The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.

P fimbriae and other adhesins enhance intestinal persistence of Escherichia coli in early infancy. (1/1070)

Resident and transient Escherichia coli strains were identified in the rectal flora of 22 Pakistani infants followed from birth to 6 months of age. All strains were tested for O-antigen expression, adhesin specificity (P fimbriae, other mannose-resistant adhesins or type 1 fimbriae) and adherence to the colonic cell line HT-29. Resident strains displayed higher mannose-resistant adherence to HT-29 cells, and expressed P fimbriae (P = 0.0036) as well as other mannose-resistant adhesins (P = 0.012) more often than transient strains. In strains acquired during the first month of life, P fimbriae were 12 times more frequent in resident than in transient strains (P = 0.0006). The O-antigen distribution did not differ between resident and transient strains, and none of the resident P-fimbriated strains belonged to previously recognized uropathogenic clones. The results suggest that adhesins mediating adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, especially P fimbriae, enhance the persistence of E. coli in the large intestine of infants.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of the Serratia marcescens N28b O4 antigen gene cluster. (2/1070)

The Serratia marcescens N28b wbbL gene has been shown to complement the rfb-50 mutation of Escherichia coli K-12 derivatives, and a wbbL mutant has been shown to be impaired in O4-antigen biosynthesis (X. Rubires, F. Saigi, N. Pique, N. Climent, S. Merino, S. Alberti, J. M. Tomas, and M. Regue, J. Bacteriol. 179:7581-7586, 1997). We analyzed a recombinant cosmid containing the wbbL gene by subcloning and determination of O-antigen production phenotype in E. coli DH5alpha by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and Western blot experiments with S. marcescens O4 antiserum. The results obtained showed that a recombinant plasmid (pSUB6) containing about 10 kb of DNA insert was enough to induce O4-antigen biosynthesis. The same results were obtained when an E. coli K-12 strain with a deletion of the wb cluster was used, suggesting that the O4 wb cluster is located in pSUB6. No O4 antigen was produced when plasmid pSUB6 was introduced in a wecA mutant E. coli strain, suggesting that O4-antigen production is wecA dependent. Nucleotide sequence determination of the whole insert in plasmid pSUB6 showed seven open reading frames (ORFs). On the basis of protein similarity analysis of the ORF-encoded proteins and analysis of the S. marcescens N28b wbbA insertion mutant and wzm-wzt deletion mutant, we suggest that the O4 wb cluster codes for two dTDP-rhamnose biosynthetic enzymes (RmlDC), a rhamnosyltransferase (WbbL), a two-component ATP-binding-cassette-type export system (Wzm Wzt), and a putative glycosyltransferase (WbbA). A sequence showing DNA homology to insertion element IS4 was found downstream from the last gene in the cluster (wbbA), suggesting that an IS4-like element could have been involved in the acquisition of the O4 wb cluster.  (+info)

Structural analysis of a novel putative capsular polysaccharide from Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) caryophylli strain 2151. (3/1070)

A novel putative capsular polysaccharide consisting of D-Glcp and D-Fruf in the molar ratio of 1:1 was isolated as minor constituent from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction of Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) caryophylli. Its structure was determined, using mainly one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, as: -->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->1)-beta-D-Fruf-(2-->.  (+info)

Structural and serological studies on the O-antigen of Proteus mirabilis O14, a new polysaccharide containing 2-[(R)-1-carboxyethylamino]ethyl phosphate. (4/1070)

An O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus mirabilis O14 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and found to contain D-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glalactose, phosphate, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-D-alanine (D-AlaEtn), and O-acetyl groups. Studies of the initial and O-deacetylated polysaccharides using one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation experiments, demonstrated the following structure of the repeating unit: [equation: see text] This is the second bacterial polysaccharide reported to contain alpha-D-Galp6PAlaEtn, whereas the first one was the O-antigen of P. mirabilis EU313 taken erroneously as strain PrK 6/57 from the O3 serogroup [Vinogradov, E. V., Kaca, W., Shashkov, A.S., Krajewska-Pietrasik, D., Rozalski, A., Knirel, Y.A. & Kochetkov, N.K. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem., 188, 645-651]. Anti-(P. mirabilis O14) serum cross-reacted with LPS of P. mirabilis EU313 and vice versa in passive hemolysis and ELISA. Absorption of both O-antisera with the heterologous LPS decreased markedly but did not abolish the reaction with the homologous LPS. These and chemical data indicated that both strains have similar but not identical O-antigens. Therefore, we propose that P. mirabilis EU313 should belong to a new subgroup of the O14 serogroup.  (+info)

Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of a serologically separate strain Proteus penneri 2 from a new proposed serogroup O66. (5/1070)

O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus penneri strain 2 lipopolysaccharide was studied by full and partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional rotating-frame NOE spectroscopy (ROESY) and 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments. Together with D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, the polysaccharide was found to contain two rarely occurring sugars, 6-deoxy-L-talose (L-6dTal) and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-L-mannose (L-RhaNAc3NAc), and the following structure of a non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established: [equation: see text] The O-specific polysaccharide studied has a unique composition and structure and, accordingly, P. penneri 2 is serologically separate among Proteus strains. Therefore, we propose for P. penneri 2 a new Proteus O-serogroup O66 where this strain is at present the single representative.  (+info)

Protein conjugates of synthetic saccharides elicit higher levels of serum IgG lipopolysaccharide antibodies in mice than do those of the O-specific polysaccharide from Shigella dysenteriae type 1. (6/1070)

