Body Mass Index
Metabolic Syndrome X
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4
Adipose Tissue, White
Glucose Tolerance Test
European Continental Ancestry Group
Body Weights and Measures
Agouti Signaling Protein
Disease Models, Animal
Body Fat Distribution
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Adipose Tissue, Brown
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
African Continental Ancestry Group
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Analysis of Variance
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
School Health Services
Indians, North American
Weight Reduction Programs
Child Nutrition Sciences
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Health Status Disparities
Gene Expression Regulation
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (1/23597)Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes. (+info)
DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (2/23597)The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells. (+info)
Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (3/23597)The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction. (+info)
Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (4/23597)This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years). (+info)
Obesity induces expression of uncoupling protein-2 in hepatocytes and promotes liver ATP depletion. (5/23597)Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) uncouples respiration from oxidative phosphorylation and may contribute to obesity through effects on energy metabolism. Because basal metabolic rate is decreased in obesity, UCP2 expression is predicted to be reduced. Paradoxically, hepatic expression of UCP2 mRNA is increased in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis of ob/ob livers demonstrate that UCP2 mRNA and protein expression are increased in hepatocytes, which do not express UCP2 in lean mice. Mitochondria isolated from ob/ob livers exhibit an increased rate of H+ leak which partially dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential when the rate of electron transport is suppressed. In addition, hepatic ATP stores are reduced and these livers are more vulnerable to necrosis after transient hepatic ischemia. Hence, hepatocytes adapt to obesity by up-regulating UCP2. However, because this decreases the efficiency of energy trapping, the cells become vulnerable to ATP depletion when energy needs increase acutely. (+info)
Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children. (6/23597)Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking. (+info)
Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. (7/23597)Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons. (+info)
No association between the -308 polymorphism in the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) promoter region and polycystic ovaries. (8/23597)The tumour necrosis factor (TNF)2 allele appears to be linked with increased insulin resistance and obesity, conditions often found in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The significance of TNFalpha polymorphism in relation to the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with PCOS was investigated in 122 well-characterized patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Of these, 84 had an abnormal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCOS, while the remaining 38 had a normal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCO. There were a further 28 individuals without PCO (non-PCO) and 108 individuals whose PCO status was undetermined (reference population). The promoter region of the TNFalpha gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the presence or absence of the polymorphism at -308 was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The less common TNF allele (TNF2) was found as TNF1/2 or TNF2/2 in 11/38 (29%) of PCO subjects, 25/84 (30%) of PCOS subjects, 7/28 (25%) of non-PCO subjects, and 45/108 (42%) of the reference population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the TNF2 allele between the groups. The relationship of TNF genotype to clinical and biochemical parameters was examined. In both the PCO group and the PCOS group, the presence of the TNF2 allele was significantly associated with lower glucose values obtained from the glucose tolerance testing (P<0.05). The TNF genotype was not significantly associated with any clinical or biochemical parameter measured in the PCO, PCOS or non-PCOS groups. Thus, the TNFalpha -308 polymorphism does not appear to strongly influence genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovaries. (+info)
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.
Morbid obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of body fat that significantly increases the risk of various health problems. It is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher, or a BMI of 35 or higher with associated health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. Morbid obesity can lead to a range of health complications, including heart disease, stroke, liver disease, and certain types of cancer. Treatment options for morbid obesity may include lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, as well as medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery.
Obesity, abdominal, also known as central obesity, is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal region. It is defined as having a waist circumference of 102 cm (40 inches) or more in men and 88 cm (35 inches) or more in women, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of various health problems, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and certain types of cancer. It is also linked to an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Treatment for abdominal obesity typically involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medication or surgery in severe cases.
Pediatric obesity refers to a medical condition in which a child or adolescent has an excess amount of body fat that may negatively impact their health. The diagnosis of pediatric obesity is typically based on body mass index (BMI), which is a measure of body fat based on a child's height and weight. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity in children as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for their age and sex. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses a similar definition, with the exception that they use the 85th percentile as the cutoff for obesity in children and adolescents. Pediatric obesity is a growing concern in many countries around the world, as it can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. Treatment for pediatric obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as healthy eating and regular physical activity, as well as medical interventions, such as medication or surgery, in severe cases.
In the medical field, overweight is a condition where a person's body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height and body composition. The term "overweight" is often used interchangeably with "obesity," but they are not the same thing. The body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used tool to determine whether a person is overweight or obese. BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. Being overweight can increase the risk of developing a variety of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular physical activity.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Leptin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It helps to signal the brain when the body has enough energy stores and can therefore reduce hunger and increase energy expenditure. Leptin also plays a role in regulating the body's immune system and has been linked to a number of other physiological processes, including reproduction and bone health. In the medical field, leptin is often studied in relation to obesity and other metabolic disorders, as well as in the treatment of these conditions.
Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas and helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the body needs to produce more insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels, which can lead to high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and eventually type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome. Symptoms of insulin resistance may include fatigue, frequent urination, increased thirst, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to help regulate blood sugar levels.
In the medical field, weight loss refers to a decrease in body weight as a result of various factors, including diet, exercise, medication, or surgery. Weight loss is often used as a treatment for obesity, which is a medical condition characterized by excessive body fat that can lead to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Weight loss can also be used as a treatment for other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and sleep apnea. In some cases, weight loss may be recommended as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. It is important to note that weight loss should be achieved through a healthy and sustainable approach, such as a balanced diet and regular exercise, rather than through crash diets or extreme measures that can be harmful to the body. Medical professionals can provide guidance and support to help individuals achieve safe and effective weight loss.
In the medical field, weight gain refers to an increase in body weight over a period of time. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including changes in diet, lack of physical activity, hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain can be measured in kilograms or pounds and is typically expressed as a percentage of body weight. A healthy weight gain is generally considered to be 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1 to 2 pounds) per week, while an excessive weight gain may be defined as more than 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1 to 2 pounds) per week over a period of several weeks or months. In some cases, weight gain may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, such as diabetes or heart disease. Therefore, it is important to monitor weight changes and consult with a healthcare provider if weight gain is a concern.
Metabolic Syndrome X, also known as Syndrome X or Insulin Resistance Syndrome, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The five key components of Metabolic Syndrome X are: 1. Abdominal obesity: A waist circumference of 102 cm (40 inches) or more in men and 88 cm (35 inches) or more in women. 2. High blood pressure: A systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or higher. 3. High fasting blood sugar: A fasting blood sugar level of 100 mg/dL or higher. 4. High triglyceride levels: A triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher. 5. Low HDL cholesterol levels: An HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men and less than 50 mg/dL in women. These conditions are often found together and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and certain medical conditions. Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome X typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to manage blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels.
In the medical field, dietary fats refer to the fats that are consumed as part of a person's diet. These fats can come from a variety of sources, including animal products (such as meat, dairy, and eggs), plant-based oils (such as olive oil, canola oil, and avocado oil), and nuts and seeds. Dietary fats are an important source of energy for the body and are also necessary for the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals. However, excessive consumption of certain types of dietary fats, particularly saturated and trans fats, has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Therefore, healthcare professionals often recommend that people limit their intake of saturated and trans fats and increase their consumption of unsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, and plant-based oils. This can help to promote overall health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95% of all cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, leading to high blood sugar levels. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, and unexplained weight loss. If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision loss. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medication to help regulate blood sugar levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.
In the medical field, "thinness" refers to a low body weight or a low body mass index (BMI) that is considered below the normal range for an individual's age, sex, and height. Thinness can be a result of a variety of factors, including genetics, diet, exercise, and underlying medical conditions. In some cases, thinness may be a sign of an underlying health problem, such as an eating disorder or a hormonal imbalance. It can also increase the risk of certain health conditions, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. Medical professionals may use various measures to assess thinness, including BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Treatment for thinness may involve addressing the underlying cause, such as working with a therapist to address an eating disorder, or making lifestyle changes to improve nutrition and increase physical activity.
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) is a medical condition characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, shortness of breath, and low levels of oxygen in the blood. It is caused by an abnormality in the body's response to carbon dioxide, which leads to a decrease in the amount of oxygen that is delivered to the body's tissues. OHS is most commonly associated with obesity, but it can also occur in individuals who are not overweight. The condition is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment for OHS typically involves lifestyle changes, such as weight loss, as well as the use of medications or other therapies to improve breathing and oxygen levels.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.
