A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
The consumption of edible substances.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Glucose in blood.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The selection of one food over another.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Educational institutions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Abstaining from all food.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
The physical measurements of a body.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (1/23597)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (2/23597)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (3/23597)

The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (4/23597)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

Obesity induces expression of uncoupling protein-2 in hepatocytes and promotes liver ATP depletion. (5/23597)

Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) uncouples respiration from oxidative phosphorylation and may contribute to obesity through effects on energy metabolism. Because basal metabolic rate is decreased in obesity, UCP2 expression is predicted to be reduced. Paradoxically, hepatic expression of UCP2 mRNA is increased in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis of ob/ob livers demonstrate that UCP2 mRNA and protein expression are increased in hepatocytes, which do not express UCP2 in lean mice. Mitochondria isolated from ob/ob livers exhibit an increased rate of H+ leak which partially dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential when the rate of electron transport is suppressed. In addition, hepatic ATP stores are reduced and these livers are more vulnerable to necrosis after transient hepatic ischemia. Hence, hepatocytes adapt to obesity by up-regulating UCP2. However, because this decreases the efficiency of energy trapping, the cells become vulnerable to ATP depletion when energy needs increase acutely.  (+info)

Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (6/23597)

Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking.  (+info)

Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. (7/23597)

Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons.  (+info)

No association between the -308 polymorphism in the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) promoter region and polycystic ovaries. (8/23597)

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF)2 allele appears to be linked with increased insulin resistance and obesity, conditions often found in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The significance of TNFalpha polymorphism in relation to the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with PCOS was investigated in 122 well-characterized patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Of these, 84 had an abnormal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCOS, while the remaining 38 had a normal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCO. There were a further 28 individuals without PCO (non-PCO) and 108 individuals whose PCO status was undetermined (reference population). The promoter region of the TNFalpha gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the presence or absence of the polymorphism at -308 was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The less common TNF allele (TNF2) was found as TNF1/2 or TNF2/2 in 11/38 (29%) of PCO subjects, 25/84 (30%) of PCOS subjects, 7/28 (25%) of non-PCO subjects, and 45/108 (42%) of the reference population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the TNF2 allele between the groups. The relationship of TNF genotype to clinical and biochemical parameters was examined. In both the PCO group and the PCOS group, the presence of the TNF2 allele was significantly associated with lower glucose values obtained from the glucose tolerance testing (P<0.05). The TNF genotype was not significantly associated with any clinical or biochemical parameter measured in the PCO, PCOS or non-PCOS groups. Thus, the TNFalpha -308 polymorphism does not appear to strongly influence genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovaries.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Vagal Nerve Blockade on Moderate Obesity with an Obesity-Related Comorbid Condition. T2 - the ReCharge Study. AU - Morton, John M.. AU - Shah, Sajani N.. AU - Wolfe, Bruce. AU - Apovian, Caroline M.. AU - Miller, Christopher J.. AU - Tweden, Katherine S.. AU - Billington, Charles J.. AU - Shikora, Scott A.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Background: Vagal nerve blockade (vBloc) therapy was shown to be a safe and effective treatment for moderate to severe obesity. This report summarizes the safety and efficacy of vBloc therapy in the prespecified subgroup of patients with moderate obesity. Methods: The ReCharge Trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40-45 or 35-40 kg/m2 with at least one obesity-related comorbid condition. Participants were randomized 2:1 to implantation with either a vBloc or sham device with weight management counseling. Eighty-four subjects had moderate obesity (BMI 35-40 kg/m2) ...
How Obesity Leads To Diabetes Mellitus is a thoughtful condition. Learn about How Obesity Leads To Diabetes Mellitus or are you at risk for How Obesity Leads To Diabetes
How can we solve the problem of obesity-related diseases when many doctors have trouble diagnosing them? Dr. Mark Hyman sits down to talk about his new book, The Blood Sugar Solution.
Without action on obesity, the economic burden of treating obesity-related diseases is estimated to rise from $12 billion in 2014 to $21 billion in 2025.
This article is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 12 meeting in San Diego, CA. The presentations discussed the roles of a number of nuclear receptors in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis, the pathophysiology of obesity-related disease states, and the promise associated with targeting their activities to treat these diseases. While many of these receptors (in particular, constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor) and their target enzymes have been thought of as regulators of drug and xenobiotic metabolism, this symposium highlighted the advances made in our understanding of the endogenous functions of these receptors. Similarly, as we gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying bile acid signaling pathways in the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis, we see the importance of using complementary approaches to elucidate this fascinating network ...
Overview. The mathematical sciences including engineering, statistics, computer science, physics, econometrics, psychometrics, epidemiology, and mathematics qua mathematics are increasingly being applied to advance our understanding of the causes, consequences, and alleviation of obesity. These applications do not merely involve routine well-established approaches easily implemented in widely available commercial software. Rather, they increasingly involve computationally demanding tasks, use and in some cases development of novel analytic methods and software, new derivations, computer simulations, and unprecedented interdigitation of two or more existing techniques. Such advances at the interface of the mathematical sciences and obesity research require bilateral training and exposure for investigators in both disciplines. This course on the mathematical sciences in obesity research features some of the worlds finest scientists working in this domain to fill this unmet need by providing nine ...
Obesity 2011, the 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Obesity Society, is less than 1 month away!. Mark your calendars! Please join us on Tuesday, October 4 from 12:15-2:15pm for the annual Pediatric Obesity Section Meeting and Bar-Or Lecture. It is our pleasure to announce Dr. Nancy Butte as the 2011 recipient of the Oded Bar-Or Award for Excellence in Pediatric Obesity Research. Founded in 2007 by Dr. Melinda Sothern and Dr. Michael Goran, the Bar-Or Award raises public awareness of pediatric obesity research efforts by formally recognizing significant lifetime contributions of leaders in the field. Dr. Butte, Professor of Pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine, is an internationally recognized expert in human nutrition and metabolism with a focus on childhood obesity. Dr. Anthony Comuzzie, Scientist at the Texas Biomedical Research Institute and colleague of Dr. Buttes, will make the formal presentation of the award, which will be followed by an address by Dr. Butte. The Bar-Or Lecture ...
Background: Extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) is becoming more prevalent in the United States. Little is known about the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this subgroup. We compared the in-hospital outcomes of PCI in this subgroup with that of the normal weight patients in the CathPCI Registry®.. Methods: All extremely obese patients who had undergone PCI procedures between Feb 28, 2008 and Jun 30, 2011 via the femoral or radial artery (N= 83,861) were compared with those of normal weight patients (BMI 20-25 kg/m2, N= 217,616) in the NCDR. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, procedural and bleeding complications. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association of extreme obesity with outcomes, using previously validated risk models derived from NCDR.. Results: Compared with normal weight patients, extremely obese patients had a lower median age (60 vs. 69 years old), were more likely to be female (47% vs. 37%), and African ...
How obesity leads to diabetes - Monash University researchers have found how obesity leads to type 2 diabetes - a finding that could lead to the design of a drug to prevent the disease. - AndhraNews.net
Several studies have shown that normal weight central obesity (NWCO) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, studies conducted in the Japanese population have been very limited. Thus, the relationships between normal weight central obesity, classified using body mass index (BMI), the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and CVD risk factors in middle-aged Japanese adults were investigated. The participants were Japanese adults aged 40-64 years who had undergone periodic health examinations in Japan during the period from April 2013 to March 2014. The participants were categorized into the following four groups: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and no central obesity (WHtR | 0.5) (NW); normal weight and central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) (NWCO); obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and no central obesity (OB); and obesity and central obesity (OBCO). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking medication for hypertension.
Several studies have shown that normal weight central obesity (NWCO) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, studies conducted in the Japanese population have been very limited. Thus, the relationships between normal weight central obesity, classified using body mass index (BMI), the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and CVD risk factors in middle-aged Japanese adults were investigated. The participants were Japanese adults aged 40-64 years who had undergone periodic health examinations in Japan during the period from April 2013 to March 2014. The participants were categorized into the following four groups: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and no central obesity (WHtR | 0.5) (NW); normal weight and central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) (NWCO); obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and no central obesity (OB); and obesity and central obesity (OBCO). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking medication for hypertension.
The Danish court, where the obesity disability case was filed, asked the EU Court to decided whether obesity is a basis on which workers could claim disability. The court in Denmark will be tasked to determine if the instance of the fired childminder is one in which his obesity can be classified as a disability.. While the ruling does declare that some cases of obesity can be considered disability, the Guardian reports that it stops short, however of declaring obesity to be a protected characteristic again which all discrimination is prohibited. In doing so, the court did not classify all instances of obesity as a disability. Karsten Kaltoff, the fired childminder, claims his obesity is not a disability, and claims he can perform the duties of the job from which he was fired. He doesnt see himself as disabled, and doesnt believe he should have been fired due to his obesity. ...
The World Health Organization has called childhood obesity one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The alarming childhood obesity epidemic brings with it increasing need for pediatricians to treat obesity-related diseases (e.g., type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease [GERD]) that traditionally have not had origins in childhood or adolescence, leading to a critical therapeutic information gap in pediatrics. Given that obese participants are often excluded from clinical trials during the drug development process, little to no information exists regarding the impact of obesity on drug disposition and action or the appropriate dosing of drugs in obese pediatric patients.. Obese children are more frequently diagnosed with GERD than children of normal weight. Proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole, have become key components in the pharmacological management of GERD in pediatrics. In this multicenter, open-label, ...
Childhood overweight and obesity (ow/ob) has become a serious threat to many countries, including China. However, limited evidence was obtained from longitudinal data in China. This study examined the secular trends and geographic variation in the prevalence of ow/ob and obesity only, and age, gender, and urban-rural disparities among school-aged children across China. Data from children aged 6-17 surveyed in China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 (n = 2712) to 2011 (n = 1054) were used. Overweight and obesity were defined based on the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) recommended Asian age-sex-specific BMI cut-off-points. We found that: (1) childhood ow/ob and obesity prevalence increased from 11.7% to 25.2% and from 2.8% to 10.1% during 1991-2011, respectively; (2) children aged 6-12 experienced a 1.3 and 1.6 times increase in ow/ob and obesity prevalence than children aged 13-17, respectively; (3) the urban-rural gap in ow/ob prevalence widened; (4) ow/ob prevalence in boys was
Unhealthy diets now responsible for more premature deaths and more total deaths than any other risk factor globally. We live in obesogenic environments where proliferation of cheap and available high energy density food dominates, while opportunities to be physically active are reduced, consequently causing excess weight gain. Affordable healthy diets are crucial to prevent obesity but also for management. Obesity is a relapsing disease, thus it will always remain hard to treat while patients must recover in the same obesogenic environment that has contributed to their disease. Unhealthy food environments and lack of access to nutritious diets also perpetuate undernutrition and micro-nutrient deficiencies. Reducing malnutrition in all its forms and redesigning food systems to nourish not harm people are key challenges for the UNFSS.. As described in the 2019 Lancet Commission on Obesity - The Global Syndemic - actions to address obesity can also help tackle undernutrition and climate change. ...
Michael Corsilles, ND, PA-C. Obesity may be the number one antiaging issue in our society simply because it shortens our life span. Children are developing serious diseases at a younger age, which prematurely subjects them to the deterioration of their health and bodies. Diabetes mellitus, asthma, hypertension, sleep apnea, and cancer are just a few examples.1 Obesity also has an emotional influence that can affect self-image and self-confidence, leading to depression and poor food choices, such as comfort foods. Societal pressures take a toll on individuals, spanning generations. In addition, obesity is not a local trend; it is a worldwide epidemic and is occurring in younger patients, even toddler age.2 Fortunately, our country is tackling the obesity problem head on. In February of last year, First Lady Michelle Obama launched the Lets Move! campaign to solve the childhood obesity epidemic, and President Barack Obama established the White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity to implement ...
The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming beginning at conception. In animal models, exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diets influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. Among other long-term changes, offspring from obese rats develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and lipogenic gene expression in the liver at weaning. However, the precise underlying mechanisms leading to metabolic dysregulation in the offspring remains unclear. Using a rat model of overfeeding-induced obesity, we previously demonstrated that exposure to maternal obesity from pre-conception to birth, is sufficient to program increased obesity risk in the offspring. Offspring of obese rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass when fed high fat diet (HFD) as compared to lean dam. Since, disruptions of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver, we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity leads to perturbations of core clock components
The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by being fed high-fat and/or high-density diets. It is intended to mimic the most common cause of obesity in humans. Typically mice, rats, dogs, or non-human primates are used in these models. These animals can then be used to study in vivo obesity, obesitys comorbidities, and other related diseases. Users of such models must take into account the duration and type of diet (e.g. hydrated gels vs. dry pellets) as well as the environmental conditions and age of the animals, as each may promote different bodyweights, fat percentages, or behaviors. Driven by the worldwide epidemic of obesity, particularly in the Western world, the DIO model has been integral in understanding the relationship between high-fat/high-density diets and obesity, including the discovery of Akt and mTOR, signals in the body linked to obesity and insulin resistance. However, while many insights into the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mouse model implicates GNB3 duplication in a childhood obesity syndrome. AU - Goldlust, Ian S.. AU - Hermetz, Karen E.. AU - Catalano, Lisa M.. AU - Barfield, Richard T.. AU - Cozad, Rebecca. AU - Wynn, Grace. AU - Ozdemir, Alev Cagla. AU - Conneely, Karen N.. AU - Mulle, Jennifer G.. AU - Dharamrup, Shikha. AU - Hegde, Madhuri R.. AU - Kim, Katherine H.. AU - Angle, Brad. AU - Colley, Alison. AU - Webb, Amy E.. AU - Thorland, Erik C.. AU - Ellison, Jay W.. AU - Rosenfeld, Jill A.. AU - Ballif, Blake C.. AU - Shaffer, Lisa G.. AU - Demmer, Laurie A.. AU - Searle, Beverly A.. AU - Wynn, Sarah L.. AU - Rudd, M. Katharine. PY - 2013/9/10. Y1 - 2013/9/10. N2 - Obesity is a highly heritable condition and a risk factor for other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and cancer. Recently, genomic copy number variation (CNV) has been implicated in cases of early onset obesity that may be comorbid with intellectual disability. Here, we describe a ...
