Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Deoxy SugarsWeight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsBariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.HexosesAdipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)United StatesCarbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Sugar AcidsAdipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.TriglyceridesMannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLFood Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.XyloseMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Sugar PhosphatesHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsAcetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.MethylglucosidesComorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.FucoseGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.GlucosamineRats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.PolysaccharidesHomeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ArabinoseMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).TrehaloseTaste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Schools: Educational institutions.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.CyclobutanesNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.PhlorhizinHyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.HexosaminesFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.MethylglycosidesStarch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
  • But, "if HFCS is a risk factor for diabetes-one of the world's most serious chronic diseases-then we need to rewrite national dietary guidelines and review agricultural trade policies," Tim Lobstein, director of policy at the International Association for the Study of Obesity, said in a prepared statement. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In 2016, World Health Organization (WHO) director general Margaret Chan described the twin epidemics of obesity and diabetes worldwide as a "slow-motion disaster" - and suggested that the likelihood of preventing the current "bad situation" from getting "much worse" was "virtually zero. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 2016, the twin epidemics of obesity and diabetes were described as 'slow-motion disasters' by Margaret Chan, Director-General, World Health Organization (WHO). (siasat.com)
  • In 2016, it was revealed that the last five decades of research on sugar have largely been influenced by - you guessed it - the sugar industry. (yogaesoteric.net)
  • 21 Jan 2016 --- Draft EU rules that would allow baby foods to continue to contain up to three times more sugar than is recommended by the World Health Organisation were vetoed by the European Parliament yesterday, as they fail to protect infants and young children against obesity, say MEPs. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
  • MINNEAPOLIS, Minn. - April 12, 2016 - Children's Minnesota announced today that effective May 2, 2016, it will no longer carry sugar-sweetened beverages at any of its locations. (childrensmn.org)
  • In September 2016, researchers revealed that the Sugar Association paid scientists in the 1960s to minimize the link between sugar consumption and negative health impacts, alternatively implicating fats and cholesterol. (networkforphl.org)
  • The submission calls for this revenue to be used to implement measures contained in Ireland's Obesity Policy and Action Plan 2016 - 2025 and the Healthy Ireland, Budget 2019 coupled with supporting policies to tackle obesity and food poverty among children. (irishheart.ie)
  • Chemist Direct discovers experts believe that refined sugars should be taxed to try to tackle the problem with obesity in the UK. (prweb.com)
  • In the UK, 64% of adults are considered obese which is estimated to cost the NHS billions of pounds every year, but the Chief Medical Officer for England has announced that a tax on sugar could be introduced to tackle the problem. (prweb.com)
  • We hope these guidelines will inspire the food industry to cut down sugar in their products and policy makers to take bold actions to tackle obesity and being overweight, especially among children," Goyens added. (euractiv.com)
  • Her remarks come after celebrity chef Jamie Oliver told the committee hearing Prime Minister David Cameron should be as " brave as he knows he should be " to tackle rising levels of obesity. (rt.com)
  • Meanwhile, George Osborne is slapping a tax on sugar to tackle obesity. (rationaloptimist.com)
  • Fianna Fáil Spokesperson on Health Billy Kelleher TD has called for the revenue raised from the new sugar tax due to come into effect next month to be earmarked to tackle obesity. (fiannafail.ie)
  • In addition, Americans should try to limit the amount of added sugars in all the foods they eat. (medicalxpress.com)
  • As the United States Food and Drug Administration considers a new food label detailing the amount of added sugars in foods, new research shows this non-nutritive calorie source has crept into the American diet over the past three decades. (obesity.org)
  • Comparing transparency in the food industry to the prior precedent of tobacco litigation, the center advocates policy to curb obesity by supporting legislation to regulate food labels and what children have access to in school zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The headlines comparing sugar to tobacco were prompted by a quote from Simon Capewell, professor of clinical epidemiology at the University of Liverpool, in Action on Sugar's press release. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The association between sugar intake and obesity has been well-documented with sugar's contribution much condemned by health campaigners. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Peretti's version is probably not the whole story behind obesity-he includes no discussion of other factors influencing weight gain (e.g., the increase in serving sizes) or strong counterpoints in defense of sugar-but his story is interesting and certainly suggests that sugar's role in the current epidemic is worth exploring. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The researchers found that the mice that had consumed mango had a lower percentage of body fat, lower blood cholesterol levels, and lower blood sugar levels than they had before. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mango contains a lot of natural sugar, but a little mango may help to control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For this reason, monitoring and controlling blood sugar levels is essential. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • in order to control the blood sugar. (hubpages.com)
