Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesIntra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTriglyceridesMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Schools: Educational institutions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.CyclobutanesNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Biliopancreatic Diversion: A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)JapanPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.BrazilJejunoileal Bypass: A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.MexicoHypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (1/23597)Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes. (+info)
DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (2/23597)The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells. (+info)
Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (3/23597)The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction. (+info)
Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (4/23597)This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years). (+info)
Obesity induces expression of uncoupling protein-2 in hepatocytes and promotes liver ATP depletion. (5/23597)Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) uncouples respiration from oxidative phosphorylation and may contribute to obesity through effects on energy metabolism. Because basal metabolic rate is decreased in obesity, UCP2 expression is predicted to be reduced. Paradoxically, hepatic expression of UCP2 mRNA is increased in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis of ob/ob livers demonstrate that UCP2 mRNA and protein expression are increased in hepatocytes, which do not express UCP2 in lean mice. Mitochondria isolated from ob/ob livers exhibit an increased rate of H+ leak which partially dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential when the rate of electron transport is suppressed. In addition, hepatic ATP stores are reduced and these livers are more vulnerable to necrosis after transient hepatic ischemia. Hence, hepatocytes adapt to obesity by up-regulating UCP2. However, because this decreases the efficiency of energy trapping, the cells become vulnerable to ATP depletion when energy needs increase acutely. (+info)
Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (6/23597)Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking. (+info)
Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. (7/23597)Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons. (+info)
No association between the -308 polymorphism in the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) promoter region and polycystic ovaries. (8/23597)The tumour necrosis factor (TNF)2 allele appears to be linked with increased insulin resistance and obesity, conditions often found in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The significance of TNFalpha polymorphism in relation to the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with PCOS was investigated in 122 well-characterized patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Of these, 84 had an abnormal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCOS, while the remaining 38 had a normal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCO. There were a further 28 individuals without PCO (non-PCO) and 108 individuals whose PCO status was undetermined (reference population). The promoter region of the TNFalpha gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the presence or absence of the polymorphism at -308 was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The less common TNF allele (TNF2) was found as TNF1/2 or TNF2/2 in 11/38 (29%) of PCO subjects, 25/84 (30%) of PCOS subjects, 7/28 (25%) of non-PCO subjects, and 45/108 (42%) of the reference population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the TNF2 allele between the groups. The relationship of TNF genotype to clinical and biochemical parameters was examined. In both the PCO group and the PCOS group, the presence of the TNF2 allele was significantly associated with lower glucose values obtained from the glucose tolerance testing (P<0.05). The TNF genotype was not significantly associated with any clinical or biochemical parameter measured in the PCO, PCOS or non-PCOS groups. Thus, the TNFalpha -308 polymorphism does not appear to strongly influence genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovaries. (+info)
Effect of Vagal Nerve Blockade on Moderate Obesity with an Obesity-Related Comorbid Condition: the ReCharge Study<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Vagal Nerve Blockade on Moderate Obesity with an Obesity-Related Comorbid Condition. T2 - the ReCharge Study. AU - Morton, John M.. AU - Shah, Sajani N.. AU - Wolfe, Bruce. AU - Apovian, Caroline M.. AU - Miller, Christopher J.. AU - Tweden, Katherine S.. AU - Billington, Charles J.. AU - Shikora, Scott A.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Background: Vagal nerve blockade (vBloc) therapy was shown to be a safe and effective treatment for moderate to severe obesity. This report summarizes the safety and efficacy of vBloc therapy in the prespecified subgroup of patients with moderate obesity. Methods: The ReCharge Trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40-45 or 35-40 kg/m2 with at least one obesity-related comorbid condition. Participants were randomized 2:1 to implantation with either a vBloc or sham device with weight management counseling. Eighty-four subjects had moderate obesity (BMI 35-40 kg/m2) ...
How Obesity Leads To Diabetes Mellitus
Dr. Mark Hyman on Obesity-Related Disease Prevention
Obesity-Related Diseases Expected To Cost Australia $21 Billion
First Short Course on Mathematical Sciences in Obesity Research | UAB School of Public Health
Overview. The mathematical sciences including engineering, statistics, computer science, physics, econometrics, psychometrics, epidemiology, and mathematics qua mathematics are increasingly being applied to advance our understanding of the causes, consequences, and alleviation of obesity. These applications do not merely involve routine well-established approaches easily implemented in widely available commercial software. Rather, they increasingly involve computationally demanding tasks, use and in some cases development of novel analytic methods and software, new derivations, computer simulations, and unprecedented interdigitation of two or more existing techniques. Such advances at the interface of the mathematical sciences and obesity research require bilateral training and exposure for investigators in both disciplines. This course on the mathematical sciences in obesity research features some of the worlds finest scientists working in this domain to fill this unmet need by providing nine ...
Pediatric Obesity Section Newsletter - September 2011
Obesity 2011, the 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Obesity Society, is less than 1 month away!. Mark your calendars! Please join us on Tuesday, October 4 from 12:15-2:15pm for the annual Pediatric Obesity Section Meeting and Bar-Or Lecture. It is our pleasure to announce Dr. Nancy Butte as the 2011 recipient of the Oded Bar-Or Award for Excellence in Pediatric Obesity Research. Founded in 2007 by Dr. Melinda Sothern and Dr. Michael Goran, the Bar-Or Award raises public awareness of pediatric obesity research efforts by formally recognizing significant lifetime contributions of leaders in the field. Dr. Butte, Professor of Pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine, is an internationally recognized expert in human nutrition and metabolism with a focus on childhood obesity. Dr. Anthony Comuzzie, Scientist at the Texas Biomedical Research Institute and colleague of Dr. Buttes, will make the formal presentation of the award, which will be followed by an address by Dr. Butte. The Bar-Or Lecture ...
Abstract 13542: In-Hospital Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Extremely Obese and Normal Weight Patients:...
Background: Extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) is becoming more prevalent in the United States. Little is known about the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this subgroup. We compared the in-hospital outcomes of PCI in this subgroup with that of the normal weight patients in the CathPCI Registry®.. Methods: All extremely obese patients who had undergone PCI procedures between Feb 28, 2008 and Jun 30, 2011 via the femoral or radial artery (N= 83,861) were compared with those of normal weight patients (BMI 20-25 kg/m2, N= 217,616) in the NCDR. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, procedural and bleeding complications. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association of extreme obesity with outcomes, using previously validated risk models derived from NCDR.. Results: Compared with normal weight patients, extremely obese patients had a lower median age (60 vs. 69 years old), were more likely to be female (47% vs. 37%), and African ...
How obesity leads to diabetes
Associations between normal weight central obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese middle-aged adults: a...
Several studies have shown that normal weight central obesity (NWCO) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, studies conducted in the Japanese population have been very limited. Thus, the relationships between normal weight central obesity, classified using body mass index (BMI), the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and CVD risk factors in middle-aged Japanese adults were investigated. The participants were Japanese adults aged 40-64 years who had undergone periodic health examinations in Japan during the period from April 2013 to March 2014. The participants were categorized into the following four groups: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and no central obesity (WHtR | 0.5) (NW); normal weight and central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) (NWCO); obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and no central obesity (OB); and obesity and central obesity (OBCO). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking medication for hypertension.
Associations between normal weight central obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese middle-aged adults: a...
Several studies have shown that normal weight central obesity (NWCO) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, studies conducted in the Japanese population have been very limited. Thus, the relationships between normal weight central obesity, classified using body mass index (BMI), the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and CVD risk factors in middle-aged Japanese adults were investigated. The participants were Japanese adults aged 40-64 years who had undergone periodic health examinations in Japan during the period from April 2013 to March 2014. The participants were categorized into the following four groups: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and no central obesity (WHtR | 0.5) (NW); normal weight and central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) (NWCO); obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and no central obesity (OB); and obesity and central obesity (OBCO). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking medication for hypertension.
EU Court: Obesity Can Be A Disability
The Danish court, where the obesity disability case was filed, asked the EU Court to decided whether obesity is a basis on which workers could claim disability. The court in Denmark will be tasked to determine if the instance of the fired childminder is one in which his obesity can be classified as a disability.. While the ruling does declare that some cases of obesity can be considered disability, the Guardian reports that it "stops short, however of declaring obesity to be a protected characteristic again which all discrimination is prohibited." In doing so, the court did not classify all instances of obesity as a disability. Karsten Kaltoff, the fired childminder, claims his obesity is not a disability, and claims he can perform the duties of the job from which he was fired. He doesnt see himself as disabled, and doesnt believe he should have been fired due to his obesity. ...
The Effect of Obesity on the Pharmacokinetics of Pantoprazole in Children and Adolescents | Pediatric Trials Network
The World Health Organization has called childhood obesity "one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century." The alarming childhood obesity epidemic brings with it increasing need for pediatricians to treat obesity-related diseases (e.g., type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease [GERD]) that traditionally have not had origins in childhood or adolescence, leading to a critical therapeutic information gap in pediatrics. Given that obese participants are often excluded from clinical trials during the drug development process, little to no information exists regarding the impact of obesity on drug disposition and action or the appropriate dosing of drugs in obese pediatric patients.. Obese children are more frequently diagnosed with GERD than children of normal weight. Proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole, have become key components in the pharmacological management of GERD in pediatrics. In this multicenter, open-label, ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Time Trend and Demographic and Geographic Disparities in Childhood Obesity Prevalence in China...
Childhood overweight and obesity (ow/ob) has become a serious threat to many countries, including China. However, limited evidence was obtained from longitudinal data in China. This study examined the secular trends and geographic variation in the prevalence of ow/ob and obesity only, and age, gender, and urban-rural disparities among school-aged children across China. Data from children aged 6-17 surveyed in China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 (n = 2712) to 2011 (n = 1054) were used. Overweight and obesity were defined based on the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) recommended Asian age-sex-specific BMI cut-off-points. We found that: (1) childhood ow/ob and obesity prevalence increased from 11.7% to 25.2% and from 2.8% to 10.1% during 1991-2011, respectively; (2) children aged 6-12 experienced a 1.3 and 1.6 times increase in ow/ob and obesity prevalence than children aged 13-17, respectively; (3) the urban-rural gap in ow/ob prevalence widened; (4) ow/ob prevalence in boys was
The Obesity Challenge | How to Use hCG in Your Practice - Naturopathic Doctor News and Review
Michael Corsilles, ND, PA-C. Obesity may be the number one antiaging issue in our society simply because it shortens our life span. Children are developing serious diseases at a younger age, which prematurely subjects them to the deterioration of their health and bodies. Diabetes mellitus, asthma, hypertension, sleep apnea, and cancer are just a few examples.1 Obesity also has an emotional influence that can affect self-image and self-confidence, leading to depression and poor food choices, such as "comfort foods." Societal pressures take a toll on individuals, spanning generations. In addition, obesity is not a local trend; it is a worldwide epidemic and is occurring in younger patients, even toddler age.2 Fortunately, our country is tackling the obesity problem head on. In February of last year, First Lady Michelle Obama launched the Lets Move! campaign to solve the childhood obesity epidemic, and President Barack Obama established the White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity "to implement ...
High Fat Diet and In Utero Exposure to Maternal Obesity Disrupts Circadian Rhythm and Leads to Metabolic Programming of Liver...
The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming beginning at conception. In animal models, exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diets influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. Among other long-term changes, offspring from obese rats develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and lipogenic gene expression in the liver at weaning. However, the precise underlying mechanisms leading to metabolic dysregulation in the offspring remains unclear. Using a rat model of overfeeding-induced obesity, we previously demonstrated that exposure to maternal obesity from pre-conception to birth, is sufficient to program increased obesity risk in the offspring. Offspring of obese rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass when fed high fat diet (HFD) as compared to lean dam. Since, disruptions of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver, we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity leads to perturbations of core clock components
Diet-induced obesity model - Wikipedia
The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by being fed high-fat and/or high-density diets. It is intended to mimic the most common cause of obesity in humans. Typically mice, rats, dogs, or non-human primates are used in these models. These animals can then be used to study in vivo obesity, obesitys comorbidities, and other related diseases. Users of such models must take into account the duration and type of diet (e.g. hydrated gels vs. dry pellets) as well as the environmental conditions and age of the animals, as each may promote different bodyweights, fat percentages, or behaviors. Driven by the worldwide epidemic of obesity, particularly in the Western world, the DIO model has been integral in understanding the relationship between high-fat/high-density diets and obesity, including the discovery of Akt and mTOR, signals in the body linked to obesity and insulin resistance. However, while many insights into the ...
Mouse model implicates GNB3 duplication in a childhood obesity syndrome<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mouse model implicates GNB3 duplication in a childhood obesity syndrome. AU - Goldlust, Ian S.. AU - Hermetz, Karen E.. AU - Catalano, Lisa M.. AU - Barfield, Richard T.. AU - Cozad, Rebecca. AU - Wynn, Grace. AU - Ozdemir, Alev Cagla. AU - Conneely, Karen N.. AU - Mulle, Jennifer G.. AU - Dharamrup, Shikha. AU - Hegde, Madhuri R.. AU - Kim, Katherine H.. AU - Angle, Brad. AU - Colley, Alison. AU - Webb, Amy E.. AU - Thorland, Erik C.. AU - Ellison, Jay W.. AU - Rosenfeld, Jill A.. AU - Ballif, Blake C.. AU - Shaffer, Lisa G.. AU - Demmer, Laurie A.. AU - Searle, Beverly A.. AU - Wynn, Sarah L.. AU - Rudd, M. Katharine. PY - 2013/9/10. Y1 - 2013/9/10. N2 - Obesity is a highly heritable condition and a risk factor for other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and cancer. Recently, genomic copy number variation (CNV) has been implicated in cases of early onset obesity that may be comorbid with intellectual disability. Here, we describe a ...