The BDA Obesity specialist group represents dietitians working in adult and childhood obesity prevention and management, recognising obesity as being a specialist area of dietetic practice. The Obesity specialist group works to communicate evidence-based standards, support post-registration training in obesity management, contribute to national guidelines, campaign for health improvement, and to develop and foster a network of obesity management professionals.. Any BDA member can become a member of the Obesity specialist group. Members are kept up-to-date via regular newsletters and emails. Members are also encouraged to join our LinkedIn network to have the opportunity to contribute to national consultations and other ongoing projects. There is also the potential to make a more direct impact via volunteering for active committee positions. Members can also benefit from discounted rates for study days and grants to support obesity research, evaluation or audit . ...
Quite a few individuals may be aware that obesity elevates risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Experts from the Medical College of Georgia claim
Despite a strong association between body weight and mortality in the general population, clinical evidence suggests better clinical outcome of overweight or obese individuals with established coronary heart disease. This finding has been termed the obesity paradox, but its existence remains a point of debate, because it is mostly observed when body mass index (BMI) is used to define obesity. Inherent limitations of BMI as an index of adiposity, as well as methodological biases and the presence of confounding factors, may account for the observed findings of clinical studies. In this review, our aim is to present the data that support the presence of a BMI paradox in coronary heart disease and then explore whether next to a BMI paradox a true obesity paradox exists as well. We conclude by attempting to link the obesity paradox notion to available translational research data supporting a healthy, protective adipose tissue phenotype. © 2016 World Obesity.
Understanding Obesity informs readers about contributing factors to obesity: from social and behavioral determinants throughout the life course, influences from before we are born to what we eat (nutrients and food contaminants which impact body weight), gut bacteria, and the way accumulated energy from nutrition is spent. Chapters will also inform readers about adipose tissue (the dynamic role of the adipose tissue during obesity development, the pressure put on to its remodeling and differences in obesity phenotypes regarding association with pathological outcomes as well as the latest advances in finding biological markers of adipose tissue dysfunction) and the latest treatment options for obesity. Special topics, such as the bidirectional relationship of stress with obesity and the influence of aging on the onset of metabolic disorders that lead to obesity are also discussed. Understanding Obesity is a valuable reference for health researchers, practitioners (endocrinologists, family ...
Little is known concerning obesity patterns of ethnic subpopulations in the U.S. and the effects of acculturation on these patterns. Adolescent obesity, a major public health problem, has important health, social and economic consequences for the adolescent. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health survey is unique in the size of the adolescent sample and in its ability to provide large representative samples of Anglo, African-American, Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 13,783 adolescents was studied. Measurements of weight and height collected in the second wave of the survey were used to study adolescent obesity. Multivariate logit techniques were used to provide an understanding of the ethnic, age, gender and intergenerational patterns of adolescent obesity. Comparisons are presented between the NHANES III results and those from the Adolescent Health Survey. The smoothed version of the NHANES I 85th percentile cut-off was used for the ...
Washington, DC) - Trust for Americas Health (TFAH) commends the Childhood Obesity Task Forces report, Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity Within a Generation, which includes proposed recommendations for reducing the rate of childhood obesity from 17% to 5% by 2030. The report includes a total of 70 recommendations for specific action steps, many of which can be implemented right away and are minimal or no-cost.. By looking across both the private and public sector and various government entities, these recommendations articulate a comprehensive approach to combating childhood obesity, said Jeffrey Levi, PhD, Executive Director of Trust for Americas Health. The Childhood Obesity Task Force should be commended for setting such specific goals that will help direct the action needed to address this national epidemic.. Levi continued, However, it is now the responsibility of the Administration and Congress to ensure that sufficient resources are provided so that each recommendation can ...
The federal government should encourage healthy habits, including dairy consumption, as part of its fight against childhood obesity, IDFA said in comments submitted to an interagency task force last Friday. IDFA stressed the significant nutritional benefits of dairy products and highlighted the steps processors are taking, such as reformulating products with less sugar, lower calories and reduced fat, to provide a variety of options.. The Task Force on Childhood Obesity was established by President Obama in February, in conjunction with Michelle Obamas public awareness initiative, Lets Move. Charged with developing a national plan to end childhood obesity within a generation, the task force last month issued a call for recommendations from industry and the public. The deadline for comments was March 26.. IDFA supports the administrations focus on childhood obesity and its comprehensive, cross-sector approach that includes a variety of stakeholders, including federal agencies, state and ...
We cannot separate the direct effects of maternal obesity on the developing child from shared genetic and postnatal lifestyle influences in childhood and adulthood on obesity and cardiovascular risk. For example, there is evidence that obesity, unhealthy diets, and lack of exercise cluster in families.23 24 Regarding socioeconomic status, we were able to adjust for current socioeconomic status in a small subset of the adult offspring, though the limited sample size reduced study power and abolished significance. With offspring obesity, it is well recognised that there is a link between socioeconomic status and other adult lifestyle variables including obesity. While some studies have shown that the influence of maternal obesity on offspring obesity is independent of adult lifestyle factors,7 two studies showing associations between maternal obesity and cardiovascular risk factors had attenuated results after adjustment for current obesity levels.9 10 As obesity in offspring is closely correlated ...
Endothelial cell dysfunction, characterised by a reduction in the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), plays an important role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. IGF-1 may be involved in the regulation of NO production via the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt/eNOS pathway. In this study we have investigated whether dietary-induced obesity leads to disturbances of this pathway. C57/Blk6 mice fed a high fat diet for 20weeks (n=12) showed a significant increase in body weight and fat pad size when compared to chow fed controls (n=12). Blood pressure measurement showed an age-related increase in systolic blood pressure in high fat fed (19.2% from baseline) versus chow fed mice (7.6% from baseline). Blood glucose levels increased from 13.5 to 20mmol/l at 120mins in high fat fed mice, versus 5.7 to 7.3mmol/l in the chow fed group (p=0.009) by tolerance testing. In response to insulin, blood glucose fell by 72% in the chow fed group versus 48% in the high fat fed group (p= 0.0002). The high ...
Van Jaarsveld and Guilford report the results of their study on childhood obesity trends in England from 1994 to 2013 using primary care electronic healthcare records.1 There is undoubtedly some good news: the year on year rise in obesity levels seen in the first decade of data collection was extremely worrying when the odds of overweight or obesity increased by 8% yearly from 1994 to 2003. In the second decade up to 2013, this astounding increase had slowed to 0.4%. However, in this second decade, it remains extremely concerning that adolescent obesity (ages 11-15 years) appears to still be increasing in both boys and girls. The relative risk of remaining obese as an adult if obese in adolescence is very high,2 and the authors rightly point out that with a third of UK children being overweight or obese, the impact on public health remains a key public health priority.. In general, the data from this study broadly agree with the latest Health Survey for England, although the levels of obesity ...
Most studies have focused on the role of breastfeeding versus formula feeding (7,8) as well as of an early rapid weight gain in favouring obesity development (9).. Few studies, however, have focused on the role of complementary feeding (CF) in promoting long term health or favouring the development of obesity, even though CF represents the main source of calories and nutrients already by the end of the first year of life.. One of the commonest reasons given as an explanation for the lack of research on the long-term effects of CF is the huge difference among countries on the foods used during the CF period and the great importance of the cultural roots on weaning patterns.. However, if nutrients and calories are considered instead of foods, the differences among countries on the different CF patterns are much reduced.. Researches aiming at demonstrating the link between an unhealthy CF and the development of later obesity face several challenges such as the lack of randomized trials in human ...
There were 54 patients with diabetes type 2 and 36 non-diabetic. Individuals of two groups of obese and non-obese compared with apparently healthy control. Before the body mass index (kg/m2) had been calculated, weight (kg) and height (m) were measured as a normal weight (18.49-24.99 kg/m2), or obese (, 30kg/m2) according to the WHO classification. Adipolin significantly decreased in obese diabetic patients compared with obese controls and it is low in the obese diabetic patients group compared to the nonobese patients group. TAC was significantly increased in the patients compared with controls (p , 0.05) and it was low level in obese diabetic patients compared with nonobese patients group, while MAD was high level in obese diabetic patients compared with nonobese patients group. The study also found weak negative correlated with MDA (r=-0.29, p= 0.13), TAC (r=-0.023, p=0.9), in obese diabetic patients while found weak positive correlated with MDA (r=0.037, p=0.85), TAC (r=0.35, p=0.69) in ...
Evaluating promising strategies for obesity prevention and treatment in real-world settings and diverse populations is 1 of several research opportunities outlined in the National Institutes of Healths (NIH) new strategic plan for obesity research. Released last week, the plan will serve as a guide to accelerate a broad spectrum of research toward developing new and more effective approaches to address the burden of obesity. Other major themes of research include designing and testing new interventions for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and harnessing technology and tools to advance obesity research and improve health care delivery. Clinicians can download a full version of the plan; a non-technical summary is available for other audiences. The Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research was developed by the NIH Obesity Research Task Force with input from researchers external to the NIH, professional and other health-focused organizations, and others through a public comment period. ...
Obesity is a disease characterized by excessive body fat. It can be caused by environment, a persons early-life nutrition, and it can even be a result of their parents diet. Obesity is so dangerous because associated with many diseases such as hypertension, type-2 Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. How does extra weight cause so many different problems? Many studies…
If you snore loudly, become excessively tired, or wake up suddenly and feel short of breath, you may have sleep apnea. Learn how obesity affects sleep.
Health,With the increase in adult obesity rates in 31 states during the past ... All this has happened in spite of federal and state government effo... The report titled F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies Are Failing Am... Official figures show that the adult obesity rate rose from 15 perc... Jeff Levi executive director of Trust for Americas Health said ...,Rise,in,Obesity,Rates,in,31,States,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Identifying actionable links in the causal pathway between obesity and insulin resistance remains a significant challenge in diabetes research. Potentially groundbreaking work by Wang et al. in this issue of Diabetes (p. 4172) suggests that myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be a trigger for obesity-associated insulin resistance, and that inhibition of MPO may offer novel pathways forward in the fight against obesity and obesity-related disease. MPO-a protein expressed by neutrophils-produces pro-oxidants like hypochlorous acid, which are normally used by neutrophils arriving at infection sites to combat bacteria and other pathogenic agents. In the early stages of obesity, however, neutrophils infiltrate adipose tissue where they can promote inflammatory processes. In this new work, investigators fed mice either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and then conducted careful studies of the resulting adipose tissue. In addition to the expected weight gain, the HFD group showed elevated ...
The US national rate of obesity has doubled since 1990, so that in 2004, nearly one-quarter of Americans (23.1 percent) were classified as obese. Medical studies have established clear links from obesity to a variety of medical conditions, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and others. Obesity is also costly: the increasing prevalence of obesity and costs of treating obesity-related diseases has helped to fuel the recent rise in medical spending. By one estimate, 27% of the cost increase from 1987 to 2001 was due to obesity.. The latest studies estimate that obesity alone costs the US around $75 billion annually, while while the added costs of treating conditions brought on by simply being overweight bring that share up to 9.1% of total US medical expenditures. On a regional level, obesity alone costs the Northwest over $2.3 billion dollars a year. Thats around 0.5% of our gross state product (see table below). ...
Leading health organisations warn that obesity could cause 7.6 million cases of disease by 2035.. A study by the Obesity Health Alliance predicts that over the next 20 years the UK will see 4.62 million more cases of type 2 diabetes, 1.63 million new cases of coronary heart disease and 670,000 new cases of cancer.. The report, Tipping the scales: why preventing obesity makes economic sense, says that the level of obesity in 2035 would cost the NHS an added £2.5 billion.. The Obesity Health Alliance (OHA) is a coalition of more than 30 leading health organisations including the British Medical Association, Royal College of General Practitioners, Royal College of Nursing, Royal Society of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Diabetes UK and Cancer Research UK.. If the current trend in obesity continues, 40 million adults in the UK could be overweight or obese by 2035, including 45% of adults in the lowest income bracket.. The study didnt include several other obesity-related diseases such as ...
To investigate the modulatory effect of oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) on intestinal microbiota, OTP was prepared by column chromatography and its influence on the gut flora structure was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing with a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity mouse model. We ob
THE FACTS ABOUT OBESITY IN CHILDREN & YOUNG ADULTS : The percentage of children with obesity in the United States has more than tripled since the 1970s. Today, about one in five school-aged children (ages 6-19) has obesity.Obesity is defined as having excess body fat. Overweight is defined as having excess body weight for a particular height from …. What Every Mom & Dad Should Know About Childhood ObesityRead More ». ...
Obesity is the condition of having too much body fat. Its not just a matter of appearance. Obesity can put you at risk for a variety of chronic and serious health problems. These include:. Experts say obesity is major problem in the U.S. Today more than 30 percent of U.S. adults and 20 percent of U.S. children have obesity. Children with obesity are at risk for many of the same health problems as adults with obesity.. An obesity screening may use a measurement called a BMI (body mass index) and other tests to find out if you or your child is overweight or has obesity. Being overweight means you have excess body weight. While not as severe as obesity, it may also lead to serious health problems.. ...
