... and late-onset observers showed near normal OKN in the non-deviating eye although the early-onset observers showed bilateral ...
August Sander - Voir, Observer et Penser. David Goldblatt, "TJ" 1948-2010. Harry Callahan - Variations. ...
The Observer. 2023-11-30, 12:00 A Rare Genetic Spotlight on Health Disparities for IBD (GeorgiaTech - Georgia Institute of ... Genetic variations that cause rare, deadly illness: Research. Hindustan Times 2023-11-16, 08:26 ...
... the former from the observers angle). Create equivalent variations in construal emerge whenever knowledge is similar for near ... Considerable proof getting variations in construal ranging from notice or any other will come regarding look into the star- ... Over the years, observers attributions regarding a keen actors routines be more dispositional and less situational (Honest & ... observer feeling from inside the attribution (E. Bymrsiteadmin October 9, 2022. October 9, 2022. ...
There are a thousand variations on these bowls. Basically combine a whole grain (like brown rice or quinoa, or potatoes if you ... How Do I Whitelist Observer? How Do I Whitelist Observer?. Below are steps you can take in order to whitelist Observer.com on ... Click the AdBlock Plus button on your browser and select Disable on Observer.com. ...
Observer variations in the diagnosis of stroke. WHO collaborative study on the control of stroke in the community  Hatano S ...
Observer variation in histopathological diagnosis and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. BMJ1989;298:707-10. doi: ... Grading of CIN, based on the thickness of the lesion in the epithelium, varies noticeably between observers.646566 ...
Observer variation in histopathological diagnosis and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. British Medical Journal ...
Three different languages to describe observer: indifferent. Elegant variation in writing, Deirdre McCloskey. Smith sly writer ... and attempt to feel what that indifferent observer would feel-to connect with this imagined person through your sympathy. ...
This process is laborious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-observer variations. For example, the concordance in ... Morgan, R. H. et al. Decision processes and observer error in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis by chest roentgenography. Am. J. ...
"Minor monthly variations in regional activity are typical," he said. "However, cumulative results over many years clearly point ... How Do I Whitelist Observer? How Do I Whitelist Observer?. Below are steps you can take in order to whitelist Observer.com on ... Click the AdBlock Plus button on your browser and select Disable on Observer.com. ...
... two experiments aiming to investigate the adoption of a graduated measure to describe credibility attribution by observers ... flexibility that accounts for diagnostic and treatment variation among clinicians; 3) monitoring of information integration ... understanding of the observers degree of belief in patients self-reports. Observers were asked to ... when observers are not allowed to talk to patients and when observers expect social cheating. One hundred and twenty health ...
The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics. 1977;33:159-74. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... The Andean region encompasses wide variations in elevation, which is the principal determinant of variation in temperature, and ... Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(4):598-607. doi: ... Predictions of Variation in Incidence Rates. Regression of log-transformed incidence data in positive municipalities against ...
Variations on a Theme (February 1995). Willow Runs Glory Days (July 1995). Delhi Village (August 1995). Dixboro (May 1996). ... Browse Ann Arbor Observer: Then & Now. Choose a subject below to start exploring Ann Arbor Observer: Then & Now. ... Lifelines (Community Observer, Spring 2003). Saline Railroad Depot (Community Observer, Winter 2006). The Dexter Underpass ( ... Bridgewater (Community Observer, Summer 1998). Gunther Gardens (Community Observer, Summer 1999). The Botanical Gardens on ...
Aziz ZA, Wells AU, Hansell DM, et al.: HRCT diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease: inter-observer variation. Thorax ... Aziz ZA, Wells AU, Hansell DM, et al.: HRCT diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease: inter-observer variation. Thorax ...
Intra-observer and inter-observer variation of Hertel exophthalmometry. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009 Jul. 29(4):472-6. [QxMD ... Females also show racial variation. The average in white women was 15.4 mm and the average was 17.8 mm in African American ...
Charlotte Observer (thanks, Tracy!). Raleigh News & Observer (thanks, Cathy!). South Carolina. The Post and Courier (thanks, ... In turn you can then have shopping lists that only show the coupons in your area! Take a look at the coupon insert variations ... Each week volunteers send in insert variation lists to show exactly what coupons were in their papers. I take these and put ... Regional Coupon Insert Variations 03/27. on 3.30.2022 at 4:39pm ... Home , Weekly Inserts , Regional Coupon Insert Variations 03/27 ...