Our development of vaccines to prevent shigellosis is based on the hypothesis that a critical (protective) level of serum IgG to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) confers immunity. The O-SP is a hapten and must be conjugated to a protein to induce serum antibodies. The O-SP of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (approximately 27 tetrasaccharide repeat units), prepared by acid hydrolysis of the LPS, was bound to human serum albumin (HSA) by multiple point attachment (O-SP-HSA): The molar ratio of HSA to O-SP was 1.0. Synthetic saccharides, composed of one or multiples of the O-SP tetrasaccharide, equipped with a spacer at their reducing end, were bound to HSA by a single point attachment: The average molar ratios of the saccharides to HSA ranged from 4 to 24. Serum IgG anti-LPS, elicited in mice by O-SP-HSA or synthetic tetra-, octa-, dodeca-, and hexadecasaccharide fragments, was measured by ELISA. Outbred 6-week-old female mice were injected s.c. three times at biweekly intervals with 2.5 micrograms of saccharide as a conjugate and were bled 7 days after the second and third injections. Excepting the tetramer, conjugates of the octamer, dodecamer and hexadecamer elicited IgG LPS antibodies after the second injection, a statistically significant rise (booster) after the third injection, and higher levels than those vaccinated with O-SP-HSA (P = 0.0001). The highest geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS were elicited by the hexadecamer with 9 chains or 9 moles of saccharide/HSA (15.5 ELISA units) followed by the octamer with 20 chains (11.1 ELISA units) and the dodecamer with 10 chains (9.52 ELISA units). Clinical evaluation of these synthetic saccharides bound to a medically useful carrier is planned.  (+info)

Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii strains with monoclonal antibodies against the O antigens of their lipopolysaccharides. (7/1070)

Despite the emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii strains as nosocomial pathogens, simple methods for their phenotypic identification are still unavailable. Murine monoclonal antibodies specific for the O-polysaccharide moiety of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of two A. baumannii strains were obtained after immunization with heat-killed bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies were characterized by enzyme immunoassay and by Western and dot blot analyses and were investigated for their potential use for the identification of A. baumannii strains. The antibodies reacted with 46 of the 80 A. baumannii clinical isolates that were investigated, and reactivity was observed with 11 of 14 strains which were isolated during outbreaks in different northwestern European cities; no reactivity was observed with Acinetobacter strains of other genomic species, including the closely related genomic species 1 (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus), 3, and 13 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing, or with other gram-negative bacterial strains. The results show that O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies such as the ones described are convenient reagents which can be used to identify Acinetobacter strains in clinical and research laboratories.  (+info)

Safety and immunogenicity of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a O-specific polysaccharide conjugates in children. (8/1070)

