The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Deoxy sugars are a type of sugar molecule that lacks a hydroxyl group (-OH) at the 2nd carbon position, making them structurally different from regular sugars.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Nucleoside diphosphate sugars are the building blocks of nucleotides, which are the fundamental units of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Hexoses are a type of monosaccharide sugar that contain six carbon atoms, commonly found in carbohydrates and used in various medical applications.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Heptoses are a type of sugar found in the cell walls of bacteria and some eukaryotic cells, and are important for the immune system's response to bacterial infections.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
Fucose is a monosaccharide that is commonly found in the cell walls of bacteria and is involved in the formation of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.

P fimbriae and other adhesins enhance intestinal persistence of Escherichia coli in early infancy. (1/1070)

Resident and transient Escherichia coli strains were identified in the rectal flora of 22 Pakistani infants followed from birth to 6 months of age. All strains were tested for O-antigen expression, adhesin specificity (P fimbriae, other mannose-resistant adhesins or type 1 fimbriae) and adherence to the colonic cell line HT-29. Resident strains displayed higher mannose-resistant adherence to HT-29 cells, and expressed P fimbriae (P = 0.0036) as well as other mannose-resistant adhesins (P = 0.012) more often than transient strains. In strains acquired during the first month of life, P fimbriae were 12 times more frequent in resident than in transient strains (P = 0.0006). The O-antigen distribution did not differ between resident and transient strains, and none of the resident P-fimbriated strains belonged to previously recognized uropathogenic clones. The results suggest that adhesins mediating adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, especially P fimbriae, enhance the persistence of E. coli in the large intestine of infants.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of the Serratia marcescens N28b O4 antigen gene cluster. (2/1070)

The Serratia marcescens N28b wbbL gene has been shown to complement the rfb-50 mutation of Escherichia coli K-12 derivatives, and a wbbL mutant has been shown to be impaired in O4-antigen biosynthesis (X. Rubires, F. Saigi, N. Pique, N. Climent, S. Merino, S. Alberti, J. M. Tomas, and M. Regue, J. Bacteriol. 179:7581-7586, 1997). We analyzed a recombinant cosmid containing the wbbL gene by subcloning and determination of O-antigen production phenotype in E. coli DH5alpha by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and Western blot experiments with S. marcescens O4 antiserum. The results obtained showed that a recombinant plasmid (pSUB6) containing about 10 kb of DNA insert was enough to induce O4-antigen biosynthesis. The same results were obtained when an E. coli K-12 strain with a deletion of the wb cluster was used, suggesting that the O4 wb cluster is located in pSUB6. No O4 antigen was produced when plasmid pSUB6 was introduced in a wecA mutant E. coli strain, suggesting that O4-antigen production is wecA dependent. Nucleotide sequence determination of the whole insert in plasmid pSUB6 showed seven open reading frames (ORFs). On the basis of protein similarity analysis of the ORF-encoded proteins and analysis of the S. marcescens N28b wbbA insertion mutant and wzm-wzt deletion mutant, we suggest that the O4 wb cluster codes for two dTDP-rhamnose biosynthetic enzymes (RmlDC), a rhamnosyltransferase (WbbL), a two-component ATP-binding-cassette-type export system (Wzm Wzt), and a putative glycosyltransferase (WbbA). A sequence showing DNA homology to insertion element IS4 was found downstream from the last gene in the cluster (wbbA), suggesting that an IS4-like element could have been involved in the acquisition of the O4 wb cluster.  (+info)

Structural analysis of a novel putative capsular polysaccharide from Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) caryophylli strain 2151. (3/1070)

A novel putative capsular polysaccharide consisting of D-Glcp and D-Fruf in the molar ratio of 1:1 was isolated as minor constituent from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction of Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) caryophylli. Its structure was determined, using mainly one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, as: -->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->1)-beta-D-Fruf-(2-->.  (+info)

Structural and serological studies on the O-antigen of Proteus mirabilis O14, a new polysaccharide containing 2-[(R)-1-carboxyethylamino]ethyl phosphate. (4/1070)

An O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus mirabilis O14 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and found to contain D-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glalactose, phosphate, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-D-alanine (D-AlaEtn), and O-acetyl groups. Studies of the initial and O-deacetylated polysaccharides using one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation experiments, demonstrated the following structure of the repeating unit: [equation: see text] This is the second bacterial polysaccharide reported to contain alpha-D-Galp6PAlaEtn, whereas the first one was the O-antigen of P. mirabilis EU313 taken erroneously as strain PrK 6/57 from the O3 serogroup [Vinogradov, E. V., Kaca, W., Shashkov, A.S., Krajewska-Pietrasik, D., Rozalski, A., Knirel, Y.A. & Kochetkov, N.K. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem., 188, 645-651]. Anti-(P. mirabilis O14) serum cross-reacted with LPS of P. mirabilis EU313 and vice versa in passive hemolysis and ELISA. Absorption of both O-antisera with the heterologous LPS decreased markedly but did not abolish the reaction with the homologous LPS. These and chemical data indicated that both strains have similar but not identical O-antigens. Therefore, we propose that P. mirabilis EU313 should belong to a new subgroup of the O14 serogroup.  (+info)

Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of a serologically separate strain Proteus penneri 2 from a new proposed serogroup O66. (5/1070)

O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus penneri strain 2 lipopolysaccharide was studied by full and partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional rotating-frame NOE spectroscopy (ROESY) and 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments. Together with D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, the polysaccharide was found to contain two rarely occurring sugars, 6-deoxy-L-talose (L-6dTal) and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-L-mannose (L-RhaNAc3NAc), and the following structure of a non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established: [equation: see text] The O-specific polysaccharide studied has a unique composition and structure and, accordingly, P. penneri 2 is serologically separate among Proteus strains. Therefore, we propose for P. penneri 2 a new Proteus O-serogroup O66 where this strain is at present the single representative.  (+info)

Protein conjugates of synthetic saccharides elicit higher levels of serum IgG lipopolysaccharide antibodies in mice than do those of the O-specific polysaccharide from Shigella dysenteriae type 1. (6/1070)

Our development of vaccines to prevent shigellosis is based on the hypothesis that a critical (protective) level of serum IgG to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) confers immunity. The O-SP is a hapten and must be conjugated to a protein to induce serum antibodies. The O-SP of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (approximately 27 tetrasaccharide repeat units), prepared by acid hydrolysis of the LPS, was bound to human serum albumin (HSA) by multiple point attachment (O-SP-HSA): The molar ratio of HSA to O-SP was 1.0. Synthetic saccharides, composed of one or multiples of the O-SP tetrasaccharide, equipped with a spacer at their reducing end, were bound to HSA by a single point attachment: The average molar ratios of the saccharides to HSA ranged from 4 to 24. Serum IgG anti-LPS, elicited in mice by O-SP-HSA or synthetic tetra-, octa-, dodeca-, and hexadecasaccharide fragments, was measured by ELISA. Outbred 6-week-old female mice were injected s.c. three times at biweekly intervals with 2.5 micrograms of saccharide as a conjugate and were bled 7 days after the second and third injections. Excepting the tetramer, conjugates of the octamer, dodecamer and hexadecamer elicited IgG LPS antibodies after the second injection, a statistically significant rise (booster) after the third injection, and higher levels than those vaccinated with O-SP-HSA (P = 0.0001). The highest geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS were elicited by the hexadecamer with 9 chains or 9 moles of saccharide/HSA (15.5 ELISA units) followed by the octamer with 20 chains (11.1 ELISA units) and the dodecamer with 10 chains (9.52 ELISA units). Clinical evaluation of these synthetic saccharides bound to a medically useful carrier is planned.  (+info)

Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii strains with monoclonal antibodies against the O antigens of their lipopolysaccharides. (7/1070)

Despite the emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii strains as nosocomial pathogens, simple methods for their phenotypic identification are still unavailable. Murine monoclonal antibodies specific for the O-polysaccharide moiety of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of two A. baumannii strains were obtained after immunization with heat-killed bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies were characterized by enzyme immunoassay and by Western and dot blot analyses and were investigated for their potential use for the identification of A. baumannii strains. The antibodies reacted with 46 of the 80 A. baumannii clinical isolates that were investigated, and reactivity was observed with 11 of 14 strains which were isolated during outbreaks in different northwestern European cities; no reactivity was observed with Acinetobacter strains of other genomic species, including the closely related genomic species 1 (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus), 3, and 13 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing, or with other gram-negative bacterial strains. The results show that O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies such as the ones described are convenient reagents which can be used to identify Acinetobacter strains in clinical and research laboratories.  (+info)

Safety and immunogenicity of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a O-specific polysaccharide conjugates in children. (8/1070)

O-specific polysaccharide conjugates of shigellae were safe and immunogenic in young adults, and a Shigella sonnei conjugate conferred protection [1-3]. Shigellosis is primarily a disease of children; therefore, the safety and immunogenicity of S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a conjugates were studied in 4- to 7-year-old children. Local and systemic reactions were minimal. The first injection of both conjugates elicited significant rises in geometric mean levels of serum IgG only to the homologous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (S. sonnei, 0.32-8.25 ELISA units [EU]; S. flexneri 2a, 1.15-20.5 EU; P<.0001). Revaccination at 6 weeks induced a booster response to S. flexneri 2a LPS (20.5-30.5 EU, P=.003). Six months later, the geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS for both groups were higher than the prevaccination levels (P<.0001). Similar, but lesser, rises were observed for IgM and IgA anti-LPS. The investigational Shigella conjugates were safe and immunogenic in children and merit evaluation of their efficacy.  (+info)

In the medical field, O antigens refer to a type of polysaccharide found on the surface of certain bacteria. These antigens are part of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer that surrounds the bacterial cell membrane and play a role in the bacteria's ability to interact with the host immune system. The O antigens are named based on the chemical structure of the polysaccharide chain, which can vary greatly between different bacterial species. For example, the O antigen of Escherichia coli is composed of a repeating unit of a disaccharide, while the O antigen of Salmonella typhi is composed of a repeating unit of a trisaccharide. The presence of O antigens on the surface of bacteria can be important for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. For example, the O antigen of E. coli can be used to identify specific strains of the bacteria that are responsible for causing certain types of infections, such as urinary tract infections or food poisoning. Additionally, the O antigens can be used as targets for vaccines to help protect against bacterial infections.