Hyperphagia is a medical condition characterized by an excessive appetite or an uncontrollable desire to eat. People with hyperphagia feel an intense urge to eat, even when they are not hungry, and may eat large amounts of food in a short period of time. This can lead to weight gain and obesity, as well as other health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Hyperphagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, neurological disorders, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, which is a genetic disorder that affects appetite and metabolism. Treatment for hyperphagia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help control appetite and weight. In other cases, therapy or counseling may be recommended to help individuals develop healthy eating habits and manage their weight.
Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.
The Melanocortin Type 4 Receptor (MC4R) is a protein that is expressed in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, adipose tissue, and muscle. It is a member of the melanocortin receptor family, which also includes the MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, and MC5R receptors. The MC4R plays a critical role in regulating energy balance and body weight. It is activated by the hormone melanocortin-4, which is produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Activation of the MC4R can lead to a decrease in appetite, an increase in energy expenditure, and a reduction in body fat storage. Mutations in the MC4R gene have been associated with several disorders of obesity and related conditions, including Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Alström syndrome. These mutations can lead to a loss of function of the MC4R receptor, resulting in an inability to regulate appetite and energy expenditure properly. In the medical field, the MC4R is a target for the development of drugs to treat obesity and related conditions. However, the use of MC4R agonists or antagonists can also have side effects, such as increased heart rate, hypertension, and anxiety, and therefore require careful monitoring and management.
Metabolic diseases are a group of disorders that affect the body's ability to process food and use it for energy. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and environmental factors. Metabolic diseases can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and heart. Some common examples of metabolic diseases include diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and thyroid disorders. Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels due to either a lack of insulin production or insulin resistance. Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, leading to the accumulation of excess body fat. Hyperlipidemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of lipids (fats) in the blood, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, affect the thyroid gland's ability to produce hormones that regulate metabolism. Treatment for metabolic diseases typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, as well as medication and other medical interventions. Early diagnosis and management of metabolic diseases are essential to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
Receptors, Leptin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone leptin, which is produced by fat cells. Leptin plays a role in regulating appetite, metabolism, and body weight. When leptin binds to its receptors, it sends signals to the brain that the body has enough fat stores and that the body should reduce appetite and increase energy expenditure. Mutations in the genes that encode leptin or its receptors can lead to disorders such as obesity or leptin resistance, where the body is unable to respond to normal levels of leptin.
Adipokines are hormones that are produced by adipose (fat) tissue. They play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and immune function. Some examples of adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin. These hormones are secreted in response to changes in body weight, diet, and physical activity, and they can have both beneficial and harmful effects on overall health. For example, adiponectin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, while leptin can help to regulate appetite and energy expenditure. However, some adipokines, such as resistin, have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) due to either a lack of insulin production by the pancreas or the body's inability to effectively use insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This results in little or no insulin production, and the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels properly. Type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood or adolescence, but can occur at any age. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is characterized by insulin resistance, which means that the body's cells do not respond effectively to insulin. This leads to high blood sugar levels, and the pancreas may eventually become unable to produce enough insulin to keep up with the body's needs. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the disease. Other forms of diabetes include gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, and secondary diabetes, which is caused by other medical conditions such as kidney disease or certain medications.
Adiponectin is a hormone that is primarily produced by adipose (fat) tissue. It plays a role in regulating glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and energy expenditure. Adiponectin levels are typically higher in people with a healthy body weight compared to those who are obese. In addition, adiponectin has been linked to a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of these conditions.
Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver cells. It is a common condition that can affect people of all ages and is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Fatty liver can be classified into two types: 1. Simple fatty liver: This is the most common type of fatty liver and is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver cells. It is usually reversible with lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet. 2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver is caused by factors other than alcohol consumption, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. NAFLD can progress to more severe liver diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Fatty liver can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and liver biopsy. Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or in severe cases, liver transplantation.
Triglycerides are a type of fat that are found in the blood and are an important source of energy for the body. They are made up of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule, and are stored in fat cells (adipocytes) in the body. Triglycerides are transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are complex particles that also carry cholesterol and other lipids. In the medical field, triglycerides are often measured as part of a routine lipid panel, which is a blood test that assesses levels of various types of lipids in the blood. High levels of triglycerides, known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems. Treatment for high triglyceride levels may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medications.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Hyperinsulinism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of insulin by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels by allowing glucose to enter cells for energy. In hyperinsulinism, the pancreas produces too much insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). There are two main types of hyperinsulinism: congenital and acquired. Congenital hyperinsulinism is present at birth and is caused by genetic mutations that affect the function of pancreatic beta cells. Acquired hyperinsulinism can occur due to various factors, such as certain medications, tumors, or infections. Symptoms of hyperinsulinism can include dizziness, confusion, irritability, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for hyperinsulinism depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications.
Dyslipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by abnormal levels of lipids (fats) in the blood. These disorders can lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. There are several types of dyslipidemias, including: 1. Hypercholesterolemia: This is an elevated level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to the formation of plaques. 2. Hypertriglyceridemia: This is an elevated level of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat that is found in the blood and is a component of lipoproteins. 3. Combined hyperlipidemia: This is a combination of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. 4. Familial dyslipidemia: This is an inherited disorder that causes high levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Dyslipidemias are typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medications to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Overnutrition refers to a state of excessive nutrient intake, particularly calories, that exceeds the body's energy requirements. This can lead to an accumulation of excess energy in the form of body fat, which can result in obesity and related health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. Overnutrition can occur due to a variety of factors, including consuming a diet that is high in calories and low in nutrients, consuming large portions of food, and engaging in sedentary behavior. It is often associated with Westernized diets that are high in processed foods, sugary drinks, and saturated and trans fats. In the medical field, overnutrition is often treated through a combination of dietary changes, increased physical activity, and in some cases, medication or surgery. It is important to address overnutrition as it can have serious health consequences and increase the risk of developing chronic diseases.
Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) is a protein that plays a role in regulating pigmentation in mammals. It is encoded by the ASIP gene and is expressed in the skin, hair follicles, and other tissues. In the skin, ASIP acts as a signaling molecule that regulates the production of melanin, the pigment that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. ASIP inhibits the activity of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is necessary for the production of melanin. This leads to a decrease in melanin production and results in lighter skin, hair, and eyes. ASIP is also involved in the regulation of appetite and energy metabolism. It is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that controls hunger and satiety, and has been shown to play a role in regulating food intake and body weight. In the medical field, ASIP is of interest for its potential role in the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. It is also being studied as a potential target for the treatment of these conditions. Additionally, ASIP is being investigated as a potential biomarker for the early detection of certain types of cancer, such as melanoma.
Glucose intolerance is a medical condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels after consuming carbohydrates. This can lead to high blood sugar levels, or hyperglycemia, which can cause a range of symptoms and health problems over time. There are several types of glucose intolerance, including: 1. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG): This occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than normal after an overnight fast, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. 2. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): This occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than normal after consuming a meal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. 3. Gestational diabetes: This occurs during pregnancy and can cause high blood sugar levels in the mother. Glucose intolerance is often diagnosed through a glucose tolerance test, in which a person is given a drink containing a high amount of sugar and their blood sugar levels are measured over time. Treatment for glucose intolerance typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication. If left untreated, glucose intolerance can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.
Dietary sucrose refers to the consumption of table sugar, which is a type of carbohydrate that is commonly added to food and beverages. Sucrose is made up of two molecules of glucose and one molecule of fructose, and it is a source of energy for the body. In the medical field, dietary sucrose is often discussed in the context of its potential health effects, such as its role in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Some studies have suggested that reducing or eliminating dietary sucrose from the diet may be beneficial for improving health outcomes in certain populations. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between dietary sucrose and health.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
Genetic predisposition to disease refers to the tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to their genetic makeup. It means that certain genes or combinations of genes increase the risk of developing a particular disease or condition. Genetic predisposition to disease is not the same as having the disease itself. It simply means that an individual has a higher likelihood of developing the disease compared to someone without the same genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited from parents or can occur due to spontaneous mutations in genes. Some examples of genetic predisposition to disease include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. Understanding genetic predisposition to disease is important in medical practice because it can help identify individuals who are at high risk of developing a particular disease and allow for early intervention and prevention strategies to be implemented.
