Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesIntra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTriglyceridesMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Schools: Educational institutions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.CyclobutanesNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Biliopancreatic Diversion: A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)JapanPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.BrazilJejunoileal Bypass: A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.MexicoHypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (1/23597)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (2/23597)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (3/23597)

The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (4/23597)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

Obesity induces expression of uncoupling protein-2 in hepatocytes and promotes liver ATP depletion. (5/23597)

Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) uncouples respiration from oxidative phosphorylation and may contribute to obesity through effects on energy metabolism. Because basal metabolic rate is decreased in obesity, UCP2 expression is predicted to be reduced. Paradoxically, hepatic expression of UCP2 mRNA is increased in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis of ob/ob livers demonstrate that UCP2 mRNA and protein expression are increased in hepatocytes, which do not express UCP2 in lean mice. Mitochondria isolated from ob/ob livers exhibit an increased rate of H+ leak which partially dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential when the rate of electron transport is suppressed. In addition, hepatic ATP stores are reduced and these livers are more vulnerable to necrosis after transient hepatic ischemia. Hence, hepatocytes adapt to obesity by up-regulating UCP2. However, because this decreases the efficiency of energy trapping, the cells become vulnerable to ATP depletion when energy needs increase acutely.  (+info)

Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (6/23597)

Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking.  (+info)

Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. (7/23597)

Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons.  (+info)

No association between the -308 polymorphism in the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) promoter region and polycystic ovaries. (8/23597)

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF)2 allele appears to be linked with increased insulin resistance and obesity, conditions often found in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The significance of TNFalpha polymorphism in relation to the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with PCOS was investigated in 122 well-characterized patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Of these, 84 had an abnormal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCOS, while the remaining 38 had a normal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCO. There were a further 28 individuals without PCO (non-PCO) and 108 individuals whose PCO status was undetermined (reference population). The promoter region of the TNFalpha gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the presence or absence of the polymorphism at -308 was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The less common TNF allele (TNF2) was found as TNF1/2 or TNF2/2 in 11/38 (29%) of PCO subjects, 25/84 (30%) of PCOS subjects, 7/28 (25%) of non-PCO subjects, and 45/108 (42%) of the reference population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the TNF2 allele between the groups. The relationship of TNF genotype to clinical and biochemical parameters was examined. In both the PCO group and the PCOS group, the presence of the TNF2 allele was significantly associated with lower glucose values obtained from the glucose tolerance testing (P<0.05). The TNF genotype was not significantly associated with any clinical or biochemical parameter measured in the PCO, PCOS or non-PCOS groups. Thus, the TNFalpha -308 polymorphism does not appear to strongly influence genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovaries.  (+info)