Polysaccharides, bacterial are complex carbohydrates that are produced by bacteria. They are composed of long chains of sugar molecules and can be found in the cell walls of many bacterial species. Some common examples of bacterial polysaccharides include peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and teichoic acid. These molecules play important roles in the structure and function of bacterial cells, and they can also have medical significance. For example, lipopolysaccharide is a component of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria and can trigger an immune response in the body. In some cases, bacterial polysaccharides can also be used as vaccines to protect against bacterial infections.

Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase (MPI) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the human body. It is responsible for converting mannose-6-phosphate, a sugar molecule, into fructose-6-phosphate, another sugar molecule. This conversion is an important step in the glycolytic pathway, which is the process by which cells convert glucose into energy. MPI is encoded by the MPI gene, which is located on chromosome 12. Mutations in the MPI gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder called Sanfilippo syndrome type B, also known as MPS IIIB. This disorder is characterized by progressive neurological damage, cognitive decline, and physical disabilities. In addition to its role in metabolism, MPI has also been implicated in various other biological processes, including the regulation of immune responses and the development of cancer.

Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming are proteins that are produced by certain types of polyomaviruses, which are a group of viruses that can cause cancer in humans and animals. These antigens are produced by the virus after it infects a cell and transforms it into a cancerous cell. The antigens are recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response, which can help to control the growth and spread of the cancerous cells. However, in some cases, the immune system may not be able to effectively recognize and attack the cancerous cells, which can lead to the progression of the cancer.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a type of complex carbohydrate found on the surface of gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of a lipid A moiety, a core polysaccharide, and an O-specific polysaccharide. LPS are important components of the bacterial cell wall and play a role in the innate immune response of the host. In the medical field, LPS are often studied in the context of sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation. LPS can trigger a strong immune response in the host, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators that can cause tissue damage and organ failure. As a result, LPS are often used as a model for studying the pathophysiology of sepsis and for developing new treatments for this condition. LPS are also used in research as a tool for studying the immune system and for developing vaccines against bacterial infections. They can be purified from bacterial cultures and used to stimulate immune cells in vitro or in animal models, allowing researchers to study the mechanisms of immune responses to bacterial pathogens. Additionally, LPS can be used as an adjuvant in vaccines to enhance the immune response to the vaccine antigen.

Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.

Guanosine diphosphate sugars (GDP sugars) are a type of nucleotide sugar that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, and the synthesis of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. GDP sugars are composed of a sugar molecule (ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a guanine base. The guanine base is attached to the sugar molecule through a nitrogenous base called a ribose or deoxyribose. In energy metabolism, GDP sugars are involved in the transfer of energy from one molecule to another. For example, in glycolysis, a process that breaks down glucose to produce energy, GDP sugars are used to transfer energy from one molecule to another. In cell signaling, GDP sugars play a role in the activation of proteins called G-proteins. G-proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and communication. When GDP sugars bind to G-proteins, they cause a conformational change in the protein, which in turn activates downstream signaling pathways. Overall, GDP sugars are an important component of many biological processes and play a critical role in maintaining cellular function.

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is a protein that is produced by certain types of cancer cells, as well as by normal cells in the embryonic stage of development. It is a glycoprotein that is found in the blood and tissues of the body. In the medical field, CEA is often used as a tumor marker, which means that it can be measured in the blood to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer. CEA levels are typically higher in people with cancer than in people without cancer, although they can also be elevated in other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, and smoking. CEA is most commonly used as a tumor marker for colorectal cancer, but it can also be used to monitor the response to treatment and to detect recurrence of the cancer. It is also used as a tumor marker for other types of cancer, such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. It is important to note that while elevated CEA levels can be a sign of cancer, they do not necessarily mean that a person has cancer. Other factors, such as age, gender, and family history, can also affect CEA levels. Therefore, CEA should be interpreted in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical information.

Immune sera refers to a type of blood serum that contains antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination. These antibodies are produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Immune sera can be used to diagnose and treat certain infections, as well as to prevent future infections. For example, immune sera containing antibodies against a specific virus or bacteria can be used to diagnose a current infection or to prevent future infections in people who have been exposed to the virus or bacteria. Immune sera can also be used as a research tool to study the immune response to infections and to develop new vaccines and treatments. In some cases, immune sera may be used to treat patients with severe infections or allergies, although this is less common than using immune sera for diagnostic or preventive purposes.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

Bordetella infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Bordetella, which includes Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough), Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. These bacteria can cause a range of respiratory infections in humans and animals, including whooping cough, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Bordetella pertussis is the most well-known of these bacteria and is responsible for whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory infection that primarily affects children. Whooping cough is characterized by a severe cough that can last for several weeks, often followed by a whooping sound when the person inhales. In severe cases, whooping cough can be life-threatening, particularly in young children. Bordetella parapertussis is a less common cause of whooping cough, but it can cause similar symptoms to Bordetella pertussis. Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common cause of respiratory infections in animals, but it can also cause infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Treatment for Bordetella infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In the case of whooping cough, vaccination is also an important preventive measure.

HLA-DR antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system. They play a crucial role in the recognition and presentation of antigens to T cells, which is a key step in the immune response. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by the HLA-DR gene, which is located on chromosome 6. There are many different HLA-DR antigens, each with a unique sequence of amino acids that determines its specificity for different antigens. HLA-DR antigens are also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR antigens or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR antigens.

In the medical field, deoxy sugars are a type of sugar molecule that lack a hydroxyl (-OH) group at the 2' carbon position. This group is replaced by an aldehyde or ketone group, which gives deoxy sugars their characteristic properties. Deoxy sugars are important components of DNA and RNA, where they serve as the backbone of the nucleic acid chain. They are also found in other biological molecules, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, where they play a role in cell signaling and recognition. Deoxy sugars are often used in medical research and drug development as building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell are a type of immune cell receptors found on the surface of T cells in the immune system. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances or molecules that trigger an immune response. T-cell receptors (TCRs) are a type of antigen receptor that recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or abnormal cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. TCRs are highly specific and can recognize a wide variety of antigens, including viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells. Once a TCR recognizes an antigen, it sends a signal to the T cell to become activated and initiate an immune response. Activated T cells can then divide and differentiate into different types of effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells that can directly kill infected or abnormal cells, or helper T cells that can stimulate other immune cells to mount a more robust response. Overall, T-cell receptors play a critical role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign antigens, and are an important target for the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair in cells. It is also known as Replication Factor C (RFC) subunit 4 or proliferating cell nuclear antigen-like 1 (PCNA-like 1). PCNA is a highly conserved protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells. It is a homotrimeric protein, meaning that it is composed of three identical subunits. Each subunit has a central channel that can bind to DNA, and it is this channel that is responsible for the interaction of PCNA with other proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. During DNA replication, PCNA forms a complex with other proteins, including DNA polymerase δ and the replication factor C (RFC) complex. This complex is responsible for unwinding the DNA double helix, synthesizing new DNA strands, and ensuring that the newly synthesized strands are correctly paired with the template strands. PCNA is also involved in DNA repair processes, particularly in the repair of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In this context, PCNA interacts with other proteins, such as the X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1), to facilitate the repair of DNA damage. Overall, PCNA is a critical protein in the maintenance of genomic stability and the prevention of DNA damage-induced diseases, such as cancer.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.

Histocompatibility antigens class II are a group of proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by presenting foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses, to immune cells called T cells. The class II antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. These genes are located on chromosome 6 in humans and are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different versions of the genes. This diversity of MHC class II antigens allows the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign substances.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland in men. It is normally present in small amounts in the blood, but levels can increase if there is an abnormality in the prostate gland, such as cancer. PSA testing is commonly used as a screening tool for prostate cancer, as elevated levels of PSA can indicate the presence of cancerous cells in the prostate gland. However, it is important to note that not all cases of elevated PSA levels are due to cancer, and some men with prostate cancer may have normal PSA levels. Therefore, PSA testing should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical information and diagnostic tests.

Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell are a type of immune cell receptors found on the surface of B cells in the immune system. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria, or other pathogens. When a B cell encounters an antigen that matches its receptor, it becomes activated and begins to produce antibodies, which are proteins that can recognize and neutralize the specific antigen. The production of antibodies by B cells is a key part of the adaptive immune response, which helps the body to defend against infections and other harmful substances.

Carbohydrate epimerases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of epimers, which are stereoisomers that differ in configuration at a single stereocenter. In the context of carbohydrates, epimers are molecules that have the same molecular formula and connectivity but differ in the stereochemistry of one or more of their hydroxyl groups. Carbohydrate epimerases play important roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates in living organisms. They are involved in the synthesis and degradation of various carbohydrates, including glycans, starches, and oligosaccharides. These enzymes are also involved in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are important components of cell membranes and play important roles in cell signaling and recognition. In the medical field, carbohydrate epimerases have been studied for their potential applications in the treatment of various diseases. For example, some carbohydrate epimerases have been shown to be involved in the development of cancer, and inhibitors of these enzymes have been investigated as potential anti-cancer agents. Additionally, carbohydrate epimerases have been studied for their potential roles in the development of diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Bacterial vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against bacterial infections. They work by stimulating the immune system to recognize and fight off specific bacteria that cause disease. Bacterial vaccines can be made from live, attenuated bacteria (bacteria that have been weakened so they cannot cause disease), inactivated bacteria (bacteria that have been killed), or pieces of bacteria (such as proteins or polysaccharides) that are recognized by the immune system. Bacterial vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of bacterial infections, including diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. They are typically given by injection, but some can also be given by mouth. Bacterial vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease in the population.

HLA-A2 Antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is a part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-A2 Antigen is a specific type of HLA-A protein that is expressed on the surface of cells in the body. It is one of the most widely studied HLA antigens because it is associated with the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to certain types of viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the medical field, the HLA-A2 Antigen is often used as a marker for certain diseases and conditions. For example, it is commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and lung cancer. It is also used in the development of vaccines and other therapies for these diseases. Overall, the HLA-A2 Antigen plays an important role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, and it is an important marker for certain diseases and conditions in the medical field.

Glycosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that transfer sugar molecules (glycans) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, forming a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, which are essential components of many biological molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. In the medical field, glycosyltransferases are involved in various biological processes, including cell signaling, immune response, and cancer development. For example, some glycosyltransferases are involved in the synthesis of glycans on the surface of cells, which can affect their interactions with other cells and the immune system. Dysregulation of glycosyltransferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. Glycosyltransferases are also important targets for drug discovery, as they play a role in the metabolism of many drugs and toxins. Inhibitors of specific glycosyltransferases have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and inflammatory disorders.

HLA-A antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to identify and distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells. HLA-A antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, and there are many different variations of these antigens, each with a unique amino acid sequence. These variations, known as alleles, are responsible for the diversity of the HLA-A antigens that are expressed in the human population. HLA-A antigens are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, and they are also used in the field of transplantation to help match donors and recipients for organ and tissue transplants.

Galactose is a simple sugar that is a component of the disaccharide lactose, which is found in milk and other dairy products. In the medical field, galactose is often studied in relation to its role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and its potential health effects. Galactose is a monosaccharide, which means that it is a single unit of sugar. It is a reducing sugar, which means that it can undergo a chemical reaction called oxidation that can be used to identify it. In the body, galactose is broken down and converted into glucose, which is used for energy. However, if galactose is not properly metabolized, it can build up in the blood and cause a condition called galactosemia. Galactosemia is a rare genetic disorder that occurs when the body is unable to properly break down galactose, leading to a buildup of galactose in the blood and other tissues. Galactose is also used in the production of certain foods and beverages, such as yogurt and some types of soft drinks. It is also used in the production of certain medications and other chemicals.

Histocompatibility antigens class I (HLA class I) are a group of proteins found on the surface of almost all cells in the human body. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of foreign substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to immune cells called T cells. HLA class I antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6. There are several different HLA class I antigens, each with a unique structure and function. The specific HLA class I antigens present on a person's cells can affect their susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. In the context of transplantation, HLA class I antigens are important because they can trigger an immune response if the donor tissue is not a close match to the recipient's own tissue. This immune response, known as rejection, can lead to the rejection of the transplanted tissue or organ. Therefore, matching HLA class I antigens between the donor and recipient is an important consideration in transplantation.

Dysentery, bacillary is a type of infectious diarrhea caused by bacteria called Shigella. It is characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood or mucus in the stool. The bacteria are transmitted through contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with an infected person. Symptoms typically begin within 1-3 days of exposure and can last for several days to a week. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy and antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Galactans are a type of polysaccharide that are found in the cell walls of certain types of bacteria, algae, and plants. They are composed of repeating units of galactose, a type of sugar, and can be either branched or linear in structure. In the medical field, galactans have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some research has suggested that galactans may have anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties, and may be useful in the treatment of conditions such as allergies, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. Galactans have also been studied for their potential use in wound healing and as a source of dietary fiber. Galactans are often extracted from the cell walls of certain types of bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which are commonly found in the human gut microbiome. These bacteria are often used in probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. Some galactans are also found in certain types of seaweed and other plants, and may be used as dietary supplements or in food products.

HLA-D antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-D antigens are part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which is a group of genes that are located on chromosome 6. There are several different HLA-D antigens, including HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and HLA-DP. Each of these antigens is encoded by a different gene and has a unique structure and function. HLA-D antigens are involved in the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self cells. They are also important in the development of autoimmune diseases, which occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own cells. In addition, HLA-D antigens play a role in the transplantation of organs and tissues, as they can help to determine whether a transplant is likely to be successful or not.

Receptors, Antigen are proteins on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules called antigens. Antigens can be found on the surface of pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, as well as on the surface of normal cells that have been damaged or are undergoing changes. When an antigen binds to its corresponding receptor on an immune cell, it triggers a series of events that lead to the activation and proliferation of immune cells, ultimately resulting in an immune response against the pathogen or abnormal cell.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is produced by B cells in response to an infection or foreign substance. It is the first antibody to be produced during an immune response and is present in the blood and other body fluids in relatively low concentrations. IgM antibodies are large, Y-shaped molecules that can bind to multiple antigens at once, making them highly effective at neutralizing pathogens and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. They are also able to activate the complement system, a series of proteins that can directly destroy pathogens or mark them for destruction by immune cells. IgM antibodies are often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as they are typically the first antibodies to be produced in response to a new infection. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of vaccines and to detect the presence of certain diseases, such as viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer.

CD45 is a type of protein found on the surface of many different types of immune cells, including white blood cells. It is also known as leukocyte common antigen or lymphocyte common antigen. CD45 plays an important role in the function of the immune system by helping to regulate the activity of immune cells. It is also used as a marker to identify different types of immune cells in the laboratory. Antigens, CD45 refers to molecules that bind to CD45 on the surface of immune cells and trigger an immune response. These antigens can be found on viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances, as well as on abnormal cells in the body.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 molecules, are a type of protein found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These cells, called T cells, play a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and disease. CD4 antigens are specifically associated with helper T cells, which are a type of T cell that works to coordinate the immune response by activating other immune cells. Helper T cells express high levels of CD4 antigens on their surface, which allows them to bind to and activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages. In the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus specifically targets and destroys CD4+ T cells, leading to a weakened immune system and an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and certain types of cancer. Therefore, CD4+ T cell count is often used as a key indicator of HIV infection and disease progression.

Nucleoside diphosphate sugars are a type of sugar molecule that serves as the backbone of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They are composed of a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) linked to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. The nitrogenous base can be either a purine (adenine or guanine) or a pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine, or uracil). In the medical field, nucleoside diphosphate sugars are important components of nucleic acid metabolism and are involved in various cellular processes, including DNA replication, RNA transcription, and protein synthesis. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of nucleic acids. In addition, nucleoside diphosphate sugars are used in the development of antiviral drugs, as many viruses rely on the host cell's nucleic acid metabolism to replicate. By inhibiting the synthesis of nucleoside diphosphate sugars, these drugs can prevent the replication of the virus and treat viral infections.

HLA-B antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to identify and recognize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-B antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, and there are many different variations of these antigens, each with a slightly different structure and function. HLA-B antigens are an important component of the immune system and are involved in many different types of immune responses, including the development of autoimmune diseases and the recognition of cancer cells.

DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.

Lipid A is a component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a type of endotoxin found on the surface of many Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A is a lipid molecule that is essential for the toxicity of LPS and plays a key role in the innate immune response to bacterial infections. In the medical field, Lipid A is often studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. It is also used as a diagnostic tool to detect bacterial infections, as the presence of Lipid A in the blood or other bodily fluids can indicate the presence of Gram-negative bacteria. However, it is important to note that Lipid A can also trigger a strong immune response, which can lead to sepsis or other serious complications in some cases. Therefore, the use of Lipid A-based therapies must be carefully monitored and controlled to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-cells 1) is a protein that is expressed on the surface of some melanoma cells, a type of skin cancer. It is a member of a family of proteins called melanoma differentiation antigens (MDAs), which are thought to play a role in the development and progression of melanoma. MART-1 is recognized by the immune system as foreign, and T-cells that are able to recognize and bind to MART-1 can help to eliminate melanoma cells. As a result, MART-1 has been the subject of research as a potential target for immunotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer. Immunotherapy drugs that target MART-1 are still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, some early studies have shown promise, and it is hoped that these drugs may one day be used to treat patients with advanced melanoma.

Hexoses are a type of monosaccharide, which is a simple sugar consisting of six carbon atoms. They are one of the two main types of sugars found in nature, the other being pentoses, which have five carbon atoms. In the medical field, hexoses are important because they are the building blocks of many complex carbohydrates, such as starches and glycogen, which are used by the body for energy. They are also important components of many biological molecules, such as DNA and RNA. Hexoses are classified based on the position of the hydroxyl group (OH) on the carbon atoms. The most common hexoses are glucose, fructose, and galactose, which are found in many foods and are important sources of energy for the body. Other hexoses, such as mannose and xylose, are found in specific types of carbohydrates and may have specific functions in the body.

Hexosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that transfer a hexose sugar moiety from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. These enzymes play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various complex carbohydrates, such as glycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, which are essential components of cell membranes and extracellular matrix. In the medical field, hexosyltransferases are involved in various diseases and disorders, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in certain hexosyltransferase genes can lead to the development of inherited disorders such as glycogen storage diseases, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycogen in various tissues. In addition, hexosyltransferases are also important targets for the development of new drugs and therapies. For instance, inhibitors of hexosyltransferases have been shown to have anti-cancer properties by disrupting the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids that are involved in tumor growth and metastasis.

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical condition that affects the cornea and conjunctiva, which are the clear outer layer of the eye and the thin, moist membrane that covers the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids. Keratoconjunctivitis is characterized by inflammation and irritation of the cornea and conjunctiva, which can cause redness, swelling, itching, discharge, and sensitivity to light. There are several types of keratoconjunctivitis, including viral keratoconjunctivitis, bacterial keratoconjunctivitis, and allergic keratoconjunctivitis. Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antihistamines, antibiotics, or antiviral medications, as well as eye drops or ointments to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut. E. coli proteins are proteins that are produced by E. coli bacteria. These proteins can have a variety of functions, including helping the bacteria to survive and thrive in the gut, as well as potentially causing illness in humans. In the medical field, E. coli proteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for bacterial infections. For example, some E. coli proteins are involved in the bacteria's ability to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans, and researchers are working to develop drugs that can block the activity of these proteins in order to prevent or treat E. coli infections. E. coli proteins are also used in research to study the biology of the bacteria and to understand how it interacts with the human body. For example, researchers may use E. coli proteins as markers to track the growth and spread of the bacteria in the gut, or they may use them to study the mechanisms by which the bacteria causes illness. Overall, E. coli proteins are an important area of study in the medical field, as they can provide valuable insights into the biology of this important bacterium and may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.