O-specific polysaccharide conjugates of shigellae were safe and immunogenic in young adults, and a Shigella sonnei conjugate conferred protection [1-3]. Shigellosis is primarily a disease of children; therefore, the safety and immunogenicity of S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a conjugates were studied in 4- to 7-year-old children. Local and systemic reactions were minimal. The first injection of both conjugates elicited significant rises in geometric mean levels of serum IgG only to the homologous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (S. sonnei, 0.32-8.25 ELISA units [EU]; S. flexneri 2a, 1.15-20.5 EU; P<.0001). Revaccination at 6 weeks induced a booster response to S. flexneri 2a LPS (20.5-30.5 EU, P=.003). Six months later, the geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS for both groups were higher than the prevaccination levels (P<.0001). Similar, but lesser, rises were observed for IgM and IgA anti-LPS. The investigational Shigella conjugates were safe and immunogenic in children and merit evaluation of their efficacy.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the Escherichia coli O59 and O155 O-antigen gene clusters. T2 - The atypical wzx genes are evolutionary related. AU - Guo, Hongjie. AU - Kong, Qingke. AU - Cheng, Jiansong. AU - Wang, Lei. AU - Feng, Lu. PY - 2005/7/15. Y1 - 2005/7/15. N2 - O-antigens are highly polymorphic. The genes specifically involved in O-antigen synthesis are generally grouped together on the chromosome as a gene cluster. In Escherichia coli, the O-antigen gene clusters are characteristically located between the housekeeping genes galF and gnd. In this study, the O-antigen gene clusters of E. coli O59 and E. coli O155 were sequenced. The former was found to contain genes for GDP-mannose synthesis, glycosyltransferase genes and the O-antigen polymerase gene (wzy), while the latter contained only glycosyltransferase genes and wzy. O unit flippase genes (wzx) were found immediately downstream of the gnd gene, in the region between the gnd and hisI genes in these two strains. This atypical ...
The A. salmonicida A450 LPS O-antigen, encoded by the wbsalmo gene cluster, is exported through an ABC-2 transporter-dependent pathway. It represents the first example of an O-antigen LPS polysaccharide with three different monosaccharides in their repeating unit assembled by this pathway. Until now, only repeating units with one or two different monosaccharides have been described. Functional genomic analysis of this wbsalmo region is mostly in agreement with the LPS O-antigen structure of acetylated l-rhamnose (Rha), d-glucose (Glc), and 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-mannose (ManN). Between genes of the wbsalmo we found the genes responsible for the biosynthesis and assembly of the S-layer (named A-layer in these strains). Through comparative genomic analysis and in-frame deletions of some of the genes, we concluded that all the A. salmonicida typical and atypical strains, other than A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains, shared the same wbsalmo and presence of A-layer. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica
|jats:title|ABSTRACT|/jats:title| |jats:p| |jats:named-content content-type=genus-species|Salmonella enterica|/jats:named-content| serovar Typhi is a human-restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually, leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. The composition of the O-antigen can be modified by the activity of glycosyltransferase ( |jats:italic|gtr|/jats:italic| ) operons acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Here we investigate the role of two |jats:italic|gtr|/jats:italic| operons that we identified in the |jats:italic|S|/jats:italic|
TY - JOUR. T1 - A complete view of the genetic diversity of the Escherichia coli O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster. AU - Iguchi, Atsushi. AU - Iyoda, Sunao. AU - Kikuchi, Taisei. AU - Ogura, Yoshitoshi. AU - Katsura, Keisuke. AU - Ohnishi, Makoto. AU - Hayashi, Tetsuya. AU - Thomson, Nicholas R.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - The O antigen constitutes the outermost part of the lipopolysaccharide layer in Gram-negative bacteria. The chemical composition and structure of the O antigen show high levels of variation even within a single species revealing itself as serological diversity. Here, we present a complete sequence set for the O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters (O-AGCs) from all 184 recognized Escherichia coli O serogroups. By comparing these sequences, we identified 161 well-defined O-AGCs. Based on the wzx/wzy or wzm/wzt gene sequences, in addition to 145 singletons, 37 serogroups were placed into 16 groups. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of all the E. coli O-serogroup ...
2.A.66.2 The Polysaccharide Transport (PST) Family. The protein members of the PST family are generally of 400-500 amino acyl residues in size and traverse the membrane as putative α-helical spanners twelve times. Analyses conducted in 1997 showed that they formed two major clusters. One is concerned with lipopolysaccharide O-antigen (undecaprenol pyrophosphate-linked O-antigen repeat unit) export (flipping from the cytoplasmic side to the periplasmic side of the inner membranes) in Gram-negative bacteria. On the periplasmic side, polymerization occurs catalyzed by Wzy. The other is concerned with exopolysaccharide or capsular polysaccharide export in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. However, arachaeal and eukaryotic homologues are now recognized. The mechanism of energy coupling is not established, but homology with the MATE family suggests that they are secondary carriers. A review of Wzx undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UndPP)-linked polysaccharide repeat units occurs by a ...
Prior, JL; Parkhill, J; Hitchen, PG; Mungall, KL; Stevens, K; Morris, HR; Reason, AJ; Oyston, PCF; Dell, A; Wren, BW; +1 more... (2001) The failure of different strains of Yersinia pestis to produce lipopolysaccharide O-antigen under different growth conditions is due to mutations in the O-antigen gene cluster. FEMS microbiology letters, 197 (2). pp. 229-33. ISSN 0378-1097 Full text not available from this repository ...
Carbohydrates constitute one of the three major classes of biomolecules found in all living cells and, unlike nucleic acids and proteins, their polymeric structures are not based on a template. The structural diversity of these molecules confers them an enormous capacity to encode information in biological systems, acting as efficient mediators in the interaction of the cell with the environment. In order to understand the roles of glycans in biological processes it is of key importance to have a detailed understanding of their structures and conformational preferences, and NMR spectroscopy is one of most powerful techniques for the study of these molecules in solution.. This thesis is focused on the structural and conformational analysis of lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria. In the first two projects (Chapter 2 and 3) the structural analyses of the biological repeating units of the O-antigen polysaccharides from E. coli O174ab and O115 are described; in both cases a combination of ...