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that is synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. It is a large protein that is cleaved into several smaller peptides, including α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone), β-endorphin, and ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). In the medical field, POMC and its cleavage products are important for regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and immune function. For example, α-MSH is involved in the regulation of skin pigmentation and the body's response to stress, while β-endorphin is a natural painkiller that is involved in the body's response to stress and pain. Abnormalities in the production or function of POMC and its cleavage products can lead to various medical conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, POMC and its cleavage products are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field, with the goal of developing new treatments for these conditions.
Hyperlipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by abnormally high levels of lipids (fats) in the blood. These disorders can be classified into primary and secondary hyperlipidemias. Primary hyperlipidemias are genetic disorders that result in elevated levels of lipids in the blood. They are usually inherited and can be classified into five types: familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, type I hyperlipoproteinemia, and type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Secondary hyperlipidemias are caused by other medical conditions or medications. Examples of secondary hyperlipidemias include diabetes, kidney disease, hypothyroidism, liver disease, and the use of certain medications such as corticosteroids and oral contraceptives. Hyperlipidemias can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Treatment for hyperlipidemias typically involves lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Pregnancy complications refer to any medical conditions or problems that arise during pregnancy that can potentially harm the mother or the developing fetus. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common examples of pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and miscarriage. Other complications may include infections, such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections, as well as conditions that can affect the baby, such as congenital anomalies or birth defects. Pregnancy complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, underlying medical conditions, and environmental factors. Proper prenatal care and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify and manage pregnancy complications early on, reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes for both the mother and the baby.
Cyclobutanes are a type of organic compound that contain a ring of four carbon atoms. They are typically colorless and odorless, and are not commonly found in the human body. In the medical field, cyclobutanes are not typically used as drugs or medications. However, they can be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds, such as pharmaceuticals. Cyclobutanes can also be used as solvents or as ingredients in certain types of coatings or adhesives.
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the eyes, kidneys, and central nervous system. It is characterized by obesity, learning disabilities, and a variety of other symptoms that can vary widely among affected individuals. The exact cause of BBS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be caused by mutations in one of at least 19 different genes. These mutations can disrupt the normal functioning of the proteins that these genes encode, leading to a range of developmental and metabolic abnormalities. Symptoms of BBS can include obesity, learning disabilities, vision problems, kidney abnormalities, and problems with the development of the brain and spinal cord. Some individuals with BBS may also experience developmental delays, behavioral problems, and other neurological symptoms. There is currently no cure for BBS, but treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and complications of the disorder. This may include medications to control blood sugar and blood pressure, physical therapy to improve mobility and coordination, and educational and behavioral interventions to support learning and development.
In the medical field, dietary carbohydrates refer to the carbohydrates that are consumed as part of a person's diet. Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients (along with protein and fat) that provide energy to the body. They are found in a variety of foods, including grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Dietary carbohydrates are classified into two main types: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, also known as sugars, are made up of one or two sugar molecules and are quickly digested and absorbed by the body. Examples of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, honey, and fruit juice. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules and take longer to digest and absorb. Examples of complex carbohydrates include whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables. The amount and type of carbohydrates that a person consumes can have a significant impact on their health. Consuming too many simple carbohydrates, particularly those that are high in added sugars, can contribute to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. On the other hand, consuming adequate amounts of complex carbohydrates can provide important nutrients and fiber that are essential for good health.
Resistin is a hormone that is primarily produced by adipose (fat) tissue. It is a protein that plays a role in regulating energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Resistin levels are elevated in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and it has been suggested that resistin may contribute to the development of these conditions by promoting insulin resistance and inflammation. However, the exact role of resistin in the development of these diseases is still not fully understood, and more research is needed to clarify its function in the body.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PEDs) refer to the long-term health effects that can occur in an individual as a result of exposure to environmental or genetic factors during pregnancy. PEDs can manifest in a variety of ways, including physical, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, and can occur even if the exposure occurred many years before the individual's birth. PEDs can result from exposure to a wide range of substances, including drugs, alcohol, tobacco, pollutants, and infections. These exposures can affect the developing fetus in various ways, including disrupting normal growth and development, altering gene expression, and causing damage to organs and systems. PEDs can also result from genetic factors, such as inherited disorders or mutations. These genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain health conditions, such as autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities, even if the individual was not exposed to any environmental factors during pregnancy. Overall, PEDs highlight the importance of taking steps to protect pregnant women and their developing fetuses from exposure to harmful substances and environmental factors, as well as the need for ongoing monitoring and support for individuals who may be at risk for PEDs.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.
Hypothalamic diseases refer to disorders that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain that plays a vital role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, appetite, thirst, body temperature, and sleep. The hypothalamus is also responsible for controlling the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates other endocrine glands in the body. Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, trauma, tumors, and autoimmune disorders. Some common examples of hypothalamic diseases include: 1. Hypothalamic obesity: A condition characterized by excessive weight gain due to hormonal imbalances in the hypothalamus. 2. Hypothalamic amenorrhea: A condition in which menstrual periods stop due to hormonal imbalances in the hypothalamus. 3. Hypothalamic diabetes insipidus: A condition characterized by excessive thirst and urination due to a deficiency of the hormone vasopressin, which is produced by the hypothalamus. 4. Hypothalamic hypopituitarism: A condition in which the pituitary gland fails to produce one or more of its hormones due to damage to the hypothalamus. 5. Hypothalamic tumors: Tumors that develop in the hypothalamus can cause a variety of symptoms, including hormonal imbalances, changes in appetite and weight, and neurological problems. Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms experienced by the patient. In some cases, hormone replacement therapy may be necessary to correct hormonal imbalances. In other cases, surgery or radiation therapy may be used to treat tumors or other structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus.
Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It is primarily produced by cells in the stomach called ghrelin cells, which are stimulated by the presence of food in the stomach. Ghrelin is released into the bloodstream in response to fasting and low blood sugar levels, and it signals the brain to increase appetite and stimulate the release of growth hormone. In addition to its role in appetite regulation, ghrelin has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and the body's response to stress.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
PPAR gamma, also known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, is a type of nuclear receptor that plays a critical role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in the body. It is a transcription factor that is activated by certain hormones and lipids, and it regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, glucose uptake, and insulin sensitivity. In the medical field, PPAR gamma is an important target for the treatment of a variety of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Drugs that activate PPAR gamma, known as PPAR gamma agonists, have been developed and are used to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. They can also help to reduce body weight and improve lipid profiles, which can help to reduce the risk of heart disease. PPAR gamma is also being studied as a potential target for the treatment of other conditions, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer.
Fatty acids are organic compounds that are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are a type of lipid, which are molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the body and are also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as hormones and cell membranes. In the medical field, fatty acids are often studied in relation to their role in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. They are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies.
Diabetes complications refer to the various health problems that can arise as a result of having diabetes. These complications can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and feet. Some common diabetes complications include: 1. Diabetic retinopathy: Damage to the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to vision loss or blindness. 2. Diabetic nephropathy: Damage to the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure. 3. Cardiovascular disease: Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart problems. 4. Peripheral artery disease: Narrowing or blockage of blood vessels in the legs and feet, which can lead to pain, numbness, and even amputation. 5. Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the hands and feet. 6. Foot ulcers: Sores or wounds on the feet that can become infected and lead to serious complications. 7. Gum disease: Increased risk of gum disease, which can lead to tooth loss. 8. Sexual dysfunction: Impaired sexual function in men and women. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and receive regular medical check-ups to prevent or delay the onset of these complications.
Agouti-Related Protein (AGRP) is a neuropeptide hormone that is produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates appetite, metabolism, and body weight. AGRP is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance, and it is thought to play a role in the development of obesity and related disorders. AGRP is synthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into smaller peptides, including AGRP and the related peptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). These peptides are released into the bloodstream and act on specific receptors in the brain and other organs to regulate appetite, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In the medical field, AGRP is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of obesity and related disorders. For example, drugs that block the action of AGRP or its receptors may be effective in reducing appetite and promoting weight loss. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of AGRP in the development of obesity and to develop safe and effective treatments for this condition.