CD80 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells and macrophages. CD80 is also known as B7-1, and it plays a critical role in the activation of T cells, which are a type of immune cell that helps to fight off infections and diseases. When an APC encounters a pathogen, it engulfs the pathogen and processes its antigens, which are small pieces of the pathogen that can be recognized by the immune system. The APC then presents these antigens on its surface, along with the CD80 protein, to T cells. This interaction between the APC and the T cell is a key step in the activation of the T cell, which then becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into effector T cells that can directly attack the pathogen or into memory T cells that can provide long-term protection against future infections by the same pathogen. Antigens, CD80 are often used in medical research and as a tool for developing vaccines and other immune-based therapies. They can be used to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack specific pathogens or cancer cells, or they can be used to suppress the immune system in cases where it is overactive or causing autoimmune diseases.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Synthetic" refers to vaccines that are made using synthetic or man-made methods, rather than being derived from natural sources such as live or attenuated viruses or bacteria. These vaccines are typically made using recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting a small piece of genetic material from the pathogen into a harmless host cell, such as a yeast or bacteria, that is then grown in large quantities. The resulting protein is then purified and used to make the vaccine. Synthetic vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines, including the ability to produce vaccines quickly and efficiently, the ability to produce vaccines for diseases that are difficult to grow in the laboratory, and the ability to produce vaccines that are safe and effective for people with weakened immune systems or other health conditions. Some examples of synthetic vaccines include the hepatitis B vaccine, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and the influenza vaccine.

Hydrolyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various substrates, including esters, amides, and phosphates, by breaking the bonds between the hydroxyl group and the carbon atom. In the medical field, hydrolyases are important in the metabolism of various compounds, including drugs, hormones, and neurotransmitters. For example, the enzyme chymotrypsin is a hydrolyase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids, which are essential for various bodily functions. Similarly, the enzyme acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolyase that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for muscle movement and memory. In some cases, hydrolyases can also be involved in the formation of certain compounds, such as the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA.

In the medical field, heptoses are a type of sugar molecule that are found in the cell walls of bacteria and other microorganisms. They are also present in some types of plant and animal cells, but in much lower concentrations. Heptoses are important components of the cell wall of bacteria, and they play a role in the structure and function of the cell. They are also involved in the immune response, as the body's immune system recognizes and attacks bacteria based on the presence of heptoses on their cell walls. In addition to their role in bacterial cell walls, heptoses have also been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some heptoses have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of diseases.

Cholera is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is primarily spread through contaminated water or food, and can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration, which can lead to death if left untreated. Symptoms of cholera include severe diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and a rapid heartbeat. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy to replace fluids and electrolytes lost through diarrhea, as well as antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Cholera is most common in developing countries with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water.

UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase (UGP1T) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose in the body. It catalyzes the transfer of a uridine monophosphate (UMP) group from uridine triphosphate (UTP) to glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P), resulting in the formation of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). UDP-Glc is an important intermediate in the synthesis of glycogen, a storage form of glucose in the liver and muscles. It is also a precursor for the synthesis of other important molecules such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, and nucleic acids. Deficiency or dysfunction of UGP1T can lead to a condition called glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), also known as Andersen's disease. This is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of glycogen in the liver and muscles, leading to symptoms such as hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, and liver enlargement.

UDPglucose 4-Epimerase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It catalyzes the conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose, which is an essential step in the synthesis of galactose-containing glycans, such as lactose and gangliosides. UDPglucose 4-Epimerase is encoded by the GALE gene and is primarily expressed in the liver, small intestine, and kidney. It is also found in other tissues, including the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. Deficiency of UDPglucose 4-Epimerase can lead to a rare genetic disorder called galactosemia, which is characterized by the accumulation of galactose in the blood and tissues. This can cause a range of symptoms, including liver damage, brain damage, and developmental delays. Galactosemia is typically diagnosed in newborns through newborn screening tests and can be treated by eliminating galactose from the diet.

CD40 is a protein found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including B cells and dendritic cells. Antigens, CD40 refers to molecules that bind to the CD40 protein on these cells, activating them and triggering an immune response. This can help the immune system to recognize and attack foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. CD40 ligands, which are also known as CD154, are proteins that bind to CD40 and can act as antigens. They are produced by activated T cells and other immune cells and play a role in the activation and differentiation of B cells.

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. It is the most abundant antibody in the mucous membranes, which line the surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. IgA is produced by plasma cells in the bone marrow and is secreted into the bloodstream and mucous membranes. It is particularly important in protecting against infections in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, where it helps to neutralize and eliminate pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. IgA can also be found in tears, saliva, and breast milk, where it provides protection against infections in the eyes, mouth, and digestive tract. In addition, IgA plays a role in the immune response to certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Overall, IgA is a critical component of the body's immune system and plays a vital role in protecting against infections and diseases.

Thy-1 is a type of antigen found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. It is also known as CD90 and is expressed on a variety of cell types, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. The function of Thy-1 is not fully understood, but it is thought to play a role in cell adhesion and migration. In the medical field, Thy-1 is often used as a marker to identify and study specific types of immune cells. It is also used as a target for immunotherapy, a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer cells.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are proteins that are located on the outer surface of the cell membrane of bacteria. They play important roles in the survival and pathogenicity of bacteria, as well as in their interactions with the environment and host cells. OMPs can be classified into several categories based on their function, including porins, which allow the passage of small molecules and ions across the outer membrane, and lipoproteins, which are anchored to the outer membrane by a lipid moiety. Other types of OMPs include adhesins, which mediate the attachment of bacteria to host cells or surfaces, and toxins, which can cause damage to host cells. OMPs are important targets for the development of new antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, as they are often essential for bacterial survival and can be differentially expressed by different bacterial strains or species. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of microbiology, immunology, and infectious diseases.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. E. coli is a common type of bacteria that is found in the gut of humans and animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless and even beneficial to our health, but some strains can cause illness. E. coli infections can be classified into several types, including: 1. Foodborne illness: This type of infection occurs when a person consumes contaminated food or water that contains E. coli bacteria. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. 2. Urinary tract infection (UTI): E. coli bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra and cause an infection. Symptoms may include a strong, persistent urge to urinate, pain or burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine. 3. Bloodstream infection (sepsis): In rare cases, E. coli bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause a serious infection called sepsis. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, and confusion. 4. Infections in other parts of the body: E. coli bacteria can also cause infections in other parts of the body, such as the abdomen, skin, and joints. Treatment for E. coli infections typically involves antibiotics, although some strains of E. coli are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Prevention measures include proper hand hygiene, safe food handling and preparation, and avoiding contaminated water.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response) binds to an antibody (a protein produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize antigens). When an antigen enters the body, it is recognized by specific antibodies that bind to it, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This complex can then be targeted by other immune cells, such as phagocytes, which engulf and destroy the complex. Antigen-antibody complexes can also deposit in tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. This can occur in conditions such as immune complex-mediated diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues that have been coated with antigens and antibodies. Overall, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes is a normal part of the immune response, but when it becomes dysregulated, it can lead to a variety of medical conditions.

In the medical field, carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients that provide energy to the body. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and are found in foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (a simple sugar) during digestion and are then transported to cells throughout the body to be used as energy. The body can store excess glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscles for later use. There are two main types of carbohydrates: simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates, also known as sugars, are made up of one or two sugar molecules and are quickly digested and absorbed by the body. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of many sugar molecules and take longer to digest and absorb. In the medical field, carbohydrates are often discussed in the context of nutrition and diabetes management. People with diabetes need to carefully monitor their carbohydrate intake to help manage their blood sugar levels.

HLA-DQ antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in the human body. They are part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a critical role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-DQ antigens are particularly important in the immune response to certain types of infections, including those caused by viruses such as HIV and hepatitis C. They also play a role in the development of certain autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. HLA-DQ antigens are classified into two main groups: HLA-DQ1 and HLA-DQ2. These groups are further divided into several subtypes, each with a unique combination of amino acids in their protein structure. The specific HLA-DQ antigens present on the surface of a person's cells can affect their susceptibility to certain diseases and their response to certain treatments.

CD86 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and B cells. It is a member of the B7 family of proteins, which play a key role in regulating the immune response. CD86 is involved in the activation of T cells, which are a type of immune cell that plays a central role in the body's defense against infection and disease. When dendritic cells present an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response) to a T cell, they also express CD86 on their surface. This allows the T cell to recognize the antigen and become activated, leading to the production of immune cells that can attack and destroy the invading pathogen. In addition to its role in activating T cells, CD86 has also been shown to play a role in the regulation of the immune response. For example, it has been shown to promote the differentiation of regulatory T cells, which are a type of immune cell that helps to prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells. Overall, CD86 is an important protein in the immune system that plays a role in both the activation and regulation of immune responses.

Ovalbumin is a protein found in egg whites. It is a major allergen and can cause allergic reactions in some people. In the medical field, ovalbumin is often used as a model antigen for studying allergic reactions and for developing allergy vaccines. It is also used in research to study the structure and function of proteins, as well as in the production of various medical products, such as diagnostic reagents and pharmaceuticals.

Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.

Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta are a type of immune cell receptor found on the surface of T-cells in the human body. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances that trigger an immune response. The alpha-beta receptors are a type of T-cell receptor that recognizes antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of infected or cancerous cells. When the alpha-beta receptors bind to the antigen-MHC complex, it triggers a series of events that lead to the activation and proliferation of the T-cell, which then mounts an immune response against the infected or cancerous cells.

Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.

CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4) is a protein found on the surface of certain immune cells, including T cells and B cells. It plays a role in regulating the immune response and preventing autoimmune diseases. In the context of the medical field, the CTLA-4 antigen is often studied in the context of cancer immunotherapy. Cancer cells can sometimes evade the immune system by expressing molecules that inhibit the activity of T cells. One such molecule is CTLA-4, which can bind to a protein on the surface of T cells called CD80 or CD86, effectively turning off the T cell's ability to attack cancer cells. Immunotherapies that target CTLA-4 have been developed to help the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. These therapies work by blocking the interaction between CTLA-4 and CD80/CD86, allowing T cells to mount a stronger immune response against cancer cells. While these therapies have shown promise in some types of cancer, they can also cause side effects such as autoimmune reactions.

