Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.TriglyceridesOrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Mice, Inbred C57BLLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Mice, Inbred BALB CSalmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C3HSpores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
  • A large ( n = 815) murine advanced intercross line (G 4 ) was created from a reciprocal cross between a high-running line and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. (physiology.org)
  • Stock No. 005252 is an alternative strain, with a virtually identical genetic background except that it is wild-type for Pde6b , the result of continuous backcrossing to (C57BL/6JEiJ x C3Sn.BLiA- Pde6b + /DnJ)F1/J. (jax.org)
  • In the current study, we have generated and analyzed mRNA expression and metabolic profiles in liver samples obtained in an F2 intercross between the diabetes-resistant C57BL/6 leptin ob/ob and the diabetes-susceptible BTBR leptin ob/ob mouse strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that CHIR99021, a GSK-3 specific inhibitor, promotes self-renewal of ES cells from recalcitrant C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mouse strains through stabilization of β-catenin and c-Myc protein levels. (plos.org)
  • C57BL/6JOlaHsd In 1974, from the Jackson Laboratory to Laboratory Animals Centre, Carshalton. (spotidoc.com)
  • Characteristics The C57BL is easily the most widely used of all inbred strain. (spotidoc.com)
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common (Vadasz et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • Obesity, induced by carbohydrate diet followed by induction of stress may promote the development of anxiety-like behaviour compared to animals on normal diet [ 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The potential to clarify the genetic and physiological bases of obesity and some forms of diabetes was significantly enhanced by the molecular characterization of the obese (ob) and diabetes (db) genes. (physiology.org)
  • Animal models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) are commonly used to model metabolic syndrome, but have some limitations. (taconic.com)
  • In obese humans, serum adiponectin decreases, and adiponectin mRNA expression in adipose tissue and serum adiponectin are inversely associated with BMI, a measure of the degree of obesity ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Many investigators who have studied energy expenditure in humans have suggested that when a clear defect in energy expenditure is lacking in obese individuals, obesity can be only the result of excessive energy intake. (kelmacmedical.us)
  • A significant increase in the incidence of obesity in patients with male-factor infertility has been observed and couples with obese male partners are more likely to experience sub-fecundity [ 3 ]. (bestprobioticsforibs.com)
  • In addition, the prevalence of obesity has more than doubled since 1980 ( http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ ). (biologists.org)
  • The interplay between adiponectin and resistin, the two adipokines of opposite effects, may determine the metabolic profile of obese individuals and development of obesity-related complications. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In particular, the brain's ability to monitor and respond to alterations in glucose metabolism becomes aberrant in both individuals predisposed to become obese (obesity prone) and those already obese and diabetic. (physiology.org)
  • The Ts(17 16 )65Dn trisomy is available in two different strains (Stock Numbers 001924 and 005252 ). (jax.org)
  • Weight loss is the result of both lean and fat mass loss, although variation in fat loss is the component mostly responsible for the high variation observed in weight loss among different strains ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • On this basis, animal models should be carefully selected for diabetes investigations depending on what aspects of the disease are being studied. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, animal models play a vital role in the understanding of diabetes pathogenesis as they allow the combination of genetic and functional characterization of the syndrome [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Since the animals used to study type 1 diabetes are highly inbred with a limited number of pathways to T1D, the relevance to human T1D has been questioned [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, numerous animal models have been developed for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • including heart attacks and stroke), diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases [including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma] ( http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/mortality_morbidity/en/ ). (biologists.org)
  • We have previously reported a novel rat model of non-obese type 2 diabetes, the Long-Evans Agouti (LEA/Tohm) rat, which is characterized by a spontaneous insulin secretion-deficient diabetes model (Okamura et al. (springer.com)