  • Texas children now are in a health crisis, with the highest percentage of students with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and heart disease in the history of our state. (texmed.org)
  • Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States and has been linked to many health problems such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep disorders, and breathing problems. (mdtmag.com)
  • TMA will monitor and encourages research on the medical, psychological, and social issues related to obesity to be best informed when making recommendations on prevention and treatment. (texmed.org)
  • TMA supports the need to educate Texas adults and children on the importance of proper diet, nutrition, and physical activity in the prevention and management of obesity. (texmed.org)
  • The BDA Obesity specialist group represents dietitians working in adult and childhood obesity prevention and management, recognising obesity as being a specialist area of dietetic practice. (uk.com)
  • 2002), for example, found in a panel study of adults ages twenty-five to seventy-seven that obesity increased an individual's self-reported likelihood of developing both an upper-body functional limitation (including dressing oneself, reaching for a five-pound object, and gripping) and a lower-body functional limitation (including standing up from a chair, climbing stairs, getting into a car, running errands, and doing light chores). (sutree.com)
  • Alley and Chang (2007) reached similar conclusions in their study of adults ages sixty and older, finding that obesity increased an individual's likelihood of developing at least one functional limitation (defined in the study as a self-reported difficulty or inability to walk onefourth mile, walk up ten stairs, kneel, lift ten pounds, walk between rooms, and stand from a chair). (sutree.com)
  • WASHINGTON - The rate of obesity among adults has increased across 16 states, with no states seeing a drop, according to a new report released by the Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Since 1995, when data was available for every state, obesity rates have doubled in seven states and increased by at least 90% in 10 others, TFAH and RWJF noted, adding that racial and ethnic minority adults, as well as those who are less educated and make less money, continue to garner the highest overall obesity rates. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Researchers have found several genes that appear to be linked with obesity. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Medically defined as a body mass index (BMI) of thirty or greater,1 obesity is a twofold issue: it has the potential to impact both a person's health and a person's appearance.2 Health researchers have linked obesity to the development of functional limitations in performing physical tasks, which in turn, could affect an individual's ability and willingness to perform physical tasks at work. (sutree.com)
  • Obesity: The Texas Medical Association recognizes obesity as a serious public health problem. (texmed.org)
  • Obesity and the associated medical complications increase health care spending and patient morbidity and mortality. (texmed.org)
  • 7) TMA supports educational and other public health efforts to address obesity. (texmed.org)
  • The Obesity specialist group works to communicate evidence-based standards, support post-registration training in obesity management, contribute to national guidelines, campaign for health improvement, and to develop and foster a network of obesity management professionals. (uk.com)
  • Obesity could be a disability, a European Court of Justice has ruled, reports BBC Health News . (inquisitr.com)
  • Judges said that obesity in itself was not a disability - but if a person had a long-term impairment because of their obesity, then they would be protected by disability legislation," BBC Health News reported. (inquisitr.com)
  • There was a clear tipping point in our national weight gain over the last 20 years, and we can't afford to ignore the impact obesity has on our health and corresponding healthcare spending. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Americans are consuming more healthier foods like fruit, yogurt and bottled water than they did a decade ago, contributing to the stabilization in the country's obesity levels, according to the NPD's 28th annual "Eating Patterns in America Report. (progressivegrocer.com)
  • TMA encourages physicians to become educated and empowered to conduct appropriate assessment and treatment of overweight patients and obesity in their practices and to serve as leaders in their communities and in the policymaking process to improve healthy eating and increased physical activity among our state's children. (texmed.org)
  • FDA-regulated medical devices have also played a role in treating obesity. (mdtmag.com)
  • About 32 million more Americans will become obese by 2030, upping obesity rates to 42 percent of the U.S. population, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (yahoo.com)
  • One study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention observed a decrease in obesity prevalence among low income preschoolers in 19 U.S. states and territories between 2008 and 2011. (ncsl.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define obesity as a BMI of 30 or higher (find our BMI calculator here ). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After decades of increases, the obesity rate among young, low-income children showed a decline in 19 states, according to information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. (edweek.org)
  • There's a huge burden of disease that we can anticipate from the growing obesity in kids," said William H. Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (washingtonpost.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, overall obesity rates remain high and prevalence among 2-19 year olds and adults in the United States has not changed significantly between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. (ncsl.org)