Thymine nucleotides are a type of nucleotide that contains the nitrogenous base thymine. They are one of the four types of nucleotides that make up DNA and RNA, the genetic material of living organisms. Thymine nucleotides are composed of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (thymine). They play a crucial role in the storage and transmission of genetic information in cells.

The complement system is a complex network of proteins that plays a crucial role in the immune system's defense against infections. Complement system proteins are a group of proteins that are produced by the liver and other cells in the body and circulate in the blood. These proteins work together to identify and destroy invading pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, by forming a membrane attack complex (MAC) that punctures the pathogen's cell membrane, causing it to burst and die. There are several different types of complement system proteins, including: 1. Complement proteins: These are the primary components of the complement system and include C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9. 2. Complement regulatory proteins: These proteins help to control the activation of the complement system and prevent it from attacking healthy cells. Examples include C1 inhibitor, C4 binding protein, and decay-accelerating factor. 3. Complement receptors: These proteins are found on the surface of immune cells and help to bind to and activate complement proteins. Examples include CR1, CR2, and CR3. Complement system proteins play a critical role in the immune response and are involved in a wide range of diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by various immune cells, including T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages, in response to viral or bacterial infections, as well as in response to certain types of cancer. IFN-γ has a wide range of effects on the immune system, including the activation of macrophages and other immune cells, the inhibition of viral replication, and the promotion of T cell differentiation and proliferation. It also plays a role in the regulation of the immune response, helping to prevent excessive inflammation and tissue damage. In the medical field, IFN-γ is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and viral infections.

Mannose is a simple sugar that is a monosaccharide with the chemical formula C6H12O6. It is a component of many complex carbohydrates, including glycans and glycoproteins, which are found in the human body and play important roles in various biological processes. In the medical field, mannose is used as a diagnostic tool to detect certain diseases and conditions. For example, it is used in the diagnosis of certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer, by detecting changes in the levels of mannose in the blood or urine. Mannose is also used in the treatment of certain conditions, such as diabetes, by helping to regulate blood sugar levels. It is also used in the development of vaccines and as a component of some dietary supplements. In addition, mannose has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties, which may make it useful in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergies.

In the medical field, Carbon-Oxygen Ligases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a carbon-oxygen group from one molecule to another. These enzymes are involved in a variety of metabolic processes, including the synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides, as well as the breakdown of certain drugs and toxins. One example of a carbon-oxygen ligase is acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a carbon-oxygen group from bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA, producing malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is then used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids. Carbon-oxygen ligases are also involved in the metabolism of drugs and toxins. For example, cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of carbon-oxygen ligases that are responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and toxins in the liver. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of a carbon-oxygen group from oxygen to the drug or toxin, producing a metabolite that is more easily excreted from the body. In summary, Carbon-Oxygen Ligases are enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of various molecules in the body, including fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides, and drugs.

Fucose is a monosaccharide that is commonly found in the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plants. In the medical field, fucose is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify certain types of bacteria and fungi. It is also used in the production of certain types of vaccines and antibiotics. Additionally, fucose has been shown to have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

CD79 is a protein complex that is expressed on the surface of B cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system. The CD79 complex consists of two subunits, CD79a and CD79b, which are encoded by different genes. Together, these subunits form a receptor that is activated by the binding of antigens, which are molecules that trigger an immune response. Antigens, CD79 are antigens that specifically bind to the CD79 receptor on B cells. When these antigens bind to the receptor, they activate the B cell and stimulate it to produce antibodies, which are proteins that can recognize and neutralize specific pathogens or foreign substances in the body. Antigens, CD79 are often used as diagnostic markers for certain types of B cell lymphomas, which are a type of cancer that affects the B cells. They may also be used as targets for immunotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer.

Polymyxin B is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. It is a member of a class of antibiotics called polypeptide antibiotics, which are derived from soil bacteria and have a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B works by disrupting the cell membrane of bacteria, causing it to leak and eventually leading to cell death. It is often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat infections that are resistant to other types of antibiotics. Side effects of polymyxin B may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to note that polymyxin B can be toxic to the kidneys, so it should be used with caution in patients with kidney disease. It is also important to avoid using polymyxin B in patients who are allergic to it or who have a history of allergic reactions to other antibiotics.

Antibodies, Protozoan refers to a type of antibody that is produced by the immune system in response to infections caused by protozoan parasites. Protozoan parasites are single-celled organisms that can cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including malaria, sleeping sickness, and giardiasis. Antibodies are proteins that are produced by immune cells called B cells. They are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. When an antibody binds to a pathogen, it can help to neutralize the pathogen or mark it for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies, Protozoan are specific to the antigens found on the surface of protozoan parasites. They are produced in response to an infection with a specific protozoan parasite and can help to protect the body against future infections with that parasite.