Carbohydrates constitute one of the three major classes of biomolecules found in all living cells and, unlike nucleic acids and proteins, their polymeric structures are not based on a template. The structural diversity of these molecules confers them an enormous capacity to encode information in biological systems, acting as efficient mediators in the interaction of the cell with the environment. In order to understand the roles of glycans in biological processes it is of key importance to have a detailed understanding of their structures and conformational preferences, and NMR spectroscopy is one of most powerful techniques for the study of these molecules in solution.. This thesis is focused on the structural and conformational analysis of lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria. In the first two projects (Chapter 2 and 3) the structural analyses of the biological repeating units of the O-antigen polysaccharides from E. coli O174ab and O115 are described; in both cases a combination of ...
Escherichia coli strains are normally identified by the combination of their O and H (and sometimes K) antigens, and serotyping based on the antigens is believed to be crucial for clinical detection and epidemiological investigation. Two E. coli strains, G5413 and G5287, were isolated from faecal samples of female patients with diarrhoea and were not agglutinated with any antisera that cover the well-known O serogroups of E. coli. We elucidated the O-polysaccharide (OPS) structures and analysed the O-antigen gene clusters of these bacteria. The OPS structure of G5413 established by monosaccharide analysis and NMR spectroscopy was found to be unique amongst known bacterial polysaccharide structures. The O-antigen gene cluster of this strain was sequenced and did not match sequence data with any of the 184 O serogroups that have been recognized internationally. Gene functions were tentatively assigned and were appropriate to the OPS structure. Based on these data, we suggest G5413 as a candidate for a new
Salmonella O Antigen Group D (Typhi O). Rapid Labs stained febrile antigen suspensions can be used to identify and quantitate specific antibodies in human sera following infection with certain Salmonellae pathogens. These febrile antigens are suitable for both the rapid slide and tube agglutination tests against human sera for the detection of these agglutinins.. These antigen suspensions are killed bacteria, stained to enhance the reading of agglutination tests. The blue stained antigens are specific to the somatic 0 antigens whilst the red stained antigens are specific to the flagellar H antigens.. Available in 5ml vials or bulk sizes.. ...
The biogenesis of the outer membrane requires that the individual components are transported from the site of synthesis to their final destination outside the inner membrane by crossing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compartments. The machinery and the energy source that drive this process are not yet fully understood. The lipid A-core moiety and the O-antigen repeat units are synthesized at the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane and are separately exported via two independent transport systems, namely, the O-antigen transporter Wzx (RfbX) and the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter MsbA that flips the lipid A-core moiety from the inner leaflet to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane.[2][3][4][5][6] O-antigen repeat units are then polymerised in the periplasm by the Wzy polymerase and ligated to the lipid A-core moiety by the WaaL ligase.[7][8] The LPS transport machinery is composed of LptA, LptB, LptC, LptD, LptE. This supported by the fact that depletion of any one of these ...
perosamine synthetase: a dual function enzyme that converts CDP-paratose to CPP-tyvelose; also converts GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose to perosamine
Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the major pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients. LPS-based monovalent (MV) and polyvalent (PV) conjugate vaccines were prepared from the most prevalent strains of P. aeruginosa International Antigenic Typing Scheme (IATS) 6, 10, 11 and 20 to evaluate their immunogenicity and protective capacities from infection by the pathogens. Conjugation of the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) antigens of P. aeruginosa strains to the common immunogenic recombinant Exotoxin A (rEPA) supports the multi-antigenic approach for the development of a vaccine that provides cross protection against various strains of the pathogen. The O-PSs were indirectly conjugated through adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) to rEPA by carbodiimidemediated condensation reaction. Mice were immunized with the conjugates emulsified with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) or Freunds adjuvant compared with conjugates without adjuvant, unconjugated mixture of rEPA and O-PS emulsified with MPL, and sterile saline. The MV
Two polysaccharides were isolated from Escherichia coli O12, the major being identified as the O12-antigen and the minor as the K5-antigen. The polysaccharides were studied by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, and one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. As a result, the following structure of the O12-polysaccharide was elucidated, which, to our knowledge, has not been hitherto found in bacterial carbohydrates: →2)-β-d-Glcp-(1→6)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-α-l-FucpNAc-(1→3)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→. The →4)-β-d-GlcpA-(1→4)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→ structure established for the K5-polysaccharide (heparosan) is previously known. Functions of genes in the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster of E. coli O12 were assigned by comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be consistent with the O12-polysaccharide structure ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the primary component of the outer membrane of Gram‐negativebacteria. LPS aids in protecting bacterial cells, and also defines the unique serogroups used to classify bacteria. Additionally, LPS is an endotoxin and the primary stimulator of innate immune cells in mammals, making it an ideal candidate for early detection of pathogens. However, the majority of methods for detection of LPS focus on detection of the endotoxic component of the molecule, lipid A. Since lipid A is largely conserved among bacterial species and serogroups, these detection approaches are highly nonspecific. Thus, the importance of identifying the O‐polysaccharide antigenic portion of LPS, which confers serogroup specificity, has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, methods that are highly selective to the O‐antigens are typically less sensitive than those that target the endotoxin. Here we present a history and comparison of the sensitivity of these methods and their value
Antigen O, polisaharid O ali stranska veriga O je ponavljajoči se glikanski polimer. Pripet je na oligosaharid sredice in predstavlja najbolj zunanji del molekule LPS. Sestava antigena O se razlikuje od bakterijskega seva do seva. Na primer samo pri različnih sevih bakterije E. coli obstaja več kot 160 različkov antigena O.[3] Prisotnost ali odsotnost antigena O odloča o tem, ali je lipopolisaharid opredeljen kot hrapav ali gladek. Verige antigena O s celotno dolžino napravijo lipopolisaharide gladke, če je antigen O odsoten ali skrajšan, pa govorimo o hrapavih LPS.[4] Bakterije s hrapavimi lipopolisaharidi so praviloma bolj prepustne za hidrofobne antibiotike, saj so hrapavi LPS bolj hidrofobni.[5] Antigen O je izpostavljen kot najbolj zunanji del bakterijske celice in zato predstavlja tarčo za gostiteljeva protitelesa. ...