  • Obesity is defined as body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BMI-for-age growth charts. (ncsl.org)
  • SILVER SPRING, Md. , Oct. 1, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The editors of Obesity have announced that four honorees will feature papers at the 8th annual Obesity Journal Symposium at the 38th Annual Meeting of The Obesity Society (TOS) at ObesityWeek® Interactive. (prnewswire.com)
  • The four winners of the 2020 Obesity Journal Symposium competition represent a range of topics, with something to attract most Obesity Society members,' said Obesity Journal Symposium Chair Donna H. Ryan , MD, professor emerita at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center of the Louisiana State University System in Baton Rouge. (prnewswire.com)
  • The selected papers also will be featured in a special section of the November 2020 edition of Obesity . (prnewswire.com)
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Living in a neighborhood with a high rate of obesity might raise the odds that you and your children will become plus-sized, too. (hon.ch)
  • FRIDAY, Dec. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A modified version of the CRISPR gene-editing technique could help fight obesity without having to alter any genes, a new study in mice suggests. (medicinenet.com)
  • These PowerPoint slides present key data and information on adult obesity in clear, easy to understand charts and graphics. (slideshare.net)
  • These slides should be useful to practitioners and policy makers working to tackle adult obesity at local, regional and national level. (slideshare.net)
  • No state currently has an adult obesity rate of less than 20 percent, but recent research may show signs of progress in young children. (ncsl.org)
  • One hint of good news: the increase in adult obesity appeared to slow starting in 2006. (forbes.com)
  • Adult obesity rates continue their climb, rising from 24.4 per cent of Australians to 28.1 per cent over the four years to 2012. (theage.com.au)
  • Obesity may effectively be contagious. (theweek.com)
  • A few years ago, Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler made a striking discovery about obesity: it spreads from person to person, much like a contagious virus. (wired.com)
  • Obesity is contagious like a virus. (slate.com)
  • Obesity Is 'Socially Contagious,' " said the headline on UCSD's press release . (slate.com)
  • The New York Times ("Study Says Obesity Can Be Contagious") opened its report with the line, "Obesity can spread from person to person, much like a virus. (slate.com)
  • The Los Angeles Times ("Obesity is 'contagious,' study finds") began , "Obesity can spread among a group of friends like a contagious disease," and added that the study showed a "pattern of contagion most often associated with infectious diseases. (slate.com)
  • Obesity is not contagious. (cato.org)
  • Obesity is defined as having a BMI at or above the 95th percentile. (cdc.gov)
  • Obesity in children and adolescents is defined not as an absolute number but in relation to a historical normal group, such that obesity is a BMI greater than the 95th percentile. (wikipedia.org)
  • These risks may increase as the degree of obesity increases. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • The IAEA supports the application of stable isotopes to assess the effect of lifestyle changes on body composition (lean mass and fat mass) and total energy expenditure in order to inform the design and improvement of activities aimed at prevention and control of obesity and related health risks. (iaea.org)
  • Obesity is in your genes, according to a study which found that one in six people inherits a trait which makes them feel less full after eating. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It said that a study has found six new genes associated with obesity, five of which are active in the brain. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The fact that several of these genes were "highly expressed" in the brain tissue suggests that there may be a role of the brain in predisposing some people to obesity, however exactly how such a predisposition works is not yet clear. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This means that the network is far more predictive of obesity than the presence of genes associated with the condition. (wired.com)
  • Cross off genes, viruses, environment, and imitation, and the only explanatory factor you're left with is, as the paper notes , each person's "perception of the social norms regarding the acceptability of obesity. (slate.com)
  • That's about one-fourth of our entire genome, suggesting that obesity is extremely complex at the genetic level - and because these genes were originally studied for their relationship to conditions other than obesity, that makes the picture even more complicated. (wired.com)
  • He replied, 'I think it makes sense to study obesity genes, but (like everything) it's more complicated than was first thought. (wired.com)
  • But that doesn't mean that studying obesity genes makes no sense. (wired.com)
  • This new technique boosts the activity of certain genes and prevented severe obesity in mice genetically altered to be susceptible to extreme weight gain . (medicinenet.com)
  • These results demonstrate that CRISPRa can be used to up the dosage of genes in diseases that result from a missing copy, providing a potential cure for certain forms of obesity as well as hundreds of other diseases," Matharu added. (medicinenet.com)
  • The latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2003 to 2006 shows that 17.6% of adolescents ages 12-19 have obesity, compared to only 5% in the 1976-1980 survey. (springer.com)