Aurothioglucose is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging of the thyroid gland. It is a radioactive compound that is taken up by the thyroid gland and emits gamma radiation, which can be detected by a gamma camera to create an image of the gland. Aurothioglucose is commonly used to diagnose and monitor thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer. It is also used to detect and stage certain types of non-thyroidal tumors, such as parathyroid tumors.
Hypertriglyceridemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in the blood. Triglycerides are the main form of fat in the body and are produced when the liver converts excess carbohydrates and fatty acids into energy. Hypertriglyceridemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, kidney disease, and liver disease. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Treatment for hypertriglyceridemia typically involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, more aggressive treatment may be necessary to prevent complications.
Hyperglycemia is a medical condition characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is typically defined as a fasting blood glucose level of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher, or as a random blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher. Hyperglycemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, certain medications, stress, and certain medical conditions such as liver disease or kidney disease. It can also be a complication of diabetes, particularly if it is not well-controlled. Hyperglycemia can have a range of symptoms, including increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds. In severe cases, it can lead to more serious complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment for hyperglycemia depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, medication, or insulin therapy. It is important to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and work with a healthcare provider to manage hyperglycemia effectively.
In the medical field, "Fatty Acids, Nonesterified" refers to free fatty acids that are not bound to glycerol in triglycerides. These fatty acids are found in the bloodstream and are an important source of energy for the body. They can be obtained from dietary fats or synthesized by the liver and adipose tissue. Nonesterified fatty acids are also involved in various physiological processes, such as the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the production of signaling molecules. Abnormal levels of nonesterified fatty acids in the blood can be associated with various medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide hormone that is produced by neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. It is one of the most widely distributed neuropeptides in the brain and body, and it plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and mood regulation. In the brain, NPY is primarily produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in regulating hunger and metabolism. NPY is also produced by neurons in other regions of the brain, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, which are involved in emotional regulation and reward processing. NPY acts on a number of different receptors in the brain and body, including Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, and Y6 receptors. These receptors are found on a variety of different cell types, including neurons, immune cells, and smooth muscle cells. Activation of NPY receptors can have a wide range of effects, depending on the specific receptor that is activated and the cell type that expresses it. In the medical field, NPY and its receptors are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and addiction. For example, drugs that block NPY receptors have been shown to reduce appetite and body weight in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for obesity and related conditions in humans. Similarly, drugs that activate NPY receptors have been shown to have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for anxiety and depression in humans.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a protein that is produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is a nonspecific marker of inflammation and is often used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field. CRP levels can be measured in the blood using a blood test. Elevated levels of CRP are often seen in people with infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP levels can also be elevated in response to other factors such as exercise, injury, and stress. In addition to its diagnostic role, CRP has also been studied as a potential predictor of future health outcomes. For example, high levels of CRP have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other chronic conditions. Overall, CRP is an important biomarker in the medical field that can provide valuable information about a person's health and help guide treatment decisions.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive is a medical condition characterized by the temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. It occurs when the muscles in the throat relax and block the airway, causing a decrease or complete stop in airflow. This can happen multiple times throughout the night, leading to disrupted sleep and a variety of symptoms such as snoring, gasping or choking during sleep, fatigue, and headaches upon waking. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea and is often treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery.
Cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is considered "good" cholesterol. It is transported in the bloodstream and helps remove excess cholesterol from the body's tissues, including the arteries. HDL cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps prevent the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. High levels of HDL cholesterol are generally considered to be beneficial for overall cardiovascular health.
Mitochondrial proteins are proteins that are encoded by genes located in the mitochondrial genome and are synthesized within the mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including energy production, cell growth and division, and regulation of the cell cycle. Mitochondrial proteins are essential for the proper functioning of the mitochondria, which are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell. Mutations in mitochondrial proteins can lead to a variety of inherited disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect multiple organ systems and cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of multiple small cysts on the ovaries, hormonal imbalances, and irregular menstrual cycles. PCOS can cause a range of symptoms, including acne, excessive hair growth, weight gain, infertility, and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis of PCOS typically involves a physical examination, blood tests to measure hormone levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound. Treatment for PCOS may include lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications, as well as medications to regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and improve insulin sensitivity. In some cases, fertility treatments may be necessary to help women with PCOS conceive.
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is expressed in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, muscle, adipose tissue, and brain. The primary function of 11β-HSD1 is to convert inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. This conversion occurs in the liver and adipose tissue, where 11β-HSD1 is highly expressed. Cortisol is a key hormone involved in the body's stress response and plays a role in regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. In addition to its role in cortisol metabolism, 11β-HSD1 has also been implicated in the development of various diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression. For example, increased activity of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue has been linked to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. Similarly, increased activity of 11β-HSD1 in the brain has been linked to depression and anxiety. Overall, 11β-HSD1 is a critical enzyme involved in regulating cortisol metabolism and has important implications for the development of various diseases.
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder that affects the development and growth of the body. It is caused by the loss of function of certain genes on chromosome 15, which leads to a variety of physical, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms. The symptoms of PWS can vary widely among affected individuals, but some common features include: * Excessive hunger and difficulty with weight control * Short stature * Intellectual disability * Delayed development of motor skills * Behavioral problems, such as aggression and self-injury * Hypotonia (low muscle tone) * Respiratory problems * Sleep apnea * Reproductive issues, such as infertility and delayed puberty PWS is usually diagnosed in early childhood, based on the presence of certain physical and behavioral symptoms. There is no cure for PWS, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for affected individuals. This may include a special diet to help control appetite and prevent obesity, physical therapy to improve motor skills, and behavioral therapy to address behavioral problems.
Sodium glutamate is a naturally occurring amino acid that is commonly used as a flavor enhancer in the food industry. It is also used in some medical treatments, particularly for patients with certain neurological conditions. In the medical field, sodium glutamate is used as a medication to treat certain types of epilepsy, such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. It works by increasing the levels of a neurotransmitter called GABA in the brain, which can help to reduce seizures. Sodium glutamate is also used in some research studies to investigate the effects of GABA on the brain and to develop new treatments for neurological disorders. It is important to note that sodium glutamate can have side effects, including headaches, nausea, and dizziness. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
The receptor, melanocortin, type 3 (MC3R) is a protein that acts as a receptor for the melanocortin hormones, which are produced by the pituitary gland and adrenal gland. These hormones play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, and body weight. The MC3R receptor is primarily expressed in the brain, particularly in areas involved in appetite and energy homeostasis. Activation of the MC3R receptor has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, suggesting that it may play a role in the regulation of body weight in humans. Mutations in the MC3R gene have been associated with several disorders, including obesity, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Alström syndrome. These disorders are characterized by an abnormal regulation of appetite and metabolism, and may be caused by a malfunctioning or deficiency of the MC3R receptor.
Melanocortins are a group of peptides that are produced in the brain and the skin. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, including metabolism, appetite, and the immune system. Melanocortins are also involved in the production of skin pigmentation, which is why they are sometimes referred to as "pigment peptides." There are several different types of melanocortins, including alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These peptides bind to specific receptors on cells throughout the body, triggering a variety of responses. In the medical field, melanocortins are sometimes used to treat conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and skin disorders.
In the medical field, birth weight refers to the weight of a newborn baby at the time of delivery. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is an important indicator of a baby's health and development. Birth weight is influenced by a variety of factors, including the mother's health, nutrition, and lifestyle, as well as the baby's genetics and gestational age. Babies who are born with a low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds) are considered premature or small for gestational age, which can increase their risk of health problems such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, and infections. On the other hand, babies who are born with a high birth weight (greater than 4,000 grams or 8.8 pounds) may be at risk for complications such as shoulder dystocia, which can lead to nerve damage or other injuries during delivery. Overall, birth weight is an important measure of a baby's health and development, and healthcare providers closely monitor it during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and baby.
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It is caused by hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, which can make it harder for the body to regulate blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes typically goes away after the baby is born, but it can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Women who have had gestational diabetes are also at increased risk of having a baby with certain birth defects, such as neural tube defects. Treatment for gestational diabetes typically involves making dietary changes and exercising regularly, and in some cases, taking medication to help control blood sugar levels. It is important for women who have gestational diabetes to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications for themselves and their baby.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3 (β3-adrenergic receptors) are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone adrenaline (also known as epinephrine). These receptors are part of the adrenergic receptor family, which also includes alpha-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenergic receptors) and beta-adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors). β3-adrenergic receptors are primarily found in adipose tissue (fat tissue) and smooth muscle cells. They play a role in regulating metabolism and energy expenditure, and are also involved in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. Activation of β3-adrenergic receptors can lead to a number of physiological effects, including increased lipolysis (the breakdown of fat), increased energy expenditure, and vasodilation (the widening of blood vessels). These effects make β3-adrenergic receptors an attractive target for the development of drugs for the treatment of obesity and related conditions, such as type 2 diabetes.