Dr. Ceren Yarar, postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Cell, Developmental & Integrative Biology and Nutrition Obesity Research Center at UAB, is one of four recipients of the 2012 Fall Career Enhancement Award from UABs Office of Postdoctoral Education.. The Postdoctoral Career Enhancement Award was established in 2001 to provide opportunities for postdoctoral scholars seeking to enhance their professional development. Four awards of up to $1,500 will be given to Postdoctoral Scholars, whose purpose is to fund the fellows participation in educational activities outside of UAB. Allowable expenses include: Internships of up to a 1 month period, attending extramural courses (e.g. NIH, Cold Spring Harbor, Woods Hole, etc.), to learn new skills, and visiting laboratories to conduct collaborative studies.. Dr. Yarar will be going to NIH in Bethesda for a Biotrac workshop whose purpose is to teach Protein-DNA Interactions: Gene Specific and Epigenetic Regulation of Expression of the Mammalian ...
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Potential Contributors to Obesity - Source: The Obesity Society Infographic Task Force, November 2015. Americans View on Obesity is Changing - Source: The Obesity Society Annual Meeting at ObesityWeek 2014 & ConscienHealth. Added Sugar Consumption Increased by 30% Over Three Decades in U.S. - Source: The Obesity Society Annual Meeting at ObesityWeek 2014. 65% of American Adults Recommended for Weight-Loss Treatment - Source: The Obesity Society Annual Meeting at ObesityWeek 2014. A Gap in Wellness Programs - Source: The Obesity Action Coalition & ConscienHealth. The Cost of Obesity - Source: George Washington University Institute School of Public Health ([email protected]). A Heavy Burden: The High Price of Obesity - Source: Dailyinfographic.com. Have an infographic on obesity to add to this page? Email [email protected] ...
The report also found that 12 states now have obesity rates above 30%, versus four years ago when just one state had a 30% obesity rate, TFAH and RWJF said.. Mississippi this year took the top spot as the most obese state, with Colorado falling in last place. Whats more, obesity rates have grown fastest in Oklahoma, Alabama and Tennessee, and slowest in Washington, D.C., Colorado and Connecticut.. Since 1995, when data was available for every state, obesity rates have doubled in seven states and increased by at least 90% in 10 others, TFAH and RWJF noted, adding that racial and ethnic minority adults, as well as those who are less educated and make less money, continue to garner the highest overall obesity rates.. Today, the state with the lowest obesity rate would have had the highest rate in 1995, TFAH executive director Jeff Levi said. There was a clear tipping point in our national weight gain over the last 20 years, and we cant afford to ignore the impact obesity has on our health and ...
Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty
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Living longer with obesity can lead to both longer hospital stays and more avoidable trips to the hospital, according to two new studies from Purdue University. Americans are overweight, and there are numerous studies that cite the problems of obesity, said Ken Ferraro, a professor of sociology. However, as the age at which people become obese continues to get younger, we wanted to know how living longer with obesity affects people.. These findings could motivate young people to reverse the trend with healthy eating and activity and, if so, they may be able to avoid the consequences of chronic obesity.. Ferraro, along with graduate student Markus Schafer, studied how obesity influences hospitalizations by using 20 years of personal health data based on surveys linked to hospital records of more than 4,000 people ages 25-77. The data, from 1971-1992, was part of a federally funded national health and nutrition survey.. In an economic sense, we have a major problem on our hands in terms of ...
To apply, one only has to create a video that details their idea in 2 minutes and 30 seconds or less, explaining why their solution is the best solution for America to implement in combatting childhood obesity, and to be available March 6-8 to come to Washington, DC, if their idea is one of three finalists. The deadline for applications is noon (Eastern) on Friday, November 16, 2012. A review committee will narrow down the field to up to 10 submissions. These top videos will be featured on the official End Childhood Obesity Innovation Challenge website where the public will vote for their favorite. In January 2013, three finalists will be named and invited to present their entrepreneurial ideas at the 2013 Building a Healthier Future Summit to a panel of judges and more than 1,000 thought leaders from multiple sectors.. I spoke with PHA Chief Marketing Officer Drew Nannis regarding his organization and the End Childhood Obesity Innovation Challenge. I expressed concern that Facebook contests can ...
The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) brings together four of the nations leading research funders - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) - to address the problem of childhood obesity in America.
The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) brings together four of the nations leading research funders - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) - to address the problem of childhood obesity in America.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose-Resident Group 1 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance. AU - OSullivan, Timothy E.. AU - Rapp, Moritz. AU - Fan, Xiying. AU - Weizman, Orr El. AU - Bhardwaj, Priya. AU - Adams, Nicholas M.. AU - Walzer, Thierry. AU - Dannenberg, Andrew J.. AU - Sun, Joseph C.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) function to protect epithelial barriers against pathogens and maintain tissue homeostasis in both barrier and non-barrier tissues. Here, utilizing Eomes reporter mice, we identify a subset of adipose group 1 ILC (ILC1) and demonstrate a role for these cells in metabolic disease. Adipose ILC1s were dependent on the transcription factors Nfil3 and T-bet but phenotypically and functionally distinct from adipose mature natural killer (NK) and immature NK cells. Analysis of parabiotic mice revealed that adipose ILC1s maintained long-term tissue residency. Diet-induced obesity drove early production of interleukin (IL)-12 in adipose ...
In the present study we find LSG to have acceptable morbidity-rates and to be an effective procedure for weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. LSG had high resolution rates for T2DM, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, musculoskeletal pain, snoring, urinary leakage and amenorrhea. The BMI and the prevalence of obesity-related diseases were stable between 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Between 85 and 90% of patients were taking some kind of vitamin and/or mineral supplement at follow-up.. In general, the reported complication rates for LSG are low despite high surgical risks in this patient group [8]. Shi et. al. systematically reviewed major perioperative complications for LSG and found a mean ± SD of 1.17 ± 1.86% for leaks and 3.57 ± 5.15% for bleeding respectively [14]. In order to reduce our leak-rate we have become particularly careful not to use heat-creating instruments close to the stomach wall at the cardia where both leaks occurred. In an attempt to reduce bleeding, ...
Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Prevention … Early childhood is a critical time for obesity prevention. Since 1980, the obesity rate for children ages 6 to 11 years has more than doubled (now at 18%), and the rate for ages 12 to 19 years has quadrupled (now at 21%) (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014). A comprehensive approach is most effective at addressing childhood obesity in schools, especially for elementary and middle school students. 1,2 Scientists know less about what school-based obesity prevention … The researchers said the failure of the programme to influence childhood obesity suggested childhood obesity prevention is unlikely to be achieved by schools alone and that wider influences from the family, community, media and the food industry must also be considered. The Journal of Childhood Obesity is an open access and peer reviewed journal that aims at providing complete and reliable information about the causes, cure, effects and prevention of childhood obesity and ...
About the Publication. The alarming rise in severe lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension is commonly attributed to improper dietary habits and poor weight management. As a result, various health organizations have introduced detailed obesity management guidelines, which provide consumers information about the consumption of obesity management drugs. Growing consumer awareness about nutraceuticals that accelerate weight loss is expected to boost sales of obesity management drugs such as Bupropion and Naltrexone in the coming years. However, a mounting number of consumers believing in natural ways to promote weight loss may impact growth prospects of the obesity management market in the coming years.. Obesity is one of the most evil scourges of our modern day sedentary lifestyle. It is extremely common in certain countries in the developed world and has even begun spreading its tentacles into developing countries. In our report, Obesity Management Market: ...
Obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes by promoting systemic insulin resistance. Obesity causes features of metabolic dysfunction in the adipose tissue that may contribute to later impairments of insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver; these include reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, reduced expression of GLUT4, altered expression of adipokines, and adipocyte hypertrophy. Animal studies have shown that expansion of adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance in the absence of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction. To determine if this holds true for humans, we studied the relationship between insulin resistance and markers of adipose tissue dysfunction in non-obese individuals. 32 non-obese first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was measured with the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous
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Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14).
The study has two arms:. Active Comparator Arm:. Only health education. One session regarding diet restriction and physical activity with printed health education papers.. Experimental Arm:. Intensive lifestyle intervention Weekly individual session in obesity clinic (15 to 20 min.) for the first 4 weeks then one individual session in obesity clinic (10 to 20 min.) every two weeks (week 5 to week 12).. Total sessions in 12 weeks: 8 (including the final data collection visit).The components of the program: 1) Low carbohydrate (aim to achieve spontaneous reduction in calorie intake) 2) increased physical activity; 3) behavioral strategies to facilitate adherence to diet and activity prescriptions. ...
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have identified a particular subset of cells that are linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance, and that offer a promising new target for the treatment of diabetes. They showed that depletion of these cells, called CD11c-positive, in obese mice resulted in a reversal of obesity-associated insulin resistance.
Endothelial dysfunction, a pathological feature of obesity, can predict the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. The endothelial function was compared in obese, non-obese, and type 2 diabetic women, and the effect of weight loss on endothelial function in obese premenopausal women was also investigated. METHODS: Twenty type 2 diabetes patients, 35 obese and 20 non-obese non-diabetic subjects were recruited. Both the endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIV) were measured. The body composition, serum lipid, serum adiponectin and resistin were also measured. Weight loss in obese women was obtained by 6 months of calorific restriction, aerobic exercise and medication (sibutramine or orlistat). RESULTS: EDV was significantly impaired in the type 2 diabetes and obese groups compared to the control group (6.0 +/- 1.3% in diabetes group, 6.7 +/- 3.9% in obese group, 12.4 +/- 4.1% in control group, P < 0.01, respectively). The mean weight loss after 6 ...
BackgroundChildhood obesity has become a global epidemic. In the recent studies has reported risk of thyroid dysfunction due to obesity. Therefore, this study intends to compare the relative frequency of thyroid function disorders in obese and overweight children with non-obese children.Materials and MethodsThis case-control study during 2015 to 2016 in Birjand, Iran was done on 137 children and adolescents (6 to 18 years), with overweight and obesity as case group and 137 non-obese subjects as control group. Body mass index (BMI), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured, and analyzed using SPSS software version19.ResultsTSH level in obese children was significantly more (P,0.001), and FT4 (P,0.001) and FT3 levels (P=0.003), less than non-obese subjects. In the control group, 0.73 and in the case group, 2.92 of patients showed hypothyroidism disorder, that difference was not significant (P=0.177). In the control group, there was ...
Dr. José R. Fernández is a Professor and Vice Chair for Education in the Department of Nutrition Sciences. Dr. Fernández obtained his Ph.D. in Biobehavioral Health from Pennsylvania State University, training in genetics of complex traits under the advisory of Dr. Gerald McClearn and working with the three most commonly used models for genetic research: fruit flies, mice, and humans. He continued his academic training at the New York Obesity Research Center at Columbia University as a post-doctoral fellow focusing on genetics of obesity, under the mentorship of Dr. David B. Allison, and receiving specialized training in statistical models to improve the identification of genetic and environmental influences on obesity-related characteristics. Dr. Fernández joined UAB in August 2001, bringing special expertise in the application of statistical models to detect and disentangle genetic and environmental influences in obesity-related traits.. Dr. Fernandez has also been actively involved in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patterns of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in South Asian and black participants in the English National child measurement programme. T2 - Effect of applying BMI adjustments standardising for ethnic differences in BMI-body fatness associations. AU - Hudda, M. T.. AU - Nightingale, C. M.. AU - Donin, A. S.. AU - Owen, C. G.. AU - Rudnicka, A. R.. AU - Wells, J. C.K.. AU - Rutter, H.. AU - Cook, D. G.. AU - Whincup, P. H.. PY - 2017/11/2. Y1 - 2017/11/2. N2 - Background:The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) records weight and height and assesses overweight-obesity patterns in English children using body mass index (BMI), which tends to underestimate body fatness in South Asian children and overestimate body fatness in Black children of presumed African ethnicity. Using BMI adjustments to ensure that adjusted BMI was similarly related to body fatness in South Asian, Black and White children, we reassessed population overweight and obesity patterns ...
Background Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed C57BL/6J mice a protein- (casein) or sucrose-based high fat diet supplemented with fish oil or corn oil for 9 weeks. Irrespective of the fatty acid source, mice fed diets rich in sucrose became obese whereas mice fed high protein diets remained lean. Inclusion of sucrose in the diet also counteracted the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue, but did not impair the ability of fish oil to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver. Calculation of HOMA-IR indicated that mice fed high levels of proteins remained insulin sensitive, whereas insulin sensitivity was reduced in the obese mice
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (,25 kg/m2) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment. WAT inflammation was defined by the presence of crown-like structures of the breast (CLS-B) which are composed of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Severity of inflammation was measured as CLS-B/cm2. The primary objective was to determine whether breast WAT inflammation is associated with aromatase expression and activity. Secondary objectives included assessment of circulating factors and breast adipocyte size. Breast WAT inflammation was ...
Obesity is an established risk factor for development and progression of kidney disease. Intentional weight loss in people without kidney disease results in an improvement in diabetes, blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular disease and overall death rates. The investigators do not know whether this holds true in patients with chronic kidney disease. In the proposed pilot study, the investigators will analyze if kidney function stabilizes after weight loss interventions in obese kidney disease patients and the mechanisms that might mediate this beneficial effect. If weight loss in kidney disease patients results in stabilization of kidney function, this would provide an opportunity to conduct a long-term prospective study to analyze the sustained benefits of weight loss in kidney disease patients.. Specific aim 1:. To ascertain the effects of lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery on urinary protein excretion and renal function among obese CKD patients.. Hypothesis: Weight loss attained ...
HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEE ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY REPORT TO THE 2012 REGULAR SESSION OF THE 2011 GENERAL ASSEMBLY NORTH C AROL INA G ENE R A L A S S E M B LY A LIMITED NUMBER OF COPIES OF THIS REPORT IS AVAILABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION THROUGH THE LEGISLATIVE LIBRARY. ROOMS 2126, 2226 STATE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA 27611 TELEPHONE: (919) 733-7778 OR ROOM 500 LEGISLATIVE OFFICE BUILDING RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA 27603-5925 TELEPHONE: (919) 733-9390 TABLE OF CONTENTS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL .......................................................................................................................... 1 COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP ......................................................................................................................... 2 AUTHORIZING LEGISLATION. .................................................................................................................. 4 OVERVIEW OF COMMITTEE PRESENTATIONS ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of transglutaminase 2 sensitizes for diet-induced obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance due to enhanced macrophage c-Src signaling. AU - Sághy, Tibor. AU - Köröskényi, Krisztina. AU - Hegedűs, Krisztina. AU - Antal, Miklós. AU - Bankó, Csaba. AU - Bacsó, Zsolt. AU - Papp, Attila. AU - Stienstra, Rinke. AU - Szondy, Zsuzsa. PY - 2019/6/1. Y1 - 2019/6/1. N2 - Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that promotes clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) acting as integrin β3 coreceptor. Accumulating evidence indicates that defective efferocytosis contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of dead adipocytes and inflammatory macrophages in the adipose tissue leading to obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Here, we report that loss of TG2 from bone marrow-derived cells sensitizes for high fat diet (HFD)-induced pathologies. We find that metabolically activated TG2 null ...
Consistent self-weighing may help individuals maintain their successful weight loss by allowing them to catch weight gains before they escalate and make behavior changes to prevent additional weight gain. While change in self-weighing frequency is a marker for changes in other parameters of weight c …
Background: Obesity is a costly condition that can reduce quality of life and increases the risk for many serious chronic diseases and premature death. The U.S. Surgeon General issued the Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity in 2001, and in 2007, no state had met the Healthy People 2010 objective to reduce obesity prevalence among adults to 15%.. Methods: CDC used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data to update estimates of national and state-specific obesity prevalence. Obesity was calculated based on self-reported weight and height and defined as body mass index (weight [kg] / height [m]2) ≥30.. Results: Overall self-reported obesity prevalence in the United States was 26.7%. Non-Hispanic blacks (36.8%), Hispanics (30.7%), those who did not graduate from high school (32.9%), and persons aged 50--59 years (31.1%) and 60--69 years (30.9%) were disproportionally affected. By state, obesity prevalence ranged from 18.6% in Colorado to 34.4% in ...
The intestinal immune system is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related insulin resistance, but the role of intestinal B cells in this context is unclear. Here, we show that high fat diet (HFD) feeding alters intestinal IgA+ immune cells and that IgA is a critical immune regulator of glucose homeostasis. Obese mice have fewer IgA+ immune cells and less secretory IgA and IgA-promoting immune mediators. HFD-fed IgA-deficient mice have dysfunctional glucose metabolism, a phenotype that can be recapitulated by adoptive transfer of intestinal-associated pan-B cells. Mechanistically, IgA is a crucial link that controls intestinal and adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, microbial encroachment and the composition of the intestinal microbiome during HFD. Current glucose-lowering therapies, including metformin, affect intestinal-related IgA+ B cell populations in mice, while bariatric surgery regimen alters the level of fecal secretory IgA in humans. These findings identify
Do you struggle with your weight? If you do, youre not alone! We see this happening more and more all over the world. There is no doubt that losing weight is going to make you feel better. We all know it is question of health also. For many people successful weight loss is a huge boost in life. People feel more energetic, creative and self confidence is higher. Here is a recent comment from a student who managed to lose 10 pounds:. This weight loss challenge has been a big contributor in improving my mental, emotional and physical condition. I have double the energy I used to and my life has completely changed. My own transformation has inspired me to research and create a lecture that challenges and educates young people and adults concerning the benefits of proper nutrition and exercise. I feel its very important to share this knowledge so that others can benefit from it also.. easy weight loss, weight loss drinks, diet programs with food, And here is another one:. To say the last three ...
The high prevalence of disease and associated weight loss at older ages limits the validity of prospective cohort studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. I examined mortality associated with excess weight using maximum BMI-a measure that is robust to confounding by illness-induced weight loss. Analyses were carried out on US never-smoking adults ages 50-84 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 1999-2004) linked to the National Death Index through 2006. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality according to BMI at time of survey and at maximum. Using maximum BMI, hazard ratios for overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2) and obese class 2 (BMI, 35.0 kg/m2 and above) relative to normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.84), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.15-2.40), and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.47-3.14), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, but little is known about its influence on the intestinal immune system. Here we show that the gut immune system is altered during high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) that can be exploited ther …
In 2016, male obesity prevalence for Ireland was 25.1 %. Male obesity prevalence of Ireland increased from 13.8 % in 1997 to 25.1 % in 2016 growing at an average annual rate of 3.20 %. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a persons weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.
Colorado has the lowest adult obesity rate in the nation, according to a report released Monday by the non-profit Trust for Americas Health. But the states obesity rate is higher last year, up to 17.6 percent from 16.9 percent. Thats in tune with trends across the county. The report, tilted F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies are Failing in America, found no states had a decrease in obesity rates over the past year but 31 states experienced an increase. For 22 of those states it was the second year in row that obesity rates increased. The researchers looked at state and federal policies relating to health and obesity and found many to be lacking or ineffective. The country needs to develop a plan for combating obesity that is in proportion to the scope and depth of the problem, the researchers stated. This will require focusing on strategies that will work on a wide scale. The question is, is America willing to make the commitment needed to return to better health?. continued…. ...
In 2016, male obesity prevalence for Croatia was 24.1 %. Male obesity prevalence of Croatia increased from 14.4 % in 1997 to 24.1 % in 2016 growing at an average annual rate of 2.75 %. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a persons weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.
The multidisciplinary Center for Childhood Obesity Prevention will strengthen ACRIs obesity research capacity and create mentoring pathways for emerging scientists who will focus on pediatric obesity.
About the BORC. The Biomedical and Obesity Research Core (BORC) is a one-stop shop core facility in the Nebraska Center for Prevention of Obesity Diseases (NPOD). The BORC provides cutting-edge biomedical research services for investigators in the University of Nebraska system and also external users in its newly renovated facility in the lower level of Leverton Hall, the NPOD headquarters building (shown at left). The BORCs new facility includes approximately 2,000 square feet of laboratory space, a state-of-the-art conference room and a collaboration zone for informal discussions. The BORC also maintains a live mouse imaging and phenotyping facility in the Life Science Annex on the University of Nebraska-Lincolns East Campus. In addition, to meet our users need for large capacity, high-speed computational solutions, the BORC is networked with the Holland Computing Center.. BORCs Goal. 1) To provide facilities, equipment, and resources that enable researchers to discover new signaling ...
One of the good-old posts around the Internet on weight loss is by Kathy Goodwin, called Successful Weight Loss: Our Top Ten Tips on What Works and Why. It is not teaching you about quick and temporary weight loss tips - Instead, their tips require quite a lot work, as those are long term weight loss methods and able
All member cities of The United States Conference of Mayors are eligible to receive this award, including service cities. Each application must include a signed letter of support from the Mayor. There is no limit on the number of applications a Mayor can support or submit.. This award aims to support programs that engage community members and promote or stimulate behavior change, in the categories of a) childhood obesity prevention, b) environmental health and sustainability or c) a hybrid of both. Types of programs eligible for funding include but are not limited to:. Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiatives. ...
Looking for online definition of adult obesity in the Medical Dictionary? adult obesity explanation free. What is adult obesity? Meaning of adult obesity medical term. What does adult obesity mean?
According to the 2012 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity, Canadian kids are sedentary for 63 per cent of their free time after school and on weekends, even though 92 per cent of those surveyed said they would choose playing with friends over watching TV. Those in grades 6 to 12 are spending an average of seven hours and 48 minutes per day in front of screens.. So - what will it take to get kids to limit their screen time to two hours a day, when many nwo spend three or four times that amount of time sitting in front of a screen?. We need to make a normative shift to progressively restore movement while reducing recreational screen time, according to Mark Tremblay, director of the Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group at the Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Obviously no one has figured out how, but we must pursue this challenge with vigor, resolve, creativity and persistence. At the same time we need to work with the screen industry to design creative ...
Today, childhood obesity is considered a serious and widespread struggle faced by many children around the world. In fact, childhood obesity has become an epidemic that has tripled or quadrupled in the last 40 to 50 years affecting almost 1 in 5 children. Children who are overweight are at a higher risk of suffering from hypertension, gastrointestinal problems, heart diseases and type II diabetes. Of course, on top of these health issues, obese children may further suffer from the emotional distress. Simply being labeled as fat, obese children can easily suffer from low self-esteem and depression.. When it comes to childhood obesity, parents in particular are required to take full responsibility for controlling their childs weight and must not settle with the idea that their child will later outgrow this. A great misconception among parents is that an obese child is healthier the more robust they are. This is typical amongst parents who are in denial regarding their childs weight management ...
Description Welcome to the webpage for the Institute for Collaboration on Health, Intervention, and Policy (InCHIP) / Connecticut Institute for Clinical and Translational Science (CICATS) Obesity Research Interest Group, or the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low circulating adropin concentrations with obesity and aging correlate with risk factors for metabolic disease and increase after gastric bypass surgery in humans. AU - Butler, Andrew A.. AU - Tam, Charmaine S.. AU - Stanhope, Kimber. AU - Wolfe, Bruce M.. AU - Ali, Mohamed R. AU - OKeeffe, Majella. AU - St-Onge, Marie Pierre. AU - Ravussin, Eric. AU - Havel, Peter J. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Context: Mouse studies suggest that adropin, a peptide hormone, is required for metabolic homeostasis and prevention of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Whether obesity and insulin resistance are associated with low plasma adropin levels in humans is not known. Objectives: Our objective was to investigate the hypothesis that obesity and indicators of insulin resistance are associated with low adropin levels and determine whether weight loss regulates adropin levels. Design and Participants: Plasma was obtained from 85 female [age 21-67 yr, body mass index (BMI) 19.4-71.5 ...
Obesity[edit]. Various hereditary forms of obesity have been traced to defects in hypothalamic signaling (such as the leptin ... "Journal of Obesity. 2011: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2011/528401. PMC 3178198 . PMID 21949903. Article id:528401.. ... "Journal of Obesity. 2011: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2011/528401. PMC 3178198 . PMID 21949903. Article id:528401.. ... Lawton, CL (1993). "Obesity: a disorder of appetite". Practical Diabetes International. 10 (1): 10-12. doi:10.1002/pdi. ...
Social stigma of obesity. References[edit]. *^ a b c d Birbrair A, Zhang T, Wang ZM, Messi ML, Enikolopov GN, Mintz A, Delbono ... January 1997). "Obese (ob) gene defects are rare in human obesity". Obesity Research. 5 (1): 30-35. doi:10.1002/j.1550- ... January 2003). "Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001". JAMA. 289 (1): 76-79. doi: ... The changes that occur in the hypothalamus to result in leptin resistance in obesity are currently the focus of obesity ...
Obesity Facts 2010; 3: 47-58. *^ Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A. (2005-09-01). "Is Obesity Stigmatizing? Body Weight, ... Puhl, R.M.; Brownell, K.D. "Stigma, discrimination, and obesity". Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook.. ... Puhl, Rebecca M.; Heuer, Chelsea A. (2009-05-01). "The Stigma of Obesity: A Review and Update". Obesity. 17 (5): 941-964. doi: ... Puhl, R.; Brownell, K. (2001). "Bias, discrimination, and obesity". Obesity Research. 9 (12): 788-805. doi:10.1038/oby.2001.108 ...
... and Obesity[edit]. Across cultures, television consumption has been associated to cause an overweight, ...
1 Driver of Diabetes and Obesity". Time. Retrieved 31 January 2016.. *^ Juliana Bunim (27 October 2015). "Obese Children's ... Obesity and metabolic disorders[edit]. Sugars became a health concern among the American public in the early 1970s with the ... "International Journal of Obesity. 39 (1): 176-182. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.73. PMC 4285619 .. ... "Food without Thought: How U.S. Farm Policy Contributes to Obesity". Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. November 2006. ...
Obesity[edit]. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and their follow-on studies as part of a series indicate ... This implies, along with the United Nations report cited below, that obesity may correlate better with sugar consumption than ... including obesity and tooth decay.[47][48] It is also considered as causing endogenous glycation processes since it metabolises ... that the consumption of sucrose-containing drinks should be limited due to the growing number of people with obesity and ...
"Obesity Prevention Source. Retrieved 2016-03-30.. *^ a b Desrochers, D. M.; Holt, D. J. (2007). "Children's Exposure to ... "Childhood obesity: It's not the amount of TV, it's the number of junk food commercials". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 2016-04-01.. ... The effects of television on obesity[edit]. There a research conducted by Harvard 25 years ago how watching television is ... "Obesity Prevention , Healthy Schools , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-01.. ...
Childhood obesity[edit]. The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many ... Arenz S, Rückerl R, Koletzko B, von Kries R (October 2004). "Breast-feeding and childhood obesity--a systematic review". ... Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, which is associated with some hormonal differences and obesity, may have greater ... International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 28 (10): 1247-56. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802758. PMID 15314625. ...
Obesity and diabetes[edit]. Human bodies are predisposed to maintain homeostasis,[13] especially when storing energy as fat. ... Power, Michael L.; Schulkin, Jay (2013-01-02). The Evolution of Obesity. JHU Press. ISBN 9781421409603. .. ... Obesity is one consequence of mismatched genes. Known as "metabolic syndrome", this condition is also associated with other ... Knight, Christine (2011). ""Most people are simply not designed to eat pasta": evolutionary explanations for obesity in the low ...
... and obesity[edit]. Dietary fiber has many functions in diet, one of which may be to aid in energy intake control ... The role of dietary fiber in energy intake regulation and obesity development is related to its unique physical and chemical ... "Symposium: Dietary Composition and Obesity: Do We Need to Look beyond Dietary Fat?" ... a factor considered by experts as contributing to the obesity levels seen in many developed countries.[88] Recognizing the ...