  • if you crave sugar or sweet foods, carbohydrates and snack foods, more than likely your blood sugar levels are out of whack ….if you feel tired and run down …light headed, then again, your blood sugar levels are out of balance and most of the time you reach for the quick fix …more snack foods which equals more sugar! (hubpages.com)
  • Almost instantly, the Aloe will balance your blood sugar and put a stop to the craving for sugar. (hubpages.com)
  • In a study published in the Journal of Lipid Research , Saint Louis University scientist Angel Baldan, PhD, reports that turning off a protein found in liver and adipose tissue significantly improves blood sugar levels, as well as reduces body fat in an animal model. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Scientists report that eating just 1 ounce of nuts per day can help reduce obesity, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, all of which are risk factors for heart disease. (emaxhealth.com)
  • According to this latest study, just one ounce of mixed nuts (e.g., raw unpeeled almonds, hazelnuts, and walnuts) per day may help reduce obesity, blood pressure, and blood sugar, features associated with metabolic syndrome and heart disease. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A 2017 study by researchers from Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge found that being overweight or obese increased a person's risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by up to 28% compared to those with a healthy bodyweight, even if they had healthy blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels. (hindustantimes.com)
  • which is better for blood sugar? (plos.org)
  • Morning workout vs breaks from sitting - which is better for blood sugar? (plos.org)
  • The higher the woman's blood sugar, the greater the risk of her child being obese. (futurity.org)
  • The children of moms with gestational diabetes and higher blood sugar were higher in all these categories," Metzger says. (futurity.org)
  • Like sugar, it does not cause yeast over growth or blood sugar imbalances. (diethealthclub.com)
  • Does Pregnant Mom's Blood Sugar Affect Kids' Obesity Risk? (healthcanal.com)
  • CHICAGO - Can an overweight or obese teen's weight problems be linked to his mother's blood sugar during pregnancy? (healthcanal.com)
  • The mothers were part of an earlier study, which measured their blood sugar levels and pregnancy weight. (healthcanal.com)
  • The study aims to identify the long-term effects of a pregnant woman's blood sugar levels on her child compared to the effects of her body weight. (healthcanal.com)
  • This will tell us if the blood sugar during her pregnancy is having an independent effect and how big it is," said Boyd Metzger, M.D., lead investigator of the study and emeritus professor of endocrinology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
  • Those guidelines established a lower blood sugar level for diagnosing gestational diabetes. (healthcanal.com)
  • My class studied feedback loops in homeostasis, and used blood sugar regulation as an example. (amazonaws.com)
  • When you eat, your blood sugar rises. (drmirkin.com)
  • This resulted in lower body fat and blood sugar levels. (hivehealthmedia.com)
  • Mums-to-be should optimise their weight before and during pregnancy because their weight affects blood sugar levels which in turn can cause overgrowth of the baby in the womb," says Fionnuala McAuliffe , Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at UCD School of Medicine & Medical Science and the National Maternity Hospital , Holles Street, Dublin, who led the study. (healthcanal.com)
  • The findings published online in the European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology show that even small variations in blood sugar levels during pregnancy can influence the growth of the baby in the womb. (healthcanal.com)
  • According to the findings, women with blood sugar concentrations at the upper end of the normal scale at 28 weeks of pregnancy were 3.5 times more likely to give birth to babies weighing over 9 pounds and 15 ounces (4500g) than those women with the lowest levels of blood sugar. (healthcanal.com)
  • The study examined the association between maternal blood sugar levels throughout pregnancy and the growth of the baby in the womb, and the characteristics of the baby after birth. (healthcanal.com)
  • The findings show that mother's blood sugar levels influenced birth weight, but not the length or head size of the baby," concludes Dr Jennifer Walsh who co-authored the study. (healthcanal.com)
  • Blood sugar level had positive correlation with age, BMI, WSR with highest correlation with WHR among obesity indices. (omicsonline.org)
  • Close associations between socioeconomic status, overweight/obesity, age and blood sugar level was observed. (omicsonline.org)
  • This is about a considered, expert opinion based on being a nutritionist for 35 years and having a sincere belief that sugar in moderation contributes to a safe and healthy diet. (smh.com.au)
  • That article, first-authored by Dr. Ram Weiss, a pediatrician at the Hadassah Hebrew University School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel, concludes that while obesity contributes to the syndrome, it is "unlikely" to be an "initiating factor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Clearly, the federal anti-obesity campaign is NOT working, even though the US government would love you to think their efforts are paying off. (mercola.com)