  • It highlights the clinical complications of obesity, while also focusing on the major scientific advances that have highlighted the role of genetics, adipose tissue endocrinology and the environment in the mechanisms and causes of obesity. (springer.com)
  • Genetics can't explain it, since having a fat friend was more likely to predict a person's obesity than having a fat sibling was. (slate.com)
  • Are you looking for the details concerning the relationship between obesity and genetics? (brighthub.com)
  • Though a definite link hasn't been proven, there is still a lot of research being conducted on obesity and genetics so medical science may have more definitive answers in the future. (brighthub.com)
  • Genetics and Food Intake, Body Weight and Obesity. (brighthub.com)
  • In light of that, does it make any sense at all to study obesity genetics? (wired.com)
  • Many scientists believe that in some cases, viruses literally cause obesity. (slate.com)
  • Drugs: Some drugs can cause obesity. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • This note sets out the definition and causes of obesity, the health problems caused by obesity, recent government policy on the issue and related statistics. (parliament.uk)
  • People who carry extra weight around their waist may be more likely to experience health problems caused by obesity than those who carry it in their legs and thighs. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Proponents argue that new scientific understanding has clearly established that obesity is a discrete medical condition that independently affects health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Earlier this year, Our Changing World featured an interview with University of Otago neuroscientist Christine Jasoni , who is investigating how maternal obesity affects the formation of the baby's brain . (radionz.co.nz)
  • Individual reports are available for all 50 states and the District of Columbia on 10 health topics including Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity . (cdc.gov)
  • The International Journal of Obesity strives to identify novel areas for research into obesity and it appears that gleaning information from "Big Data" data sets holds promise to allow identification of questions for more targeted research as well as to directly answer some questions about obesity. (nature.com)
  • Living in a community where obesity is more common can make sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy eating [and] obesity more socially acceptable," lead author Ashlesha Datar, from the University of Southern California, tells MedicalExpress.com . (theweek.com)
  • I'm an empathetic and supporting voice of reason, who has gone through the hardship of obesity and an unhealthy lifestyle, and is now bringing about healthy change supported by scientific fact. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Obesity is almost always found in the presence of very limited physical activity and/or exercise and a consumption of a surplus of calories, usually of unhealthy foods. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • 2012-09-25T11:59:14-04:00 https://images.c-span.org/Files/f43/308393-m.jpg Retired generals and admirals talked about their concerns over unhealthy options in schools' cafeteria and vending machines, which often contributes to the problem of childhood obesity. (c-span.org)
  • Retired generals and admirals talked about their concerns over unhealthy options in schools' cafeteria and vending machines, which often contributes to the problem of childhood obesity. (c-span.org)
  • Obesity can also affect your quality of life and lead to psychological problems, such as depression and low self-esteem. (www.nhs.uk)
  • So you get into this situation of obesity begetting obesity, and it's not genetic, it's environmental. (radionz.co.nz)
  • Obesity is primarily a consequence of life-style choices about drinking, eating and exercise -- not a consequence of accidents, age, or genetic conditions over which one has no control. (cato.org)
  • But why even try to plumb those genetic interactions, I asked, when we already understand the behaviors associated with obesity in all but a few hereditarily predisposed people? (wired.com)
  • Some rare genetic diseases make it almost impossible to avoid obesity. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for many people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap high-calorie food and spending a lot of time sitting down at desks, on sofas or in cars. (www.nhs.uk)
  • As international awareness of the obesity problem grows, ShopPharmacyCounter.com is offering a summer sale of PhenObestin 37.5. (prweb.com)
  • ShopPharmacyCounter.com realizes that as more people become aware of the obesity problem affecting the nation and the world, they may decide that they want to address their own personal weight issues. (prweb.com)
  • Hey, some might see the growing global problem of obesity as a crisis, but YUM! (truthout.org)
  • Obesity is a major public health problem. (news-medical.net)
  • Such is the climate surrounding the obesity problem our country faces. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • While the first lady and many others have taken massive steps to help bring awareness and remediation to the obesity issue, there are many who feel there simply is no problem -- that we're crying wolf or exaggerating the severity of the issue for the benefit of the health, pharmaceutical, and weight loss industries. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • I had an obesity problem for many years, a very significant one. (go.com)
  • Obesity is a widespread and sometimes tragic private health problem but, despite the public statements by HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson, it is not a public health problem. (cato.org)