In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
Phentermine is a medication that is used to treat obesity. It is a stimulant that works by suppressing appetite and increasing energy levels. It is typically prescribed to people who are obese and have other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes. Phentermine is usually taken in combination with a low-calorie diet and regular exercise to help people lose weight. It is important to note that phentermine can have side effects, such as increased heart rate, insomnia, and dry mouth, and should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
Receptors, Corticotropin, also known as CRH receptors, are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the body. These receptors are activated by a hormone called corticotropin, which is produced by the pituitary gland. Corticotropin receptors are primarily found in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, but they are also present in other parts of the body, such as the adrenal gland and the immune system. When corticotropin binds to its receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that ultimately lead to the release of other hormones, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cortisol is a hormone that helps the body respond to stress, while ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. Corticotropin receptors play a critical role in the body's stress response and are involved in a number of physiological processes, including the regulation of blood pressure, metabolism, and the immune system. Abnormalities in the function of corticotropin receptors can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including Cushing's disease, which is characterized by an overproduction of cortisol, and Addison's disease, which is characterized by an underproduction of cortisol.
Adiponectin receptors are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone adiponectin. Adiponectin is a protein produced by fat cells (adipocytes) that plays a role in regulating metabolism, glucose levels, and inflammation. The two main types of adiponectin receptors are AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are expressed in a variety of tissues including the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart. When adiponectin binds to its receptors, it triggers a cascade of signaling pathways within the cell that can have a variety of effects. For example, adiponectin can increase the breakdown of fat in adipocytes, improve insulin sensitivity in muscle and liver cells, and reduce inflammation in various tissues. Dysregulation of adiponectin receptors has been implicated in the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the endocrine system that regulate various bodily functions. They are transported through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and trigger a response. Hormones play a crucial role in regulating growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and other essential processes in the body. Examples of hormones include insulin, thyroid hormones, estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Imbalances in hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, infertility, and mood disorders.
In the medical field, "Hormones, Ectopic" refers to the production of hormones by cells or tissues outside of their normal location in the body. This can occur when cells that normally do not produce hormones begin to produce them, or when cells that normally produce hormones begin to produce them in excess. Ectopic hormone production can lead to a variety of medical conditions, depending on the type of hormone that is being produced and the location of the cells that are producing it. For example, if cells in the pancreas begin to produce insulin in excess, this can lead to a condition called insulinoma, which can cause low blood sugar levels and other symptoms. Similarly, if cells in the ovaries begin to produce estrogen in excess, this can lead to a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which can cause irregular periods, infertility, and other symptoms. Ectopic hormone production can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment for ectopic hormone production depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate hormone levels, surgery to remove the affected cells or tissues, or other therapies.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that are secreted by cells and act as messengers to communicate with other cells. These molecules can be hormones, growth factors, cytokines, or other signaling molecules that are capable of transmitting information between cells. They play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as immune responses and inflammation. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins is important for developing new treatments for various diseases and disorders, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.
Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme involved in various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, DNA repair, and inflammation. NAMPT is also known as the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD+ salvage pathway, which recycles NAD+ from its degradation products. In the medical field, NAMPT has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders. NAMPT is often upregulated in cancer cells, leading to increased NAD+ biosynthesis and enhanced cell survival and proliferation. Inhibiting NAMPT activity has been shown to reduce cancer cell growth and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. In addition, NAMPT has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, as well as metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. In these conditions, NAMPT activity is often dysregulated, leading to reduced NAD+ levels and impaired cellular function. Therefore, targeting NAMPT has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various diseases. Several NAMPT inhibitors have been developed and are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies.
Glucose metabolism disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the way the body processes glucose, a type of sugar that is the primary source of energy for the body's cells. These disorders can be classified into two main categories: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). In Type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin in the body. This results in high blood sugar levels, which can cause a range of health problems if left untreated. In Type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to insulin, meaning that the cells do not respond properly to the hormone. This can lead to high blood sugar levels, which can also cause a range of health problems if left untreated. Other glucose metabolism disorders include prediabetes, which is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes, and glycogen storage diseases, which are genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to store and use glucose.
Peptide hormones are a type of hormone that are composed of chains of amino acids. They are synthesized in the endocrine glands and are released into the bloodstream to regulate various bodily functions. Peptide hormones are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and the regulation of the body's response to stress. Examples of peptide hormones include insulin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. These hormones act on specific receptors in target cells to produce their effects, and they are often regulated by feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the body.
Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances that accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. As the plaque builds up, it can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries that supply blood to the brain, legs, kidneys, and other organs, leading to a range of health problems such as peripheral artery disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of the condition.
In the medical field, prediabetes is a condition in which a person's blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is often considered a precursor to type 2 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other health problems. There are two main types of prediabetes: impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IFG occurs when a person's fasting blood sugar level is between 100 and 125 mg/dL, while IGT occurs when a person's two-hour blood sugar level after consuming a glucose load is between 140 and 199 mg/dL. Prediabetes can be diagnosed through blood tests that measure fasting blood sugar levels or glucose tolerance tests. Once diagnosed, lifestyle changes such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet can help prevent or delay the progression to type 2 diabetes. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to help manage blood sugar levels.
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of fatty acids in the body. It is responsible for converting stearoyl-CoA, a saturated fatty acid, into oleoyl-CoA, a monounsaturated fatty acid. This process is known as desaturation, and it involves the addition of a double bond to the carbon chain of the fatty acid. SCD is primarily found in the liver, adipose tissue, and mammary glands, and it is involved in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, which are important for the production of cholesterol and other lipids. In addition, SCD has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. In the medical field, SCD is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs that inhibit SCD activity have been shown to reduce body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in animal models of obesity and diabetes. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these drugs in humans.
Peptide YY (PYY) is a hormone that is produced by the gastrointestinal tract in response to the presence of food in the stomach and small intestine. It is also produced by the pancreas and the central nervous system. PYY plays a role in regulating appetite and satiety, meaning it helps to control hunger and fullness. It is released in response to the presence of nutrients in the bloodstream, and it signals to the brain that the body has received enough food and does not need to eat more. PYY has also been shown to have other effects on the body, including reducing blood pressure, improving insulin sensitivity, and decreasing inflammation. As a result, PYY has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
In the medical field, "preconception injuries" refer to injuries or conditions that occur before a person becomes pregnant. These injuries or conditions can have an impact on the health of the mother and the developing fetus during pregnancy and childbirth. Examples of preconception injuries include: * Trauma or injuries to the reproductive organs, such as a pelvic fracture or a sexually transmitted infection * Chronic health conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure * Certain infections, such as rubella or syphilis * Exposure to certain medications or substances, such as alcohol or tobacco Preconception injuries can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, such as miscarriage, preterm labor, and low birth weight. It is important for women who are planning to become pregnant to discuss any preconception injuries or conditions with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment and to ensure a healthy pregnancy.
Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual does not get enough sleep, either in terms of duration or quality. It is a common problem that can have serious consequences on a person's physical and mental health. In the medical field, sleep deprivation is defined as a lack of sufficient sleep that affects a person's ability to function normally. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that adults should aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night, and that children and adolescents need even more. Sleep deprivation can be caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle habits such as irregular sleep schedules, exposure to bright light at night, and the use of electronic devices before bedtime. It can also be caused by underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. The effects of sleep deprivation can range from mild to severe and can include fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. In severe cases, sleep deprivation can lead to more serious health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. Treatment for sleep deprivation typically involves addressing the underlying cause and making lifestyle changes to improve sleep habits. In some cases, medication or other medical interventions may be necessary to treat underlying sleep disorders.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, as well as non-immune cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. IL-6 has a wide range of functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting inflammation, and stimulating the growth and differentiation of immune cells. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, bone metabolism, and hematopoiesis (the production of blood cells). In the medical field, IL-6 is often measured as a marker of inflammation and is used to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for the management of chronic pain and other conditions.