... (LSA) are a set of peptides from Plasmodium falciparum that are recognized by the body's immune system. ...
... are antigens found on all T cells. They include CD2, CD3, CD5 and CD7. Mario Roederer (October 2004). Cytometry ... v t e (All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs, Antigen presenting cells). ...
All that remains are the Csa and Csb antigens. Csa is a very high frequency (>98%) antigen and Csb is not uncommon (~34%). The ... In addition to the defined human blood group systems, there are erythrocyte antigens which do not meet the definition of a ... Reagents to test for these antigens are difficult to find and many cannot be purchased commercially. These three groups are ... antigens with shared characteristics but do not meet the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) definition of a ...
T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly. Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have entered the body from the ... Antigens are recognized by antigen receptors, including antibodies and T-cell receptors. Diverse antigen receptors are made by ...
... also known as oncofetal antigen protein). Oncofetal antigens are promising targets for vaccination against several types of ... Oncofetal antigens are proteins which are typically present only during fetal development but are found in adults with certain ... One example of an oncofetal antigen is alpha-fetoprotein, which is produced by hepatocellular carcinoma and some germ cell ... Another example is carcinoembryonic antigen, which is elevated in people with colon cancer and other tumors. Other oncofetal ...
The Dharmendra antigen is a test widely used in India. The antigen is a suspension of de-fatted leprosy bacilli which has been ... This antigen was first reported by Dharmendra in 1941-42 and later standardized in 1979 by Sangupta et al. Dharmendra's ... Mohanty J, Mohanty H C. Lepromin response with dharmendra antigen in patients with leprosy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [ ... serial online] 1997 [cited 2016 Jun 20];63:385-7. Available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?1997/63/6/385/4627 (Antigen ...
Example: Forssman antigen, cross reacting microbial antigen so antibodies to these antigens produced by one species cross react ... Heterophile antigens are antigens of similar nature, if not identical, that are present in different tissues in different ... Usually different species have different antigen sets, but the hetereophile antigen is shared by different species. Other ... v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Antibodies, Immunology, Antigens, All stub ...
Carcinoembryonic+Antigen at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly-related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Asad-Ur-Rahman F, Saif MW (June 2016). "Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A ... Ballesta AM, Molina R, Filella X, Jo J, Giménez N (1995). "Carcinoembryonic antigen in staging and follow-up of patients with ...
... the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Gal(b1-3)GalNAc). The sialyl Tn antigen (STn antigen) is formed by elongation with sialic ... Tn antigen is expressed in most carcinomas. Addition of an additional galactose monosaccharide creates a disaccharide antigen: ... Tn antigen refers to the monosaccharide structure N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) linked to serine or threonine by a glycosidic ... bond, considered as an antigen. The initials stand for Thomsen-nouveau. ...
The Forssman antigen is a glycolipid heterophil protein and a type of heterogenetic antigen found in certain animals like dogs ... The Forssman antigen is distinct from the Paul-Bunnell antigen, antibodies to which are diagnostic of glandular fever ( ... Both antigens are present on the red blood cells of horse and sheep but guinea pig kidney cells have only the Forssman antigen ... Forssman Antigen -- Medical Definition (Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2013, All articles lacking in-text ...
CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (https ... CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, ...
CDw17+antigen at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles needing additional ... CDw17 antigen is a lactosylceramide, a class of glycosphingolipids found in microdomains on the plasma layers of numerous cells ...
... is an approach to reducing or eliminating these chemical modifications. The two primary methods of antigen ... "Antigen Retrieval Methods". R&D Systems. Retrieved 20 March 2019. "Antigen Retrieval Methods, Techniques, Protocols". www. ... Ino, Hidetoshi (2003). "Antigen retrieval by heating en bloc for pre-fixed frozen material". The Journal of Histochemistry and ... Brown, D (1996). "Antigen retrieval in cryostat tissue sections and cultured cells by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate ( ...
... can refer to one of various types of antigens having diverse biological functions. H antigen is located on the 19th ... minor H antigens "present polymorphic self peptides to T cells". Includes, e.g. the H-Y antigen a bacterial flagellar antigen ... H antigen is a precursor to each of the ABO blood group antigens, apparently present in all people except those with the Bombay ... "antigen". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 16 December 2013. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
... mutant protein antigens, oncogenic viral antigens, cancer-testis antigens and vascular or stromal specific antigens. Tissue ... and some viral antigens are also cancer antigens. Cancer-testis antigens are antigens expressed primarily in the germ cells of ... Certain tumor antigens are thus used as tumor markers. More importantly, tumor antigens can be used in cancer therapy as tumor ... Oncofetal antigens are another important class of tumor antigens. Examples are alphafetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic ...
Because T cells recognize only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen ... They have to be activated by the pMHC-I complexes of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Here, antigen can be presented directly ( ... June 2015). "Peptide-MHC-I from Endogenous Antigen Outnumber Those from Exogenous Antigen, Irrespective of APC Phenotype or ... with the peptide antigen. Peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) are transported to the plasma membrane and the processed antigen ...
A somatic antigen is an antigen located in the cell wall of a gram-positive or gram-negative bacterium. Lipopolysaccharide " ... "somatic antigen". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 7 May 2019. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly. Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or ... The bound antigen molecules are engulfed into the B cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antigen is digested into peptide ... Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigens before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. MHC I antigen ... T-dependent antigen - Antigens that require the assistance of T cells to induce the formation of specific antibodies. ...
In some patients, the majority of the tumor-specific T cells recognize mutated antigens. The contribution of these antigens to ... The carcinoma cells still harbour the viral genes and antigens. As expected T cell responses against antigens encoded by genes ... Cancer therapy targeted at tumor antigens can involve the direct use of these antigens in vaccines, but also the adoptive ... It is now proven that tumor-specific antigens exist and that patients mount spontaneous T cell responses against such antigens ...
This is a list of antigens in the skin that may become targets of circulating auto-antibodies leading to the various types of ... List of target antigens in pemphigoid List of conditions caused by problems with junctional proteins List of immunofluorescence ...
This is a list of antigens in the skin that may become targets of circulating auto-antibodies leading to the various types of ... List of target antigens in pemphigus List of immunofluorescence findings for autoimmune bullous conditions List of cutaneous ...
The XG antigen is a red blood cell surface antigen discovered in 1962. by researchers at the MRC Blood Group Unit. The PBDX ... Blood antigen systems, All stub articles, Cell biology stubs, Transfusion medicine). ... gene that encodes the antigen is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. Since males normally have one X chromosome they ...
The mammalian members of the MAGE (melanoma-associated antigen) gene family were originally described as completely silent in ...
... is a marker of abnormal self, which can be recognized upon infected (in particular, virus-infected) and ... Similarly γδ T cells can recognize induced-self antigens expressed on cells under stress conditions. Probably the most studied ... Born, Willi K; M Kemal Aydintug; Rebecca L O'Brien (January 2013). "Diversity of γδ T-cell antigens". Cellular & Molecular ... Other receptors able to bind induced-self antigens are NKG2C, NKG2E, NKG2F (CD94) or some NCRs (e.g. NKp 46 ). Practical use of ...
The antigens Aua and Aub, known as the Auberger antigens, were once thought to make up a separate blood group but were later ... The Lutheran antigen systems is a classification of human blood based on the presence of substances called Lutheran antigens on ... There are 19 known Lutheran antigens. All of these antigens arise from variations in a gene called BCAM (basal cell adhesion ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6507-7. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Blood antigen systems, ...
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): 112100 - OMIM page on Yt antigen Yt at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation ... The Yt antigen system (also known as Cartwright) is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a person's ... The antigens are found on the protein acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which helps break down acetylcholine. The Yt system ... Database at NCBI, NIH v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Blood antigen systems, Genes ...
Firstly, the antigen and antibody rapidly form antigen-antibody complexes within few seconds and this is followed by a slower ... It acts on antigen-antibody reaction in which the antibodies cross-link particulate antigens resulting in the visible clumping ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ...
... is a male tissue specific antigen. Originally thought to trigger the formation of testes (via loci, an autosomal ... One theory to explain this involves H-Y antigens, which suggests that a maternal immune reaction to these antigens has, to an ... which would be expected since H-Y antigen is male tissue specific, the 'probable involvement of H-Y antigen in the development ... There are several antigens which qualify as H-Y as defined by rejection of male skin grafts in female hosts or detected by ...
The I antigen was first described in 1956 and the i antigen was discovered in 1960. I and i were the first discovered antigens ... when I antigen starts to be expressed instead. Like ABH antigens, which make up the ABO blood group, I and i antigens are not ... The Ii antigen system is a human blood group system based upon a gene on chromosome 6 and consisting of the I antigen and the i ... The I antigen is normally present on the cell membrane of red blood cells in all adults, while the i antigen is present in ...
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen bound by major histocompatibility complex ( ... Antigen: protease degradation on YouTube - PMAP animation Antigen-Presenting+Cells at the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ... The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting ...
Typically antigens are substances not usually found in the body. ... An antigen is a substance that can provoke an immune response. ... An antigen is a substance that can provoke an immune response. Typically antigens are substances not usually found in the body. ...
Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens. CDC is expecting a 3-10 month nationwide shortage of Aplisol, a product ... Two FDA-approved PPD tuberculin antigen products are available in the United States for use in performing TSTs: Tubersol ( ... 06/21/2019: Lab Advisory: Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens. ... of Par Pharmaceuticals, and one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens licensed by the Food and Drug ...
Total prostate specific antigen (ng/mL). English Text: Total prostate specific antigen (ng/mL). Target: Males only 40 YEARS - ... Free prostate specific antigen (ng/mL). English Text: Free prostate specific antigen (ng/mL). Target: Males only 40 YEARS - 150 ... Complex prostate specific antigen(ng/mL). English Text: Complexed prostate specific antigen (ng/mL). Target: Males only 40 ... LBDP3 - Prostate specific antigen ratio (%). Variable Name: LBDP3. SAS Label: Prostate specific antigen ratio (%). English Text ...
Helicobacter pylori antigen testing is FDA approved for use as a noninvasive diagnostic test of H pylori infection and as a ... H pylori stool antigen testing is newer than its noninvasive constituents, serology and the urea breath test. Stool antigen ... encoded search term (Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Test) and Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Test What to Read Next on Medscape ... H pylori antigen testing is FDA approved for use as a noninvasive diagnostic test of H pylori infection and as a test to ...
The HIV-1 antigen is an earlier tip-off to HIV-1 infection than HIV-1 antibodies by themselves. The new test can tell the ... Cite this: FDA OKs First Rapid Test for HIV-1/2 Antibodies, HIV-1 Antigen - Medscape - Aug 08, 2013. ... FDA OKs First Rapid Test for HIV-1/2 Antibodies, HIV-1 Antigen. ... can detect HIV antibodies and the HIV-1 p24 antigen in human ... today approved the first rapid diagnostic test to spot antibodies to both HIV types 1 and 2 as well as the HIV-1 p24 antigen. ...
... run and evaluate training of trainers and/or training of health workers who will be performing SARS-CoV-2 testing using Antigen ... The SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Diagnostic test (RDT) training package is a structured comprehensive collection of training ... The SARS-CoV-2 Antigen RDT Training Package The SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Diagnostic test (RDT) training package is a structured ... This is addressed in the SARS-CoV-2 antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests: An implementation guide and in policy guidance ...
As such, milk antibodies indicate to which antigens the immune system has been most responsive. Focusing on such antigens may ... Preparation of Antigens. E. coli LPS. E. coli O157:H7 LPS was extracted with phenol water by using the method described by ... For EspA, EspB, and each of the LPS, 96-well polystyrene plates were coated overnight at 4°C with 1 μg/well of each antigen in ... Many insights into antigen-specific sIgA, the most relevant antibody to protection from intestinal infection, can be gained by ...