Colnaghi, M I.; Pierotti, M A.; and Porta, G D., Humoral and cellular immune responses recognizing different antigens on murine lymphosarcomas. Abstr. (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 1320 ...
Expression of Y. pestis O-antigen reduces pathogen dissemination and host death. (a) KIM6+ and KIM6+-O+ (O-antigen expressing) were inoculated in mice following
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Identification of the specific O serogroup(s) responsible for the positive STEC result and verifies that all targets relevant to the definition of a Top 6 STEC (eae, stx and O group) are present within a single ...
尽管前期成本较高,但氧化还原流动电池 (RFB) 技术的回报时间更短,这主要因为即使经过数千次循环,其容量保持率仍然很可观。由于核心组件可回收,RFB 可保留其大部分初始价值。锂离子电池将因为实用级 RFB 的兴起而受到影响,后者能够缓解电动汽车应用所需的锂资源的压力。
Citation: Fratamico, P.M., Debroy, C., Miyamoto, T., Liu, Y. 2005. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli 0145 by PCR Targeting Genes in the E. Coli 0145 Antigen Gene Cluster and the Shiga Toxin 1 and Shiga Toxin 2 Genes. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Abstract. Paper # P-611. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serogroup O145 is an important cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome worldwide. Cattle and other animals are potential reservoirs for this pathogen. To develop PCR assays for detection and identification of E. coli O145, the DNA sequence of the O antigen gene cluster of this E. coli serogroup was determined, and 15 open reading frames were identified. The wzx (O antigen flippase) and wzy (O antigen polymerase) genes in the O145 O antigen gene cluster were selected as targets for development of PCR assays specific for this serogroup. In addition, a multiplex PCR assay targeting the E. coli O145 wzx and ...
The O antigen of the Shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence determinant and immunogen. We have isolated S. flexneri mutants which produce a semi-rough LPS by using an O-antigen-specific phage, Sf6c. Western immunoblotting was used to show that the LPS produced by the semi-rough mutants contained only one O-antigen repeat unit. Thus, the mutants are deficient in production of the O-antigen polymerase and were termed rfc mutants. Complementation experiments were used to locate the rfc adjacent to the rfb genes on plasmid clones previously isolated and containing this region (D. F. Macpherson, R. Morona, D. W. Beger, K.-C. Cheah, and P. A. Manning, Mol. Microbiol 5:1491-1499, 1991). A combination of deletions and subcloning analysis located the rfc gene as spanning a 2-kb region. Insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge into a SalI site in this region inactivated the rfc gene. The DNA sequence of the rfc region was determined. An open reading frame spanning the ...
All organisms synthesize amidosugars, such as N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and deoxysugars, such as fucose. They are found in important polysaccharides and glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins. N-acetylquinovosamine (QuiNAc) is both an amido- and a deoxy-sugar. It is found in many examples of an important prokaryotic glycoconjugate, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that coats the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Like N-glycosylation of glycoproteins, LPS has a portion that is synthesized first on a polyprenyl lipid carrier and then transferred to the rest of the molecule. QuiNAc is believed to initiate the O-antigen portion of LPS of Rhizobium etli CE3. Genetic studies identified three genes, wreV, wreU and wreQ, required for the initial steps of O-antigen synthesis in R. etli CE3. Based on the predicted roles of the gene products and the theory of polysaccharide biosynthesis, there was a very straightforward prediction of the initial events: WreV catalyzes conversion of UDP-GlcNAc to its 4-keto-6-deoxy
Author: Qin, Chunjun et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2020; Keywords: Chemical synthesis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, O-antigen, protecting group, glycosylation; Title: Chemical synthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa O11 O-antigen trisaccharide based on neighboring electron-donating effect
PubMedID: 23350972 | Laboratory adapted Escherichia coli K-12 becomes a pathogen of Caenorhabditis elegans upon restoration of O antigen biosynthesis. | Molecular microbiology | 3/1/2013
We have analyzed the O-antigen polysaccharide of the previously uncharacterized Escherichia coli strain TD2158 which is a host of bacteriophage HK620. This bacteriophage recognizes and cleaves the polysaccharide with its tailspike protein (TSP). The polysaccharide preparation as well as oligosaccharides obtained from HK620TSP endoglycosidase digests were analyzed with NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, sugar analysis was performed on the O-antigen polysaccharide and MALDI-TOF MS was used in oligosaccharide analysis. The present study revealed a heterogeneous polysaccharide with a hexasaccharide repeating unit of the following structure: alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 6) vertical bar vertical bar 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 -, 6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -, 4)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -, 3)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc- (1 -,vertical bar beta-D-Glcp/beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -, 3) A repeating unit with a D-GlcNAc substitution of D-Gal has been described earlier as characteristic for serogroup O18A1. Accordingly, we termed repeating units with D-Glc ...
Four hydrophobic amino acids (Leu, Tyr, Phe, Trp) were oligomerized by the protease papain in homo-oligomerization, binary co-oligomerization and ternary co-oligomerization. After 24 h, solid polydisperse reaction products of the homo-oligomerization were obtained in yields ranging from 30-80% by weight. A DPavg was calculated based on MALDI-ToF MS results using the ion counts for the chains in the product. Based on the DPavg and the yield of the homo-oligomerization it was determined that the amino acids can be ranked according to reactivity in the order: Tyr | Leu | Phe | Trp. Thermal degradation of the homo-oligomers shows two degradation steps: at 178-239 °C and at 300-330 °C. All the products left a significant amount of char ranging from 18-57% by weight at 800 °C. Binary co-oligomers were obtained as a polydisperse precipitate with a compositional distribution of the chains. Both the compositional and chain length distribution are calculated from MALDI-ToF mass spectra. By comparing the amount
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