Eating disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits that significantly interfere with a person's physical health and well-being. Eating disorders can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, genders, and body types. The three most common eating disorders are: 1. Anorexia nervosa: A severe and potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even when underweight. People with anorexia often restrict their food intake, exercise excessively, and may use laxatives or other methods to lose weight. 2. Bulimia nervosa: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting or using laxatives, to compensate for the overeating. People with bulimia may also engage in other compensatory behaviors, such as excessive exercise or fasting. 3. Binge eating disorder: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, which are marked by a lack of control over eating and a feeling of a loss of control during the binge. People with binge eating disorder may also feel a sense of shame or guilt after a binge episode. Other eating disorders include avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, pica, and rumination disorder. Eating disorders can have serious physical and mental health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, depression, anxiety, and even death. Treatment for eating disorders typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, medical care, and nutritional counseling.
Fructose is a simple sugar that is found naturally in many fruits, honey, and some vegetables. It is also added to many processed foods as a sweetener. In the medical field, fructose is often used as a source of energy for the body and is an important component of the diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes. However, excessive consumption of fructose has been linked to a number of health problems, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As a result, many healthcare professionals recommend limiting the amount of fructose in the diet.
Cholesterol, LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is commonly referred to as "bad" cholesterol. It is one of the two main types of cholesterol found in the blood, the other being HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) or "good" cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is produced by the liver and carries cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body, such as the muscles and the brain. However, when there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques. These plaques can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Therefore, high levels of LDL cholesterol are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and doctors often recommend lifestyle changes and medications to lower LDL cholesterol levels in patients with high levels.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Proprotein Convertase 1 (PC1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the processing of various proteins in the human body. It is a member of the subtilisin family of proteases and is encoded by the PACE4 gene. PC1 is primarily expressed in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys, where it is involved in the activation of various proteins, including prohormones, growth factors, and cytokines. It cleaves specific peptide bonds in the N-terminal region of these proteins, thereby activating them and allowing them to exert their biological functions. In the medical field, PC1 is of particular interest because it is involved in the regulation of several important physiological processes, including hormone secretion, cell growth and differentiation, and immune response. Dysregulation of PC1 activity has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For example, PC1 has been shown to play a role in the development of pancreatic cancer by cleaving prohormones such as progastrin and proinsulin, which can promote tumor growth and progression. Similarly, PC1 has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes by regulating the processing of insulin and other hormones involved in glucose metabolism. Overall, PC1 is a critical enzyme that plays a central role in the regulation of various physiological processes in the human body, and its dysregulation can have significant implications for human health and disease.
Panniculitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the subcutaneous fat tissue, also known as panniculus. It can affect any part of the body, but is most commonly seen on the legs, buttocks, and abdomen. Panniculitis can be acute or chronic, and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, medications, and certain types of cancer. Symptoms of panniculitis may include redness, swelling, tenderness, and warmth in the affected area, as well as the formation of nodules or lumps under the skin. Diagnosis of panniculitis typically involves a physical examination, as well as imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, and may include medications to reduce inflammation, antibiotics to treat infections, or surgery to remove affected tissue.
Endocrine system diseases refer to disorders that affect the endocrine glands and the hormones they produce. The endocrine system is responsible for regulating various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction. Endocrine system diseases can be classified into two main categories: endocrine disorders and endocrine tumors. Endocrine disorders are conditions in which the endocrine glands produce too much or too little of a hormone, leading to imbalances in the body's chemical processes. Examples of endocrine disorders include diabetes, thyroid disorders, and Cushing's syndrome. Endocrine tumors, on the other hand, are abnormal growths of cells in the endocrine glands. These tumors can produce too much or too little of a hormone, leading to similar symptoms as endocrine disorders. Examples of endocrine tumors include pituitary adenomas, thyroid nodules, and adrenal gland tumors. Endocrine system diseases can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. Treatment options for endocrine system diseases depend on the specific condition and may include medication, surgery, or other therapies.
Obesity and fertility
National Obesity Observatory
National Obesity Forum
Obesity in Canada
Obesity in Sweden
The Obesity Society
Obesity in France
Childhood Obesity (journal)
Obesity in Switzerland
Obesity in pets
Management of obesity
Epidemiology of obesity
World Obesity Day
International Obesity Taskforce
Diet and obesity
Obesity in India
Normal weight obesity
Obesity in Ukraine
Disability and Obesity | CDC
Obesity Week 2022
GHO | By category | Prevalence of obesity, crude
Pediatric Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome: Overview, Pathophysiology and Etiology, Clinical Presentation
Obesity | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
International Journal of Obesity
Pharmacotherapy for Obesity
Obesity Tag: Archive (ABC Science)
Fast Five Quiz: Obesity Comorbidities
Possible Association between Obesity and Clostridium difficile Infection - Volume 19, Number 11-November 2013 - Emerging...
Webinar October 21, 2020 - Promising Practices in Health Equity: Obesity-Related Risk During COVID-19 and Barriers to Active...
Obesity (Excessively Overweight): Health Effects and Next Steps
Obesity | Conditions | UCSF Health
Sixty seconds on . . . obesity in the UK | The BMJ
Obesity Program | Children's National Hospital
PDF) Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease
Dr. Laura: obesity
Pregnancy and Obesity
A family meal a day may keep obesity away | ScienceDaily
Millions die from obesity worldwide, says York study
Jogging Is the Best Weapon Against 'Obesity Genes' | Live Science
Obesity on the Rise in Australia
Hormone injection hailed 'most exciting' treatment for obesity 'yet' | ITV News
Obesity & COPD: Risky Combo for Air Travel? | MedPage Today
Obesity in America vs. obesity in China | The Week
- The Obesity Program is a weight-loss and health education program that brings together a comprehensive team of physicians, researchers and healthcare professionals for children and teens committed to preventing and treating childhood obesity. (childrensnational.org)
- Mar. 18, 2020 Two new studies underscore health risks associated with childhood obesity. (sciencedaily.com)
- The number of childhood obesity cases were increasing in the State of Illinois that it required that the state demonstrate and execute The Obesity Prevention Initiative Act and Illinois Alliance to Prevent obesity. (bartleby.com)
- Childhood obesity can be attributed to sugary snacks and beverages provided at schools and homes. (bartleby.com)
- Social media can help with providing childhood obesity awareness considering people follow celebrities who are influential (Harris, Moreland-Russell, Tabak, Ruhr, &Maier, 2014). (bartleby.com)
- Empirical Evidence Childhood obesity is a rather new reality in the United States due to intake of sugary snacks and beverages, childhood obesity is the result of a sustained energy imbalance. (bartleby.com)
- One of the biggest medical issues in America today is childhood obesity. (bartleby.com)
- Childhood obesity is a "national epidemic" problem in America that needs major attention. (bartleby.com)
- Moss's point is that the rates of childhood obesity has increased tremendously over the past years. (bartleby.com)
- The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued its first-ever guidelines on childhood obesity. (kevinmd.com)
- Not all obese children develop obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). (medscape.com)
- Less than 10% of children who are obese have endogenous obesity. (medscape.com)
- Obesity has reached epidemic levels, with a total of 500 million adults classed as obese globally in 2008, which is expected to rise to 700 million by 2015 (WHO). (medscape.com)
- Worldwide, obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 , with more than 650 million individuals now considered obese. (medscape.com)
- In obese, nonpregnant individuals, at least some of the long-term cardiovascular morbidity was thought to be due to obesity-mediated systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (Brook and associates, 2001). (health.am)
- In addition, obesity in children from ages one to seventeen is an issue in Texas, since children are not aware of the serious consequences of being obese. (bartleby.com)
- Therefore, Texas should find ways to prevent obesity by authorizing healthier school lunches and allowing a school program to help obese children lose weight. (bartleby.com)
- Intake of anti-obesity drug liraglutide, resulted in better brain activity and in-turn finer associative learning in obese individuals. (medindia.net)
- This paper clarifies the different psychological aspects that are expressed around the growing obesity phenomenon, comorbidity and impact of psychopathology associated to the life quality of the obese adult. (bvsalud.org)