In non-key areas, those who take antigen self-tests and get a positive result are required to further take nucleic acid tests ... Shanghai residents continue to take antigen self-tests on Sunday since the city started on Saturday to try out the practice of ... Tao suggested that the results of the antigen self-test should be uploaded to the nations unified system like its done with ... Meanwhile, some mini apps have been developed by some tech companies for users to upload and record their antigen self-test ...
... a signal-transduction component of the T-cell antigen receptor) signaling domains. A low dose (approxima … ... We designed a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor with specificity for the B-cell antigen CD19, coupled ... We designed a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor with specificity for the B-cell antigen CD19, coupled ... Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid leukemia N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 25;365(8):725-33. doi: 10.1056/ ...
PrEST Antigen RECQL; Suitable as a blocking agent using corresponding antibodies. Bulk and Prepack available at Sigmaaldrich. ...
... dc.contributor.author. Mahan, Alison E.. en_US. ... "Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination." PLoS Pathogens 12 (3): e1005456. doi:10.1371/journal. ... Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. ... These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and ...
FDA has issued a first-of-its-kind emergency use authorization for Quidels COVID-19 antigen test, which enables rapid ... Home » FDA authorizes Quidel antigen test for rapid COVID-19 detection. FDA authorizes Quidel antigen test for rapid COVID-19 ... FDA expects more antigen test authorizations to follow. FDA commissioner Dr. Stephen M. Hahn and CDRH director Dr. Jeffrey E. ... Antigen tests quickly detect fragments of proteins found on or within the virus - with analysis of samples collected from the ...
Low expression of the CD247 antigen causes impaired immune response.. Description. CD247 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli ... The zeta chain has a central role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. ...
Meridian offers a broad range of antibodies and antigens, especially for ELISA, Lateral Flow, CLIA, bead-based assays, and IHC. ... About Meridian Life Science Molecular Dx Reagents Antibodies and Antigens * Life Science Webinars ... There are five main methods for the diagnosis of STDs which include: 1) culture; 2) microscopy; 3) detection of antigens or ... including antigens, enzymes, or nucleic acid sequences (especially with amplification), have gained the most acceptance. ...
... antigen is a heme-containing protein found in the primary granules of neutrophils and monocytes. Its primary function is to ... The myeloperoxidase (MPO) antigen is a heme-containing protein found in the primary granules of neutrophils and monocytes. Its ...
... and vaccination with recombinant DREP vectors containing GP and VP40 antigens induces Ebola antigen-specific humoral and ... and vaccination with recombinant DREP vectors containing GP and VP40 antigens induces Ebola antigen-specific humoral and ... Our study indicates that co-expression of GP and VP40 antigens based on the SFV replicon vector generates EBOV VLPs in vitro, ... Our study indicates that co-expression of GP and VP40 antigens based on the SFV replicon vector generates EBOV VLPs in vitro, ...
... antigen-based SARS-CoV-2 tests on samples collected via nasal swabs or nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 in ... myADLM.org // Clinical Laboratory News // All Articles // Nasopharyngeal Swabs May Be Suitable for Rapid Antigen SARS-CoV-2 ... Rapid, antigen-based SARS-CoV-2 tests (RAT) on samples collected via nasal swabs or nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs reliably detect ... Nasopharyngeal Swabs May Be Suitable for Rapid Antigen SARS-CoV-2 Testing. * ...
Matthew Wale says the government must procure more Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) kits. ... Procure More Rapid Antigen Test Kits: Wale Urges Government. 1,000 kits to each province as announced by the Health Minister ... Matthew Wale says the government must procure more Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) kits. ...
SQZ TACs are designed to be rapidly engulfed by professional APCs and to act as a "Trojan horse" to present antigens in a non- ... TACs are derived from patient RBCs and are designed to carry disease-specific antigen cargos to specialized immune cells that ... SQZ TACs are a red blood cell-derived cell therapy platform being developed as an antigen-specific immune tolerance approach ... SQZ TACs leverage the bodys natural mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) clearance and antigen presentation to induce immune ...
My sister needs immediate Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy to treat her 3 times reoccurring Primary mediastinal ... Its called Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy. The process to produce and deliver CAR T-cell therapy is complex. ...
Seattle Public Schools cancelled Jan 3; 60,000 rapid antigen tests now available for staff and students. Seattle Public Schools ... We are happy to announce that we now have 60,000 rapid antigen tests available for staff and students, which were provided by ... Test given: BD-Veritor rapid antigen tests (results in 15-30 minutes) ... will be providing rapid antigen COVID testing for students that attend Seattle Public Schools in the Southeast and Central ...
Tang, N.E.M.L, Luyten, G.P.M, Mooy, C.M, Naus, N.C, de Jong, P.T.V.M, & Luider, T.M. (1996). HNK-1 antigens on uveal and ... HNK-1 antigens on uveal and cutaneous melanoma cell lines. Publication. Publication. Melanoma Research: a journal for basic, ...
Antigens / Proteins,Human Antigens / Proteins,Human Cell Surface Antigens ... BROWSE BY CATEGORY > Cell Biology > Antigens / Proteins > Human Antigens / Proteins > Human Cell Surface Antigens ... We offer a wide range of products that include purified antibodies, antigens, and specialty research products to c more... ... Our products include specialty bacterial culture media, antibodies & antigens, enzymes & proteins, chemical compou more... ...
Localization of antigen in tissue cells; improvements in a method for the detection of antigen by means of fluorescent antibody ... Therefore, specifying the antigen used and evaluation of both anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 should be considered. The importance of ... The clinical significance of autoantibodies to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Autoimmun Rev 2012;11:771-5. ... Evaluation of a novel line-blot immunoassay for the detection of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens. Ann NY Acad Sci ...
Tumor Antigens - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Any molecule capable of being recognized by the immune system is considered an antigen. Antigens have been identified in most ... prostate-specific antigens, melanoma-associated antigens) or that are expressed only during embryonic development ( ... However, several antigens with selective expression on the surface of tumor cells are not associated with the major ...
An Epidemiological Study of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Response to the Plasmodium Falciparum Antigen PF155/Resa in Adult ... repeat regions of the Pf155/RESA antigen, and crude Plasmodium falciparum antigens in 164 adult Liberians. We compared 2 long- ... An Epidemiological Study of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Response to the Plasmodium Falciparum Antigen PF155/Resa in Adult ... We investigated the seroreactivity and T cell reactivity against the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf155/RESA, different ...
... and results of sequential serum antigen titers in 35 cats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Agglutination TestsAnalysis of VarianceAnimalsAntibodies, ViralAntifungal AgentsAntigens, FungalCat DiseasesCatsCryptococcosis ... In contrast, in 5 of 6 cats in which treatment failed, antigen titers were unchanged or increased in magnitude even after at ... In contrast, in 5 of 6 cats in which treatment failed, antigen titers were unchanged or increased in magnitude even after at ...
  • Cross-reactivity refers to an antibody or population of antibodies binding to epitopes on other antigens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The multivalency of most antigens and antibodies enables them to interact to form a precipitate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The specific association of antigens and antibodies is dependent on hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic forces, and Van der Waals forces. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Like antibodies, antigens can be multivalent, either through multiple copies of the same epitope, or through the presence of multiple epitopes that are recognized by multiple antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Affinity constants can be determined for monoclonal antibodies, but not for polyclonal antibodies, as multiple bond formations take place between polyclonal antibodies and their antigens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved the first rapid diagnostic test to spot antibodies to both HIV types 1 and 2 as well as the HIV-1 p24 antigen. (medscape.com)
  • The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test, manufactured by Orgenics of Yavne, Israel, can detect HIV antibodies and the HIV-1 p24 antigen in human serum, plasma, and venous or fingerstick whole-blood specimens. (medscape.com)
  • The HIV-1 antigen is an earlier tip-off to HIV-1 infection than HIV-1 antibodies by themselves. (medscape.com)
  • The new test can tell the difference between acute vs established HIV-1 infections when the blood specimen tests positive for the p24 antigen, but negative for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. (harvard.edu)
  • British Library EThOS: Structural features of the MUC1 antigen and associated antibodies. (bl.uk)
  • Of the five approaches, the assays that provide the most rapid diagnosis, specifically the detection of antibodies by rapid serologic methods, and specific detection of cellular components, including antigens, enzymes, or nucleic acid sequences (especially with amplification), have gained the most acceptance. (meridianbioscience.com)
  • We sought to determine whether immune reactivity occurs between anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein antibodies and human tissue antigens, and whether molecular mimicry between COVID-19 viral proteins and human tissues could be the cause. (frontiersin.org)
  • We applied both human monoclonal anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies (spike protein, nucleoprotein) and rabbit polyclonal anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies (envelope protein, membrane protein) to 55 different tissue antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies had reactions with 28 out of 55 tissue antigens, representing a diversity of tissue groups that included barrier proteins, gastrointestinal, thyroid and neural tissues, and more. (frontiersin.org)
  • This extensive immune cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and different antigen groups may play a role in the multi-system disease process of COVID-19, influence the severity of the disease, precipitate the onset of autoimmunity in susceptible subgroups, and potentially exacerbate autoimmunity in subjects that have pre-existing autoimmune diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Host Response to Tumors The immune response to foreign antigens consists of Humoral mechanisms (eg, antibodies) Cellular mechanisms (See also Tumor Antigens. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Sofia 2 SARS Antigen FIA can detect a COVID-19 infection off a sample within 15 minutes, according to its maker Quidel. (massdevice.com)
  • San Diego-based Quidel describes the Sofia 2 SARS Antigen FIA as a rapid point-of-care test to be used with the Sofia 2 fluorescent immunoassay analyzer. (massdevice.com)
  • The EUA for our Sofia 2 SARS Antigen FIA allows us to arm our healthcare workers and first responders with a frontline solution for COVID-19 diagnosis, accelerating the time to diagnosis and potential treatment of COVID-19 for the patient," Quidel CEO Douglas Bryant said in a May 8 news release. (massdevice.com)
  • The Sofia 2 SARS Antigen FIA, with the Sofia 2 analyzer, provides automated and objective results in 15 minutes, allowing for testing of patients suspected of COVID-19/2019-nCoV in near-patient testing environments. (who.int)
  • Now that you know what an antigen and antibody are, let us consider the interaction between them. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The strength of interaction between antibody and antigen at single antigenic sites can be described by the affinity of the antibody for the antigen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Within each antigenic site, the variable region of the antibody "arm" interacts through weak noncovalent forces with antigen at numerous sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Avidity is perhaps a more informative measure of the overall stability or strength of the antibody-antigen complex. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is controlled by three major factors: antibody epitope affinity, the valence of both the antigen and antibody, and the structural arrangement of the interacting parts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ultimately these factors define the specificity of the antibody, that is, the likelihood that the particular antibody is binding to a precise antigen epitope. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This can be caused either by low avidity or specificity of the antibody or by multiple distinct antigens having identical or very similar epitopes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These are of a weak, noncovalent nature, yet some of the associations between antigen and antibody can be quite strong. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The time taken to reach equilibrium is dependent on the rate of diffusion and the affinity of the antibody for the antigen and can vary widely. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The affinity constant for antibody-antigen binding can span a wide range, extending from below 105/mol to above 1012/mol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Quantitative measurements of antibody affinity for antigen can be made by equilibrium dialysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The bonds that hold the antigen to the combining site of any antibody are noncovalent, and, hence, they are reversible in nature. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Usually there are multiple bond formations observed, ensuring relatively tight binding between antibody and antigen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. (harvard.edu)
  • These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo. (harvard.edu)
  • This product is intended to be used as a blocking antigen for antibody competition assays. (novusbio.com)
  • This recombinant antigen is only intended to be used as a blocking agent to confirm antibody specificity with the corresponding antibody, catalog number NBP1-86203. (novusbio.com)