This led to Howard becoming secretary to the newly formed Obesity Association (aka The Obesity Society of Great Britain and now ... World Obesity *^ John Marks, Alan Howard (1997). The Cambridge Diet, A manual for health professionals. Cambridge Export ... 86 to the formation of the International Association for the Study of Obesity which since 2014 is known simply as World Obesity ... Early work on obesity[edit]. While at the Department of Pathology and through working with another local company, Spillers Ltd ...
Anorexia and obesity[edit]. *Ghrelin levels in the plasma of obese individuals are lower than those in leaner individuals,[65] ... suggesting that ghrelin does not contribute to obesity, except in the cases of Prader-Willi syndrome-induced obesity, where ... Short sleep duration is associated with high levels of ghrelin and obesity. An inverse relationship between the hours of sleep ... Short sleep duration may also lead to obesity, through an increase of appetite via hormonal changes.[74] ...
Obesity - adult prevalence rate[edit]. 9.6% (2016). Children under the age of 5 years underweight[edit]. 12.3% (2015). Literacy ...
Obesity and metabolic syndrome[edit]. Main article: Diet and obesity § Sugar consumption ... increased the risk of obesity by adding to overall energy intake.[110] By itself, sugar is not a factor causing obesity and ... Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and ... Davis, Caroline (2010). "Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Associations with Overeating and Obesity". Current ...
Obesity[edit]. See also: Obesity in pets. Neutering and overfeeding have contributed to increased obesity in domestic cats, ... Obesity in cats has similar effects as in humans, and will increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes mellitus, etc., thereby ...
Link to obesity[edit]. Epidemiological studies have shown that increased endotoxin load, which can be a result of increased ... of endotoxin with obesity is that endotoxin induces an inflammation-mediated pathway accounting for the observed obesity and ... Other studies have shown that purified endotoxin from Escherichia coli can induce obesity and insulin-resistance when injected ... A more recent study has uncovered a potentially contributing role for Enterobacter cloacae B29 toward obesity and insulin ...
Anti-obesity medication. External links[edit]. *Anorectics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Used on a short-term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over-the-counter. Most ... 2012). "Anorexiants as Pharmacologic Agents in the Management of Obesity". Foye's Medicinal Chemistry. pp. 1451-6. ISBN 978-1- ... Amphetamine sulfate (also known as amfetamine) - USFDA-approved for the treatment of exogenous obesity under the brand name " ...
For example, obesity can represent wealth and abundance, and is a status symbol in famine-prone areas and some places hard-hit ... Obesity was a status symbol in Renaissance culture: "The Tuscan General Alessandro del Borro", attributed to Andrea Sacchi, ... Haslam DW, James WP (2005). "Obesity". Lancet. 366 (9492): 1197-209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769.. ...
"Obesity , Fat men linked to low fertility". Sydney Morning Herald. 18 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.. ... Australian researchers have found evidence to suggest overweight obesity may cause subtle damage to sperm and prevent a healthy ... "Estrogen Deficiency, Obesity, and Skeletal Abnormalities in Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Knockout (FORKO) Female Mice ...
Keithley J, Swanson B (2005). "Glucomannan and obesity: a critical review". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 11 (6 ... Obesity. 18 (5): 995-999. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.308. PMC 2940117 . PMID 19798073. Hooge, Danny M. (2004). "Meta-analysis of ...
Obesity. modifiable. [8][12][13][14][15] Pregnancy and the post-partum period. [8][14][15] ...
Obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatal hernia, taking certain medicines[5]. Diagnostic method. Gastroscopy, upper GI series, ... Obesity: increasing body mass index is associated with more severe GERD.[26] In a large series of 2,000 patients with ... Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatal hernia, and taking certain medicines.[5] Medications involved may ... September 2007). "Objective documentation of the link between gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity". American Journal of ...
Tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, certain rare genetic conditions[2]. Diagnostic method. Medical imaging, blood tests, tissue ... Specific types of food (as distinct from obesity) have not been clearly shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.[2][40] ... Obesity; a BMI greater than 35 increases relative risk by about half.[11] ... obesity, diabetes, and certain rare genetic conditions.[2] About 25% of cases are linked to smoking,[3] and 5-10% are linked to ...
Schachter, S. (1968). Obesity and eating. Science. *^ Stroebele, N.; de Castro, J. M. (2004). "Television viewing is associated ... 2006). "Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less traveled". International Journal of ... Bryant, E. J.; King, N. A.; Blundell, J. E. (2007). "Disinhibition: Its effects on appetite and weight regulation". Obesity ... Salmon, J.; Campbell, K. J.; Crawford, D. A. (2006). "Television viewing habits associated with obesity risk factors: a survey ...
Evidence does not support an effect on weight beyond a couple of months and it does not appear to affect obesity related ... Obesity Surgery. 25 (10): 1950-8. doi:10.1007/s11695-015-1797-1 Tierney, Emily P.; Kouba, David J.; Hanke, C. William (December ... Obesity. 19 (7): 1388. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.64. PMID 21475140. Hernandez, Teri L; Kittelson, John M; Law, Christopher K; Ketch ...
Obesity. Native Americans have a significant health problem with obesity, as they are 1.6 times more likely to be obese than a ... On a similar note, they have far greater rates of obesity, and were also less likely to engage in regular physical activity ... obesity, substance abuse, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), teenage pregnancy, liver disease, and hepatitis." The leading ... white American.;[42] Native Americans are as likely as black adults to be obese.[47] Obesity is known as a general causative ...
The key cost drivers are: obesity, defensive medicine, incentives that reward more care instead of better care, expensive ...
obesity , 0.85. , 1.00 , 0.85. , 0.90 , 0.80. , 1.00 WHR has been found to be a more efficient predictor of mortality in older ... The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a ... WHR is used as a measurement of obesity, which in turn is a possible indicator of other more serious health conditions. ... Samaras, K; Campbell, LV (1997). "The non-genetic determinants of central adiposity". International Journal of Obesity and ...
"International Journal of Obesity. 35 (10): 1295-1300. doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.130. PMID 21750519.. ... "Obesity. 18 (2): 300-307. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.235. PMC 2859815. PMID 19661958.. ...
A diet high in trans fats can contribute to obesity, high blood pressure, and higher risk for heart disease[citation needed]. ... Obesity: Research indicates that trans fat may increase weight gain and abdominal fat, despite a similar caloric intake.[88] A ... Kavanagh K, Jones KL, Sawyer J, Kelley K, Carr JJ, Wagner JD, Rudel LL (July 2007). "Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity ... Although obesity is frequently linked to trans fat in the popular media,[91] this is generally in the context of eating too ...
Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the United States. Learn more... ... Childhood Obesity Healthcareplus icon *Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) 3.0. *Childhood Obesity Research ... Obesity Among WIC-Enrolled Young Children. CDC works with the USDA to analyze child obesity data from the WIC Participant and ... Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the United States, putting children and adolescents at risk for poor health. Obesity ...
CDC addresses the causes of childhood obesity, including behavior and community factors, as well as the consequences. ... Children who have obesity are more likely to become adults with obesity.11 Adult obesity is associated with increased risk of ... Childhood Obesity Healthcareplus icon *Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) 3.0. *Childhood Obesity Research ... Obesity during childhood can harm the body in a variety of ways. Children who have obesity are more likely to have:(1-7) ...
... how overweight and obesity is defined; calculate your BMI (for adults only); causes of overweight and obesity; health ... Specific information on overweight and obesity is provided, including: prevalence of overweight and obesity; ... How overweight and obesity are defined. Adults. Overweight and obesity is measured at the population level for adults using the ... About Overweight and Obesity. Specific information on overweight and obesity is provided, including: prevalence of overweight ...
These PowerPoint slides present key data and information on adult obesity in clear, easy to understand charts and graphics. ... Patterns and trends in adult obesity * 1. Patterns and trends in adult obesity A presentation of data on adult obesity July ... 5. 5 Patterns and trends in adult obesity Adult (aged 16+) obesity: BMI ≥ 30kg/m2 Trend in obesity prevalence among adults ... The trend in obesity prevalence by social class differs by sex. For all social classes prevalence of obesity among men has ...
Index of central obesity[edit]. Index of Central Obesity (ICO) is the ratio of waist circumference and height first proposed by ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abdominal obesity.. *. Griesemer, Rebecca Lynn (July 25, 2008). Index of Central Obesity ... Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built ... While central obesity can be obvious just by looking at the naked body (see the picture), the severity of central obesity is ...
... 11:33 AM ET Fri, 16 Nov 2018 With the holidays approaching, its not only people that need to keep an eye on the ...
Read about obesity and how it can seriously affect your health. Ways to lose weight safely include eating a healthy, reduced- ... Risks of obesity. Its very important to take steps to tackle obesity because, as well as causing obvious physical changes, it ... Treating obesity. The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy reduced-calorie diet and exercise regularly. ... Causes of obesity. Obesity is generally caused by consuming more calories, particularly those in fatty and sugary foods, than ...
... the prevalence of obesity in adolescents has more than tripled. The latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( ... Medical Treatment of Obesity. In Farraye FA and Forse RA, Bariatric Surgery: A Primer for Your Medical Practice. Thorofare, NJ ... Rosenblum J. (2011) Obesity. In: Goldstein M. (eds) The MassGeneral Hospital for Children Adolescent Medicine Handbook. ... Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/childhood/index.htm ...
CDC reports and maps related to obesity in the United States. ... 20 Years with Obesity or Severe Obesity. August 2018. *Obesity ... Childhood Obesity Healthcareplus icon *Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) 3.0. *Childhood Obesity Research ... Obesity Among WIC-Enrolled Young Children 2019. Obesity among children in low-income families served by the Special ... Cancer and Obesity October 2017. Overweight and obesity are associated with at least 13 different types of cancer. ...
The National Obesity Forum is a British independent professional organisation which campaigns for a more interventionist ... "GPs Ticking Boxes On Obesity". Huffington Post. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2013.. ... approach to obesity. It was established in May 2000. In June 2012 the Forum complained that GPs in England were rewarded ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=National_Obesity_Forum&oldid=1013784758" ...
Obesity occurs when you weigh more than what is considered healthy for your age, gender, and height. It can cause a number of ... Living with obesity. Living with obesity will likely mean living with chronic health problems. Obesity can contribute to a ... What is obesity?. Obesity is when you weigh more than what is considered a healthy weight for your age, gender, and height. ... Obesity treatment. Obesity is treated by losing weight-and keeping it off. Your goal is to lower your BMI to what is ...
Obesity. Baltimore Bans Soda in Kids Meals. A city ordinance that took effect this week forces restaurants to join the fight ... Obesity. Are Americans Eating Less Because of Government Intervention?. The timing of the decline makes that explanation highly ... The latest episode of The Business of Life on Vice News devolves into a feisty food fight over GMOs, obesity, farmers markets, ... Philadelphias New Soda Tax Has Nothing to Do With Obesity. The city council rejected regressive paternalism in favor of a ...
Overcoming the childhood obesity epidemic will require changes on the scale of a social movement similar to the shift in ... In contrast, obesity advocates have not identified a common threat or mobilized grass-roots change, nor have they identified ... Overcoming the childhood obesity epidemic will require changes on the scale of a social movement similar to the shift in ... Framing obesity as a common threat can lead to consensus regarding the interventions needed to achieve healthier children and ...
... The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services ... The Strategies to Overcome and Prevent (STOP) Obesity Alliance keeps subscribers updated with invitations to Alliance events ... The STOP Obesity Alliance is sponsored by sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC. ... and monthly newsletters that contain the latest in obesity, Alliance and Steering Committee member news. Please see past e- ...
... If Your Neighbors Are Obese, It Could Be Contagious If the people around you are overweight, it may increase your own ... One gene "could be fueling the obesity epidemic," according to a study performed on mice ...
This news follows the release of a mathematical model which is used to predict how young children gradually develop obesity as ... It is offering a summer sale of PhenObestin 37.5, a dietary supplement intended to assist those affected by obesity to reduce ... In the coming years, undoubtedly, more steps like this preschool program will be undertaken against obesity in both adults and ... It also offers a hopeful outlook for overweight children because it reveals that they can overcome obesity by maintaining their ...
PRNewswire/ -- The editors of Obesity have announced that four honorees will feature papers at the 8th annual Obesity Journal ... 1, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The editors of Obesity have announced that four honorees will feature papers at the 8th annual Obesity ... with something to attract most Obesity Society members, said Obesity Journal Symposium Chair Donna H. Ryan, MD, professor ... The Obesity Society (TOS) is the leading organization of scientists and health professionals devoted to understanding and ...
... clinical and applied studies related to the development and treatment of obesity, and the functional impairments associated ... International Journal of Obesity Supplements publishes sponsored, topical content covering basic, ... International Journal of Obesity Check out whats new in the International Journal of Obesity - publishing the latest research ... Welcome to International Journal of Obesity Supplements Publishing sponsored, topical content addressing issues related to the ...
Ive now gone back and labeled them all with "Obesity," so the whole thread (including this item) can be found here. ... "One of the best ways to observe obesity in America is to track KFCs Double Down sandwich [below]. This "Atkins friendly" ... have picked up the conversation involving the connections among obesity, class, region, etc in America. Reasons for my ...
How does obesity potentially render men infertile? This new study explores the possible reasons and the various therapies that ... Hedley et al estimated the current prevalence of obesity at 30.6%.[6] Multiple reports have described the effect of obesity on ... Obesity and Male Infertility. A Practical Approach. Ahmad O. Hammoud, M.D., M.P.H.; A. Wayne Meikle, M.D.; Leonardo Oliveira ... Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters ...
Skipping breakfast and poor sleep linked to childhood obesity, study finds Published 16 November 2016 ... Voluntary targets for food companies will not end childhood obesity Published 16 November 2016 ...