This guide is for programmers who are writing custom applications to communicate with Opto 22 memory-mapped devices. These devices include groov EPIC processors; groov RIO modules; SNAP PAC controllers and SNAP PAC EB and SB brains; G4EB2 brains; SNAP Ultimate, SNAP Ethernet, and SNAP Simple I/O; E1 and E2 brain boards, and SNAP-LCE controllers.. The guide describes how to use the IEEE 1394-based OptoMMP memory-mapped protocol for programming. The guide also contains the complete memory map for all Opto 22 memory-mapped devices.. NOTE: This guide replaced previous individual programming guides for SNAP Ultimate I/O (form #1312) and SNAP Ethernet I/O (form #1227). This document was formerly called the SNAP Ethernet-Based I/O Units Protocols and Programming Guide.. ...
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Lipopolysaccharide a component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes comprises three regions lipid A core oligosaccharide and O-antigen polysaccharide. Using the CHARMM36 lipid and carbohydrate force fields we have constructed a model of an Escherichia coli R1 O6 LPS molecule. Several all-atom bilayers are built and simulated with lipid A only and varying lengths of LPS0, LPS5, and LPS10 O6 antigen repeating units a single unit of O6 antigen contains five sugar residues. From H H-NOESY experiments, cross-relaxation rates are obtained from an O-antigen polysaccharide sample. Although some experimental deviations are due to spin-diffusion, the remaining effective proton-proton distances show generally very good agreement between NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that increasing the LPS molecular length has an impact on LPS structure and dynamics and also on LPS bilayer properties. Terminal residues in a LPS bilayer are more flexible and extended ...
Ray, S. K., Rajeshwari, R., Shar ma, Y., and Sonti, R. V. 2002. A high-molecular-weight outer membrane protein of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae exhibits similarity to nonfimbrial adhesins of animal pathogeni c bacteria and is required for optimum virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 46:637-647. Regu, M., Enfedaque, J., Camprubi, S., and Toms, J. M. 1992. The O-antigen lipopolysaccharide is the major barrier to plasmid DNA uptake by Klebsiella pneumoniae during transformation by electroporation and os motic shock. J. Microbiol. Methods 15:129-134. Reinhold-Hurek, B., Maes, T., Gemmer, S., Van Montagu, M., and Hurek, T. 2006. An endoglucanase is involved in infection of rice roots by the not-cellulose-metabolizing endophyte Azoarcus sp strain BH72. Mol. Plan t-Microbe Interact. 19:181-188. Reiter, B., Brgmann, H., Burg, K., and Sessitsch, A. 2003. Endophytic nifH gene diversity in African sweet potato. Can. J. Microbiol. 49:549-555. Reslewic, S., Zhou, S., Place, M., Zhang, Y. P., Briska, A., Goldstein, S., ...
Małgorzata Czerwicka , Kinga Marszewska , Stephen J. Forsythe , Anna Bychowska , Alicja Mazgajczyk , Halina Dziadziuszko , Karolina Ossowska , Piotr Stepnowski , Zbigniew Kaczyński ...
Broeker, N. K.; Roske, Y.; Valleriani, A.; Stephan, M. S.; Andres, D.; Koetz, J.; Heinemann, U.; Barbirz, S.: Time-resolved DNA release from an O-antigen-specific Salmonella bacteriophage with a contractile tail. Journal of Biological Chemistry 294 (31), S. 11751 - 11761 (2019 ...
Authors: Pöschl, J.M.B. , Ruef, P. , Schnauffer, M. , Linderkamp, O. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of grant-negative bacteria consists of O-specific polysaccharide chain, core oligosaccharide chain and lipid A. Studies on the effect of various endotoxins on red blood cell (RBC) deformability gave conflicting results. To evaluate whether the effect of endotoxin on RBC deformability depends on the presence and exposure of lipid A, we studied the effect of five E.coli LPS components on RBC deformation by means of a shear stress diffractometer: 1) complete E.coli 0111:B4 LPS; 2) delipidated E.coli 0111 B4 LPS; 3) R-mutant E.coli F-583 LPS lacking the O-specific polysaccharide chain; 4) E.coli F-583 lipid A, and 5) electrodialysed E.coli …F-515 lipid A. Electrodialysis results in highly dispersed molecules whereas unelectrodialysed LPS tends to form aggregates. At a shear stress of 6 Pa RBC deformation was not changed by complete and delipidated LPS, but RBC ...
Once infection is established and bacterial levels increase, P. aeruginosa must evade adaptive immunity. Within the CF lung major changes in the phenotype of P. aeruginosa occur. These result in the overproduction of the cell surface polysaccharide alginate, loss of the LPS O antigen (Campodónico et al., 2008), and accumulation of DNA mutations caused by mutations affecting the DNA repair enzyme MutS (Oliver and Mena, 2010). Thus, the organism presents an ever-changing set of antigens for adaptive host immune responses. As CF patients do not have known defects in adaptive immunity, why cant they mount an effective immune response to clear P. aeruginosa? Some do, as it was shown almost 25 yr ago that a small subset of CF patients ,12 yr old remained uninfected and had serum antibodies that recognize alginate and facilitate opsonic killing (Pier et al., 1987). This antibody is not found in other CF patients or even in healthy humans, most of whom produce natural nonopsonic/nonprotective ...
Inner membrane protein YiaH; Involved in enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis; catalyzes the addition of O-acetyl groups to the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues of the trisaccharide repeat units of the enterobacterial common antigen; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene prediction method- Protein Homology (331 aa ...
A structural study was performed by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy and methylation analysis of the O-chain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Vibrio bioserogroup 1875 possessing antigenic factor(s) in common with O1 Vibrio cholerae. It was demonstrated to contain a linear homopolymer of (1→2)-linked N-3-hydroxypropionyl-alpha-D-perosamine [4-(3-hydroxypropanamido)-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannopyranose], which is very similar to, but not identical with, both (1→2)-linked linear N-3-deoxy-L-glycero-tetronyl(S-2,4-dihydroxybutyryl)-alpha-D - perosamine homopolymer and (1→2)-linked linear N-acetyl-alpha-D-perosamine homopolymer which constitute the O-chains of O1 V. cholerae and non-O1 V. cholerae bioserogroup Hakata LPS respectively. ...
Isnt it time you treated yourself to a stylish and versatile bracelet with a splash of sophistication? This sparkling crown O chain bracelet in sterling silver is the perfect way to splurge on yourself. Shop your Pandora Chains here.
Laser-micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (La-Py-GC-MS) allows the analysis of small targeted areas of organic material. In this proof of concept study a novel application of the technique is demonstrated. Three types of organic matter preserved in speleothems were analysed: dissolved organic matter within the calcite crystal matrix; detrital organic inclusions; and lithified guano derived from birds and bats. The results indicate that there is significant heterogeneity within each sample type, with guano samples having the highest variability. However, there are also distinctive La-Py-GC-MS products that allow separation of the sample types geochemically. These include the chain length distribution within the longer chain n-alkanes (,C20), with the guano sample having a dominance of chain lengths below C27, whilst the other two sample types are dominated by n-alkanes of C27 and above. The detrital inclusion sample has a higher relative abundance of pyrrole and methylpyrroles. A ...