Charlotte Observer (thanks, Tracy!). Raleigh News & Observer (thanks, Cathy!). South Carolina. The Post and Courier (thanks, ... In turn you can then have shopping lists that only show the coupons in your area! Take a look at the coupon insert variations ... Each week volunteers send in insert variation lists to show exactly what coupons were in their papers. I take these and put ... Regional Coupon Insert Variations 05/29. on 6.1.2022 at 4:39pm ... Home , Weekly Inserts , Regional Coupon Insert Variations 05/29 ...
Description based on: Vol. 21, no. 6,126 (Feb. 1, 1989); title from caption ...
Clemsoning (v.) - apocryphal team-specific collapse phenomenon; highly susceptible to the observer effect of college football; ... See also: "Sparty, No!", a variation specific to East Lansing, Michigan.). Connecticut Huskies (n.) - ERR. 404 FILE NOT FOUND ...
Acoustic phenotypic variation is of major importance for speciation and the evolution of species diversity. Whereas selective ... Morphological variability or inter-observer bias? A methodological toolkit to improve data quality of multi-researcher datasets ... Variation in abundance and habitat use of the critically endangered Microcebus gerpi across its fragmented range ... However, not much is known about the variation of social tolerance in species living in dispersed social systems that combine ...
The distance between the two pupils of an observers eyes. Binoculars can be adjusted to accommodate variations in a persons ... The edge-to-edge angular diameter of the image displayed in a binocular as seen by the eyes of the observer. It is an inherent ... Long eye relief is advantageous for observers who wear glasses, as they dont have to put their eye directly on the eyepiece to ... The "angular diameter" of an object is defined as the angle an object makes (subtends) as seen by an observer. ...
While much research has examined variation in mobbing resp ... to remove between observer variation. Due to the nature of the ... The observer then recorded a 3-min pre-trial period to establish baseline behavior in the absence of any predators before each ... All recordings were annotated by the observer and included information about the behavior of the blue tits, the number of blue ... Seasonal variation in mobbing behaviour of passerine birds Article 28 January 2019 ...
The distance between the two pupils of an observers eyes. Binoculars can be adjusted to accommodate variations in a persons ... The edge-to-edge angular diameter of the image displayed in a binocular as seen by the eyes of the observer. It is an inherent ... Long eye relief is advantageous for observers who wear glasses, as they dont have to put their eye directly on the eyepiece to ... The "angular diameter" of an object is defined as the angle an object makes (subtends) as seen by an observer. ...
  • Mean coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 0.212 (standing leg neutral) to a high of 0.603 (trunk moderate flexion). (cdc.gov)
  • Observer variations in the diagnosis of stroke. (julkari.fi)
  • Observer variation in histopathological diagnosis and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-observer variation in the use of a system designed for exact measurements from standard optic nerve head photographs. (nih.gov)
  • Intra-observer variances were 0.001 +/- 0.001 mm2 for cup area (mean +/- SD), 0.002 +/- 0.002 mm2 for disc area and 0.002 +/- 0.003 mm2 for rim area. (nih.gov)
  • These values for intra-observer variance were comparable with the results obtained using manual planimetric techniques. (nih.gov)
  • Intra-observer variance for disc area was significantly larger for the less trained of the two experienced observers. (nih.gov)
  • This process is laborious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-observer variations. (nature.com)
  • This study looked at intra-observer and inter-observer reliability among three emergency physicians (EPs) using three different imaging protocols. (medscimonit.com)
  • Morphological variability or inter-observer bias? (researchgate.net)
  • Moreover, wide variation between individual measurements was reported, indicating high observer variability (1;2). (escardio.org)
  • These data suggest comparable precision and inter-observer reliability can be achieved. (medscimonit.com)
  • Discovered in 1908 by Annie Jump Cannon (Figure 1), SU Tau has been under constant observation by BAA VSS observers since 1962 (Figure 2). (britastro.org)
  • There was a considerable variation in the reading of the slides between different persons. (erowid.org)
  • The absolute differences between the two observers ranged from -0.35 to +0.20 mm2 (-0.08 +/- 0.11 mm2) for cup area, from -0.38 to +0.15 mm2 (-0.08 +/- 0.11 mm2) for disc area and from -0.29 to +0.34 mm2 (-0.06 +/- 0.12 mm2) for rim area. (nih.gov)