  • Any decision of this magnitude should be made only after an informed public discussion and congressional approval, not on the basis of the judgment of some regulators and a department secretary who is obsessed with the obesity problem. (cato.org)
  • Obesity is often a lifelong problem. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson says, "Obesity is a critical public health problem in our country. (cato.org)
  • Obesity is a problem for many people, but it is not a public health problem. (cato.org)
  • Daniel Marks, M.D., Ph.D. talks about the growing problem of childhood obesity and what can be done to slow it. (ohsu.edu)
  • Dr. Atlantis says patients presenting to their doctor with symptoms of common mental disorders should be assessed for obesity and related chronic diseases , and vice versa. (psychcentral.com)
  • To help people avoid overeating, the kinds of policies effective in controlling alcohol consumption should be applied to food - standardizing portion sizes, limiting impulse marketing and reducing the convenience and salience of foods most closely associated with obesity and chronic diseases. (rand.org)
  • Dr Rachel Batterham, who led the study, explained: ""We've known for a while that variations in the FTO gene are strongly linked with obesity, but until now we didn't know why. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A new study found obesity is on the rise worldwide. (nymag.com)
  • Weight bias, according to a study by the Yale University Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, is as prevalent as racial discrimination in the United States. (nursingworld.org)
  • Treating a child with obesity is three times more costly than treating the average child, according to a study by Thomson Reuters. (washingtonpost.com)
  • And the gist of this study is that obesity did not spread through the sampled population like a virus or any other materially transmitted malady. (slate.com)
  • It documented weight trends in a social network originating in Framingham, Mass. What the study illustrated, according to its authors, was "psychosocial mechanisms of the spread of obesity" through "a change in [one's] perception of the social norms regarding the acceptability of obesity. (slate.com)
  • Living in a community where obesity is more of the norm than not can influence what is socially acceptable in terms of eating and exercise behaviors and body size," explained study author Ashlesha Datar. (hon.ch)
  • Obesity, Unhappiness, and The Challenge of Affluence: Theory and Evidence ," IZA Discussion Papers 2717, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Analysts surveyed the market for new weight-loss drugs following a meeting of the Obesity Society, a group of scientists who study the condition. (yahoo.com)
  • The International Day for the Evaluation of Obesity (IDEA) study looked at two measures of fatness - waist circumference and a calculation called body mass index or BMI. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The most shocking thing is the degree to which obesity is now affecting developing as well as developed economies," says Tim Lobstein of the International Association for the Study of Obesity in London. (newscientist.com)
  • Though this particular study focused on obesity, we believe our system could be applied to any situation in which having only one functional copy of a gene leads to disease," said study senior author Nadav Ahituv, a professor of bioengineering and therapeutic sciences at UCSF. (medicinenet.com)
  • This study confirms that obesity is associated with greater symptomatic severity of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis ," said study co-author Dr. Mario Stampanoni Bassi, a neurologist at Neuromed Mediterranean Neurological Institute in Pozzilli, Italy. (webmd.com)
  • A new editorial in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) suggests that primary care doctors should pay more attention to patients who present with obesity, as it has been linked to many common mental disorders, including depression . (psychcentral.com)
  • Obesity is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and low levels of physical activity, both of which are strong predictors of depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • In order to understand obesity, you have to understand fat.But fat is another term that can be confusing because there are two different kinds:dietary fat and body fat.Dietary fat is a part of the food.You want to have a little bit of fat in your diet because it serves as a major source of energy for your body. (lulu.com)
  • Having too much body fat leads to obesity. (familydoctor.org)
  • covers obesity screenings and behavioral counseling if you have a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. (medicare.gov)
  • Obesity means having too much body fat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking in more calories than your body burns can lead to obesity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Obesity refers to an excessively high proportion of body fat. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI) which is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals - a person's weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). (news-medical.net)
  • Leptin and its receptor are the only two that have been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity and body weight control. (brighthub.com)
  • Obesity is a condition in which a person has an excessive amount of body fat. (brighthub.com)
  • Body mass index is most often used to determine a person's level of obesity. (brighthub.com)
  • The primary warning sign of obesity is an above-average body weight. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Stable isotopes are used to assess body composition and physical activity to evaluate programmes for management of overweight and obesity. (iaea.org)
  • Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity. (healthfinder.gov)