POLYSACCHARIDE STRUCTURE. References. Tombs, M .P. & Harding, S.E., An Introduction to Pol ysaccharide Biotechnology, Taylor & Francis, London, 1997 D.A. Rees, Polysaccharide Shapes, Chapman & Hall, 1977 Slideshow 198522 by johana
* found in: Polyvalent Antiserum: Serovar Inaba and Ogawa, Salmonella O 13 Antiserum, Salmonella O 2 Antiserum, Salmonella Polyvalent O Antiserum,..
Kang, Y.; Barbirz, S.; Gohlke, U.; Santer, M.: Molecular dynamics study on the interaction of O-antigen polysaccharides of the gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri with the tail-spike-protein of bacteriophage Sf6. In Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 248. 248th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), San Francisco, CA, 10. August 2014 - 14. August 2014. (2014 ...
Structures of the O-antigens of Klebsiella serotypes 02(2a, 2e), 02 (2a, 2e, 2h), and 02 (2a, 2f, 2g), members of a family of related D -galactan O-antigens in Klebsiella spp: Endotoxin Res.
As it is known that A group contained in its serum component which react with B antibody while the B group contained in its serum component that react with A antigen.. This serum component is known as antisera.. A -- Anti B --B group. B --Anti A --A group. These sera are available in market.. The antisera made from the human serum is called polyclonal antisera.. Now a days due to HIV disease scientist has discovered the synthetic sera which is known as monoclonal antisera.. In forensic the analysis of blood grouping from the crime exhibits is very important. For the analysis of blood from cloth the small portion of the blood cutting must be taken. But to analyze blood grouping from soil or weapon the thread must be prepared from the exhibits.. Preparation of Thread: -. The clean cotton thread is put in normal saline (the concentration of normal saline is 85% sodium chloride).. The wet thread is rubbed on weapon gently or on the soil particle and dry in the oven at 70 degree Celsius for 1-2 ...
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
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Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer ...
... -antigen interactions[edit]. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ... Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen.[2] This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding ...
Tumor antigens have been divided into two categories: shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are ... Escape loss variants (that target a single tumor antigen are likely to be less effective. Tumors are heterogeneous and antigen ... as sometimes an immune response to a single antigen can lead to immunity against other antigens on the same tumor.[11] ... "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ...
... antigens[edit]. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized.[49] The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on the seventh exon of the CLT2 gene (SLC44A2). The HNA ... and HNA-5 antigen systems each have two known antigens (a and b) and are located in the β2 integrin. HNA-4 is located on the αM ... they change shape and become more amorphous or amoeba-like and can extend pseudopods as they hunt for antigens.[15] ...
Function in antigen presentation[edit]. HSPs are indispensable components of antigen presentation pathways - the classical ones ... Nishikawa M, Takemoto S, Takakura Y (April 2008). "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... GroEL, 60kDa antigen Hsp60 Involved in protein folding after its post-translational import to the mitochondrion/chloroplast ...
This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes.[21] While the Duffy antigen ...
Protein/gene/antigen Stage Description EBNA-1 latent+lytic EBNA-1 protein binds to a replication origin (oriP) within the viral ... Latent antigens[edit]. All EBV nuclear proteins are produced by alternative splicing of a transcript starting at either the Cp ... and early antigen complex EA-D (induced by Rta), however, the highly stable EBNA-1 gene found across all stages of EBV ... and blockade of antigen processing. Early lytic gene products include BNLF2.[21] Finally, late lytic gene products tend to be ...
Antibody-antigen reaction[edit]. Now these antibodies will encounter antigens and bind with them. This will either interfere ... When a B cell encounters an antigen, it is bound to the receptor and taken inside by endocytosis. The antigen is processed and ... Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. By binding their specific antigens, antibodies can cause ... Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen. The matured B cells migrate from bone marrow to lymph nodes or ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ... Antigen discrimination[edit]. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ... Double-positive thymocytes (CD4+/CD8+) move deep into the thymic cortex, where they are presented with self-antigens. These ...
Steps in production of antibodies by B cells: 1. Antigen is recognized and engulfed by B cell 2. Antigen is processed 3. ... Antigen presentation[edit]. Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed ... Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ... After recognizing an antigen, an antigen presenting cell such as the macrophage or B lymphocyte engulfs it completely by a ...
O-antigen[edit]. A repetitive glycan polymer contained within an LPS is referred to as the O antigen, O polysaccharide, or O ... For example, there are over 160 different O antigen structures produced by different E. coli strains.[5] The presence or ... The O antigen is attached to the core oligosaccharide, and comprises the outermost domain of the LPS molecule. The composition ... LPS final assembly: O-antigen subunits are translocated across the inner membrane (by Wzx) where they are polymerized (by Wzy, ...
Antigen i +. {\displaystyle +}. A. 1. +. {\displaystyle A1^{+}}. a. =. 376. {\displaystyle a=376}. b. =. 237. {\displaystyle b= ... frequency of antigen i. {\displaystyle i}. : p. f. i. =. C. N. =. 0.311. ;. {\displaystyle pf_{i}={\frac {C}{N}}=0.311;}. ... frequency of antigen j. {\displaystyle j}. : p. f. j. =. A. N. =. 0.237. ;. {\displaystyle pf_{j}={\frac {A}{N}}=0.237;}. ... Example: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles[edit]. HLA constitutes a group of cell surface antigens also known as the MHC of ...
"Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 575-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00310.x. PMID 15496200.. ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ... November 1979). "Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA-DRw3". Tissue Antigens. 14 (5): 449-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... A1::DQ2 was at the forefront of histocompatibility science, A1 was the first numerical antigen HL-A1 identified in the late ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ... antigen-presenting dendritic cells and phagocytes) diminish in their self-renewal capacity. This is due to the accumulation of ...
The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T-cell receptor. The T-cell receptor undergoes genetic ... Each T cell attacks a different antigen. T cells that attack the body's own proteins are eliminated in the thymus. Thymic ... This expression in the thymus, allows for the deletion of autoreactive thymocytes by exposing them to self-antigens during ... Allergy results from an inappropriate and excessive immune response to common antigens. Substances that trigger an allergic ...