The BDA Obesity specialist group represents dietitians working in adult and childhood obesity prevention and management, recognising obesity as being a specialist area of dietetic practice. The Obesity specialist group works to communicate evidence-based standards, support post-registration training in obesity management, contribute to national guidelines, campaign for health improvement, and to develop and foster a network of obesity management professionals.. Any BDA member can become a member of the Obesity specialist group. Members are kept up-to-date via regular newsletters and emails. Members are also encouraged to join our LinkedIn network to have the opportunity to contribute to national consultations and other ongoing projects. There is also the potential to make a more direct impact via volunteering for active committee positions. Members can also benefit from discounted rates for study days and grants to support obesity research, evaluation or audit . ...
From the BMI paradox to the obesity paradox: the obesity-mortality association in coronary heart disease. - Radcliffe...
Despite a strong association between body weight and mortality in the general population, clinical evidence suggests better clinical outcome of overweight or obese individuals with established coronary heart disease. This finding has been termed the obesity paradox, but its existence remains a point of debate, because it is mostly observed when body mass index (BMI) is used to define obesity. Inherent limitations of BMI as an index of adiposity, as well as methodological biases and the presence of confounding factors, may account for the observed findings of clinical studies. In this review, our aim is to present the data that support the presence of a BMI paradox in coronary heart disease and then explore whether next to a BMI paradox a true obesity paradox exists as well. We conclude by attempting to link the obesity paradox notion to available translational research data supporting a healthy, protective adipose tissue phenotype. © 2016 World Obesity.
Maternal Nutrition and Developmental Programming of Obesity | Bentham Science
Understanding Obesity informs readers about contributing factors to obesity: from social and behavioral determinants throughout the life course, influences from before we are born to what we eat (nutrients and food contaminants which impact body weight), gut bacteria, and the way accumulated energy from nutrition is spent. Chapters will also inform readers about adipose tissue (the dynamic role of the adipose tissue during obesity development, the pressure put on to its remodeling and differences in obesity phenotypes regarding association with pathological outcomes as well as the latest advances in finding biological markers of adipose tissue dysfunction) and the latest treatment options for obesity. Special topics, such as the bidirectional relationship of stress with obesity and the influence of aging on the onset of metabolic disorders that lead to obesity are also discussed. Understanding Obesity is a valuable reference for health researchers, practitioners (endocrinologists, family ...
Adolescent Obesity Increases Significantly in Second and Third Generation U.S. Immigrants: The National Longitudinal Study of...
Little is known concerning obesity patterns of ethnic subpopulations in the U.S. and the effects of acculturation on these patterns. Adolescent obesity, a major public health problem, has important health, social and economic consequences for the adolescent. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health survey is unique in the size of the adolescent sample and in its ability to provide large representative samples of Anglo, African-American, Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 13,783 adolescents was studied. Measurements of weight and height collected in the second wave of the survey were used to study adolescent obesity. Multivariate logit techniques were used to provide an understanding of the ethnic, age, gender and intergenerational patterns of adolescent obesity. Comparisons are presented between the NHANES III results and those from the Adolescent Health Survey. The smoothed version of the NHANES I 85th percentile cut-off was used for the ...
TFAH Praises Childhood Obesity Task Force s Comprehensive Recommendations - Trust for America's Health
Washington, DC) - Trust for Americas Health (TFAH) commends the Childhood Obesity Task Forces report, Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity Within a Generation, which includes proposed recommendations for reducing the rate of childhood obesity from 17% to 5% by 2030. The report includes a total of 70 recommendations for specific action steps, many of which can be implemented right away and are minimal or no-cost.. "By looking across both the private and public sector and various government entities, these recommendations articulate a comprehensive approach to combating childhood obesity," said Jeffrey Levi, PhD, Executive Director of Trust for Americas Health. "The Childhood Obesity Task Force should be commended for setting such specific goals that will help direct the action needed to address this national epidemic.". Levi continued, "However, it is now the responsibility of the Administration and Congress to ensure that sufficient resources are provided so that each recommendation can ...
Dairy Remains Healthy Choice in Fight against Childhood Obesity
The federal government should encourage healthy habits, including dairy consumption, as part of its fight against childhood obesity, IDFA said in comments submitted to an interagency task force last Friday. IDFA stressed the significant nutritional benefits of dairy products and highlighted the steps processors are taking, such as reformulating products with less sugar, lower calories and reduced fat, to provide a variety of options.. The Task Force on Childhood Obesity was established by President Obama in February, in conjunction with Michelle Obamas public awareness initiative, "Lets Move." Charged with developing a national plan to end childhood obesity within a generation, the task force last month issued a call for recommendations from industry and the public. The deadline for comments was March 26.. IDFA supports the administrations focus on childhood obesity and its comprehensive, cross-sector approach that includes a variety of stakeholders, including federal agencies, state and ...
We cannot separate the direct effects of maternal obesity on the developing child from shared genetic and postnatal lifestyle influences in childhood and adulthood on obesity and cardiovascular risk. For example, there is evidence that obesity, unhealthy diets, and lack of exercise cluster in families.23 24 Regarding socioeconomic status, we were able to adjust for current socioeconomic status in a small subset of the adult offspring, though the limited sample size reduced study power and abolished significance. With offspring obesity, it is well recognised that there is a link between socioeconomic status and other adult lifestyle variables including obesity. While some studies have shown that the influence of maternal obesity on offspring obesity is independent of adult lifestyle factors,7 two studies showing associations between maternal obesity and cardiovascular risk factors had attenuated results after adjustment for current obesity levels.9 10 As obesity in offspring is closely correlated ...
Abstract 3671: Dietary-induced Obesity in Mice results in Metabolic and Vascular Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Resistance |...
Endothelial cell dysfunction, characterised by a reduction in the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), plays an important role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. IGF-1 may be involved in the regulation of NO production via the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt/eNOS pathway. In this study we have investigated whether dietary-induced obesity leads to disturbances of this pathway. C57/Blk6 mice fed a high fat diet for 20weeks (n=12) showed a significant increase in body weight and fat pad size when compared to chow fed controls (n=12). Blood pressure measurement showed an age-related increase in systolic blood pressure in high fat fed (19.2% from baseline) versus chow fed mice (7.6% from baseline). Blood glucose levels increased from 13.5 to 20mmol/l at 120mins in high fat fed mice, versus 5.7 to 7.3mmol/l in the chow fed group (p=0.009) by tolerance testing. In response to insulin, blood glucose fell by 72% in the chow fed group versus 48% in the high fat fed group (p= 0.0002). The high ...
Is the childhood obesity crisis over in England? | Archives of Disease in Childhood
Van Jaarsveld and Guilford report the results of their study on childhood obesity trends in England from 1994 to 2013 using primary care electronic healthcare records.1 There is undoubtedly some good news: the year on year rise in obesity levels seen in the first decade of data collection was extremely worrying when the odds of overweight or obesity increased by 8% yearly from 1994 to 2003. In the second decade up to 2013, this astounding increase had slowed to 0.4%. However, in this second decade, it remains extremely concerning that adolescent obesity (ages 11-15 years) appears to still be increasing in both boys and girls. The relative risk of remaining obese as an adult if obese in adolescence is very high,2 and the authors rightly point out that with a third of UK children being overweight or obese, the impact on public health remains a key public health priority.. In general, the data from this study broadly agree with the latest Health Survey for England, although the levels of obesity ...
Weaning Practices And Later Obesity - The Free Obesity eBook
Most studies have focused on the role of breastfeeding versus formula feeding (7,8) as well as of an early rapid weight gain in favouring obesity development (9).. Few studies, however, have focused on the role of complementary feeding (CF) in promoting long term health or favouring the development of obesity, even though CF represents the main source of calories and nutrients already by the end of the first year of life.. One of the commonest reasons given as an explanation for the lack of research on the long-term effects of CF is the huge difference among countries on the foods used during the CF period and the great importance of the cultural roots on weaning patterns.. However, if nutrients and calories are considered instead of foods, the differences among countries on the different CF patterns are much reduced.. Researches aiming at demonstrating the link between an unhealthy CF and the development of later obesity face several challenges such as the lack of randomized trials in human ...
Comprehensive Plan Encourages Diverse Scientific Investigations
Evaluating promising strategies for obesity prevention and treatment in real-world settings and diverse populations is 1 of several research opportunities outlined in the National Institutes of Healths (NIH) new strategic plan for obesity research. Released last week, the plan will serve as a guide to accelerate a broad spectrum of research toward developing new and more effective approaches to address the burden of obesity. Other major themes of research include designing and testing new interventions for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and harnessing technology and tools to advance obesity research and improve health care delivery. Clinicians can download a full version of the plan; a non-technical summary is available for other audiences. The Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research was developed by the NIH Obesity Research Task Force with input from researchers external to the NIH, professional and other health-focused organizations, and others through a public comment period. ...
How Obesity Affects Sleep: Understanding its Link to Sleep Apnea
Rise in Obesity Rates in 31 States ( With the increase in adult obesity rate...)
Health,With the increase in adult obesity rates in 31 states during the past ... All this has happened in spite of federal and state government effo... The report titled F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies Are Failing Am... Official figures show that the adult obesity rate rose from 15 perc... Jeff Levi executive director of Trust for Americas Health said ...,Rise,in,Obesity,Rates,in,31,States,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Identifying actionable links in the causal pathway between obesity and insulin resistance remains a significant challenge in diabetes research. Potentially groundbreaking work by Wang et al. in this issue of Diabetes (p. 4172) suggests that myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be a trigger for obesity-associated insulin resistance, and that inhibition of MPO may offer novel pathways forward in the fight against obesity and obesity-related disease. MPO-a protein expressed by neutrophils-produces pro-oxidants like hypochlorous acid, which are normally used by neutrophils arriving at infection sites to combat bacteria and other pathogenic agents. In the early stages of obesity, however, neutrophils infiltrate adipose tissue where they can promote inflammatory processes. In this new work, investigators fed mice either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and then conducted careful studies of the resulting adipose tissue. In addition to the expected weight gain, the HFD group showed elevated ...
Cascadia Scorecard Weblog: Medical Cost of Obesity
The US national rate of obesity has doubled since 1990, so that in 2004, nearly one-quarter of Americans (23.1 percent) were classified as obese. Medical studies have established clear links from obesity to a variety of medical conditions, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and others. Obesity is also costly: the increasing prevalence of obesity and costs of treating obesity-related diseases has helped to fuel the recent rise in medical spending. By one estimate, 27% of the cost increase from 1987 to 2001 was due to obesity.. The latest studies estimate that obesity alone costs the US around $75 billion annually, while while the added costs of treating conditions brought on by simply being overweight bring that share up to 9.1% of total US medical expenditures. On a regional level, obesity alone costs the Northwest over $2.3 billion dollars a year. Thats around 0.5% of our gross state product (see table below). ...
Rising obesity rates to see 7.6m more cases of disease by 2035, say health officials - Nursing in PracticeNursing in...
Leading health organisations warn that obesity could cause 7.6 million cases of disease by 2035.. A study by the Obesity Health Alliance predicts that over the next 20 years the UK will see 4.62 million more cases of type 2 diabetes, 1.63 million new cases of coronary heart disease and 670,000 new cases of cancer.. The report, Tipping the scales: why preventing obesity makes economic sense, says that the level of obesity in 2035 would cost the NHS an added £2.5 billion.. The Obesity Health Alliance (OHA) is a coalition of more than 30 leading health organisations including the British Medical Association, Royal College of General Practitioners, Royal College of Nursing, Royal Society of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Diabetes UK and Cancer Research UK.. If the current trend in obesity continues, 40 million adults in the UK could be overweight or obese by 2035, including 45% of adults in the lowest income bracket.. The study didnt include several other obesity-related diseases such as ...
A metagenomics approach to the intestinal microbiome structure and function in high fat diet-induced obesity mice fed with...
To investigate the modulatory effect of oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) on intestinal microbiota, OTP was prepared by column chromatography and its influence on the gut flora structure was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing with a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity mouse model. We ob
Childhood Obesity Epidemic - causesofchildhoodobesityamerica
THE FACTS ABOUT OBESITY IN CHILDREN & YOUNG ADULTS : The percentage of children with obesity in the United States has more than tripled since the 1970s. Today, about one in five school-aged children (ages 6-19) has obesity.Obesity is defined as having excess body fat. Overweight is defined as having excess body weight for a particular height from …. What Every Mom & Dad Should Know About Childhood ObesityRead More ». ...
Obesity Screening - Health News, Reviews and Tips
Obesity is the condition of having too much body fat. Its not just a matter of appearance. Obesity can put you at risk for a variety of chronic and serious health problems. These include:. Experts say obesity is major problem in the U.S. Today more than 30 percent of U.S. adults and 20 percent of U.S. children have obesity. Children with obesity are at risk for many of the same health problems as adults with obesity.. An obesity screening may use a measurement called a BMI (body mass index) and other tests to find out if you or your child is overweight or has obesity. Being overweight means you have excess body weight. While not as severe as obesity, it may also lead to serious health problems.. ...