  • The inflammatory C-reactive protein is increased in both liver and adipose tissue in severely obese patients independently from metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes, and NASH. (termsreign.cf)
  • Mattson's control animals-the rodents that were supposed to yield a normal response to stroke and Parkinson's-might have been overweight, and that would mean his baseline data were skewed. (slate.com)
  • When Mattson made that point in Atlanta, and suggested that the control animals used in labs were sedentary and overweight as a rule, several in the audience gasped. (slate.com)
  • At present, a rough estimate of the "globesity" epidemic suggests that about one of every seven people is obese, two are overweight, and one is suffering from undernutrition (often of micronutrients). (frontiersin.org)
  • When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. (genetics.org)
  • additional tests by ovariectomy and transplantation of ovarian tissue to JANVIER LABS females with the same genetic background as the strain of interest. (janvier-labs.com)
  • Total caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI-mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. (frontiersin.org)
  • The current state of knowledge regarding sex differences in the pathophysiology of human hypertension as well as the clinical implications of studies conducted in experimental animal models of hypertension will be addressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, QTL analyses have begun to use high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels and applications have extended beyond experimental intercrosses to outbred populations by exploiting long-range linkage disequilibrium that results in higher resolution QTL mapping. (termsreign.tk)
  • Consulting this information during the planning of an animal study ensures that researchers can benefit from the explanations and advice on experimental design, minimisation of bias, sample size and statistical analyses, helping the design of rigorous and reliable in vivo experiments. (arriveguidelines.org)
  • Human beings and members of other species, especially animals, necessarily experience ageing and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. (nap.edu)
  • The environment in which animals are maintained should be appropriate to the species, its life history, and its intended use. (nap.edu)
  • Expert advice might be sought for special requirements associated with the experiment or animal subject (for example, hazardous-agent use, behavioral studies, and immunocompromised animals, farm animals, and nontraditional laboratory species). (nap.edu)
  • But the intrinsic difference between ES cell lines from different species and strains has not been characterized. (plos.org)
  • Recently, several chemical inhibitors of specific signaling pathways have been reported to enhance the efficiency of ES cell derivation and propagation of pluripotent stem cells from a range of rodent species and strains. (plos.org)
  • The species and strain composition of the microbiota are generally maintained over the following years, while undergoing fluctuations according to the environmental factors mentioned above. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. (hindawi.com)
  • Strains available only from the cytogenetics and Down syndrome models repository are listed in the table below. (jax.org)
  • Our most widely used DS strains are the Ts65Dn models (symbolized as Ts(17 16 )65Dn). (jax.org)
  • Indiana University-Jackson Laboratory MODEL-AD Center addresses critical need for precision animal models for Alzheimer's research. (jax.org)
  • Animal models have provided significant mechanistic insights into both physiology and disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Less clear is the value of animal models as part of the preclinical development of new treatments for disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2. They can be used to produce animal models of human disease or to study the effects of environmental agents. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Animal models of T2D provide an opportunity to study the disease intensively. (hindawi.com)
  • Diabetic complications in obese type 2 diabetic rat models. (nih.gov)
  • We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. (genetics.org)
  • This study assessed the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM-14870) on sperm kinematic parameters in Normal-weight (NW) and diet-induced obese (DIO) models. (bestprobioticsforibs.com)
  • The research focus of the Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology (SCN) Laboratory is the study of the sleep and circadian physiology using various animal models. (stanford.edu)
  • When the parents are inbred strains, one can also estimate parent-of-origin effects. (genetics.org)
  • Methoden om Beta Cell Death gemedieerd beoordelen door cytotoxische T lymfocyten Jing Chen 1 , Scott Grieshaber 1 , Clayton E. Mathews 1 1 Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida Cel-gemedieerde lymphocytotoxicity (CML) testen kunnen worden gebruikt voor het autoreactieve reacties en onderzoek naar mechanismen van celdood in vitro test. (jove.com)