  • IgG and IgM antibody levels to mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen were determined by ELISA in eight sooty mangabey monkeys (Cercocebus atys) prior to and at intervals after experimental inoculation with Mycobacterium leprae. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Anti-LAM antibody levels appear to be potentially valuable as an indicator of leprosy susceptibility, and when measured longitudinally together with antibody levels to M. leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid-I antigen, as a means to detect preclinical M. leprae infections in high-risk individuals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We determined the serum level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) in 273 randomly selected 7-9-year-old schoolchildren from Zanjan City, Islamic Republic of Iran, who had been fully vaccinated against hepatitis B starting at birth. (who.int)
  • A strong correlation was found between results of the fluorescent antibody tests and those obtained in an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay using P. falciparum antigens. (ajtmh.org)
  • Total, free and complex prostate specific antigens (PSA) were measured among men age 40 years and older. (cdc.gov)
  • The ADVIA Centaur cPSA assay quantitatively measures complexed prostate-specific antigen (cPSA) in human serum. (cdc.gov)
  • WATERTOWN, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--SQZ Biotechnologies (NYSE: SQZ), focused on unlocking the full potential of cell therapies for multiple therapeutic areas, today announced that the first clinical translation of the company's Tolerizing Antigen Carrier (TAC) platform in autoimmune diseases will be for celiac disease, a chronic autoimmune disorder that afflicts millions of patients and has no approved drug treatment. (pharmiweb.com)
  • There are currently no images for CFAP299 Recombinant Protein Antigen (NBP1-86203PEP). (novusbio.com)
  • A recombinant protein antigen with a N-terminal His6-ABP tag corresponding to human C4ORF22. (novusbio.com)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to CFAP299 Recombinant Protein Antigen (NBP1-86203PEP). (novusbio.com)
  • responses to the latter three antigens could not be separated with available congenic recombinant inbred rat strains. (portlandpress.com)
  • DNA sequence variation within human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes mediate susceptibility to a wide range of human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Genes and antigens of parasites : a laboratory manual, the proceedings of a course held at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 14 November-17 December, 1983 / organized and edited by Carlos M. Morel. (who.int)
  • COVID-19: What's the difference between PCR and antigen tests? (weforum.org)
  • Whether you're looking for Coviself Covid 19 Rapid Antigen Test For Self Test Kit, Rapid Antigen Test Kit Covid, Covid-19 Antigen Rapid Test Kit etc, you can explore and find the best products from Tradeindia. (tradeindia.com)
  • FDA has issued a first-of-its-kind emergency use authorization for Quidel 's COVID-19 antigen test, which enables rapid diagnosis of virus infection. (massdevice.com)
  • FDA commissioner Dr. Stephen M. Hahn and CDRH director Dr. Jeffrey E. Shuren in a statement said antigen tests will play a "critical role in the fight against COVID-19. (massdevice.com)
  • Still, the described the antigen tests as an "important in the overall response against COVID-19 as they can generally be produced at a lower cost than PCR tests. (massdevice.com)
  • Antigenni test BIOCREDIT, 20 pcsSARS-CoV 2 Antigen testBIOCREDIT COVID-19 Ag» The first commercializ. (biologicals.cz)
  • Other quicker diagnostic tests focus on the detection of viral antigens in saliva or swab samples. (uni-potsdam.de)
  • A key role of the immune system is detection of these antigens to permit subsequent targeting for eradication. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Sofia 2 SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) uses advanced immunofluorescence-based lateral flow technology in a sandwich design for qualitative detection of nucleocapsid protein from SARS-CoV-2. (who.int)
  • Shanghai residents continue to take antigen self-tests on Sunday since the city started on Saturday to try out the practice of combining nucleic acid testing and antigen self-testing to improve testing efficiency and detect latent infections in time. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The paralleled testing of nucleic acid testing in key areas where there are more confirmed and asymptomatic cases and antigen in non-key areas where there are fewer cases continued to be carried out throughout the city on Sunday. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Yi Lin, a local resident from Jing'an district, told the Global Times on Sunday that she and her husband and her elder son took the antigen self-test while her younger son and her parents living in a separate apartment in another building in the same compound took nucleic acid tests since there is a close contact of confirmed patients in their residential building. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In non-key areas, those who take antigen self-tests and get a positive result are required to further take nucleic acid tests and will be quarantined immediately before their results come out. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Tao suggested that the results of the antigen self-test should be uploaded to the nation's unified system like it's done with nucleic acid test results, which are linked to personal information and can be checked through mobile phones. (globalsecurity.org)
  • A prospective cohort study reassortant influenza A(H5N8) viruses in domestic ducks, comparing a rapid antigen test with quantitative reverse eastern China. (cdc.gov)
  • The device is an antigen test and, internally, works like the home tests that show the results using lines similar to a pregnancy test. (hackaday.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori antigen testing is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a noninvasive diagnostic test for H pylori infection and as a test to determine eradication after treatment. (medscape.com)
  • H pylori antigen testing is not typically performed within a laboratory panel but as a standalone test. (medscape.com)
  • Meanwhile, some mini apps have been developed by some tech companies for users to upload and record their antigen self-test results. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Diagnostic test (RDT) training package is a structured comprehensive collection of training resources and tools to enable relevant institutions to organize, run and evaluate training of trainers and/or training of health workers who will be performing SARS-CoV-2 testing using Antigen RDTs. (who.int)
  • These are the PCR test and the Rapid Antigen Test. (island.lk)
  • The PCR test is conducted in a centralized laboratory, while the Rapid Antigen Test can be carried out on the spot. (island.lk)
  • Discover 115 products from Rapid Antigen Test Kit manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, and dealers across India. (tradeindia.com)
  • Rapid Antigen Test Kit product price in India ranges from 20 to 1,00,000.0 INR and minimum order requirements from 1 to 1,00,000. (tradeindia.com)
  • We offer a wide range of Rapid Antigen Test Kit selections in various locations including Delhi, Jaipur, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai and many more. (tradeindia.com)
  • FDA expects more antigen test authorizations to follow. (massdevice.com)
  • Hahn and Shuren said negative results from antigen tests may need to be double-checked with a PCR test. (massdevice.com)
  • Once multiple manufacturers enter the antigen tests market, there's the potential to scale to test millions of Americans per day. (massdevice.com)
  • Opposition Leader Hon. Matthew Wale says the government must procure more Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) kits. (solomontimes.com)
  • Antigen tests quickly detect fragments of proteins found on or within the virus - with analysis of samples collected from the nasal cavity using swabs. (massdevice.com)
  • We also did selective epitope mapping using BLAST and showed similarities and homology between spike, nucleoprotein, and many other SARS-CoV-2 proteins with the human tissue antigens mitochondria M2, F-actin and TPO. (frontiersin.org)
  • CDC is expecting a 3-10 month nationwide shortage of Aplisol, a product of Par Pharmaceuticals, and one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in performing tuberculin skin tests. (cdc.gov)
  • If you want to read more about antigen tests , we covered that. (hackaday.com)
  • In-office, rapid stool antigen tests allow the specimen to be placed directly into a single device used for testing, and results can be read within 10 minutes. (medscape.com)
  • Tao Lina, a Shanghai-based expert on infectious diseases, told the Global Times on Sunday that the three characteristics of antigen self-tests - swiftness, being able to be easily used by one individual and easy to be operated by both young and senior people - can serve as a new model to fight against the Omicron variant. (globalsecurity.org)
  • PCR tests and antigen tests are the two main ways to detect SARS-CoV-2. (weforum.org)
  • Rapid antigen tests - like the two seen here showing negative results - are much faster and easier to perform but are less sensitive than PCR tests. (weforum.org)
  • This is addressed in the SARS-CoV-2 antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests: An implementation guide and in policy guidance issued by the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • The Rh blood group includes this gene which encodes both the RhC and RhE antigens on a single polypeptide and a second gene which encodes the RhD protein. (nih.gov)
  • H pylori antigen is a protein constituent of the H pylori bacterium, which is shed in human stool. (medscape.com)
  • H pylori antigen testing has 3 distinct forms. (medscape.com)
  • Immunization of a murine host with SinH-based antigens elicited significant protection against various strains of the pandemic ExPEC sequence type 131 (ST131) as well as multiple sequence types in two distinct models of infection (colonization and bacteremia ). (bvsalud.org)
  • The flexibility and scalability of the company's manufacturing system allows it to be used for both the TAC and Oncology platforms despite different cell types and antigen cargos. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In preclinical models, SQZ™ TACs have demonstrated the ability to induce multi-mechanism antigen-specific tolerance relevant to many immune mediated disorders. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Earlier this year, the company presented preclinical findings at the Antigen-Specific Immune Tolerance Digital Summit and the Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies demonstrating that its engineered TACs can drive antigen-specific immune tolerance in complex models of autoimmune disease. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Our preclinical research has found that SQZ TACs can leverage physiological processes to induce T cell tolerance to disease-driving antigens through multiple mechanisms," said Howard Bernstein, M.D., Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer at SQZ Biotechnologies. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Immunochemical techniques capitalize upon the extreme specificity, at the molecular level, of each immunoglobulin for its antigen, even in the presence of high levels of contaminating molecules. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Typically antigens are substances not usually found in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 1991, the World at least 6-8 years before with 3 doses of Health Organization (WHO) recommended hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth to that hepatitis B vaccination be included provide information on the effect of the in national immunization programmes in immunization strategy for hepatitis B and countries with a hepatitis B surface antigen the need for booster doses. (who.int)
  • 3. Alloantibodies produced by leucocyte immunization (conventionally induced antisera) were directed only to RT1-encoded (major histocompatibility complex, MHC) antigens. (portlandpress.com)
  • Variant genotypes associated with reduced expression of RhCE antigens among Brazilian blood donors. (nih.gov)
  • Low expression of the CD247 antigen causes impaired immune response. (prospecbio.com)
  • However, several antigens with selective expression on the surface of tumor cells are not associated with the major histocompatibility complex and may be candidates for therapeutic targeting. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Any molecule capable of being recognized by the immune system is considered an antigen. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cross-reactivity is sometimes desirable when one wants general binding to a related group of antigens or when attempting cross-species labeling when the antigen epitope sequence is not highly conserved during evolution. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Collectively, these results demonstrate that autotransporter antigens such as SinH may constitute promising ExPEC phylogroup-specific and sequence-type effective vaccine targets that reduce E. coli colonization and virulence . (bvsalud.org)
  • SQZ TACs leverage the body's natural mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) clearance and antigen presentation to induce immune tolerance. (pharmiweb.com)
  • TACs are derived from patient RBCs and are designed to carry disease-specific antigen cargos to specialized immune cells that are capable of inducing tolerance through multiple mechanisms. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Broad protective vaccination against systemic Escherichia coli with autotransporter antigens. (bvsalud.org)
  • The zeta chain has a central role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. (prospecbio.com)
  • Two FDA-approved PPD tuberculin antigen products are available in the United States for use in performing TSTs: Tubersol (Sanofi-Pasteur) and Aplisol. (cdc.gov)
  • SQZ TACs were shown to delete antigen-specific T cells, without causing broad immune suppression. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Importantly, SQZ TACs also increased antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) that exerted potent bystander suppression, showing the ability to suppress pathogenic T cells with different autoantigen specificities. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) are unique to tumor cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 4. Alloantibodies produced as a consequence of multiple semi-allogeneic pregnancies (pregnancy-induced antisera) were directed only to RT1A antigens. (portlandpress.com)
  • H pylori antigen testing uses one fresh random stool sample. (medscape.com)
  • The system shows the fast and easy-to-operate advantage of antigen testing, according to the local health authority. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The training addresses the theoretical and practical components of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen RDT testing and provide trainees with the skills and resources on how to safely perform SARS-CoV-2 Antigen RDT testing. (who.int)
  • This training does not intend to address the implementation of Antigen RDT testing across the diagnostic network. (who.int)