NORC News | Nutrition & Obesity Research Center
Dr. Ceren Yarar, postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Cell, Developmental & Integrative Biology and Nutrition Obesity Research Center at UAB, is one of four recipients of the 2012 Fall Career Enhancement Award from UABs Office of Postdoctoral Education.. The Postdoctoral Career Enhancement Award was established in 2001 to provide opportunities for postdoctoral scholars seeking to enhance their professional development. Four awards of up to $1,500 will be given to Postdoctoral Scholars, whose purpose is to fund the fellows participation in educational activities outside of UAB. Allowable expenses include: Internships of up to a 1 month period, attending extramural courses (e.g. NIH, Cold Spring Harbor, Woods Hole, etc.), to learn new skills, and visiting laboratories to conduct collaborative studies.. Dr. Yarar will be going to NIH in Bethesda for a Biotrac workshop whose purpose is to teach Protein-DNA Interactions: Gene Specific and Epigenetic Regulation of Expression of the Mammalian ...
Diabetes and Obesity Research Review Issue 95 • Health Improvement and Innovation Resource Centre
Obesity Infographics - The Obesity Society
Potential Contributors to Obesity - Source: The Obesity Society Infographic Task Force, November 2015. Americans View on Obesity is Changing - Source: The Obesity Society Annual Meeting at ObesityWeek 2014 & ConscienHealth. Added Sugar Consumption Increased by 30% Over Three Decades in U.S. - Source: The Obesity Society Annual Meeting at ObesityWeek 2014. 65% of American Adults Recommended for Weight-Loss Treatment - Source: The Obesity Society Annual Meeting at ObesityWeek 2014. A Gap in Wellness Programs - Source: The Obesity Action Coalition & ConscienHealth. The Cost of Obesity - Source: George Washington University Institute School of Public Health ([email protected]). A Heavy Burden: The High Price of Obesity - Source: Dailyinfographic.com. Have an infographic on obesity to add to this page? Email [email protected] ...
Rate of obesity continues to rise in United States - Drug Store News
The report also found that 12 states now have obesity rates above 30%, versus four years ago when just one state had a 30% obesity rate, TFAH and RWJF said.. Mississippi this year took the top spot as the most obese state, with Colorado falling in last place. Whats more, obesity rates have grown fastest in Oklahoma, Alabama and Tennessee, and slowest in Washington, D.C., Colorado and Connecticut.. Since 1995, when data was available for every state, obesity rates have doubled in seven states and increased by at least 90% in 10 others, TFAH and RWJF noted, adding that racial and ethnic minority adults, as well as those who are less educated and make less money, continue to garner the highest overall obesity rates.. "Today, the state with the lowest obesity rate would have had the highest rate in 1995," TFAH executive director Jeff Levi said. "There was a clear tipping point in our national weight gain over the last 20 years, and we cant afford to ignore the impact obesity has on our health and ...
National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences | Population Health Metrics | Full Text
One in every 3 adults in the world was overweight and 1 in every 9 was obese in 2008. Beyond this global average, at least 1 in 5 women were obese in 117 countries and at least 1 in 5 men were obese in 73 countries. Notably, the increase in the prevalence of obesity has accelerated in the last decade compared to the 1980s and 1990s.. The rising obesity and overweight are clearly associated with increases in mean BMI. However, we found that the relationship between mean and prevalence was not linear: BMI increase at low BMI levels results in a smaller increase in obesity than an identical absolute increase at higher BMIs (Figure 1). The relationship between obesity and mean BMI also changed over time: in 2008, the prevalence of obesity was greater at all mean BMIs than it had been in earlier decades, indicating that the population BMI distributions is likely to have become wider over time. If recent trends in mean BMI continue , the prevalence of obesity will continue to rise at the recent ...
Obesity Research Papers. Trying to buy a research paper and need help? Click HERE!
Living longer with obesity means heavier burden for hospitals
Living longer with obesity can lead to both longer hospital stays and more avoidable trips to the hospital, according to two new studies from Purdue University. "Americans are overweight, and there are numerous studies that cite the problems of obesity," said Ken Ferraro, a professor of sociology. "However, as the age at which people become obese continues to get younger, we wanted to know how living longer with obesity affects people.. "These findings could motivate young people to reverse the trend with healthy eating and activity and, if so, they may be able to avoid the consequences of chronic obesity.". Ferraro, along with graduate student Markus Schafer, studied how obesity influences hospitalizations by using 20 years of personal health data based on surveys linked to hospital records of more than 4,000 people ages 25-77. The data, from 1971-1992, was part of a federally funded national health and nutrition survey.. "In an economic sense, we have a major problem on our hands in terms of ...
Health advocacy organization PHA wants public input to fight childhood obesity epidemic | EmaxHealth
To apply, one only has to create a video that details their idea in 2 minutes and 30 seconds or less, explaining why their solution is the best solution for America to implement in combatting childhood obesity, and to be available March 6-8 to come to Washington, DC, if their idea is one of three finalists. The deadline for applications is noon (Eastern) on Friday, November 16, 2012. A review committee will narrow down the field to up to 10 submissions. These top videos will be featured on the official End Childhood Obesity Innovation Challenge website where the public will vote for their favorite. In January 2013, three finalists will be named and invited to present their entrepreneurial ideas at the 2013 Building a Healthier Future Summit to a panel of judges and more than 1,000 thought leaders from multiple sectors.. I spoke with PHA Chief Marketing Officer Drew Nannis regarding his organization and the End Childhood Obesity Innovation Challenge. I expressed concern that Facebook contests can ...
Mannheim Obesity Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
MOPS: Mannheim Obesity Pilot Study. Introduction:. Obesity is a central feature of the metabolic syndrome. With increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, the incidence of WHO III° obesity will further augment. In this subset of obese patients, metabolic complications and cardiovascular risk are major clinical issues. Epidemiological data show that with increased BMI mortality rises (1). The SOS-Study demonstrated, for the first time, that bariatric surgery and consecutive weight reduction are associated with a decrease in cardiovascular and overall mortality. Significant mortality in this study was caused by cardiovascular events and cancer.. Metabolic Syndrome - MS - Despite varying definitions of the metabolic syndrome, obesity is one of its central features. Depending on the definition used, it can represent an obligate criterion (IDF) or a facultative parameter (WHO and ATP III). Even though not obligate, extreme obesity is a central risk factor for most other parameters of the ...
Study shows link between genetic obesity and sugary drinks - NuTriVene
Obesity is a topic that will continue to arise on this blog, since this now pervasive condition is putting millions of Americans at risk for serious medical issues like diabetes and heart disease. In addition, studies have shown that obesity can also have a significant impact on brain health.. According to the investment authority Seeking Alpha, obesity research will most likely be an investment mega-trend for years to come, as government agencies and pharmaceutical companies strive to find a way to counter this health risk.. Based on figures from the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, every state in the union has an obesity rate of 20 percent or more, and a third of the national population is considered severely overweight. In order to fight these statistics, researchers have already been laboring diligently to identify the genetic and environmental factors that influence obesity, and a recent study published in the New England Journal of Medicine last week has revealed that the ...
Causes of childhood obesity
Obesity is a chronic condition in which excess body fat has accumulated in the body. Obesity is defined by using the body mass index (BMI). People with a body mass index over 30 are considered obese. Obesity increases the risk for heart disease. It can lead to diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, and other chronic illnesses. Obesity has also been linked to increased risk for a number of cancers. Obesity is most usually caused by a combination of excessive food consumption, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. Changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments. Obesity occurs when people regularly eat more calories than they burn. The cause of obesity includes a lack of physical activity and sleep. Body weight is the result of a combination of influences genetic, metabolic, behavioral, environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic influences. Therefore behavioral and environmental factors provide the greatest opportunity for action and ...
Is the obesity epidemic exaggerated? No | The BMJ
An abundance of observational and experimental data show the growing prevalence of obesity, defined as a body mass index ≥30, and the causal role of obesity in adverse health outcomes. These data substantiate our position that the seriousness of the obesity epidemic is not exaggerated. The fact that obesity is developing rapidly in many parts of the globe is incontrovertible. The World Health Organizations Global Database on Body Mass Index includes the most comprehensive international data available on obesity trends.1 Absolute prevalence of obesity varies among countries (0.7%- 78.5%). However, large rises in prevalence have been observed across the globe over the past few decades. Rates of obesity in adults have roughly tripled in Japan (from 0.84% in 1980 to 2.86% in 2001), Brazil (from 2.4% … ...
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research | " Five regular meals a day reduce obesity risk among adolescents
The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) brings together four of the nations leading research funders - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) - to address the problem of childhood obesity in America.
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research | " Kids born to overweight moms may face higher heart risks as adults
The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) brings together four of the nations leading research funders - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) - to address the problem of childhood obesity in America.
Changes in obesity-related diseases and biochemical variables after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a two-year follow-up study...
In the present study we find LSG to have acceptable morbidity-rates and to be an effective procedure for weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. LSG had high resolution rates for T2DM, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, musculoskeletal pain, snoring, urinary leakage and amenorrhea. The BMI and the prevalence of obesity-related diseases were stable between 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Between 85 and 90% of patients were taking some kind of vitamin and/or mineral supplement at follow-up.. In general, the reported complication rates for LSG are low despite high surgical risks in this patient group . Shi et. al. systematically reviewed major perioperative complications for LSG and found a mean ± SD of 1.17 ± 1.86% for leaks and 3.57 ± 5.15% for bleeding respectively . In order to reduce our leak-rate we have become particularly careful not to use heat-creating instruments close to the stomach wall at the cardia where both leaks occurred. In an attempt to reduce bleeding, ...
childhood obesity prevention
Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Prevention … Early childhood is a critical time for obesity prevention. Since 1980, the obesity rate for children ages 6 to 11 years has more than doubled (now at 18%), and the rate for ages 12 to 19 years has quadrupled (now at 21%) (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014). A comprehensive approach is most effective at addressing childhood obesity in schools, especially for elementary and middle school students. 1,2 Scientists know less about what school-based obesity prevention … The researchers said the failure of the programme to influence childhood obesity suggested "childhood obesity prevention is unlikely to be achieved by schools alone" and that "wider influences from the family, community, media and the food industry must also be considered". The Journal of Childhood Obesity is an open access and peer reviewed journal that aims at providing complete and reliable information about the causes, cure, effects and prevention of childhood obesity and ...
Adipose tissue dysregulation and reduced insulin sensitivity in non-obese individuals with enlarged abdominal adipose cells |...
Obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes by promoting systemic insulin resistance. Obesity causes features of metabolic dysfunction in the adipose tissue that may contribute to later impairments of insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver; these include reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, reduced expression of GLUT4, altered expression of adipokines, and adipocyte hypertrophy. Animal studies have shown that expansion of adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance in the absence of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction. To determine if this holds true for humans, we studied the relationship between insulin resistance and markers of adipose tissue dysfunction in non-obese individuals. 32 non-obese first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was measured with the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous
Diet pills successful weight loss - Dieting Blog
Pklls takes 1,200 calories in a day all meals taken collectively. For the principle dish, all it diet pills successful weight loss necessary to do is scan the menu. Juice Plus Reviews are everywhere in the web. Subsequently, the stool is softer and simpler to excrete. Whether or not youngsters or adults, it is not suggested to have some meat with the stomach being empty. The whole HCG weight discount plan is adopted in a set of four ranges. Once you lose the burden, your belly fat will come off. There have been plenty scientific assessments accomplished on Whey protein to see its impact on weight reduction. Carbohydrate requirements are often based mostly mostly on the runners physique mass and prepare diploma. Purchase inexperienced tea at any good correctly being retailer and brew some up. Because of diet pills successful weight loss extreme-protein weight-discount plan releases giant quantities of urea, it is extremely dangerous to the kidneys. 1 piece of fruit and 1 glass of skimmed milk or ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among...
Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14).
12 Weeks Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Program in Primary Care Obesity Clinic for Obese Adults: Jeddah 2015 - Full Text View...
The study has two arms:. Active Comparator Arm:. Only health education. One session regarding diet restriction and physical activity with printed health education papers.. Experimental Arm:. Intensive lifestyle intervention Weekly individual session in obesity clinic (15 to 20 min.) for the first 4 weeks then one individual session in obesity clinic (10 to 20 min.) every two weeks (week 5 to week 12).. Total sessions in 12 weeks: 8 (including the final data collection visit).The components of the program: 1) Low carbohydrate (aim to achieve spontaneous reduction in calorie intake) 2) increased physical activity; 3) behavioral strategies to facilitate adherence to diet and activity prescriptions. ...
New Target for Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have identified a particular subset of cells that are linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance, and that offer a promising new target for the treatment of diabetes. They showed that depletion of these cells, called CD11c-positive, in obese mice resulted in a reversal of obesity-associated insulin resistance.
Compare the Relative Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders in Obese and Overweight Children with Non-Obese Children; a Case...
BackgroundChildhood obesity has become a global epidemic. In the recent studies has reported risk of thyroid dysfunction due to obesity. Therefore, this study intends to compare the relative frequency of thyroid function disorders in obese and overweight children with non-obese children.Materials and MethodsThis case-control study during 2015 to 2016 in Birjand, Iran was done on 137 children and adolescents (6 to 18 years), with overweight and obesity as case group and 137 non-obese subjects as control group. Body mass index (BMI), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured, and analyzed using SPSS software version19.ResultsTSH level in obese children was significantly more (P,0.001), and FT4 (P,0.001) and FT3 levels (P=0.003), less than non-obese subjects. In the control group, 0.73 and in the case group, 2.92 of patients showed hypothyroidism disorder, that difference was not significant (P=0.177). In the control group, there was ...