  • The obese and fatty condition appeared spontaneously in the 13M stock and was reported by Lois Zucker and Theodore Zucker in 1960 at the Laboratory of Comparative Pathology in Stow, Massachusetts. (mcw.edu)
  • However, random variation in these measurable biological traits is not remarkably diminished by reducing genetic variation using inbred strains or reducing environmental variability through standardized husbandry in laboratory animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guidelines for the design and statistical analysis of experiments using laboratory animals. (arriveguidelines.org)
  • The inherent risk of this approach is that, while a molecule of interest may be key to a pathway in an in vitro culture, it may not be key in vivo in the animal model due to redundant molecular pathways that exist in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further, even when a molecule of interest appears to be important in disease pathogenesis in a given animal model, it may not be critical in human disease due to differences in disease pathways in the outbred human population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic engineering a large animal model of human hypophosphatasia in sheep. (nih.gov)
  • ZFDM rat strain having high reproductive efficiency should serve as a more useful animal model of T2D. (hindawi.com)
  • 16. True or False: Rabbits are an animal model of surgically induced myocardial infarction and reperfusion. (brainscape.com)
  • Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial infarction: comparison of a rat model in two strains. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • Animal model of human disease: acrodermatitis enteropathica, zinc malabsorption. (springer.com)
  • Relatively insensitive to the primary odorant isovaleric acid (contrast seven other strains) and may provide an animal model of specific anosmia (Wysocki et al, 1977). (spotidoc.com)
  • Also provided are methods of using the non-human animals. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • It may not be necessary to include a separate control with no active treatment if, for example, the experiment aims to compare a treatment administered by different methods (e.g. intraperitoneal administration vs. oral gavage), or animals that are used as their own control in a longitudinal study. (arriveguidelines.org)
  • The increasing prevalence of these diseases in the human population makes the genetic and phenotypic characterizations of these mutant animals a leading area of interest in the biomedical community. (physiology.org)
  • Where a mutant or transgene is on a genetically segregating background, it is nearly always good research practice to backcross to one or more isogenic backgrounds before starting detailed investigation of the phenotype.60 With an outbred background, genetic drift and the effects of natural selection for reduced expression of deleterious phenotypes in the first few generations may mean that results are not constant over a period of time. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Echter, met behulp van live-cell confocale microscopische beeldvorming technieken met fluorescente kleurstoffen, het type en de kinetiek van celdood en gebruik gemaakt van de paden worden bestudeerd in meer detail. (jove.com)
  • Negative controls are used to determine if a difference between groups is caused by the intervention (e.g. wild-type animals vs genetically modified animals, placebo vs active treatment, sham surgery vs. surgical intervention). (arriveguidelines.org)
  • I began to realize that the 'control' animals used for research studies throughout the world are couch potatoes," he tells me. (slate.com)
  • At the National Institute on Aging, as at every major research center, the animals are grouped in plastic cages the size of large shoeboxes, topped with a wire lid and a food hopper that's never empty of pellets. (slate.com)
  • Proper housing and management of animal facilities are essential to animal well-being, to the quality of research data and teaching or testing programs in which animals are used, and to the health and safety of personnel. (nap.edu)
  • The following sections discuss some considerations of the physical environment related to common research animals. (nap.edu)
  • Additional research has lent strong support to the idea that Homo sapiens living in their most natural conditions, such as contemporary hunter-gatherer and foraging groups appear to thrive on animals and starchy plants, supplementing their diet with leaves, fruits, nuts, and seeds 3 . (evolution-institute.org)
  • The WISTAR rat is an outbred stock, used in all fields of medical and biological research. (janvier-labs.com)
  • Ensuring your study animals have the most appropriate diet is critical to maintaining consistent, reliable research data. (envigo.com)
  • This strain, the F344 , was selected by Curtis and Dunning in 1920 at the Columbia University Institute for Cancer Research. (janvier-labs.com)
  • These ten items are the basic minimum that must be included in any manuscript describing animal research. (arriveguidelines.org)
  • This strain was selected by DONALDSON in 1906 at the Wistar Institute (USA), from a batch belonging to Chicago University (RUSSEL-LINDSAY, 1979). (janvier-labs.com)