  • I am disappointed that Minister Donohue has refused in PQ replies to me to earmark revenue from the new sugar tax to invest in anti-obesity measures. (fiannafail.ie)
  • Although mainstream nutrition specialists have distanced themselves from the finding, the food industry, and Coca-Cola, have seized on the study to oppose tougher advice against sugar in the nation's diet bible. (smh.com.au)
  • However, the Food and Drink Federation responded that sugar was not the cause of obesity , when eaten as part of a balanced diet and claimed that a tax on it would affect the poor families very hard. (prweb.com)
  • A tax on sugar (i.e. in processed food) should in theory make it less appetising in comparison to healthier alternatives such as fruits and vegetables. (prweb.com)
  • Despite extensive scientific evidence about the real cause of obesity (i.e., the food system), public policy has not changed, and many people are fed up with the status quo. (mercola.com)
  • Instead of eating whole foods- real foods -the contemporary American diet typically consists mostly of sugar, highly processed grains, and a montage of chemicals that are anything but food. (mercola.com)
  • Accordingly, the University of Adelaide's Professor Maciej Henneberg has called for food packaging to reflect the dangers of eating too much meat, in the same way sugar content is highlighted. (news24.com)
  • And now we ask …could the obesity problem in America be caused, in part, from all the snack food and sugar consumed? (hubpages.com)
  • There is also little data to determine whether the form in which added sugar is consumed, as beverage or as solid food, affects its potential to promote weight gain. (nih.gov)
  • Fructose may increase the risk for obesity by altering satiety, resulting in increased food intake. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Q: I read food labels, but what's a safe amount of added sugar for kids? (northshore.org)
  • In the science behind food advice it is mad simply to put both sugar and fat in the "bad" category. (rationaloptimist.com)
  • The easy availability of plentiful food, especially sugars, is part of the story, as is less exercise. (rationaloptimist.com)
  • The White House kept silent last year as Congress killed a plan by four federal agencies to reduce sugar, salt and fat in food marketed to children. (thefiscaltimes.com)
  • They've never lost a significant political battle in the U.S. despite mounting scientific evidence of the role of unhealthy food and children's marketing in obesity. (thefiscaltimes.com)
  • Food and beverage manufacturers and advertisers say they aren't to blame for obesity. (thefiscaltimes.com)
  • Aside from implementing the tax, the society has stated that they will also request that fast food and processed food companies include sugar content warnings. (asiaone.com)
  • He claims that the additives and fat in pet food is contributing towards dogs' obesity and behavioural problems, including hyperactivity. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • In this timely and important book, Dr. Robert Lustig presents the scientific evidence for the toxicity of sugar and the disastrous effects of modern industrial food on the hormones that control hunger, satiety, and weight. (amazon.com)
  • In response, the sugar industry created advertisements that maintained no singular food is fattening, and so the motto was born: a calorie is a calorie. (yogaesoteric.net)
  • Natural or an artificial sweetener is a wise choice for them as they can enjoy the sweet taste of the food without leaving any sugar in the blood to metabolize. (diethealthclub.com)
  • As the obesity rates continue to climb in developed countries, and research about hunger and how our bodies process food advances, researchers are finding more clues that the epidemic's cause is more complex than simple overeating. (discovermagazine.com)
  • But Yudkin's work was rubbished by what many believe, including Professor Robert Lustig , one of the world's leading endocrinologists, was a concerted campaign to discredit Yudkin…Yudkin's colleague at the time, Dr Richard Bruckdorfer at UCL says: "There was a huge lobby from [the food] industry, particularly from the sugar industry, and Yudkin complained bitterly that they were subverting some of his ideas. (discovermagazine.com)
  • When you take the fat out of a recipe, food tastes like cardboard, and you need to replace it with something - that something being sugar. (discovermagazine.com)
  • And that sugar not only made people fatter, it also messed with their brains and drove them to overeat (an outcome not undesirable for the food industry). (discovermagazine.com)
  • Food labels list the amount of sugar in a serving, but they do not tell a person whether the sugar is added to the food or drink or is there naturally. (drmirkin.com)
  • Blumenthal has now launched a new Food Preparation and Nutrition GCSE and hopes that understanding nutrition better can help to reduce the UK's levels of obesity. (costsectorcatering.co.uk)
  • and calls upon the Government to redouble its efforts to engage with industry to address levels of sugar and fat in food and drink to reduce calorific intake in the UK. (edms.org.uk)
  • Supposedly, according to the article, "low-sugar food has become the new low-carb food. (blogspot.com)
  • Just as they did when low-carb first became popular, food manufacturers are now rushing to pump out "low-sugar" foods to help people identify products that are supposed to be "healthier" for them. (blogspot.com)
  • I always tell people to read food and nutrition labels carefully and immediately put down any product that has more than a gram or two of sugars per serving in it. (blogspot.com)
  • Sugar is difficult to avoid, but it can be done for the most part as long as you are a conscious consumer when you buy your food. (blogspot.com)