No state currently has an adult obesity rate of less than 20 percent, but recent research may show signs of progress in young ... Because obesity prevalence remains high, however, it remains a pressing public health concern. ... Obesity affects more than one-third of adults and 17 percent of youth in the United States. ... Obesity has become the most common medical disqualifier for military service.. Obesity, a common and costly health issue, ...
Nonetheless, the IRS, under pressure from the American Obesity Association, declared obesity a disease in April 2002. That ... to conclude that obesity should be considered a distinct disease entity. "Theres no question that obesity is a disease," said ... of the Obesity Association. The growing recognition that obesity is a major public health problem has prompted the FDA to begin ... Popular in: Obesity / Weight Loss / Fitness. * How much should I weigh for my height and age? ...
This article looks at research statistics for adult and childhood obesity, and the associated health risks. ... What are the numbers behind obesity in the United States and around the world? ... extreme obesity: 9.9 percent. Obesity by ethnicity. Obesity does not impact all races equally in the U.S. The following give ... Colorado state has the lowest obesity rates in the U.S. Using data from the CDC, State of Obesity have compiled obesity rates ...
Obesity and Cancer Risk A fact sheet that summarizes research on the potential link between obesity and cancer risk. ... Obesity and overweight are chronic conditions. Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity. This section ... What Are Overweight and Obesity? You can take steps to prevent or treat overweight or obesity. Follow a healthy eating plan and ... Find a Support Group: Obesity Action Coalition Support groups are another important component in the fight against obesity. ...
Heres a look at the causes and health risks associated with obesity, and what you can do to fight back. ... Can genes cause obesity in men?. How did we get so fat? "Obviously theres a genetic component to obesity, " says Barbara Rolls ... But genes dont explain the increase in obesity. "I think we can safely say that at the end of the day, the cause of obesity is ... The prevalence of obesity among American men has doubled in only 25 years, and its killing us. A 2004 survey published in the ...
It said that a study has found six new genes associated with obesity, five of which are active in the brain. This has lead ... Further readingShaw K, Gennat H, ORourke P, Del Mar C. Exercise for overweight or obesity.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006, ... and obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2). The researchers also checked whether the genes in these associated regions were expressed in various ... in the brain tissue suggests that there may be a role of the brain in predisposing some people to obesity, however exactly how ...
... but the cutaneous effects of obesity are not often considered. This review summarizes the damaging effects of obesity on the ... Its well known that obesity is a serious global health problem, ... Obesity and Skin Cancer. *Obesity and Other Common Skin ... As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, all areas of medicine will encounter more patients with obesity-related ... Obesity Is Associated With Earlier Pubertal Onset in Boys * The Effect of Sprint Interval Training on Body Composition of ...
See an archive of all obesity stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and Grub ... This FDA-Approved Obesity Pump Actually Sucks Food Out of Your Stomach. As you might imagine, there are lots of side effects. ... Heres a Little Good News About Obesity in America. This is still a crisis, but in a few states things are actually improving a ... Heres a Little Good News About Obesity in America. This is still a crisis, but in a few states things are actually improving a ...
  • About 32 million more Americans will become obese by 2030, upping obesity rates to 42 percent of the U.S. population, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (yahoo.com)
  • [1] Abdominal obesity is not confined only to the elderly and obese subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article recapitulates the studies describing the effect of obesity on male fertility, discusses the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relation, and suggests, based on the current evidence, a practical approach to evaluate and treat the obese subfertile man. (medscape.com)
  • Over all, 17 percent were obese and 5.8 percent had extreme obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Age 2-5 years - 9.4 percent obese and 1.7 percent extreme obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Age 6-11 years - 19.6 percent obese and 4.3 percent extreme obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Age 12-19 years - 20.6 percent obese and 9.1 percent extreme obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because obesity is associated with increased risk for a range of chronic conditions, health care costs are higher for obese than for normal weight individuals. (nber.org)
  • In The Incidence of the Healthcare Costs of Obesity (NBER Working Paper No. 11303 ), authors Jay Bhattacharya and M. Kate Bundorf find that obese workers with employer-sponsored health insurance pay for their higher expected medical expenditures through lower cash wages. (nber.org)
  • While it is possible to develop these health problems without being obese, obesity raises the likelihood of their development dramatically. (asu.edu)
  • They found that the people who had moved to communities with higher rates of obesity were more likely to become obese themselves-and that the longer they remained in those areas, the greater their risk. (theweek.com)
  • Our decision to include Bariatric/Obesity in our Diversity Awareness in Professional Nursing was a "no-brainer" given the emerging evidence that documents discrimination against overweight and obese patients when seeking health care. (nursingworld.org)
  • According to Ministry of Health figures , one in every three children in New Zealand is either overweight (22%) or obese (11%), and the rate of childhood obesity has increased from 8% in 2006 to 11% in 2013. (radionz.co.nz)
  • This is also supported by the statistics of obesity, which show that adults (in the US) were becoming more obese from the 1960s, while American children only started to show weight issues from the late 1980s. (radionz.co.nz)
  • Childhood obesity tracks, says Paul Hofman, and an obese youth has a six to seven times higher risk of becoming an obese adult. (radionz.co.nz)
  • The 203 obese volunteers at five Danish obesity centers were given different doses of tesofensine or placebo. (reuters.com)
  • With 64 percent of the U.S. population described as overweight or obese, the HHS decision to cover some obesity therapies in Medicare has huge potential costs for both taxpayers and those covered by private health insurance. (cato.org)
  • This eliminated from the get-go one theory about regional obesity -- that people who are obese associate with others like themselves. (hon.ch)
  • Datar wanted to see if families had higher odds for being overweight or obese when posted in counties with higher rates of obesity. (hon.ch)
  • Datar said the analysis confirmed that "military families assigned to installations in counties with higher obesity rates were more likely to be overweight or obese than military families assigned to installations in counties with lower rates of obesity. (hon.ch)
  • Obesity and overweight have in the last decade become a global problem - according to the World Health Organization (WHO) back in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults over the of age 15+ were overweight, at least 400 million adults were obese and at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight. (news-medical.net)
  • They took poop microbes from ID twins discordant for obesity, and the microbes from the obese twin made mice fat. (jwz.org)
  • Poorer and heavily minority communities have higher rates of obesity - in neighborhoods like Central and East Harlem, the South Bronx, East New York, Flatbush, Canarsie-Flatlands, Bedford Stuyvesant, Crown Heights, Williamsburg, and Bushwick, as many as one in four adults are obese. (gothamgazette.com)
  • Obese children frequently grow into obese adults, and a RAND study done last year found that obesity raises a person's healthcare costs by 36 percent and medication costs by 77 percent - much more than do, say, smoking and problem drinking. (gothamgazette.com)
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Living in a neighborhood with a high rate of obesity might raise the odds that you and your children will become plus-sized, too. (hon.ch)
  • FRIDAY, Dec. 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A modified version of the CRISPR gene-editing technique could help fight obesity without having to alter any genes, a new study in mice suggests. (medicinenet.com)
  • One of the best ways to observe obesity in America is to track KFC's Double Down sandwich [below]. (theatlantic.com)
  • In America and further afield, over recent decades, obesity rates have increased significantly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this article, we look at the facts and figures behind obesity in America and the world at large, including breakdowns by states, countries, age, and sex. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ivana Trump Apparently Wants to Combat Obesity in America She's reportedly taking up Michelle Obama's old cause. (nymag.com)
  • Here's a Little Good News About Obesity in America This is still a crisis, but in a few states things are actually improving a bit. (nymag.com)
  • Public health experts have long warned of a growing obesity epidemic in America. (pbs.org)
  • America is still losing the battle of the bulge in a big way with obesity rates increasing in 28 states, according to a report from the Trust for America's Health. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Obesity is a growing problem in America. (brighthub.com)
  • 11 Adult obesity is associated with increased risk of several serious health conditions including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Cardiac abnormalities in youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, increased abdominal obesity has been consistently shown to be related to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer. (health.gov.au)
  • Researchers first started to focus on abdominal obesity in the 1980s when they realized it had an important connection to cardiovascular disease , diabetes , and dyslipidemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Central obesity is associated with a statistically higher risk of heart disease , hypertension , insulin resistance , and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance, full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin resistance is a major feature of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM), and central obesity is correlated with both insulin resistance and T2DM itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particular attention is given to the consequences of obesity, including an ever -increasing number of other diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, as well as conditions such as arthropathy, asthma, non-alcoholic liver disease, and dementia. (springer.com)
  • We report on the nation's high obesity and diabetes rates, which are disproportionately impacting children in low-income communities. (pbs.org)
  • One girl fights to overcome a family legacy: four generations of diabetes and obesity. (pbs.org)
  • In the meantime, researchers are investigating the basic mechanisms behind metabolism and dieting (obesity is linked to several related problems, such as diabetes , which can lead to other problems such as kidney disease or stroke ). (forbes.com)
  • The attack on fatty foods, in favor of carbohydrates, contributed to rising rates of obesity and diabetes. (reason.com)
  • The Internal Revenue Service ruled last year that, for tax purposes, obesity is a disease, allowing Americans for the first time to claim a deduction for some health expenses related to obesity, just as they can for those related to heart disease, cancer , diabetes and other illnesses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This guide can help you lose weight safely and develop a healthier lifestyle that will reduce your chances of developing serious health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer associated with obesity. (healthfinder.gov)
  • It isn't a coincidence that Latinos have the second highest rate for obesity, and are also disproportionately affected by heart disease and Type-2 diabetes. (asu.edu)
  • Obesity in young children and teenagers is increasingly recognised as a precursor to major adult diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, even if the weight problem itself does not continue into adulthood. (radionz.co.nz)
  • In addition, 44% of the diabetes burden, 23% of the ischaemic heart disease burden and between 7% and 41% of certain cancer burdens are attributable to overweight and obesity. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In addition, biofeedback can help reduce hypertension & diabetes which often comes hand in hand with obesity, while helping clients gain control over their responses to stress. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Obesity, which raises the risk of diseases like type 2 diabetes and heart problems, is increasingly a problem as more people adopt a Western lifestyle. (reuters.com)
  • Dr. McGinnis is chair of the National Institute of Medicine Committee on Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth that released a report earlier in the week that said that food and beverage companies are using TV ads to entice children into eating unhealthy food, leading to an increase in childhood obesity and diabetes. (c-span.org)
  • Certain mutations in this gene may predispose people to experiencing obesity and diabetes. (brighthub.com)
  • Diabetes is often associated with obesity and obesity with cardiovascular disease. (enn.com)
  • Look AHEAD is focusing on the disease most affected by overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and on the outcome that causes the greatest morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular disease. (enn.com)
  • A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including: obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than thirty), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization. (enn.com)
  • Obesity and diabetes have become a worldwide health problem in both males and females and across most age groups. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A history of cannabis use is associated with a lower likelihood of obesity and diabetes, according to population-based data published in the journal Obesity . (norml.org)
  • Preclinical study data published online in the scientific journal Nutrition & Diabetes reports that tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) - a naturally occurring analogue of THC - possesses positive metabolic effects in animal models of obesity. (norml.org)
  • With rising rates of childhood obesity and diabetes, you might think that when the federal government convenes a meeting on how food companies market food to kids, talk of how to regulate industry practices might actually be on the agenda. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The worrying increase of diabetes in the UK is clearly linked to rising obesity levels and plummeting physical activity levels. (bbc.co.uk)
  • After seeing the heart attack death rate reduce in the UK in the last few years, there is a real risk that this figure could go back up if diabetes and obesity continue to rise as they currently are. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Obesity is correlated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using data from the CDC , State of Obesity have compiled obesity rates for individual states for 2016. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lloyd LJ, Langley-Evans SC, McMullen S. Childhood obesity and risk of the adult metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. (cdc.gov)
  • These PowerPoint slides present key data and information on adult obesity in clear, easy to understand charts and graphics. (slideshare.net)
  • These slides should be useful to practitioners and policy makers working to tackle adult obesity at local, regional and national level. (slideshare.net)
  • Maps for 49 states, the District of Columbia, and 2 US territories show self-reported adult obesity prevalence by race, ethnicity, and location. (cdc.gov)
  • Multiple explanations have been proposed for the decline in male fertility including increased prevalence of obesity and exposure to environmental pollution during fetal or adult life. (medscape.com)
  • No state currently has an adult obesity rate of less than 20 percent, but recent research may show signs of progress in young children. (ncsl.org)
  • Some people are more predisposed to gain more weight than others, and research indicates that gaining weight rapidly as an infant is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity. (webmd.com)
  • One hint of good news: the increase in adult obesity appeared to slow starting in 2006. (forbes.com)
  • A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI) which is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals - a person's weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). (news-medical.net)
  • Mice who had this protein naturally occurring, had adult onset obesity. (brighthub.com)
  • Authors concluded: "In this large cross-sectional adult survey with high prevalence of both substance use and obesity, cannabis use in the past year was associated with lower BMI, lower percentage fat mass, lower fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. (norml.org)
  • Frellick M. US Adult Obesity Rate Jumped Over Last 20 Years. (medscape.com)
  • Adult obesity rates continue their climb, rising from 24.4 per cent of Australians to 28.1 per cent over the four years to 2012. (theage.com.au)
  • The rates of overweight and Obesity amongst adults have doubled over the past two decades with Australia now being ranked as one of the fattest developed nations. (health.gov.au)
  • Overweight and obesity is measured at the population level for adults using the Body Mass Index (BMI) which is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in metres squared. (health.gov.au)
  • In the coming years, undoubtedly, more steps like this preschool program will be undertaken against obesity in both adults and children throughout the United States. (prweb.com)