  • Masked measurements were made 3 times by 2 observers, from stereophotographs of the optic nerve head of 56 eyes from 30 glaucoma suspects. (nih.gov)
  • Although genetic variation is a major driving force behind evolution, certain variants also underlie many congenital diseases. (mlo-online.com)
  • Copy number variants (CNVs) are a major source of such genetic variation, and are defined as chromosomal segments at least one thousand bases in length that vary in copy number between individuals. (mlo-online.com)
  • Although information on both types of genetic variation is complementary in many of these investigations, each has traditionally been analyzed using separate approaches. (mlo-online.com)
  • The wide geographic variation in the ecology and behavior of vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and persons is likely to cause corresponding variation in cost-effectiveness of control measures ( 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives: The investigation of morphological variation in animals is widely used in taxonomy, ecology, and evolution. (researchgate.net)
  • The findings suggest that a graduated measure is useful for assessing the degree of uncertainty of the observers and subtle effects of different factors upon the judgment of patient's pain. (researchgate.net)
  • To make sense of these findings, it is important to remember that most observers think that the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides a good count of traumatic occupational deaths, while there are many concerns about underreporting in the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII). (cdc.gov)
  • Inter-teacher agreement, and some types of teacher-observer agreement, showed significant variation across informant pairs. (umass.edu)
  • Procedure -TDI was performed by the same trained observer (VC) on all cats. (avma.org)
  • A trained observer must also supervise each step of every PPE donning/doffing procedure to ensure established PPE protocols are completed correctly. (cdc.gov)
  • We studied monocular OKN in ten observers with early-onset (up to 24 months of age), seven observers with late-onset (after 24 months of age) unilateral strabismus, and 12 normally sighted control observers. (nih.gov)
  • Several reports on monocular optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in observers with strabismus have found that asymmetry of OKN tends to occur in both eyes of observers with an early onset of strabismus but only in the deviating eye of those with a later onset of strabismus. (nih.gov)
  • In general, teacher-observer agreement has been found to be superior to parent-teacher agreement, but inferior to inter-teacher agreement. (umass.edu)
  • The prevalence of CNVs throughout the general population suggests that they represent a significant proportion of total genomic variation, and it has been estimated that CNVs may affect as much as 4% to 5% of the human genome. (mlo-online.com)
  • Inter-observer variances were 0.004 +/- 0.009 mm2 for cup area, 0.008 +/- 0.013 mm2 for disc area and 0.009 +/- 0.014 mm2 for rim area. (nih.gov)
  • In the deviating eye, observers with early-onset strabismus showed large OKN asymmetries in favour of nasalward motion while observers with late-onset strabismus showed smaller OKN asymmetries in that eye. (nih.gov)
  • Choose a subject below to start exploring Ann Arbor Observer: Then & Now. (aadl.org)
  • On 1895 Sep 07 an unknown observer (Lewis Swift? (aber.ac.uk)
  • Minor monthly variations in regional activity are typical," he said. (observer.com)
  • The song bears a resemblance to the Shaker song "Simple Gifts" hence the "(Variations on a Shaker Hymn)" in the title. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, like it or not, it's the topic that shines forth from Paul Hayward's Observer piece on Barcelona yesterday. (runofplay.com)
  • If ejecta is directed in the line of sight for an observer on Earth, this has the effect of dimming the light received from the star. (britastro.org)
  • Agreement between teacher reports was stronger than teacher-observer agreement. (umass.edu)
  • This article presents two experiments aiming to investigate the adoption of a graduated measure to describe credibility attribution by observers who evaluate patients' pain accounts. (researchgate.net)
  • These inter-observer variances were significantly larger than those previously reported for manual planimetry. (nih.gov)
  • Using a prototype developed previously, we trained twelve contract orchard observers with classroom training and supervised orchard practice. (cdc.gov)