José Fernández, Ph.D. | Nutrition & Obesity Research Center
Dr. José R. Fernández is a Professor and Vice Chair for Education in the Department of Nutrition Sciences. Dr. Fernández obtained his Ph.D. in Biobehavioral Health from Pennsylvania State University, training in genetics of complex traits under the advisory of Dr. Gerald McClearn and working with the three most commonly used models for genetic research: fruit flies, mice, and humans. He continued his academic training at the New York Obesity Research Center at Columbia University as a post-doctoral fellow focusing on genetics of obesity, under the mentorship of Dr. David B. Allison, and receiving specialized training in statistical models to improve the identification of genetic and environmental influences on obesity-related characteristics. Dr. Fernández joined UAB in August 2001, bringing special expertise in the application of statistical models to detect and disentangle genetic and environmental influences in obesity-related traits.. Dr. Fernandez has also been actively involved in the ...
Patterns of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in South Asian and black participants in the English...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patterns of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in South Asian and black participants in the English National child measurement programme. T2 - Effect of applying BMI adjustments standardising for ethnic differences in BMI-body fatness associations. AU - Hudda, M. T.. AU - Nightingale, C. M.. AU - Donin, A. S.. AU - Owen, C. G.. AU - Rudnicka, A. R.. AU - Wells, J. C.K.. AU - Rutter, H.. AU - Cook, D. G.. AU - Whincup, P. H.. PY - 2017/11/2. Y1 - 2017/11/2. N2 - Background:The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) records weight and height and assesses overweight-obesity patterns in English children using body mass index (BMI), which tends to underestimate body fatness in South Asian children and overestimate body fatness in Black children of presumed African ethnicity. Using BMI adjustments to ensure that adjusted BMI was similarly related to body fatness in South Asian, Black and White children, we reassessed population overweight and obesity patterns ...
Sucrose Counteracts the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Fish Oil in Adipose Tissue and Increases Obesity Development in Mice
Background Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed C57BL/6J mice a protein- (casein) or sucrose-based high fat diet supplemented with fish oil or corn oil for 9 weeks. Irrespective of the fatty acid source, mice fed diets rich in sucrose became obese whereas mice fed high protein diets remained lean. Inclusion of sucrose in the diet also counteracted the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue, but did not impair the ability of fish oil to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver. Calculation of HOMA-IR indicated that mice fed high levels of proteins remained insulin sensitive, whereas insulin sensitivity was reduced in the obese mice
Metabolic Obesity, Adipose Inflammation and Elevated Breast Aromatase in Women with Normal Body Mass Index | Cancer Prevention...
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (,25 kg/m2) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment. WAT inflammation was defined by the presence of crown-like structures of the breast (CLS-B) which are composed of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Severity of inflammation was measured as CLS-B/cm2. The primary objective was to determine whether breast WAT inflammation is associated with aromatase expression and activity. Secondary objectives included assessment of circulating factors and breast adipocyte size. Breast WAT inflammation was ...
House Select Committee on Childhood Obesity : report to the 2012 regular session of the 2011 General Assembly :: State...
HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEE ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY REPORT TO THE 2012 REGULAR SESSION OF THE 2011 GENERAL ASSEMBLY NORTH C AROL INA G ENE R A L A S S E M B LY A LIMITED NUMBER OF COPIES OF THIS REPORT IS AVAILABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION THROUGH THE LEGISLATIVE LIBRARY. ROOMS 2126, 2226 STATE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA 27611 TELEPHONE: (919) 733-7778 OR ROOM 500 LEGISLATIVE OFFICE BUILDING RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA 27603-5925 TELEPHONE: (919) 733-9390 TABLE OF CONTENTS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL .......................................................................................................................... 1 COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP ......................................................................................................................... 2 AUTHORIZING LEGISLATION. .................................................................................................................. 4 OVERVIEW OF COMMITTEE PRESENTATIONS ...
Predictors of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis - pdf descargar
Predictors of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Loss of transglutaminase 2 sensitizes for diet-induced obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance due to enhanced...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of transglutaminase 2 sensitizes for diet-induced obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance due to enhanced macrophage c-Src signaling. AU - Sághy, Tibor. AU - Köröskényi, Krisztina. AU - Hegedűs, Krisztina. AU - Antal, Miklós. AU - Bankó, Csaba. AU - Bacsó, Zsolt. AU - Papp, Attila. AU - Stienstra, Rinke. AU - Szondy, Zsuzsa. PY - 2019/6/1. Y1 - 2019/6/1. N2 - Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that promotes clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) acting as integrin β3 coreceptor. Accumulating evidence indicates that defective efferocytosis contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of dead adipocytes and inflammatory macrophages in the adipose tissue leading to obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Here, we report that loss of TG2 from bone marrow-derived cells sensitizes for high fat diet (HFD)-induced pathologies. We find that metabolically activated TG2 null ...
Vital Signs: State-Specific Obesity Prevalence Among Adults --- United States, 2009
Background: Obesity is a costly condition that can reduce quality of life and increases the risk for many serious chronic diseases and premature death. The U.S. Surgeon General issued the Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity in 2001, and in 2007, no state had met the Healthy People 2010 objective to reduce obesity prevalence among adults to 15%.. Methods: CDC used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data to update estimates of national and state-specific obesity prevalence. Obesity was calculated based on self-reported weight and height and defined as body mass index (weight [kg] / height [m]2) ≥30.. Results: Overall self-reported obesity prevalence in the United States was 26.7%. Non-Hispanic blacks (36.8%), Hispanics (30.7%), those who did not graduate from high school (32.9%), and persons aged 50--59 years (31.1%) and 60--69 years (30.9%) were disproportionally affected. By state, obesity prevalence ranged from 18.6% in Colorado to 34.4% in ...
Gut-associated IgA + immune cells regulate obesity-related insulin resistance | Nature Communications
The intestinal immune system is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related insulin resistance, but the role of intestinal B cells in this context is unclear. Here, we show that high fat diet (HFD) feeding alters intestinal IgA+ immune cells and that IgA is a critical immune regulator of glucose homeostasis. Obese mice have fewer IgA+ immune cells and less secretory IgA and IgA-promoting immune mediators. HFD-fed IgA-deficient mice have dysfunctional glucose metabolism, a phenotype that can be recapitulated by adoptive transfer of intestinal-associated pan-B cells. Mechanistically, IgA is a crucial link that controls intestinal and adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, microbial encroachment and the composition of the intestinal microbiome during HFD. Current glucose-lowering therapies, including metformin, affect intestinal-related IgA+ B cell populations in mice, while bariatric surgery regimen alters the level of fecal secretory IgA in humans. These findings identify
Successful Weight Loss Stories | quick weight loss
Do you struggle with your weight? If you do, youre not alone! We see this happening more and more all over the world. There is no doubt that losing weight is going to make you feel better. We all know it is question of health also. For many people successful weight loss is a huge boost in life. People feel more energetic, creative and self confidence is higher. Here is a recent comment from a student who managed to lose 10 pounds:. "This weight loss challenge has been a big contributor in improving my mental, emotional and physical condition. I have double the energy I used to and my life has completely changed. My own transformation has inspired me to research and create a lecture that challenges and educates young people and adults concerning the benefits of proper nutrition and exercise. I feel its very important to share this knowledge so that others can benefit from it also".. easy weight loss, weight loss drinks, diet programs with food, And here is another one:. "To say the last three ...
Using maximum weight to redefine body mass index categories in studies of the mortality risks of obesity | Population Health...
The high prevalence of disease and associated weight loss at older ages limits the validity of prospective cohort studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. I examined mortality associated with excess weight using maximum BMI-a measure that is robust to confounding by illness-induced weight loss. Analyses were carried out on US never-smoking adults ages 50-84 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 1999-2004) linked to the National Death Index through 2006. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality according to BMI at time of survey and at maximum. Using maximum BMI, hazard ratios for overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2) and obese class 2 (BMI, 35.0 kg/m2 and above) relative to normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.84), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.15-2.40), and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.47-3.14), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios
Regulation of obesity-related insulin resistance with gut anti-inflammatory agents
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, but little is known about its influence on the intestinal immune system. Here we show that the gut immune system is altered during high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) that can be exploited ther …
Ireland Male obesity prevalence, 1960-2018 - knoema.com
In 2016, male obesity prevalence for Ireland was 25.1 %. Male obesity prevalence of Ireland increased from 13.8 % in 1997 to 25.1 % in 2016 growing at an average annual rate of 3.20 %. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a persons weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.
State Has Lowest Obesity Rate, But It's Rising - The Colorado Independent
Colorado has the lowest adult obesity rate in the nation, according to a report released Monday by the non-profit Trust for Americas Health. But the states obesity rate is higher last year, up to 17.6 percent from 16.9 percent. Thats in tune with trends across the county. The report, tilted "F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies are Failing in America," found no states had a decrease in obesity rates over the past year but 31 states experienced an increase. For 22 of those states it was the second year in row that obesity rates increased. The researchers looked at state and federal policies relating to health and obesity and found many to be lacking or ineffective. "The country needs to develop a plan for combating obesity that is in proportion to the scope and depth of the problem," the researchers stated. "This will require focusing on strategies that will work on a wide scale. The question is, is America willing to make the commitment needed to return to better health?". continued…. ...
Croatia Male obesity prevalence, 1960-2018 - knoema.com
In 2016, male obesity prevalence for Croatia was 24.1 %. Male obesity prevalence of Croatia increased from 14.4 % in 1997 to 24.1 % in 2016 growing at an average annual rate of 2.75 %. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a persons weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.
Center for Childhood Obesity Prevention | ACRI
Biomedical and Obesity Research Core | College of Education and Human Sciences | University of Nebraska-Lincoln
About the BORC. The Biomedical and Obesity Research Core (BORC) is a one-stop shop core facility in the Nebraska Center for Prevention of Obesity Diseases (NPOD). The BORC provides cutting-edge biomedical research services for investigators in the University of Nebraska system and also external users in its newly renovated facility in the lower level of Leverton Hall, the NPOD headquarters building (shown at left). The BORCs new facility includes approximately 2,000 square feet of laboratory space, a state-of-the-art conference room and a collaboration zone for informal discussions. The BORC also maintains a live mouse imaging and phenotyping facility in the Life Science Annex on the University of Nebraska-Lincolns East Campus. In addition, to meet our users need for large capacity, high-speed computational solutions, the BORC is networked with the Holland Computing Center.. BORCs Goal. 1) To provide facilities, equipment, and resources that enable researchers to discover new signaling ...
Successful Weight Loss Tips
One of the good-old posts around the Internet on weight loss is by Kathy Goodwin, called Successful Weight Loss: Our Top Ten Tips on What Works and Why. It is not teaching you about quick and temporary weight loss tips - Instead, their tips require quite a lot work, as those are long term weight loss methods and able
Childhood Obesity Prevention/Environmental Health and Sustainability Awards - United States Conference of Mayors
All member cities of The United States Conference of Mayors are eligible to receive this award, including service cities. Each application must include a signed letter of support from the Mayor. There is no limit on the number of applications a Mayor can support or submit.. This award aims to support programs that engage community members and promote or stimulate behavior change, in the categories of a) childhood obesity prevention, b) environmental health and sustainability or c) a hybrid of both. Types of programs eligible for funding include but are not limited to:. Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiatives. ...
Adult obesity | definition of adult obesity by Medical dictionary
Childhood Obesity - Causes and Prevention | insurance credit
Today, childhood obesity is considered a serious and widespread struggle faced by many children around the world. In fact, childhood obesity has become an epidemic that has tripled or quadrupled in the last 40 to 50 years affecting almost 1 in 5 children. Children who are overweight are at a higher risk of suffering from hypertension, gastrointestinal problems, heart diseases and type II diabetes. Of course, on top of these health issues, obese children may further suffer from the emotional distress. Simply being labeled as fat, obese children can easily suffer from low self-esteem and depression.. When it comes to childhood obesity, parents in particular are required to take full responsibility for controlling their childs weight and must not settle with the idea that their child will later outgrow this. A great misconception among parents is that an obese child is healthier the more robust they are. This is typical amongst parents who are in denial regarding their childs weight management ...
I know hypothyroidism can cause obesity. Can obesity cause hypothyroidism?
Childhood obesity prevention programs.
Cocoa may help fight obesity-related inflammation
Council to brainstorm obesity prevention, intervention Feb. 21 - Wisconsin Medical Society
The Societys Council on Health Care Quality and Population Health will continue its comprehensive efforts to address obesity in Wisconsin at 1 p.m. Thursday, February 21. Council members, who passed a new obesity policy in November, will learn about current efforts to prevent and treat obesity and what the Societys role can be. Society members are invited to participate in the Council meeting at the Societys headquarters in Madison.. Amy Meinen, director of the Wisconsin Obesity Prevention Network, will share information about current efforts to address obesity in Wisconsin, including identifying areas where physicians are needed most to influence lasting change in obesity rates. The Council also will consider a proposed health literacy resolution, intoxicated boating policy and the Center for Disease Control & Preventions vaccination recommendations for the Human papillomavirus in relation to Society Resolution 23 - 2010.. To view the meeting agenda and minutes from previous meetings, visit ...
Lipid Screening in Children and Adolescents in Community Practice: 2007 to 2010 | Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and...