  • Obesity, a common and costly health issue, affects more than one-third of adults and 17 percent of youth in the United States. (ncsl.org)
  • Because obesity prevalence remains high, however-increasing by roughly 20 percent for adults and 30 percent for children during the past 30 years-it remains a pressing public health concern. (ncsl.org)
  • The ACA also provides an enhanced federal Medicaid matching rate for states that cover certain preventive services without cost-sharing, including screening adults for obesity and offering those who qualify intensive behavioral interventions. (ncsl.org)
  • The other requires most insurance plans to cover certain services without cost-sharing, including obesity screening and counseling for all adults and children. (ncsl.org)
  • We hear a lot about rising rates of obesity in adults, but in New Zealand, childhood obesity is an even more worrying issue. (radionz.co.nz)
  • Analyzing data from a wide variety of international sources, the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 finds that from 1980 through 2013, the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity rose by 27.5% for adults and by 47.1% for children. (forbes.com)
  • This briefing provides statistics on the obesity among adults and children in the UK, along with data on prescriptions, surgery, and international comparisons. (parliament.uk)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, overall obesity rates remain high and prevalence among 2-19 year olds and adults in the United States has not changed significantly between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. (ncsl.org)
  • BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults but it is merely a rough guide because it may not correspond to the same degree of fatness in different individuals. (news-medical.net)
  • A new study published in the May 29 Lancet reports the results of a worldwide study of obesity and overweight, and found that rates have increased between 1980 and 2013 by 27.5% for adults and 47.1% for children. (apta.org)
  • Authors defined overweight as BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m 2 and obesity as BMI of 30 kg/m 2 for adults, and used the International Obesity Task Force definition for children. (apta.org)
  • In the case of Hispanic adults and children, who suffer from significantly higher rates of overweight and obesity than whites, researchers think a combination of physiological vulnerabilities, diet, cultural factors, and possibly lack of exercise may be responsible. (gothamgazette.com)
  • Governments are being urged to tackle the growing problem of obesity, as a new report finds increased number of Australian adults suffering from the condition. (theage.com.au)
  • Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining the perspective of researchers, clinicians, policymakers and patients, TOS promotes innovative research, education, and evidence-based clinical care to improve the health and well-being of all people with obesity. (prnewswire.com)
  • Obesity-related health care spending continues to grow, with researchers estimating medical costs at $147 billion annually, including $7 billion for Medicare prescription drugs. (ncsl.org)
  • The researchers also looked at the relationship between these variants and characteristics including overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers collected weight and height data for 1,519 military families who had been assigned to 38 military bases across the U.S. They then compared this data with obesity rates in the counties in which the bases were located, which ranged from 21 to 38 percent. (theweek.com)
  • The researchers argue that there is a subconscious influence, or "social contagion," that plays a role in obesity. (theweek.com)
  • The multinational team of researchers reported that the biggest gains in overweight and obesity took place between 1992 and 2002. (forbes.com)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - People taking NeuroSearch A/S's obesity pill tesofensine lost twice as much weight as men and women using approved weight loss drugs, Danish researchers said on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers say their findings may help explain why high obesity rates in the United States tend to cluster in certain geographic areas. (hon.ch)
  • The researchers also weighed each community's overall obesity rate. (hon.ch)
  • Obesity researchers do believe that the increase in obesity is partially due to environmental factors, such as availability of food and proneness to a sedentary lifestyle. (brighthub.com)
  • Researchers reported, "[T]he enforcement of MMLs (medical marijuana laws) is associated with a 2% to 6% decline in the probability of obesity. (norml.org)
  • The researchers add support to claims of a two-way risk between obesity and common mental disorders. (psychcentral.com)
  • Hardly a week goes by without researchers finding a new genetic link to obesity, and little wonder: according to a study published in BMC Genetics , obesity is affected by no fewer than one-quarter of our genes. (wired.com)
  • SILVER SPRING, Md. , Oct. 1, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The editors of Obesity have announced that four honorees will feature papers at the 8th annual Obesity Journal Symposium at the 38th Annual Meeting of The Obesity Society (TOS) at ObesityWeek® Interactive. (prnewswire.com)
  • The four winners of the 2020 Obesity Journal Symposium competition represent a range of topics, with something to attract most Obesity Society members,' said Obesity Journal Symposium Chair Donna H. Ryan , MD, professor emerita at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center of the Louisiana State University System in Baton Rouge. (prnewswire.com)
  • The selected papers also will be featured in a special section of the November 2020 edition of Obesity . (prnewswire.com)
  • The Obesity Society (TOS) is the leading organization of scientists and health professionals devoted to understanding and reversing the epidemic of obesity and its adverse health, economic and societal effects. (prnewswire.com)
  • Given the growing epidemic of obesity in the United States and the costs to individual health status and the healthcare system, it is our belief that clinical support for professional nurses in this area is timely and needed. (nursingworld.org)
  • An epidemic of obesity is compromising the lives of millions of American children, with burgeoning problems that reveal how much more vulnerable young bodies are to the toxic effects of fat. (washingtonpost.com)
  • While many factors contribute to the US epidemic of obesity, there is a clear correlation with poverty, as shown below. (newscientist.com)
  • The American Medical Association recognized obesity as a disease in 2013 and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended obesity prevention, assessment and patient counseling in 2007. (ncsl.org)
  • Can genes cause obesity in men? (webmd.com)
  • Many scientists believe that in some cases, viruses literally cause obesity. (slate.com)
  • Drugs: Some drugs can cause obesity. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • The review provides a structure for classifying the cutaneous problems associated with obesity. (medscape.com)
  • Enlarged fat cells produce the clinical problems associated with obesity either because of the weight or mass of the extra fat or because of the increased secretion of free fatty acids and numerous peptides from enlarged fat cells. (nih.gov)
  • Obesity is in your genes, according to a study which found that one in six people inherits a trait which makes them feel less full after eating. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Science is searching for the causes of obesity and exploring the role of genes, the diets of pregnant women, and the feeding habits of babies. (webmd.com)
  • But genes don't explain the increase in obesity. (webmd.com)
  • It said that a study has found six new genes associated with obesity, five of which are active in the brain. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The fact that several of these genes were "highly expressed" in the brain tissue suggests that there may be a role of the brain in predisposing some people to obesity, however exactly how such a predisposition works is not yet clear. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This means that the network is far more predictive of obesity than the presence of genes associated with the condition. (wired.com)
  • Cross off genes, viruses, environment, and imitation, and the only explanatory factor you're left with is, as the paper notes , each person's "perception of the social norms regarding the acceptability of obesity. (slate.com)
  • That's about one-fourth of our entire genome, suggesting that obesity is extremely complex at the genetic level - and because these genes were originally studied for their relationship to conditions other than obesity, that makes the picture even more complicated. (wired.com)
  • He replied, 'I think it makes sense to study obesity genes, but (like everything) it's more complicated than was first thought. (wired.com)
  • But that doesn't mean that studying obesity genes makes no sense. (wired.com)
  • This new technique boosts the activity of certain genes and prevented severe obesity in mice genetically altered to be susceptible to extreme weight gain . (medicinenet.com)
  • These results demonstrate that CRISPRa can be used to up the dosage of genes in diseases that result from a missing copy, providing a potential cure for certain forms of obesity as well as hundreds of other diseases," Matharu added. (medicinenet.com)
  • Obesity may effectively be contagious. (theweek.com)
  • A few years ago, Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler made a striking discovery about obesity: it spreads from person to person, much like a contagious virus. (wired.com)
  • Obesity is contagious like a virus. (slate.com)
  • Obesity Is 'Socially Contagious,' " said the headline on UCSD's press release . (slate.com)
  • The New York Times ("Study Says Obesity Can Be Contagious") opened its report with the line, "Obesity can spread from person to person, much like a virus. (slate.com)
  • The Los Angeles Times ("Obesity is 'contagious,' study finds") began , "Obesity can spread among a group of friends like a contagious disease," and added that the study showed a "pattern of contagion most often associated with infectious diseases. (slate.com)
  • Obesity is not contagious. (cato.org)
  • It highlights the clinical complications of obesity, while also focusing on the major scientific advances that have highlighted the role of genetics, adipose tissue endocrinology and the environment in the mechanisms and causes of obesity. (springer.com)
  • Genetics can't explain it, since having a fat friend was more likely to predict a person's obesity than having a fat sibling was. (slate.com)
  • Are you looking for the details concerning the relationship between obesity and genetics? (brighthub.com)
  • Though a definite link hasn't been proven, there is still a lot of research being conducted on obesity and genetics so medical science may have more definitive answers in the future. (brighthub.com)
  • Genetics and Food Intake, Body Weight and Obesity. (brighthub.com)
  • In light of that, does it make any sense at all to study obesity genetics? (wired.com)
  • Obesity prevalence among children and adolescents is still too high. (cdc.gov)
  • One study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention observed a decrease in obesity prevalence among low income preschoolers in 19 U.S. states and territories between 2008 and 2011. (ncsl.org)
  • The prevalence of excess weight (overweight including obesity) rose substantially between 1993 and 2002, but has increased much more slowly in both men and women since that time. (slideshare.net)
  • Unlike for obesity, prevalence of excess weight is higher among men than women. (slideshare.net)
  • An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, the "pot belly" or "beer belly" effect, in which the abdomen protrudes excessively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional explanations for the obesity wage penalty can be applied to this excess wage penalty, although it is beyond the scope of the authors' current research to sort them out. (nber.org)
  • Obesity, or significant excess body fat, doesn't occur in isolation. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • By now, readers of Obesity Panacea have hopefully learned that excess weight is not directly predictive of health risk, and that excess fat mass is not in itself unhealthy. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Obesity is an excess of body fat. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the United States, putting children and adolescents at risk for poor health. (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of obesity was 19.3% and affected about 14.4 million children and adolescents. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2011-2014, among children and adolescents aged 2-19 years, the prevalence of obesity decreased as the head of household's level of education increased. (cdc.gov)
  • Obesity prevalence was 18.9% among children and adolescents aged 2-19 years in the lowest income group, 19.9% among those in the middle-income group, and 10.9% among those in the highest income group. (cdc.gov)
  • For children and adolescents, Australian standard definitions for measuring overweight and obesity at the population level were endorsed in December 2002 for inclusion in the 12th edition of the National Health Data Dictionary. (health.gov.au)
  • Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity in adolescents has more than tripled. (springer.com)
  • The latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2003 to 2006 shows that 17.6% of adolescents ages 12-19 have obesity, compared to only 5% in the 1976-1980 survey. (springer.com)
  • Children and adolescents also experienced "substantial" increases in obesity and overweight, with developing countries rising from 8.1% to 12.9% in boys, and from 8.4% to 13.4% in girls. (apta.org)
  • Obesity in children and adolescents is defined not as an absolute number but in relation to a historical normal group, such that obesity is a BMI greater than the 95th percentile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity and their associated health problems are important public health goals. (cdc.gov)
  • States have launched several Medicaid outreach efforts, including Massachusetts' "Mass in Motion," Missouri's PHIT Kids (Promoting Health in Teens and Kids) weight management program and the Texas Medicaid Child Obesity Prevention Pilot. (ncsl.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define obesity as a BMI of 30 or higher (find our BMI calculator here ). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After decades of increases, the obesity rate among young, low-income children showed a decline in 19 states, according to information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. (edweek.org)
  • There's a huge burden of disease that we can anticipate from the growing obesity in kids," said William H. Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Obesity is defined as body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BMI-for-age growth charts. (ncsl.org)
  • The association offers several resources on obesity, including continuing education on childhood obesity , and a prevention and wellness webpage that links to podcasts on the harmful effects of inactivity. (apta.org)
  • A better understanding of the mechanisms for the apparent bi-directional risk between obesity and common mental disorders is needed for effective treatment and prevention," says the lead author of the editorial, Dr. Evan Atlantis from the University of Adelaide's School of Medicine. (psychcentral.com)
  • Learn about childhood obesity causes, trends and prevention from Mercy Health expert. (prweb.com)
  • Obesity prevention requires a complex approach, including interventions at community, family, and individual levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • These figures suggest that since 1995, the rates of overweight within each age category have remained relatively consistent, however the rates of obesity have increased. (health.gov.au)
  • The New York Times reports from Philadelphia this morning that following years of ever-increasing childhood obesity rates, several American cities may finally be getting ahead of the disturbing trend. (pbs.org)
  • Population data show that obesity rates started to rise soon after 1984," she says. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Colorado state has the lowest obesity rates in the U.S. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Living in areas with low obesity rates appears to have the opposite effect, reducing the likelihood that people will be overweight. (theweek.com)
  • Scialla says, "Several features of the WELL Building Standard in particular can help contribute to lower obesity rates. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • A 2005 analysis by a team of scientists forecast a two- to five-year drop in life expectancy unless aggressive action manages to reverse obesity rates. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Being able to quantify cancer risk in relation to body weight should help public health officials estimate the impact of both the aging of the population and the obesity epidemic on cancer rates over the next decade and beyond, Renehan says. (webmd.com)
  • Obesity rates continue to jump every year and 2010 was no exception. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Datar said the study found no evidence to suggest that "neighborhood shared environments" -- such as access to the same eating and exercise options -- were driving obesity rates. (hon.ch)
  • Obesity maps and tables on this page show state-by-state childhood obesity rates for 10-17 year olds for 2003-2011 based on data from the National Survey of Children's Health. (ncsl.org)
  • When it comes to rates of obesity, the world isn't so small after all. (apta.org)
  • Although rates vary by region, increases can be found almost everywhere in the world, authors write, and when it comes to the battle against obesity, "no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. (apta.org)
  • During the 33-year timeframe reviewed, worldwide obesity rates rose from 28.8% to 36.9% in men, and from 29.8% to 38% in women. (apta.org)
  • Obesity rates increased most rapidly between 1992 and 2002, and have slowed somewhat, particularly in developed countries. (apta.org)
  • Overweight and obesity rates peak at about 55 years for men and 60 years for women in both developed and developing countries, but rates are much higher in developed countries. (apta.org)