- This article recapitulates the studies describing the effect of obesity on male fertility, discusses the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relation, and suggests, based on the current evidence, a practical approach to evaluate and treat the obese subfertile man. (medscape.com)
- In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are overweight or obese, antidiabetic medications that have additional actions to promote weight loss (such as glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] analogs or sodium-glucose-linked transporter-2 [SGLT-2] inhibitors) are suggested, in addition to the first-line agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, metformin. (medscape.com)
- For adults, overweight and obesity ranges are determined by using weight and height to calculate a number called the " body mass index" (BMI) . (cdc.gov)
- Children and adults with mobility limitations and intellectual or learning disabilities are at greatest risk for obesity. (cdc.gov)
- Annual health care costs of obesity for all adults in the United States were estimated to be as high as $147 billion dollars for 2008. (cdc.gov)
- Obesity is a complex problem that requires a strong call for action, at many levels, for both adults as well as children. (cdc.gov)
- Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. (who.int)
- BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. (who.int)
- Is There a Relationship Between Obesity and Respiratory Illnesses in Adults? (medscape.com)
- Obesity is a complex disease with many contributing factors, but Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black adults have a higher prevalence of obesity and are more likely to suffer worse outcomes from COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
- Each year, approximately 280,000 adults die from an obesity-related condition in the United States. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Results also showed a stronger protective effect of family meal frequency on obesity among black young adults compared with white young adults. (sciencedaily.com)
- Obesity has become an epidemic in adults and children in the United States. (bartleby.com)
- In the United States, about 1 in 3 adults have obesity. (msdmanuals.com)
- You might have heard the term "morbid obesity" to refer to obesity that's likely to pose serious threats to your health. (webmd.com)
- For those suffering from morbid obesity, anything less than a total change in environment usually results in failure to reach and maintain a healthy body weight. (ucsfhealth.org)
Prevalence of obesity among1
- The prevalence of obesity among children aged 2 to 5 years decreased significantly from 13.9% in 2003-2004 to 8.4% in 2011-2012 . (health.am)
- Given that obesity is the greatest epidemic in human existence (based upon the number of lives affected [ 155 ] ), it is perhaps surprising that no efficacious pharmacotherapies currently exist. (medscape.com)
- We appreciate the surgical option for now, but without a new generation of obesity drugs, a meaningful strike against the obesity epidemic and its associated healthcare costs will prove difficult to achieve. (medscape.com)
- It is suggested that until the epidemic progression of obesity is stopped and obesity prevented or at least properly managed, cardiologists will be confronted to an evolving contribution of risk factors where smoking, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension may be relatively less prevalent but at the expense of a much greater contribution of abdominal obesity and related features of the metabolic syndrome. (researchgate.net)
- Obesity, a fast paced epidemic is ready to engulf people all over the world and needs to be taken seriously. (womenfitness.net)
- Perhaps with patience, we will see people care about their bodies and their health as much as their family, friends and relatives do, and as much as the taxpayers who are not overweight and are forced to be burdened by the rising health costs brought on by illnesses associated with obesity. (drlaura.com)
- One of the most common medical illnesses of school-age children is obesity. (bartleby.com)
- It has been estimated that obesity and its associated illnesses cost Australian society and governments a total of 21 billion dollars (18 billion US) in 2005,' the bureau said. (medindia.net)
- When it comes to our team's mission, we consider the full continuum of care, from obesity prevention to intervention as it relates to research, advocacy and education. (childrensnational.org)
- We hope this study will better inform prevention and intervention strategies for obesity. (yorku.ca)
- The Obesity Prevention Initiative Act was started in 2010, to address the need of starting a campaign that focuses on changing the sugary snacks and beverage provided in schools. (bartleby.com)
- Obesity Week 2022 New Dual Agonist Weight Loss Injection Impressive, But Early Days The 'bottom line' is that this potential new anti-obesity/diabetes drug is 'very promising, but [it is] still a little early to say where it ultimately will go,' says one obesity expert. (medscape.com)
- Overweight and obesity, particularly in urban settings, are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attacks and a variety of cancers. (who.int)
- This can help an individual to lose weight and also reduce the risk of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and other aspects of metabolic syndrome that can occur with obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Many remain small to adulthood and are at an increased risk for developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. (bcm.edu)
- Obesity significantly increases your risk of developing life-threatening conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Obesity-related conditions include heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer , some of the leading causes of preventable death. (health.am)
- Also, children have a higher chance of developing health diseases related to obesity such as hypertension, high cholesterol, stroke, heart disease, diabetes and pulmonary disease. (bartleby.com)
- The bureau said health problems related to obesity were also on the rise, with 3.6 percent of the adult population suffering from diabetes in 2004-05, compared with 2.4 percent in 1995. (medindia.net)
- Firstly, I believe obesity begins with a "scavenger" metabolism that is ruthless at extracting calories from carbohydrates (CHO) and storing them as fat, something that had survival value prior to agriculture but is now disadvantageous with the "western diet" (WD). (kevinmd.com)
- I explain to the parents of the child with obesity that his/her metabolism is too efficient at turning CHO into fat and that the solution is to either remove all CHO from the diet (Banting) or at least restrict it (low GI). (kevinmd.com)
Prone to obesity3
- Individuals who lack key species of so-called 'good' bacteria in their intestines are more prone to obesity and associated diseases. (abc.net.au)
- People who are genetically prone to obesity may gain weight more easily than others. (livescience.com)
- This was true even among people who were genetically prone to obesity. (livescience.com)
Effect of obesity1
- [ 6 ] Multiple reports have described the effect of obesity on male fertility. (medscape.com)
Treatment For Obesity1
- Treatment for obesity is often multi-factorial and involves diet and lifestyle changes, activity, and exercise programs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Patients with obesity1
- Our team includes physicians, dietitians and psychologists with experience and special training in treating patients with obesity, including those with other complicating medical conditions. (ucsfhealth.org)
- If you have obesity, losing even 5 to 10% of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
- There is a common misconception that obesity and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) only occur among the wealthy. (who.int)
- Obesity increases a person's risk of many severe diseases and health complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The inherent cell-type specificity of epigenetic regulation motivates development of techniques to isolate and study specific cell types of relevance to obesity and digestive diseases. (bcm.edu)
- Anti-obesity potential of a tropical plant emerges as a promising solution to address the global surge in obesity-related lifestyle diseases. (medindia.net)
- Conclusions: However, given the multifactorial nature of occupational diseases, it is likely that overweight and obesity may act as a predisposing factor in these diseases, interacting and enhancing the effects of other important risk factors for the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. (bvsalud.org)
- The IDEAL Clinic, which is part of the Obesity Program, includes pediatricians, pediatric sub-specialists, pediatric nurse practitioners, clinical dietitians, health educators and sleep medicine specialists. (childrensnational.org)
- Every specialty has its burden, and pediatric endocrinology's is obesity. (kevinmd.com)
- Nov. 3, 2021 Obesity risk factors of family background are associated with changes in the brain function, finds a new study. (sciencedaily.com)
- Nov. 25, 2020 Analysis of survey results has revealed that in women, obesity is linked to various social and economic factors. (sciencedaily.com)
- TORONTO, July 29, 2020 - Obesity is a significant factor in increasing rates of disease globally with the number of deaths related to a high body mass index (BMI) more than doubled from 1990 to 2017, say York University researchers. (yorku.ca)
- Family meals may be protective against obesity or overweight because coming together for meals may provide opportunities for emotional connections among family members, the food is more likely to be healthful, and adolescents may be exposed to parental modeling of healthful eating behaviors. (sciencedaily.com)
- This is the kind of negative behavior of parents who really do not believe these behaviors cause obesity. (bartleby.com)
- Obesity Week 2022 Tirzepatide Lowers Weight Across All Groups With Obesity The anti-obesity medication semaglutide (Wegovy) 'took things up one big notch, and now tirzepatide [which is still awaiting approval for weight loss] is up a little notch above that,' one expert commented. (medscape.com)
- But one tried-and-true exercise stood out as the one with the strongest anti-obesity effect: jogging. (livescience.com)
- How do doctors treat obesity? (msdmanuals.com)
- Although researchers say that overall rates of obesity are similar for men and women, women are more likely to have severe, or class 3, obesity. (webmd.com)