Methods and Results-We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Gestational diabetes and childhood obesity: what is the link? - 33737 | CDC Public Access
This review shows a positive association between maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring overweight and obesity that is attenuated significantly after adjustment for prepregnancy BMI. The relationship between maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring overweight and obesity could reflect fetal programming, shared genes and/or shared environments, such as postnatal diet and physical activity. Maternal gestational hyperglycemia and subsequent fetal hyperinsulinemia may predispose offspring to increased adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Because maternal obesity is a more prevalent condition than gestational diabetes mellitus and strongly associated with offspring obesity, effective interventions addressing prepregnancy obesity need to be further explored as they may have a greater public health impact on childhood overweight and obesity than those targeting women with gestational diabetes mellitus ...
Human Body Weight Influenced by Microbes in the Gut
New research from Kings College London and Cornell University reveals that genetic makeup influences whether people are fat or thin by shaping which types of microbes thrive in our body, paving the way for personalized probiotic therapies that are optimized to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases based on an individuals genetic make-up.. By studying pairs of twins at Kings Department of Twin Research, researchers identified a specific, little known bacterial family that is highly heritable and more common in individuals with low body weight. This microbe also protected against weight gain when transplanted into mice.. The results, published today in the journal Cell, could pave the way for personalized probiotic therapies that are optimized to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases based on an individuals genetic make-up.. Previous research has linked both genetic variation and the composition of gut microbes to metabolic disease and obesity. Despite these shared effects, the ...
Body Mass Index, Severe Obesity and Morbid Obesity Treatment, Sydney Australia | The BMI Clinic
Body adiposity index
New obesity index proposed, but further work needed (theheart.org) Better than a BMI? New obesity scale proposed (Ottawa ... "A Better Index of Body Adiposity". Obesity. Obesity - A Research Journal. 20: 1135. doi:10.1038/oby.2012.99. New Method of ... Obesity (Silver Spring). 20: 2438-44. doi:10.1038/oby.2012.81. PMC 3477292 . PMID 22484365. Bennasar-Veny M, Lopez-Gonzalez AA ...
... obesity and the metabolic syndrome in man". International Journal of Obesity. 32 (4): 658-62. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803778. PMID ... In mice, deletion of the Rev-ErbA alpha clock gene facilitates diet-induced obesity and changes the balance between glucose and ... May 2005). "Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice". Science. 308 (5724): 1043-5. Bibcode:2005Sci... ... Obesity and diabetes are associated with lifestyle and genetic factors. Among those factors, disruption of the circadian ...
Gastric bypass surgery
BMI is by itself not a reliable index of obesity: serious bodybuilders or strength athletes have BMIs in the obesity range ... "Eating behavior and the experience of hunger following gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity", Obesity Surgery, 7 (5): 405- ... Gastric bypass is indicated for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity, a diagnosis which is made when the patient is ... The operation is prescribed to treat morbid obesity (defined as a body mass index greater than 40), type 2 diabetes, ...
Night eating syndrome
Calugi S.; Grave R.D.; Marchesini G. (2009). "Night eating syndrome in class II-III obesity: Metabolic and psychopathological ... Obesity. 14 (1): 139-147. doi:10.1038/oby.2006.17. PMID 16493132. Rand C.S.W.; Macgregor M.D.; Stunkard A.J. (1997). "The night ... and Obesity. 13 (4): 171-175. doi:10.1007/bf03327503. Morse S.A.; Ciechanowski P.S.; Katon W.J.; Hirsch I.B. (2006). "Isn't ... International Journal of Obesity. 20 (1): 1-6. PMID 8788315. Wal Jillon S. Vander (2012). "Night eating syndrome: A critical ...
Core Cities Health Improvement Collaborative
Human Genome Structural Variation
"CNV analysis and mutation screening indicate an important role for the NPY4R gene in human obesity". Obesity. 24 (4): 970-6. ... This led the researchers to conclude that the NPY4R gene played an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity due to its ... Another study that focused on the pathogenesis of human obesity tested if structural variation of the NPY4R gene was ... Studies had previously shown that 10q11.22 CNV had an association with obesity and that several copy number variants were ...
African Society of Hypertension (AfSoH) Initiative
Rahmouni K, Correia ML, Haynes WG, Mark AL (January 2005). "Obesity-associated hypertension: new insights into mechanisms". ... Sorof J, Daniels S (October 2002). "Obesity hypertension in children: a problem of epidemic proportions". Hypertension. 40 (4 ... Segura J, Ruilope LM (October 2007). "Obesity, essential hypertension and renin-angiotensin system". Public Health Nutrition. ... Haslam DW, James WP (2005). "Obesity". Lancet. 366 (9492): 1197-209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769. Lackland ...
Keller, K. (2008). Encyclopedia of Obesity. SAGE Publications. p. 259. ISBN 978-1-4522-6585-8. Retrieved January 18, 2017. Wood ... Nonas, C.; Foster, G.D.; Association, American Dietetic (2009). Managing Obesity: A Clinical Guide. American Dietetic ... Obesity. Volume 17. pp. 1369-1374. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.90 Black, K. (2009). Business Statistics: Contemporary Decision Making ...
Marrow adipose tissue
Since MAT is increased in the setting of obesity and is suppressed by endurance exercise, or vibration, it is likely that MAT ... Obesity. 19 (1): 49-53. doi:10.1038/oby.2010.106. ISSN 1930-739X. PMC 3593350 . PMID 20467419. Paula, Francisco J. A. de; Dick- ... "A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome". Science. 294 (5549): 2166-2170. doi:10.1126/science.1066285 ...
Food-insecure families are the most prone to high rates of obesity, especially in children. That is because they cannot afford ... "Obesity". stanfordhealthcare.org. Retrieved 2016-03-30. "The New Face of Hunger". National Geographic. Retrieved 2016-03-30. ... increasing rates of obesity. Studies done on the population of high income countries makes this apparent. It is simply not just ...
Anti-obesity medication Anorectics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mitchell, Kari ( ... Used on a short-term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over-the-counter. Most ... 2012). "Anorexiants as Pharmacologic Agents in the Management of Obesity". Foye's Medicinal Chemistry. pp. 1451-6. ISBN 978-1- ... USFDA-approved for the treatment of obesity (as a short-term) under the brand name "Desoxyn". Lemke, Thomas L.; Williams, David ...
Jose F. Caro
The Cause Of Obesity In Mice Does Not Apply To Humans, Researchers Said. If Only It Did, They Added." The Inquirer. June 1, ... Obesity. Accessed Dec. 5, 2013 Considine RV, Considine EL, Williams CJ, Nyce MR, Magosin SA, Bauer TL, Rosato EL, Colberg J and ... "Eli Lilly and Company Teams Up with Three Prestigious Institutions to Study the Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity". ... The Institute for Scientific Information listed him the third most cited investigator in the world in the field of obesity ...
International Life Sciences Institute
Anti-obesity medication Yamada Y, Kato T, Ogino H, Ashina S, Kato K (2008). "Cetilistat (ATL-962), a novel pancreatic lipase ... Cetilistat is a drug designed to treat obesity. It acts in the same way as the older drug orlistat (Xenical) by inhibiting ... Padwal, R (2008). "Cetilistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the treatment of obesity". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. ... International journal of obesity (2005). 31 (3): 494-9. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803446. PMID 16953261. ...
Michael M. Meguid
Neuropeptide Y receptor Y5
Parker E, Van Heek M, Stamford A (Apr 2002). "Neuropeptide Y receptors as targets for anti-obesity drug development: ... MacNeil DJ (2007). "NPY Y1 and Y5 receptor selective antagonists as anti-obesity drugs". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry ... Obesity. 15 (4): 809-15. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.610. PMID 17426313. "Neuropeptide Y Receptors: Y5". IUPHAR Database of Receptors ...
Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements
Kanazawa, S (2013). "Childhood intelligence and adult obesity". Obesity. 21 (3): 434-440. doi:10.1002/oby.20018. Hatch, S. L.; ... Kanazawa, S (2013). "Childhood intelligence and adult obesity". Obesity. 21 (3): 434-440. doi:10.1002/oby.20018. Belsky, D. W ... One study found that a 15-point increase in intelligence score was associated with a 24% decrease in risk of obesity at age 51 ... The direction of this relationship has been greatly debated with some arguing that obesity causes lower intelligence, however, ...
One such behavior is eating, and ecopipam has been shown in a large clinical study to be an effective treatment for obesity. ... Astrup A, Greenway FL, Ling W, Pedicone L, Lachowicz J, Strader CD, Kwan R; Ecopipam Obesity Study Group (2007). "Randomized ... reversible anxiety and depression made it unsuitable for commercialization as an anti-obesity drug, and its development was ... controlled trials of the D1/D5 antagonist ecopipam for weight loss in obese subjects". Obesity. 15 (7): 1717-31. doi:10.1038/ ...
Obesity or being overweight in humans and most animals does not depend on body weight but on the amount of body fat-to be ... Obesity. 19 (7): 1388. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.64. PMID 21475140. Klein, Jeffrey A. Klein ; foreword by Rudolph de Jong ; cover ... Obesity. 19 (7): 1388. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.64. PMID 21475140. Hernandez, Teri L; Kittelson, John M; Law, Christopher K; Ketch ...
Pediatric Obesity Section Newsletter - September 2011
Pediatric Obesity-Focused Symposia. There are a number of exciting presentations planned throughout Obesity 2011! A few ... Obesity 2011, the 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Obesity Society, is less than 1 month away! ... The Bar-Or Lecture is always a highlight of The Obesity Society meeting, and a special benefit for Pediatric Obesity Section ... For questions about this communication or about The Obesity Society, please contact Sadie Campbell at: [email protected]obesity.org. ...
Obesity in childhood increases the risk of obesity in adulthood. Obesity is the second most preventable cause of disease behind ... Obesity is a risk factor for heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and some cancers. Obesity and the associated ... Obesity: The Texas Medical Association recognizes obesity as a serious public health problem. Approximately 66 percent of ... Texas children now are in a health crisis, with the highest percentage of students with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and heart ...
Obesity. Welcome to the home of the BDA Obesity specialist group website. Some resources in these pages can only be viewed by ... For more information, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.. Please note: The BDA Obesity specialist group does not give advice ... The BDA Obesity specialist group represents dietitians working in adult and childhood obesity prevention and management, ... The Obesity specialist group works to communicate evidence-based standards, support post-registration training in obesity ...
Dr. Mark Hyman on Obesity-Related Disease Prevention
How can we solve the problem of obesity-related diseases when many doctors have trouble diagnosing them? Dr. Mark Hyman sits ... Mark Hyman on Obesity-Related Disease Prevention. How can we solve the problem of obesity-related diseases when many doctors ... How can we solve the problem of obesity-related diseases when many doctors have trouble diagnosing them? Mark Hyman, MD, sits ...
Living longer with obesity means heavier burden for hospitals
Obesity directly leads to longer stays because of more complicated care or surgery and because obesity can make it harder to ... We examined whether obesity, particularly long-term obesity, is associated with risk for and frequency of avoidable hospital ... "There is a tricky relationship between age and the duration of obesity because you really cant have a long duration of obesity ... Drawing from cumulative-disadvantage theory, the study examines whether obesity, especially chronic obesity, increases ...
EU Court: Obesity Can Be A Disability
"Judges said that obesity in itself was not a disability - but if a person had a long-term impairment because of their obesity, ... If obesity hindered "full and effective participation" in employment, the court found, then obesity could be classified as a ... The Danish court, where the obesity disability case was filed, asked the EU Court to decided whether obesity is a basis on ... the court did not classify all instances of obesity as a disability. Karsten Kaltoff, the fired childminder, claims his obesity ...
Overview of Obesity | University Hospitals
Facts about obesity. Overweight and obesity together make up one of the leading preventable causes of death in the U.S. Obesity ... Health effects of obesity. Obesity has a far-ranging negative effect on health. Each year in the U.S., obesity-related ... What causes obesity?. In many ways, obesity is a puzzling disease. Experts dont know exactly how your body regulates your ... Obesity is the major cause of type 2 diabetes. Obesity can make your body resistant to insulin, the hormone that regulates ...
Obesity Treatment Devices
FDA-approved obesity treatment devices, FDA activities related to obesity treatment devices, and reporting obesity treatment ... Obesity (an excessive amount of body fat) is defined by body mass index (BMI), which is calculated from a persons weight and ... Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States and has been linked to many health problems such as heart disease ... Treatments for obesity range from healthy eating and exercise, to prescription medicine and surgery. FDA-regulated medical ...
Overweight & Obesity | CDC
CDCs Obesity efforts focus on policy and environmental strategies to make healthy eating and active living accessible and ... Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) 3.0. *Childhood Obesity Data Initiative (CODI)plus icon *Childhood Obesity Data ... We encourage the use of person-first language (e.g., "adults with obesity" or "20% of children ages 12-19 have obesity" and not ... Strategies to Prevent & Manage Obesityplus icon *Community Efforts. *Early Care and Education (ECE)plus icon *State Licensing ...
Disability and Obesity | CDC
Learn about different factors in the relationship between Disability and Obesity. ... Obesity 2010;18:1,210-213.. *Ellis LJ, Lang R, Shield JP et al. Obesity and disability-a short review. Obes Rev 2006;7(4):341- ... The Obesity Epidemic. Obesity affects different people in different ways and may increase the risk for other health conditions ... Non-Hispanic Blacks or African Americans have a 51% higher obesity prevalence and Hispanics have a 21% higher obesity ...