  • However, a more nuanced appreciation for the complex biochemistry and physiology of cellular energy generation suggests that obesity is a state of hormonal imbalance causing increased shunting of food energy into adipose tissue for storage, resulting in decreased satiety and ultimately leading to increased caloric intake. (nih.gov)
  • The processed food industry thrives on sugar. (growyouthful.com)
  • 14, 15, 19) If you are a food manufacturer, the way to beat your competition is to add more sugar to your products than they do. (growyouthful.com)
  • Antibiotics, excessive cleanliness, processed food, refined sugar and white processed flours are some of the main culprits in devastating the gut's biome. (growyouthful.com)
  • In addition to efforts by the FDA to include added sugars on nutrition labels, other innovative solutions include limiting the amount of added sugar allowed in the food supply, using a cap-and-trade policy, similar to those used for environmental pollutants. (obesity.org)
  • TOS recognizes that added sugars are a concern and encourages proven efforts to create a healthier food environment. (obesity.org)
  • The story of sugar, and of mankind's desire for sweetness in food and drink is a compelling, though confusing story. (hachette.com.au)
  • This book seeks to do just that: to tell the story of how the consumption of sugar - the addition of sugar to food and drink - became a fundamental and increasingly troublesome feature of modern life. (hachette.com.au)
  • The Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity is a non-profit research and public policy organization devoted to improving the world's diet, preventing obesity, and reducing weight stigma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Setting an upper limit to the amount of sugar that should be consumed in a healthy diet is a good start, "but we don't know if the level recommended is safe for everyone," he warns. (eurekalert.org)
  • He warns that while restricting the amount of sugar consumption in a healthy diet is a good start "but we don't know if the level recommended is safe for everyone. (siasat.com)
  • One of their key aims is to ensure sugar does not contribute more than 5% of individual's daily total energy intake. (prweb.com)
  • Europeans' current sugar consumption varies from between 7 to 17% of their energy intake. (euractiv.com)
  • People should reduce the amount to less than 10% of their daily energy intake - about 50 grams or 12 teaspoons of sugar for adults which is about half the current rate in North and South America, experts at the UN body told Reuters on 4 March. (euractiv.com)
  • They believed that reduction of sugar consumption would only be effective at reducing obesity if associated with a reduction in overall energy intake. (foodnavigator.com)
  • But under the European Commission's proposal, sugars could continue to provide up to 30% of the energy intake from baby foods (7.5g sugar/100kcal is equivalent to 30kcal from sugar in 100kcal energy). (foodingredientsfirst.com)
  • In terms of daily energy intake, the new guidelines means that people should keep sugar at a maximum of 10% of equivalent energy. (zmescience.com)
  • This is because when you eat fructose, you actually generate more fat in your liver for the same amount of energy intake, compared to other types of sugar. (blessedquietness.com)
  • But there's avid and acrimonious debate among scientists about what factors specifically may be triggering the obesity epidemic and its resulting diseases. (npr.org)
  • The drugs were either fenofibrate, which lowers lipid levels, or rosiglitazone, which reduces sugar in the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Even the exercise done by athletes cannot counter a bad diet, say the authors, who cite evidence that while obesity has rocketed in the past 30 years, "there has been little change in physical activity levels in the western population. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After taking into account different influences between countries, such as the degree of urbanisation, physical activity and calorie consumption, it was discovered that meat contributed around 13 per cent to obesity levels, the same as sugar. (news24.com)
  • It will be very challenging to obtain the funding to conduct the clinical diet studies needed to address these evidence gaps, especially at the levels of added sugar that are commonly consumed. (nih.gov)
  • In the worst case scenario, the tax could even make obesity levels worse, the Oxford University researchers warn. (thesun.co.uk)
  • For infants and young children in particular, added sugar levels should be kept to a minimum" said MEP Keith Taylor (Greens/EFA, UK), who drafted the objection. (foodingredientsfirst.com)
  • In various countries a sugar tax has been introduced in order to curb rising obesity levels but the government has made clear that no such tax is planned for the UK. (theupcoming.co.uk)
  • The study was conducted on laboratory rats to see how the protein could lead to appetite suppression and keep sugar levels in check. (hivehealthmedia.com)
  • Dr Joao Breda, Head of WHO/Europe's Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity programme, said: "This development is a testament to the strong and sustained relationship between WHO/Europe and the colleagues in Estonia. (who.int)
  • We haven't reversed the epidemic," Dr. William H. Dietz, director of the division of nutrition, physical activity and obesity at the CDC, said in an interview. (thefiscaltimes.com)
  • Quoting a dietitian and nutrition author in the story, Bertrand writes "in moderation, you can have sugar" so you can keep your cravings at bay and keep your diet from backfiring. (blogspot.com)
  • THE Sydney University nutritionist Jennie Brand-Miller holds out a tempting message for sweet tooths and companies such as Coca-Cola: sugar is not to blame for obesity in Australia. (smh.com.au)