- Obesity Week 2022 More Weight Loss With Surgery Than New Obesity Meds: Meta-Analysis Weight loss was lower with a GLP-1 agonist than with bariatric surgery, in a small review article and meta-analysis, but researchers have yet to directly compare surgery with new dual or triple agonists. (medscape.com)
- New theory Mounting evidence suggests the link between popular antidepressants and obesity should be investigated more closely as the rates for both grow, Australian researchers say. (abc.net.au)
- Obesity researchers now refer to a theory called the "set point," a sort of thermostat in the brain that makes people resistant to either weight gain or loss. (ucsfhealth.org)
- In a new study, researchers studied whether frequent family meals during adolescence were protective for overweight and obesity in adulthood. (sciencedaily.com)
- The researchers then scanned participants' genomes, looking for genes that were tied to an increased risk of obesity . (livescience.com)
- The researchers noted that, for the average Joe or Jane, cycling and stretching exercises tend to require less energy expenditure than the six exercises that were tied to a lower obesity risk. (livescience.com)
- In a flight simulation situation, individuals with obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experienced relevant hypoxia, according to German researchers. (medpagetoday.com)
- Obesity is a growing problem in American children and one that carries serious metabolic and cardiopulmonary consequences, including an increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing. (medscape.com)
- However, even in the absence of the hyperglycaemic state which characterizes type 2 diabetic patients, non diabetic individuals with a specific form of obesity, named abdominal obesity, often show clustering metabolic abnormalities which include high triglyceride levels, increased apolipoprotein B, small dense low density lipoproteins and decreased high density lipoproteins-cholesterol levels, a hyperinsulinemic-insulin resistant state, alterations in coagulation factors as well as an inflammatory profile. (researchgate.net)
- This agglomeration of abnormalities has been referred to as the metabolic syndrome which can be identified by the presence of three of the five following variables: abdominal obesity, elevated triglyceride concentrations, low HDL-cholesterol levels, increased blood pressure and elevated fasting glucose. (researchgate.net)
- Metabolic syndrome linked to abdominal obesity is also predictive of recurrent coronary events both in post-myocardial infarction patients and among coronary artery disease men who underwent a revascularization procedures. (researchgate.net)
- Coconut oil supplements over a long period of time may have a major impact on the metabolic changes in diet that can lead to obesity. (medindia.net)
- Many things contribute to obesity, including your genes, your eating patterns, and how much activity you get. (webmd.com)
- A new study suggests that jogging is one of the best exercises to counteract so-called "obesity genes. (livescience.com)
- But having so-called " obesity genes " does not make a person destined to pack on the pounds. (livescience.com)
- Participants with obesity genes who jogged tended to have a lower BMI, lower body fat percentage and a smaller hip circumference than people with similar genetic risk who did not jog. (livescience.com)
- Because few participants in this study reported engaging in weight training, badminton, tennis or basketball, the study could not determine whether these exercises offset the risk of obesity genes. (livescience.com)
- Doctors classify obesity as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Obesity affects different people in different ways and may increase the risk for other health conditions among people with and without disabilities. (cdc.gov)
- Annual health care costs of obesity that are related to disability are estimated at approximately $44 billion. (cdc.gov)
- Attempts are under way to improve awareness of sleep disorders and their impact on the health of children with obesity. (medscape.com)
- Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. (who.int)
- Obesity may be associated with CDI, independent of antibacterial drug or health care exposures. (cdc.gov)
- Doctors define obesity as a chronic (long-lasting) disease that results when have you have excess body fat that puts your health at risk. (webmd.com)
- According to the World Health Organization, more than 4 million people die every year due to obesity or overweight. (webmd.com)
- To screen you for obesity, your doctor might talk to you about your health history to learn about your eating and activity patterns, history of weight gain and loss, and more. (webmd.com)
- Using this information, public health and health care professionals who work with adolescents can give parents another tool in the fight against obesity. (sciencedaily.com)
- Obesity is a condition where there is excess accumulation of body fat which poses a risk to the health of the individual. (medindia.net)
- Levels of overweight and obesity in Australia's rural communities are very high, say public health experts in the latest edition of the Medical Journal of Australia. (medindia.net)
- If current trends continue, no state will have an obesity rate lower than 44% by 2030, according to estimates by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Trust for America's Health. (womenfitness.net)
- Obesity causes health problems. (msdmanuals.com)
- Obesity is a substantial public health crisis in the United States, and internationally, with the prevalence increasing rapidly in numerous industrialized nations. (medscape.com)
- Although several classifications and definitions for degrees of obesity are accepted, the most widely accepted classifications are those from the World Health Organization (WHO), based on body mass index (BMI). (medscape.com)
- Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), overweight and obesity and the association between them, among public health dentists. (bvsalud.org)
- Obesity and overweight were observed across the BMI (body mass index) recommended by the World Health Organization. (bvsalud.org)
- Interestingly, several other types of exercise failed to counteract the genetic risk of obesity. (livescience.com)
- Obesity rates are significantly higher among some racial and ethnic groups. (cdc.gov)
- Overall, all levels of baseline family meal frequency, even having as few as 1-2 family meals a week during adolescence, were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity at the 10-year follow-up compared with those reporting never having had family meals during adolescence. (sciencedaily.com)
- The obesity is a morbid condition that has affected a vast majority of countries all over the world and it is significantly associated with high risk of psychological comorbidity and worsening quality of life. (bvsalud.org)
- Indeed, bariatric surgery is currently the predominant approach to obesity treatment, with the gastric bypass as the most effective procedure available for sustained weight loss and mortality benefit. (medscape.com)
- Therefore, tackling obesity in the future will most likely involve the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie surgically induced weight loss and the mimicry of the changes in gut hormone profile and neuroendocrine signaling associated with gastric bypass surgery, using pharmacological intervention. (medscape.com)
- Most of the world's population live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight. (who.int)
- People who live in colder climates have a gut bacteria profile associated with obesity, new research has found. (abc.net.au)
- Several treatment options can help people with obesity achieve and maintain a suitable weight. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It is more common in people with obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Obesity is more common in people at middle age and older. (webmd.com)
- Because the overall prevalence of obesity has increased over the past several decades, the prevalence of obesity complicating pregnancy has also increased. (health.am)
- Before adoption of the BMI, investigators used a variety of definitions of obesity to assess risks during pregnancy. (health.am)
- No evidence-based treatment that increases the likelihood of pregnancy for the infertility associated with male obesity has been demonstrated to date. (medscape.com)
- Your chances of heart disease and stroke increase with obesity. (itv.com)
- Poor nutrition and unhealthy eating habits are the primary reason precipitating obesity in children. (bartleby.com)
- Obesity in children is defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the BMI for age as shown on growth charts of boys and girls aged 2-19 years. (medscape.com)
- Go to Obesity and Obesity in Children for complete information on this topic. (medscape.com)
- Australian scientists say they have unravelled a key mechanism in mice that may explain how obesity can be passed from a mother to her children. (abc.net.au)
- National obesity rates for American Indian/Alaska Native children were not available. (webmd.com)
- This multidisciplinary team helps children and teens live a healthier lifestyle, achieve a healthy weight and reduce the risk of complications related to obesity. (childrensnational.org)
- Approximately 17% (or 12.7 million) of children and adolescents aged 2 - 19 years had obesity. (health.am)
- Moreover, children are at risk of obesity because they do not eat enough fruits and vegetables and do not obtain enough physical activity. (bartleby.com)
- Obesity - Cancer Link Uncovered! (womenfitness.net)
- These obesity-associated changes have been implicated in several hallmarks of cancer, including the chronic inflammatory state and associated cell signalling, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumour-related fibrosis, angiogenesis, and genomic instability. (nih.gov)
- Most likely, complex interactions between obesity-related mechanical factors affecting lung function, altered respiratory drive, and sleep-disordered breathing contribute to the pathophysiology of OHS. (medscape.com)
- Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. (cdc.gov)
- If you have a genetic predisposition towards obesity, the modern American lifestyle and environment may make controlling weight more difficult. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Cunningham and associates (1986) reported that obesity (weight greater than 200 pounds) and hypertension were common co-factors in causing peripartum heart failure. (health.am)
- Post-mortem analyses of coronary arteries have indicated that obesity (associated with a high accumulation of abdominal fat measured at autopsy) was predictive of earlier and greater extent of large vessels atherosclerosis as well as increase of coronary fatty streaks. (researchgate.net)