Department of Health | About Overweight and Obesity
... how overweight and obesity is defined; calculate your BMI (for adults only); causes of overweight and obesity; health ... Specific information on overweight and obesity is provided, including: prevalence of overweight and obesity; ... How overweight and obesity are defined. Adults. Overweight and obesity is measured at the population level for adults using the ... About Overweight and Obesity. Specific information on overweight and obesity is provided, including: prevalence of overweight ...
Management of Women with Obesity in Pregnancy
Patterns and trends in adult obesity
These PowerPoint slides present key data and information on adult obesity in clear, easy to understand charts and graphics. ... Patterns and trends in adult obesity * 1. Patterns and trends in adult obesity A presentation of data on adult obesity July ... 5. 5 Patterns and trends in adult obesity Adult (aged 16+) obesity: BMI ≥ 30kg/m2 Trend in obesity prevalence among adults ... The trend in obesity prevalence by social class differs by sex. For all social classes prevalence of obesity among men has ...
Obesity in America
Abdominal obesity - Wikipedia
Index of central obesity. Index of Central Obesity (ICO) is the ratio of waist circumference and height first proposed by ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abdominal obesity.. *. Griesemer, Rebecca Lynn (July 25, 2008). Index of Central Obesity ... Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built ... While central obesity can be obvious just by looking at the naked body (see the picture), the severity of central obesity is ...
Obesity - NHS
Read about obesity and how it can seriously affect your health. Ways to lose weight safely include eating a healthy, reduced- ... Risks of obesity. Its very important to take steps to tackle obesity because, as well as causing obvious physical changes, it ... Treating obesity. The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy reduced-calorie diet and exercise regularly. ... Causes of obesity. Obesity is generally caused by consuming more calories, particularly those in fatty and sugary foods, than ...
Obesity | SpringerLink
... the prevalence of obesity in adolescents has more than tripled. The latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( ... Medical Treatment of Obesity. In Farraye FA and Forse RA, Bariatric Surgery: A Primer for Your Medical Practice. Thorofare, NJ ... Rosenblum J. (2011) Obesity. In: Goldstein M. (eds) The MassGeneral Hospital for Children Adolescent Medicine Handbook. ... Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/childhood/index.htm ...
Reports | Overweight & Obesity | CDC
A collection of obesity-related resources. Read Prevention Status Reports, State indicator Reports, State Indicator Reports on ... Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) 3.0. *Childhood Obesity Data Initiative (CODI)plus icon *Childhood Obesity Data ... Adult Obesity: CDC Vital Signs Report August 2010. Obesity is common, serious, and costly. In 2009, about 2.4 million more ... Strategies to Prevent & Manage Obesityplus icon *Community Efforts. *Early Care and Education (ECE)plus icon *State Licensing ...
Obesity-associated morbidity - Wikipedia
Obesity is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity ... Obesity Obesity hypoventilation syndrome List of heaviest people "Obesity and overweight". World Health Organization. Retrieved ... Obesity increases ones risk of chronic kidney disease by three to four times. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome both ... Obesity is associated with increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and lowered HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol). Obesity ...
Obesity - familydoctor.org
Obesity occurs when you weigh more than what is considered healthy for your age, gender, and height. It can cause a number of ... Living with obesity. Living with obesity will likely mean living with chronic health problems. Obesity can contribute to a ... What is obesity?. Obesity is when you weigh more than what is considered a healthy weight for your age, gender, and height. ... Obesity treatment. Obesity is treated by losing weight-and keeping it off. Your goal is to lower your BMI to what is ...
Obesity - Reason.com
Obesity. Baltimore Bans Soda in Kids Meals. A city ordinance that took effect this week forces restaurants to join the fight ... Obesity. Are Americans Eating Less Because of Government Intervention?. The timing of the decline makes that explanation highly ... The latest episode of The Business of Life on Vice News devolves into a feisty food fight over GMOs, obesity, farmers markets, ... Philadelphias New Soda Tax Has Nothing to Do With Obesity. The city council rejected regressive paternalism in favor of a ...
Childhood Obesity - RWJF
Overcoming the childhood obesity epidemic will require changes on the scale of a social movement similar to the shift in ... In contrast, obesity advocates have not identified a common threat or mobilized grass-roots change, nor have they identified ... Overcoming the childhood obesity epidemic will require changes on the scale of a social movement similar to the shift in ... Framing obesity as a common threat can lead to consensus regarding the interventions needed to achieve healthier children and ...
STOP Obesity Alliance
... The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services ... The Strategies to Overcome and Prevent (STOP) Obesity Alliance keeps subscribers updated with invitations to Alliance events ... The STOP Obesity Alliance is sponsored by sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC. ... and monthly newsletters that contain the latest in obesity, Alliance and Steering Committee member news. Please see past e- ...
Milwaukee Preschool Targets Childhood Obesity
This news follows the release of a mathematical model which is used to predict how young children gradually develop obesity as ... It is offering a summer sale of PhenObestin 37.5, a dietary supplement intended to assist those affected by obesity to reduce ... In the coming years, undoubtedly, more steps like this preschool program will be undertaken against obesity in both adults and ... It also offers a hopeful outlook for overweight children because it reveals that they can overcome obesity by maintaining their ...
Obesity Selects Journal Symposium Honorees
PRNewswire/ -- The editors of Obesity have announced that four honorees will feature papers at the 8th annual Obesity Journal ... 1, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The editors of Obesity have announced that four honorees will feature papers at the 8th annual Obesity ... with something to attract most Obesity Society members, said Obesity Journal Symposium Chair Donna H. Ryan, MD, professor ... The Obesity Society (TOS) is the leading organization of scientists and health professionals devoted to understanding and ...
International Journal of Obesity Supplements
... clinical and applied studies related to the development and treatment of obesity, and the functional impairments associated ... International Journal of Obesity Supplements publishes sponsored, topical content covering basic, ... International Journal of Obesity Check out whats new in the International Journal of Obesity - publishing the latest research ... Welcome to International Journal of Obesity Supplements Publishing sponsored, topical content addressing issues related to the ...
Obesity compendium - The Atlantic
Ive now gone back and labeled them all with "Obesity," so the whole thread (including this item) can be found here. ... "One of the best ways to observe obesity in America is to track KFCs Double Down sandwich [below]. This "Atkins friendly" ... have picked up the conversation involving the connections among obesity, class, region, etc in America. Reasons for my ...
Obesity and Male Infertility
How does obesity potentially render men infertile? This new study explores the possible reasons and the various therapies that ... Hedley et al estimated the current prevalence of obesity at 30.6%. Multiple reports have described the effect of obesity on ... Obesity and Male Infertility. A Practical Approach. Ahmad O. Hammoud, M.D., M.P.H.; A. Wayne Meikle, M.D.; Leonardo Oliveira ... Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters ...
Obesity (nutrition) | The BMJ
Obesity: Progress and Challenges
No state currently has an adult obesity rate of less than 20 percent, but recent research may show signs of progress in young ... Because obesity prevalence remains high, however, it remains a pressing public health concern. ... Obesity affects more than one-third of adults and 17 percent of youth in the United States. ... Obesity has become the most common medical disqualifier for military service.. Obesity, a common and costly health issue, ...
Is Obesity A Disease?
Nonetheless, the IRS, under pressure from the American Obesity Association, declared obesity a disease in April 2002. That ... to conclude that obesity should be considered a distinct disease entity. "Theres no question that obesity is a disease," said ... of the Obesity Association. The growing recognition that obesity is a major public health problem has prompted the FDA to begin ... Popular in: Obesity / Weight Loss / Fitness. * How much should I weigh for my height and age? ...
Obesity: Facts and statistics
This article looks at research statistics for adult and childhood obesity, and the associated health risks. ... What are the numbers behind obesity in the United States and around the world? ... extreme obesity: 9.9 percent. Obesity by ethnicity. Obesity does not impact all races equally in the U.S. The following give ... Colorado state has the lowest obesity rates in the U.S. Using data from the CDC, State of Obesity have compiled obesity rates ...
Obesity Prevention - healthfinder.gov
Obesity and Cancer Risk A fact sheet that summarizes research on the potential link between obesity and cancer risk. ... Obesity and overweight are chronic conditions. Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity. This section ... What Are Overweight and Obesity? You can take steps to prevent or treat overweight or obesity. Follow a healthy eating plan and ... Find a Support Group: Obesity Action Coalition Support groups are another important component in the fight against obesity. ...
Genetics of obesity - NHS
It said that a study has found six new genes associated with obesity, five of which are active in the brain. This has lead ... Further readingShaw K, Gennat H, ORourke P, Del Mar C. Exercise for overweight or obesity.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006, ... and obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2). The researchers also checked whether the genes in these associated regions were expressed in various ... in the brain tissue suggests that there may be a role of the brain in predisposing some people to obesity, however exactly how ...
Obesity and the Skin
... but the cutaneous effects of obesity are not often considered. This review summarizes the damaging effects of obesity on the ... Its well known that obesity is a serious global health problem, ... Obesity and Skin Cancer. *Obesity and Other Common Skin ... As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, all areas of medicine will encounter more patients with obesity-related ... Obesity Is Associated With Earlier Pubertal Onset in Boys * The Effect of Sprint Interval Training on Body Composition of ...
obesity - New York Magazine
See an archive of all obesity stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and Grub ... This FDA-Approved Obesity Pump Actually Sucks Food Out of Your Stomach. As you might imagine, there are lots of side effects. ... Heres a Little Good News About Obesity in America. This is still a crisis, but in a few states things are actually improving a ... Heres a Little Good News About Obesity in America. This is still a crisis, but in a few states things are actually improving a ...