  • The report says that without a significant increase in attention to the problem through both research and policy, the upward trend is likely to continue, despite a World Health Organization effort to stop the rise in obesity rates by 2025. (apta.org)
  • Nation is getting fatter': With obesity rates increasing nationally, how does DC area weigh in? (wtop.com)
  • Hispanic children had nearly double the obesity rates of white and Asian children (31 percent versus 16 and 14 percent, respectively). (gothamgazette.com)
  • The decrease in youth obesity rates could slow healthcare costs. (marketplace.org)
  • CDC works with the USDA to analyze child obesity data from the WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Report (WIC PC). (cdc.gov)
  • Private insurance companies have covered some obesity therapies for only a few years, and the number of disability claims directly related to obesity more than doubled at Metropolitan Life from 2001 to 2003. (cato.org)
  • If children have obesity, their obesity and disease risk factors in adulthood are likely to be more severe. (cdc.gov)
  • Childhood obesity, bone development, and cardiometabolic risk factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Fat distribution is also an important consideration in assessing overweight or obesity and the associated risk of disease. (health.gov.au)
  • The following table provides sex specific waist circumference and risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity in Caucasians. (health.gov.au)
  • Americans are overweight, meaning they weigh more than they should and are at risk for health pro lens, including obesity. (lulu.com)
  • However, you can reduce your risk of obesity by eating healthy and exercising. (familydoctor.org)
  • Scientists from University College London studied 359 men who either had two copies of the high-risk gene, or two copies of a genetic variant thought to cause low risk of obesity. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • What this study shows us is that individuals with two copies of the obesity-risk FTO variant are biologically programmed to eat more. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Opponents contend that obesity is more akin to high cholesterol or cigarette smoking - a risk factor that predisposes someone to illness but is not an ailment in itself, such as lung cancer or heart disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A fact sheet that summarizes research on the potential link between obesity and cancer risk. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Yet, employee contributions to plan premiums are rarely risk-adjusted for obesity or any other observable risk factor, implying that all individuals within the pool pay for these premium increases equally. (nber.org)
  • If we can break that down, if we can reduce the amount of nutrients getting to the child during pregnancy, perhaps, just perhaps, we can modify that obesity risk and reduce the risk for the next generation. (radionz.co.nz)
  • These children are now eight years old and the team is in the process of analysing their risk of obesity. (radionz.co.nz)
  • the efforts surrounding obesity -- note the use of the term "obesity" -- are to improve the medical condition of people who are at extreme risk. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, obesity means weighing 20 percent or more than your ideal body weight, and it's a health risk. (go.com)
  • We also saw very clear differences between [ obesity -related] risk at different sites between the sexes. (webmd.com)
  • Overweight and obesity are defined by the WHO as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to an individuals health. (news-medical.net)
  • A reciprocal link has been found between obesity and depression, with obesity increasing the risk of clinical depression and also depression leading to a higher chance of developing obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prevalence of severe obesity (BMI ≥40kg/m2) has increased since 1993 for both men and women. (slideshare.net)
  • Severe obesity prevalence is much higher for women than men. (slideshare.net)
  • An operation is only recommended for people with morbid or severe obesity, and those who have failed with other methods of weight reduction. (news-medical.net)
  • Sometimes called "clinically severe obesity," it means you're 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight, with a body mass index of 40 or higher. (go.com)
  • Any BMI ≥ 35 or 40 kg/m2 is severe obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use these maps and interactive database systems to find information relating to nutrition, physical activity, and obesity. (cdc.gov)
  • Obesity is generally caused by consuming more calories, particularly those in fatty and sugary foods, than you burn off through physical activity. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Common symptoms with obesity include shortness of breath, increased sweating, snoring, and the inability to participate fully in physical activity. (familydoctor.org)
  • I think we can safely say that at the end of the day, the cause of obesity is eating more than you need for your physical activity," says Stettler. (webmd.com)
  • Obesity is almost always found in the presence of very limited physical activity and/or exercise and a consumption of a surplus of calories, usually of unhealthy foods. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Under-nutrition and obesity often exist side-by-side within the same country, the same community and even within the same household and this double burden is caused by inadequate pre-natal, infant and young child nutrition followed by exposure to high-fat, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods and lack of physical activity. (news-medical.net)
  • Lifestyle modification for obesity: new developments in diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy. (medscape.com)
  • APTA strongly supports the promotion of physical activity and the value of physical fitness to prevent obesity, and has representatives on the practice committee of Exercise is Medicine and the board of the National Physical Activity Plan Alliance . (apta.org)
  • Obesity is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and low levels of physical activity, both of which are strong predictors of depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • No one person's obesity reduces the health of other people in any way. (cato.org)
  • A city ordinance that took effect this week forces restaurants to join the fight against childhood obesity. (reason.com)
  • This note sets out the definition and causes of obesity, the health problems caused by obesity, recent government policy on the issue and related statistics. (parliament.uk)
  • People who carry extra weight around their waist may be more likely to experience health problems caused by obesity than those who carry it in their legs and thighs. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Central (abdominal) obesity is measured using waist circumference. (health.gov.au)
  • Abdominal obesity , also known as central obesity , occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Abdominal obesity has been linked to Alzheimer's disease as well as other metabolic and vascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abdominal obesity was more closely related with metabolic dysfunctions connected with cardiovascular disease than was general obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Waist circumference is a good measure of abdominal obesity. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Obesity prevalence was 25.6% among Hispanic children, 24.2% among non-Hispanic Black children, 16.1% among non-Hispanic White children, and 8.7% among non-Hispanic Asian children. (cdc.gov)
  • Association of depression and health related quality of life with body composition in children and youth with obesity. (cdc.gov)
  • Obesity among children in low-income families served by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). (cdc.gov)
  • Framing obesity as a common threat can lead to consensus regarding the interventions needed to achieve healthier children and communities. (rwjf.org)
  • The article discusses how an increasing amount of information is available that indicates the problem of obesity is becoming serious among children in Wisconsin, and that many of these children may start to suffer from complications including asthma and sleep apnea. (prweb.com)
  • This news follows the release of a mathematical model which is used to predict how young children gradually develop obesity as they get older. (prweb.com)
  • It also offers a hopeful outlook for overweight children because it reveals that they can overcome obesity by maintaining their weight as they grow until they reach the proper weight level. (prweb.com)
  • In children, overweight and obesity is defined according to the CDC's growth charts . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In order to break the obesity cycle, his team has been conducting trials that target pregnant women (of normal or access weight) to see if regular, supervised exercise can reduce the birth weight of their children. (radionz.co.nz)
  • For very young children, however, data from CDC's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) published in the Feb. 25, 2014 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association do show a decline in obesity prevalence in the 2-to-5-year-old age group from nearly 14 percent in 2003-2004, to just over 12 percent in 2009-2010, to just over 8 percent in 2011-2012. (ncsl.org)
  • Measuring overweight and obesity in children aged 5 to 14 years is challenging - the WHO Child Growth Standards includes BMI charts for infants and young children up to age 5 - childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of premature death and disability in adulthood. (news-medical.net)
  • Childhood obesity is also growing with nearly 15 percent of children being overweight. (brighthub.com)
  • Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort. (medscape.com)
  • African-American children fell in the middle, with a 23 percent obesity rate. (gothamgazette.com)
  • The city's 24 percent obesity rate among children in kindergarten through fifth grade is significantly higher than the national rate, which in 2000 was 15 percent. (gothamgazette.com)
  • Since obesity correlates with low income, including these relatively privileged children would almost certainly have lowered the proportion of the total found to be overweight. (gothamgazette.com)
  • This news may be an example of one positive measure that has been undertaken in response to the growing awareness of the nation's serious obesity problem. (prweb.com)
  • This is a necessary step in the nation's fight against obesity. (rand.org)
  • The International Journal of Obesity strives to identify novel areas for research into obesity and it appears that gleaning information from "Big Data" data sets holds promise to allow identification of questions for more targeted research as well as to directly answer some questions about obesity. (nature.com)
  • Manuel Uribe is teaching doctors about brain chemistry and morbid obesity. (go.com)
  • Doctors call it morbid obesity. (go.com)
  • Morbid obesity is altogether different. (go.com)
  • Brain chemistry, genetic mutation, addiction, psychological pain -- or an unhappy combination of all of them -- makes morbid obesity one of the biggest mysteries of medicine. (go.com)
  • Some experts also call morbid obesity an addiction. (go.com)
  • Childhood obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction. (cdc.gov)
  • There is a strong correlation between central obesity and cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Living in a community where obesity is more common can make sedentary lifestyles, unhealthy eating [and] obesity more socially acceptable," lead author Ashlesha Datar, from the University of Southern California, tells MedicalExpress.com . (theweek.com)
  • I'm an empathetic and supporting voice of reason, who has gone through the hardship of obesity and an unhealthy lifestyle, and is now bringing about healthy change supported by scientific fact. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • 2012-09-25T11:59:14-04:00 https://images.c-span.org/Files/f43/308393-m.jpg Retired generals and admirals talked about their concerns over unhealthy options in schools' cafeteria and vending machines, which often contributes to the problem of childhood obesity. (c-span.org)
  • Retired generals and admirals talked about their concerns over unhealthy options in schools' cafeteria and vending machines, which often contributes to the problem of childhood obesity. (c-span.org)
  • Obesity can also affect your quality of life and lead to psychological problems, such as depression and low self-esteem. (www.nhs.uk)
  • After spending some time in Somerville, Mass., reporting on their innovative program to prevent childhood obesity, Need to Know came back with some tips on how to make sure your kids reach adulthood at a healthy weight. (pbs.org)
  • What can we do as parents to prevent childhood obesity? (prweb.com)
  • As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, all areas of medicine will encounter more patients with obesity-related complications. (medscape.com)
  • Galtier-Dereure F, Boegner C, Bringer J. Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost. (medscape.com)
  • A new editorial in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) suggests that primary care doctors should pay more attention to patients who present with obesity, as it has been linked to many common mental disorders, including depression . (psychcentral.com)
  • Obviously there's a genetic component to obesity, " says Barbara Rolls, PhD. Rolls holds the Helen A. Guthrie Chair in Nutritional Sciences at Pennsylvania State University. (webmd.com)
  • But," she adds, "the surge in obesity clearly can't be due to genetic changes. (webmd.com)
  • So you get into this situation of obesity begetting obesity, and it's not genetic, it's environmental. (radionz.co.nz)
  • Obesity is primarily a consequence of life-style choices about drinking, eating and exercise -- not a consequence of accidents, age, or genetic conditions over which one has no control. (cato.org)
  • But why even try to plumb those genetic interactions, I asked, when we already understand the behaviors associated with obesity in all but a few hereditarily predisposed people? (wired.com)
  • Some rare genetic diseases make it almost impossible to avoid obesity. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Obesity is associated with a number of skin conditions, including psoriasis, cutaneous infections, vascular disorders and possibly skin cancers. (medscape.com)
  • Mulcahy N. 'Strong evidence': obesity tied to 11 cancers. (medscape.com)
  • No evidence-based treatment that increases the likelihood of pregnancy for the infertility associated with male obesity has been demonstrated to date. (medscape.com)
  • The findings "show that increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity have been substantial, widespread, and have arisen over a short time," authors write. (apta.org)
  • Obesity is a chronic disease caused by an imbalance between the energy ingested in food and the energy expended. (nih.gov)
  • McCall B. Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease: A New Name for Obesity? (medscape.com)
  • We all know that obesity is contributing to the burden of chronic disease in Australia. (theage.com.au)
  • Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for many people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap high-calorie food and spending a lot of time sitting down at desks, on sofas or in cars. (www.nhs.uk)
  • As international awareness of the obesity problem grows, ShopPharmacyCounter.com is offering a summer sale of PhenObestin 37.5. (prweb.com)
  • ShopPharmacyCounter.com realizes that as more people become aware of the obesity problem affecting the nation and the world, they may decide that they want to address their own personal weight issues. (prweb.com)
  • Hey, some might see the growing global problem of obesity as a crisis, but YUM! (truthout.org)
  • Obesity is a major public health problem. (news-medical.net)
  • Such is the climate surrounding the obesity problem our country faces. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • While the first lady and many others have taken massive steps to help bring awareness and remediation to the obesity issue, there are many who feel there simply is no problem -- that we're crying wolf or exaggerating the severity of the issue for the benefit of the health, pharmaceutical, and weight loss industries. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • I had an obesity problem for many years, a very significant one. (go.com)
  • Obesity is a widespread and sometimes tragic private health problem but, despite the public statements by HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson, it is not a public health problem. (cato.org)
  • Any decision of this magnitude should be made only after an informed public discussion and congressional approval, not on the basis of the judgment of some regulators and a department secretary who is obsessed with the obesity problem. (cato.org)
  • The scale of the obesity problem has a number of serious consequences for individuals and government health systems. (news-medical.net)
  • Even though the best goal is to prevent obesity in the first place, this is a very challenging problem, particularly in Western civilization where the factors contributing to obesity are much more widely prevalent. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Obesity is often a lifelong problem. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson says, "Obesity is a critical public health problem in our country. (cato.org)
  • Obesity is a problem for many people, but it is not a public health problem. (cato.org)
  • Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Although the rest of the nation is much heavier, too, among those ages 6 to 19 the rate of obesity has not just doubled, as with their parents and grandparents, but has more than tripled. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Taking in more calories than your body burns can lead to obesity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, it is tempting to conclude that fellow workers in a firm pay for the health care costs of obesity. (nber.org)
  • Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. (medscape.com)
  • The costs of obesity in the workplace. (medscape.com)
  • The most shocking thing is the degree to which obesity is now affecting developing as well as developed economies," says Tim Lobstein of the International Association for the Study of Obesity in London. (newscientist.com)