EpidemicDiabetesPreventionAdultsResearchersDiseasesIncreasesMorbidDiseaseHealthTreatmentsAmericaConsequencesRiskPatientsRole in treatinTreatmentCenters for Diseas2020American Academy of2018Epidemic of obesityAdult obesityPrevent obesityHigher rates of obesityProblems associated with obesityPediatric ObesityContagious95th percentileRatesRisksGenesAges 12-19 have obesityGeneticsCardiovascular diseaseCause obesitySevereExcessRiskPerson's obesityHypoventilation syndromeHealth problems caused by obesityNation'sAbdominalPrevalence of obesityAffectsConsequencesPhysical Activity and ObesityInternational Journal of ObesityLife expectancyUnhealthySelf-esteemMorbid obesityOverweight or obesityChildren and AdolescentsGeneticProblemChronic diseasesStudyDepressionBodyRole in obesity
- Texas children now are in a health crisis, with the highest percentage of students with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and heart disease in the history of our state. (texmed.org)
- Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States and has been linked to many health problems such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep disorders, and breathing problems. (mdtmag.com)
- TMA will monitor and encourages research on the medical, psychological, and social issues related to obesity to be best informed when making recommendations on prevention and treatment. (texmed.org)
- TMA supports the need to educate Texas adults and children on the importance of proper diet, nutrition, and physical activity in the prevention and management of obesity. (texmed.org)
- The BDA Obesity specialist group represents dietitians working in adult and childhood obesity prevention and management, recognising obesity as being a specialist area of dietetic practice. (uk.com)
- 2002), for example, found in a panel study of adults ages twenty-five to seventy-seven that obesity increased an individual's self-reported likelihood of developing both an upper-body functional limitation (including dressing oneself, reaching for a five-pound object, and gripping) and a lower-body functional limitation (including standing up from a chair, climbing stairs, getting into a car, running errands, and doing light chores). (sutree.com)
- Alley and Chang (2007) reached similar conclusions in their study of adults ages sixty and older, finding that obesity increased an individual's likelihood of developing at least one functional limitation (defined in the study as a self-reported difficulty or inability to walk onefourth mile, walk up ten stairs, kneel, lift ten pounds, walk between rooms, and stand from a chair). (sutree.com)
- WASHINGTON - The rate of obesity among adults has increased across 16 states, with no states seeing a drop, according to a new report released by the Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (drugstorenews.com)
- Since 1995, when data was available for every state, obesity rates have doubled in seven states and increased by at least 90% in 10 others, TFAH and RWJF noted, adding that racial and ethnic minority adults, as well as those who are less educated and make less money, continue to garner the highest overall obesity rates. (drugstorenews.com)
- Researchers have found several genes that appear to be linked with obesity. (uhhospitals.org)
- Medically defined as a body mass index (BMI) of thirty or greater,1 obesity is a twofold issue: it has the potential to impact both a person's health and a person's appearance.2 Health researchers have linked obesity to the development of functional limitations in performing physical tasks, which in turn, could affect an individual's ability and willingness to perform physical tasks at work. (sutree.com)
- Obesity in childhood increases the risk of obesity in adulthood. (texmed.org)
- Obesity is the second most preventable cause of disease behind tobacco use. (texmed.org)
- Overweight and obesity together make up one of the leading preventable causes of death in the U.S. Obesity is a chronic disease that can seriously affect your health. (uhhospitals.org)
- In many ways, obesity is a puzzling disease. (uhhospitals.org)
- Obesity: The Texas Medical Association recognizes obesity as a serious public health problem. (texmed.org)
- Obesity and the associated medical complications increase health care spending and patient morbidity and mortality. (texmed.org)
- 7) TMA supports educational and other public health efforts to address obesity. (texmed.org)
- The Obesity specialist group works to communicate evidence-based standards, support post-registration training in obesity management, contribute to national guidelines, campaign for health improvement, and to develop and foster a network of obesity management professionals. (uk.com)
- Obesity could be a disability, a European Court of Justice has ruled, reports BBC Health News . (inquisitr.com)
- Judges said that obesity in itself was not a disability - but if a person had a long-term impairment because of their obesity, then they would be protected by disability legislation," BBC Health News reported. (inquisitr.com)
- There was a clear tipping point in our national weight gain over the last 20 years, and we can't afford to ignore the impact obesity has on our health and corresponding healthcare spending. (drugstorenews.com)
- TMA encourages physicians to become educated and empowered to conduct appropriate assessment and treatment of overweight patients and obesity in their practices and to serve as leaders in their communities and in the policymaking process to improve healthy eating and increased physical activity among our state's children. (texmed.org)
Role in treatin1
- FDA-regulated medical devices have also played a role in treating obesity. (mdtmag.com)
Centers for Diseas7
- About 32 million more Americans will become obese by 2030, upping obesity rates to 42 percent of the U.S. population, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (yahoo.com)
- One study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention observed a decrease in obesity prevalence among low income preschoolers in 19 U.S. states and territories between 2008 and 2011. (ncsl.org)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define obesity as a BMI of 30 or higher (find our BMI calculator here ). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- After decades of increases, the obesity rate among young, low-income children showed a decline in 19 states, according to information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. (edweek.org)
- There's a huge burden of disease that we can anticipate from the growing obesity in kids," said William H. Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (washingtonpost.com)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, overall obesity rates remain high and prevalence among 2-19 year olds and adults in the United States has not changed significantly between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. (ncsl.org)
- Obesity is defined as body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BMI-for-age growth charts. (ncsl.org)
- SILVER SPRING, Md. , Oct. 1, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The editors of Obesity have announced that four honorees will feature papers at the 8th annual Obesity Journal Symposium at the 38th Annual Meeting of The Obesity Society (TOS) at ObesityWeek® Interactive. (prnewswire.com)
- The four winners of the 2020 Obesity Journal Symposium competition represent a range of topics, with something to attract most Obesity Society members,' said Obesity Journal Symposium Chair Donna H. Ryan , MD, professor emerita at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center of the Louisiana State University System in Baton Rouge. (prnewswire.com)
- The selected papers also will be featured in a special section of the November 2020 edition of Obesity . (prnewswire.com)
American Academy of1
- TUESDAY, Jan. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Living in a neighborhood with a high rate of obesity might raise the odds that you and your children will become plus-sized, too. (hon.ch)
- FRIDAY, Dec. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A modified version of the CRISPR gene-editing technique could help fight obesity without having to alter any genes, a new study in mice suggests. (medicinenet.com)
Epidemic of obesity4
- The Obesity Society (TOS) is the leading organization of scientists and health professionals devoted to understanding and reversing the epidemic of obesity and its adverse health, economic and societal effects. (prnewswire.com)
- Given the growing epidemic of obesity in the United States and the costs to individual health status and the healthcare system, it is our belief that clinical support for professional nurses in this area is timely and needed. (nursingworld.org)
- An epidemic of obesity is compromising the lives of millions of American children, with burgeoning problems that reveal how much more vulnerable young bodies are to the toxic effects of fat. (washingtonpost.com)
- While many factors contribute to the US epidemic of obesity, there is a clear correlation with poverty, as shown below. (newscientist.com)
- These PowerPoint slides present key data and information on adult obesity in clear, easy to understand charts and graphics. (slideshare.net)
- These slides should be useful to practitioners and policy makers working to tackle adult obesity at local, regional and national level. (slideshare.net)
- No state currently has an adult obesity rate of less than 20 percent, but recent research may show signs of progress in young children. (ncsl.org)
- One hint of good news: the increase in adult obesity appeared to slow starting in 2006. (forbes.com)
- Adult obesity rates continue their climb, rising from 24.4 per cent of Australians to 28.1 per cent over the four years to 2012. (theage.com.au)
- Many state policies help treat or prevent obesity. (ncsl.org)
- Even though the best goal is to prevent obesity in the first place, this is a very challenging problem, particularly in Western civilization where the factors contributing to obesity are much more widely prevalent. (selfgrowth.com)
- APTA strongly supports the promotion of physical activity and the value of physical fitness to prevent obesity, and has representatives on the practice committee of Exercise is Medicine and the board of the National Physical Activity Plan Alliance . (apta.org)
- To prevent obesity and maintain a healthy body weight, eat a well-balanced diet and exercise regularly. (womenshealthmag.com)
Higher rates of obesity2
- They found that the people who had moved to communities with higher rates of obesity were more likely to become obese themselves-and that the longer they remained in those areas, the greater their risk. (theweek.com)
- Datar wanted to see if families had higher odds for being overweight or obese when posted in counties with higher rates of obesity. (hon.ch)
Problems associated with obesity2
- The review provides a structure for classifying the cutaneous problems associated with obesity. (medscape.com)
- Enlarged fat cells produce the clinical problems associated with obesity either because of the weight or mass of the extra fat or because of the increased secretion of free fatty acids and numerous peptides from enlarged fat cells. (nih.gov)
- Welcome to the Pediatric Obesity Section Newsletter! (constantcontact.com)
- Please join us on Tuesday, October 4 from 12:15-2:15pm for the annual Pediatric Obesity Section Meeting and Bar-Or Lecture. (constantcontact.com)
- It is our pleasure to announce Dr. Nancy Butte as the 2011 recipient of the Oded Bar-Or Award for Excellence in Pediatric Obesity Research . (constantcontact.com)
- Founded in 2007 by Dr. Melinda Sothern and Dr. Michael Goran, the Bar-Or Award raises public awareness of pediatric obesity research efforts by formally recognizing significant lifetime contributions of leaders in the field. (constantcontact.com)
- The Bar-Or Lecture is always a highlight of The Obesity Society meeting, and a special benefit for Pediatric Obesity Section members attending our Section meeting! (constantcontact.com)
- There are numerous exciting oral presentations, posters, symposia and special lectures related to our interests in Pediatric Obesity on the Obesity 2011 Scientific Program. (constantcontact.com)
- Obesity may effectively be contagious. (theweek.com)
- A few years ago, Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler made a striking discovery about obesity: it spreads from person to person, much like a contagious virus. (wired.com)
- Obesity is contagious like a virus. (slate.com)
- Obesity Is 'Socially Contagious,' " said the headline on UCSD's press release . (slate.com)
- The New York Times ("Study Says Obesity Can Be Contagious") opened its report with the line, "Obesity can spread from person to person, much like a virus. (slate.com)
- The Los Angeles Times ("Obesity is 'contagious,' study finds") began , "Obesity can spread among a group of friends like a contagious disease," and added that the study showed a "pattern of contagion most often associated with infectious diseases. (slate.com)
- Obesity is not contagious. (cato.org)
- Obesity rates are significantly higher among some racial and ethnic groups. (cdc.gov)
- These figures suggest that since 1995, the rates of overweight within each age category have remained relatively consistent, however the rates of obesity have increased. (health.gov.au)
- Population data show that obesity rates started to rise soon after 1984," she says. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Colorado state has the lowest obesity rates in the U.S. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Children grow at different rates, so it isn't always easy to know when a child has obesity or is overweight. (medlineplus.gov)
- Living in areas with low obesity rates appears to have the opposite effect, reducing the likelihood that people will be overweight. (theweek.com)
- Scialla says, "Several features of the WELL Building Standard in particular can help contribute to lower obesity rates. (huffingtonpost.com)
- A 2005 analysis by a team of scientists forecast a two- to five-year drop in life expectancy unless aggressive action manages to reverse obesity rates. (washingtonpost.com)
- Being able to quantify cancer risk in relation to body weight should help public health officials estimate the impact of both the aging of the population and the obesity epidemic on cancer rates over the next decade and beyond, Renehan says. (webmd.com)
- Will labeling calorie counts on menus bring down America's obesity rates? (pbs.org)
- Obesity rates continue to jump every year and 2010 was no exception. (sun-sentinel.com)
- Datar said the analysis confirmed that "military families assigned to installations in counties with higher obesity rates were more likely to be overweight or obese than military families assigned to installations in counties with lower rates of obesity. (hon.ch)
- Datar said the study found no evidence to suggest that "neighborhood shared environments" -- such as access to the same eating and exercise options -- were driving obesity rates. (hon.ch)
- Obesity maps and tables on this page show state-by-state childhood obesity rates for 10-17 year olds for 2003-2011 based on data from the National Survey of Children's Health. (ncsl.org)
- When it comes to rates of obesity, the world isn't so small after all. (apta.org)
- Although rates vary by region, increases can be found almost everywhere in the world, authors write, and when it comes to the battle against obesity, "no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. (apta.org)
- During the 33-year timeframe reviewed, worldwide obesity rates rose from 28.8% to 36.9% in men, and from 29.8% to 38% in women. (apta.org)
- Obesity rates increased most rapidly between 1992 and 2002, and have slowed somewhat, particularly in developed countries. (apta.org)
- Overweight and obesity rates peak at about 55 years for men and 60 years for women in both developed and developing countries, but rates are much higher in developed countries. (apta.org)
- The report says that without a significant increase in attention to the problem through both research and policy, the upward trend is likely to continue, despite a World Health Organization effort to stop the rise in obesity rates by 2025. (apta.org)
- Nation is getting fatter': With obesity rates increasing nationally, how does DC area weigh in? (wtop.com)
- Hispanic children had nearly double the obesity rates of white and Asian children (31 percent versus 16 and 14 percent, respectively). (gothamgazette.com)
- The decrease in youth obesity rates could slow healthcare costs. (marketplace.org)
- These risks may increase as the degree of obesity increases. (womenshealthmag.com)
- The IAEA supports the application of stable isotopes to assess the effect of lifestyle changes on body composition (lean mass and fat mass) and total energy expenditure in order to inform the design and improvement of activities aimed at prevention and control of obesity and related health risks. (iaea.org)
- Obesity is in your genes, according to a study which found that one in six people inherits a trait which makes them feel less full after eating. (telegraph.co.uk)
- It said that a study has found six new genes associated with obesity, five of which are active in the brain. (www.nhs.uk)
- The fact that several of these genes were "highly expressed" in the brain tissue suggests that there may be a role of the brain in predisposing some people to obesity, however exactly how such a predisposition works is not yet clear. (www.nhs.uk)
- This means that the network is far more predictive of obesity than the presence of genes associated with the condition. (wired.com)
- Cross off genes, viruses, environment, and imitation, and the only explanatory factor you're left with is, as the paper notes , each person's "perception of the social norms regarding the acceptability of obesity. (slate.com)
- That's about one-fourth of our entire genome, suggesting that obesity is extremely complex at the genetic level - and because these genes were originally studied for their relationship to conditions other than obesity, that makes the picture even more complicated. (wired.com)
- He replied, 'I think it makes sense to study obesity genes, but (like everything) it's more complicated than was first thought. (wired.com)
- But that doesn't mean that studying obesity genes makes no sense. (wired.com)
- This new technique boosts the activity of certain genes and prevented severe obesity in mice genetically altered to be susceptible to extreme weight gain . (medicinenet.com)
- These results demonstrate that CRISPRa can be used to up the dosage of genes in diseases that result from a missing copy, providing a potential cure for certain forms of obesity as well as hundreds of other diseases," Matharu added. (medicinenet.com)
Ages 12-19 have obesity1
- It highlights the clinical complications of obesity, while also focusing on the major scientific advances that have highlighted the role of genetics, adipose tissue endocrinology and the environment in the mechanisms and causes of obesity. (springer.com)
- Genetics can't explain it, since having a fat friend was more likely to predict a person's obesity than having a fat sibling was. (slate.com)
- Are you looking for the details concerning the relationship between obesity and genetics? (brighthub.com)
- Though a definite link hasn't been proven, there is still a lot of research being conducted on obesity and genetics so medical science may have more definitive answers in the future. (brighthub.com)
- Genetics and Food Intake, Body Weight and Obesity. (brighthub.com)
- In light of that, does it make any sense at all to study obesity genetics? (wired.com)
- The prevalence of severe obesity (BMI ≥40kg/m2) has increased since 1993 for both men and women. (slideshare.net)
- Severe obesity prevalence is much higher for women than men. (slideshare.net)
- An operation is only recommended for people with morbid or severe obesity, and those who have failed with other methods of weight reduction. (news-medical.net)
- Sometimes called "clinically severe obesity," it means you're 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight, with a body mass index of 40 or higher. (go.com)
- Any BMI ≥ 35 or 40 kg/m2 is severe obesity. (wikipedia.org)
- The prevalence of excess weight (overweight including obesity) rose substantially between 1993 and 2002, but has increased much more slowly in both men and women since that time. (slideshare.net)
- Unlike for obesity, prevalence of excess weight is higher among men than women. (slideshare.net)
- An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, the "pot belly" or "beer belly" effect, in which the abdomen protrudes excessively. (wikipedia.org)
- The traditional explanations for the obesity wage penalty can be applied to this excess wage penalty, although it is beyond the scope of the authors' current research to sort them out. (nber.org)
- Obesity, or significant excess body fat, doesn't occur in isolation. (huffingtonpost.com)
- By now, readers of Obesity Panacea have hopefully learned that excess weight is not directly predictive of health risk, and that excess fat mass is not in itself unhealthy. (scienceblogs.com)
- Obesity is an excess of body fat. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. (wikipedia.org)
- Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. (wikipedia.org)
- Obesity affects different people in different ways and may increase the risk for other health conditions among people with and without disabilities. (cdc.gov)
- Fat distribution is also an important consideration in assessing overweight or obesity and the associated risk of disease. (health.gov.au)
- Americans are overweight, meaning they weigh more than they should and are at risk for health pro lens, including obesity. (lulu.com)
- However, you can reduce your risk of obesity by eating healthy and exercising. (familydoctor.org)
- Scientists from University College London studied 359 men who either had two copies of the high-risk gene, or two copies of a genetic variant thought to cause low risk of obesity. (telegraph.co.uk)
- What this study shows us is that individuals with two copies of the obesity-risk FTO variant are biologically programmed to eat more. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Opponents contend that obesity is more akin to high cholesterol or cigarette smoking - a risk factor that predisposes someone to illness but is not an ailment in itself, such as lung cancer or heart disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A fact sheet that summarizes research on the potential link between obesity and cancer risk. (healthfinder.gov)
- Because obesity is associated with increased risk for a range of chronic conditions, health care costs are higher for obese than for normal weight individuals. (nber.org)
- If we can break that down, if we can reduce the amount of nutrients getting to the child during pregnancy, perhaps, just perhaps, we can modify that obesity risk and reduce the risk for the next generation. (radionz.co.nz)
- Childhood obesity tracks, says Paul Hofman, and an obese youth has a six to seven times higher risk of becoming an obese adult. (radionz.co.nz)
- These children are now eight years old and the team is in the process of analysing their risk of obesity. (radionz.co.nz)
- the efforts surrounding obesity -- note the use of the term "obesity" -- are to improve the medical condition of people who are at extreme risk. (huffingtonpost.com)
- According to the National Institutes of Health, obesity means weighing 20 percent or more than your ideal body weight, and it's a health risk. (go.com)
- We also saw very clear differences between [ obesity -related] risk at different sites between the sexes. (webmd.com)
- Overweight and obesity are defined by the WHO as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to an individuals health. (news-medical.net)
- Overweight and obesity in childhood are associated with increased risk of obesity and related non-communicable diseases in adulthood, potentially contributing to premature death. (iaea.org)
- Changes in lifestyle result in physical inactivity and poor diet quality, which are risk factors for obesity and related NCDs. (iaea.org)
- FM is used as a proxy indicator for the risk of obesity. (iaea.org)
- Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (also known as Pickwickian syndrome) is a condition in which severely overweight people fail to breathe rapidly enough or deeply enough, resulting in low blood oxygen levels and high blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity (body mass index above 30 kg/m2), hypoxemia (falling oxygen levels in blood) during sleep, and hypercapnia (increased blood carbon dioxide levels) during the day, resulting from hypoventilation (excessively slow or shallow breathing). (wikipedia.org)
- Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is a form of sleep disordered breathing. (wikipedia.org)
- Most people with obesity hypoventilation syndrome have concurrent obstructive sleep apnea, a condition characterized by snoring, brief episodes of apnea (cessation of breathing) during the night, interrupted sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. (wikipedia.org)
- It is not fully understood why some obese people develop obesity hypoventilation syndrome while others do not. (wikipedia.org)
- Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is a breathing disorder that affects some people who have been diagnosed with obesity. (nih.gov)
- It is not clear why obesity hypoventilation syndrome affects some people who have obesity and not others. (nih.gov)
- Most people who have obesity hypoventilation syndrome also have sleep apnea . (nih.gov)
- If you have been diagnosed with obesity, your doctor may screen you for obesity hypoventilation syndrome by measuring your blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels. (nih.gov)
- If you have obesity hypoventilation syndrome, you may feel sluggish or sleepy during the day, have headaches, or feel out of breath. (nih.gov)
- To diagnose obesity hypoventilation syndrome, your doctor will perform a physical exam to measure your weight and height, calculate your body mass index (BMI), and measure your waist and neck circumference. (nih.gov)
- If you are diagnosed with obesity hypoventilation syndrome, your doctor may recommend healthy lifestyle changes , such as aiming for a healthy weight and being physically active . (nih.gov)
- Visit Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome for more information about this topic. (nih.gov)
Health problems caused by obesity2
- This note sets out the definition and causes of obesity, the health problems caused by obesity, recent government policy on the issue and related statistics. (parliament.uk)
- People who carry extra weight around their waist may be more likely to experience health problems caused by obesity than those who carry it in their legs and thighs. (womenshealthmag.com)
- This news may be an example of one positive measure that has been undertaken in response to the growing awareness of the nation's serious obesity problem. (prweb.com)
- Do lawmakers have a right to regulate consumption of products that contribute to the nation's obesity epidemic? (pbs.org)
- This is a necessary step in the nation's fight against obesity. (rand.org)
- Central (abdominal) obesity is measured using waist circumference. (health.gov.au)
- Abdominal obesity , also known as central obesity , occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. (wikipedia.org)
- Abdominal obesity is not confined only to the elderly and obese subjects. (wikipedia.org)
- Abdominal obesity has been linked to Alzheimer's disease as well as other metabolic and vascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- Waist circumference is a good measure of abdominal obesity. (womenshealthmag.com)
Prevalence of obesity5
- Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity in adolescents has more than tripled. (springer.com)
- Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity in the developed world. (medscape.com)
- Multiple explanations have been proposed for the decline in male fertility including increased prevalence of obesity and exposure to environmental pollution during fetal or adult life. (medscape.com)
- It is known that the prevalence of obesity is increasing in the United States and abroad. (medscape.com)
- In the period from 1991 to 1998, the prevalence of obesity increased from 12 to 17.9% in the general population and from 11.7 to 17.9% in men. (medscape.com)
- Proponents argue that new scientific understanding has clearly established that obesity is a discrete medical condition that independently affects health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Earlier this year, Our Changing World featured an interview with University of Otago neuroscientist Christine Jasoni , who is investigating how maternal obesity affects the formation of the baby's brain . (radionz.co.nz)
Physical Activity and Obesity1
International Journal of Obesity1
- The International Journal of Obesity strives to identify novel areas for research into obesity and it appears that gleaning information from "Big Data" data sets holds promise to allow identification of questions for more targeted research as well as to directly answer some questions about obesity. (nature.com)
- Living in a community where obesity is more common can make sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy eating [and] obesity more socially acceptable," lead author Ashlesha Datar, from the University of Southern California, tells MedicalExpress.com . (theweek.com)
- I'm an empathetic and supporting voice of reason, who has gone through the hardship of obesity and an unhealthy lifestyle, and is now bringing about healthy change supported by scientific fact. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Obesity is almost always found in the presence of very limited physical activity and/or exercise and a consumption of a surplus of calories, usually of unhealthy foods. (huffingtonpost.com)
- 2012-09-25T11:59:14-04:00 https://images.c-span.org/Files/f43/308393-m.jpg Retired generals and admirals talked about their concerns over unhealthy options in schools' cafeteria and vending machines, which often contributes to the problem of childhood obesity. (c-span.org)
- Retired generals and admirals talked about their concerns over unhealthy options in schools' cafeteria and vending machines, which often contributes to the problem of childhood obesity. (c-span.org)
- Manuel Uribe is teaching doctors about brain chemistry and morbid obesity. (go.com)
- Doctors call it morbid obesity. (go.com)
- Morbid obesity is altogether different. (go.com)
- Brain chemistry, genetic mutation, addiction, psychological pain -- or an unhappy combination of all of them -- makes morbid obesity one of the biggest mysteries of medicine. (go.com)
- Some experts also call morbid obesity an addiction. (go.com)
- A BMI of ≥ 35 kg/m2 and experiencing obesity-related health conditions or ≥40-44.9 kg/m2 is morbid obesity. (wikipedia.org)
Children and Adolescents1
- So you get into this situation of obesity begetting obesity, and it's not genetic, it's environmental. (radionz.co.nz)
- Obesity is primarily a consequence of life-style choices about drinking, eating and exercise -- not a consequence of accidents, age, or genetic conditions over which one has no control. (cato.org)
- But why even try to plumb those genetic interactions, I asked, when we already understand the behaviors associated with obesity in all but a few hereditarily predisposed people? (wired.com)
- Some rare genetic diseases make it almost impossible to avoid obesity. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
- Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for many people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap high-calorie food and spending a lot of time sitting down at desks, on sofas or in cars. (www.nhs.uk)
- As international awareness of the obesity problem grows, ShopPharmacyCounter.com is offering a summer sale of PhenObestin 37.5. (prweb.com)
- ShopPharmacyCounter.com realizes that as more people become aware of the obesity problem affecting the nation and the world, they may decide that they want to address their own personal weight issues. (prweb.com)
- Hey, some might see the growing global problem of obesity as a crisis, but YUM! (truthout.org)
- Obesity is a major public health problem. (news-medical.net)
- Such is the climate surrounding the obesity problem our country faces. (huffingtonpost.com)
- While the first lady and many others have taken massive steps to help bring awareness and remediation to the obesity issue, there are many who feel there simply is no problem -- that we're crying wolf or exaggerating the severity of the issue for the benefit of the health, pharmaceutical, and weight loss industries. (huffingtonpost.com)
- I had an obesity problem for many years, a very significant one. (go.com)
- Obesity is a widespread and sometimes tragic private health problem but, despite the public statements by HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson, it is not a public health problem. (cato.org)
- Any decision of this magnitude should be made only after an informed public discussion and congressional approval, not on the basis of the judgment of some regulators and a department secretary who is obsessed with the obesity problem. (cato.org)
- Obesity is often a lifelong problem. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson says, "Obesity is a critical public health problem in our country. (cato.org)
- Obesity is a problem for many people, but it is not a public health problem. (cato.org)
- Daniel Marks, M.D., Ph.D. talks about the growing problem of childhood obesity and what can be done to slow it. (ohsu.edu)
- Dr. Atlantis says patients presenting to their doctor with symptoms of common mental disorders should be assessed for obesity and related chronic diseases , and vice versa. (psychcentral.com)
- To help people avoid overeating, the kinds of policies effective in controlling alcohol consumption should be applied to food - standardizing portion sizes, limiting impulse marketing and reducing the convenience and salience of foods most closely associated with obesity and chronic diseases. (rand.org)
- Dr Rachel Batterham, who led the study, explained: ""We've known for a while that variations in the FTO gene are strongly linked with obesity, but until now we didn't know why. (telegraph.co.uk)
- A new study found obesity is on the rise worldwide. (nymag.com)
- Weight bias, according to a study by the Yale University Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, is as prevalent as racial discrimination in the United States. (nursingworld.org)
- Treating a child with obesity is three times more costly than treating the average child, according to a study by Thomson Reuters. (washingtonpost.com)
- And the gist of this study is that obesity did not spread through the sampled population like a virus or any other materially transmitted malady. (slate.com)
- It documented weight trends in a social network originating in Framingham, Mass. What the study illustrated, according to its authors, was "psychosocial mechanisms of the spread of obesity" through "a change in [one's] perception of the social norms regarding the acceptability of obesity. (slate.com)
- Living in a community where obesity is more of the norm than not can influence what is socially acceptable in terms of eating and exercise behaviors and body size," explained study author Ashlesha Datar. (hon.ch)
- Obesity, Unhappiness, and The Challenge of Affluence: Theory and Evidence ," IZA Discussion Papers 2717, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
- Analysts surveyed the market for new weight-loss drugs following a meeting of the Obesity Society, a group of scientists who study the condition. (yahoo.com)
- The International Day for the Evaluation of Obesity (IDEA) study looked at two measures of fatness - waist circumference and a calculation called body mass index or BMI. (bbc.co.uk)
- The most shocking thing is the degree to which obesity is now affecting developing as well as developed economies," says Tim Lobstein of the International Association for the Study of Obesity in London. (newscientist.com)
- Though this particular study focused on obesity, we believe our system could be applied to any situation in which having only one functional copy of a gene leads to disease," said study senior author Nadav Ahituv, a professor of bioengineering and therapeutic sciences at UCSF. (medicinenet.com)
- This study confirms that obesity is associated with greater symptomatic severity of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis ," said study co-author Dr. Mario Stampanoni Bassi, a neurologist at Neuromed Mediterranean Neurological Institute in Pozzilli, Italy. (webmd.com)
- A new editorial in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) suggests that primary care doctors should pay more attention to patients who present with obesity, as it has been linked to many common mental disorders, including depression . (psychcentral.com)
- Obesity is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and low levels of physical activity, both of which are strong predictors of depression. (psychcentral.com)
- In order to understand obesity, you have to understand fat.But fat is another term that can be confusing because there are two different kinds:dietary fat and body fat.Dietary fat is a part of the food.You want to have a little bit of fat in your diet because it serves as a major source of energy for your body. (lulu.com)
- Having too much body fat leads to obesity. (familydoctor.org)
- covers obesity screenings and behavioral counseling if you have a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. (medicare.gov)
- Obesity means having too much body fat. (medlineplus.gov)
- Taking in more calories than your body burns can lead to obesity. (medlineplus.gov)
- Obesity refers to an excessively high proportion of body fat. (encyclopedia.com)
- A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI) which is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals - a person's weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). (news-medical.net)
- Leptin and its receptor are the only two that have been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity and body weight control. (brighthub.com)
- Obesity is a condition in which a person has an excessive amount of body fat. (brighthub.com)
- Body mass index is most often used to determine a person's level of obesity. (brighthub.com)
- The primary warning sign of obesity is an above-average body weight. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Stable isotopes are used to assess body composition and physical activity to evaluate programmes for management of overweight and obesity. (iaea.org)
Role in obesity1
- Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity. (healthfinder.gov)