"Tissue Antigens. 62 (5): 401-407. ISSN 0001-2815.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output . ...
B51 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister serotype of B52.[2] There are a large number of alleles within ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (1): 20-48. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.610103.x. PMID 12622774. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008- ... "Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMC 2396006. PMID 15787720.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... Ahn JK, Park YG (October 2007). "Human leukocyte antigen B27 and B51 double-positive Behçet uveitis". Arch. Ophthalmol. 125 (10 ...
antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP- ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. • ... antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class Ib. • innate immune response. • defense ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-independent. • protection from natural ...
Various combinations (DNA/surface antigens, etc.). Applications[edit]. The technology has applications in a number of fields, ... co-expression of cell surface and intracellular antigens can also be analyzed.[37] In marine biology, the autofluorescent ... "Demonstration that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells after purification with a fluorescence- ... "Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types". Journal of Visualized ...
Thus, the B cell presents the foreign peptide (modified gliadin) but produces antibodies specific for the self-antigen (tTG). ... See also: List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions ... Tissue Antigens. 49 (1): 29-34. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02706.x. ISSN 0001-2815. PMID 9027962.. ... and is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 along with coeliac disease and gluten ...
Tissue Antigens. 69 (1): 10-18. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00717.x. PMID 17212703.. ...
Day, M.J (1999). "Antigen specificity in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 69 ( ... Tissue Antigens. 66 (6): 656-65. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00508.x. PMID 16305682.. ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (1): 82-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00614.x. PMID 16774545.. ...
Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 363-6. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004363.x. PMID 11380948.. ...
Tissue Antigens. 57 (3): 192-199. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057003192.x. PMID 11285126.. ... Lin's research was based on the study of human tissue antigens (HLA) of Hoklo, Hakka and plains indigenous peoples. Through ...
"Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ... "Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ... Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ...
It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ... Histocompatibility+Antigens+Class+I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... The peptide translocation from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER is accomplished by the transporter associated with antigen ... this will trigger an immediate response from the immune system against a particular non-self antigen displayed with the help of ...
Tissue Antigens. 51 (6): 649-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1998.tb03008.x. PMID 9694358. Steinle A, Groh V, Spies T (Oct 1998). " ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 166-70. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550210.x. PMID 10746790. Cerwenka A, Bakker AB, McClanahan T, ...
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.[1] When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. There are three main ways the action of the receptor can be classified: relay of signal, amplification, or integration.[2] Relaying sends the signal onward, amplification increases the effect of a single ligand, and integration allows the signal to be incorporated into another biochemical pathway.[2] In this sense, a receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, transporters, and ion channels.. Receptor proteins can be classified by their location. Transmembrane ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Minimal enhancer/ ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ...
Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON,Reacts with an early protein. Can detect ... Anti-sm (Smith Antigen) (SLE / Nuclear Marker) Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision. 10. Rat Anti-Mouse F4 / ... 80 Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated from AbD Serotec. 11. Mouse Anti-Human B-Cells (FMC7 Antigen) Monoclonal ... Mouse Anti-HLA, Class II Antigen-DR+DP Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 236-14240 from Meridian Life Science, Inc.. 4. ...
DCs, the most potent immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells known, activate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells by ... tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses were assessed using cutaneous DTH testing against antigens present in autologous tumor ... prostate-specific antigen; PSMA, prostate-specific membrane antigen; RCR, replication-competent retrovirus. ... One of the antigen epitopes, present in a 150-kDa polypeptide, was expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells, as well as in ...
Candida Antigen and Arabinitol Levels in the Sera of Patients With Proven or Probable Invasive Candidosis ... Mannan Antigen of Candida Albicans and Cellular Immune Responses in Vitro and in Vivo ... Candida Mannan Antigen Detection Versus Quantitative Culture in urine, Sputum, Stool, and Vaginal Swabs ... Antigens for the Detection of Candidaguilliermondii var. Guilliermondii Infection in Ruminants ...
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of ... Antigen World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Antigen. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins ... Type A blood has one kind of antigen and type B another. A person with type AB blood has both the A and B antigen. Type O blood ...
A1 AntigenHLA-A11 AntigenHLA-A2 AntigenHLA-A24 AntigenHLA-A3 AntigenHLA-B AntigensHLA-B13 AntigenHLA-B14 AntigenHLA-B15 Antigen ... B39 AntigenHLA-B40 AntigenHLA-B44 AntigenHLA-B51 AntigenHLA-B52 AntigenHLA-B7 AntigenHLA-B8 AntigenHLA-C AntigensHLA-D Antigens ... A1 AntigenHLA-A11 AntigenHLA-A2 AntigenHLA-A24 AntigenHLA-A3 AntigenHLA-B AntigensHLA-B13 AntigenHLA-B14 AntigenHLA-B15 Antigen ... B39 AntigenHLA-B40 AntigenHLA-B44 AntigenHLA-B51 AntigenHLA-B52 AntigenHLA-B7 AntigenHLA-B8 AntigenHLA-C AntigensHLA-D Antigens ...
Carcinoembryonic Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Ballesta, AM; Molina, R; Filella, X; Jo, J; Giménez, N (1995). "Carcinoembryonic antigen in staging and follow-up of patients ... In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. The following is a ...
Class I antigens are restricted to autologous astrocytoma cells. Class II antigens are shared by autologous as well as certain ... three classes of surface antigens have been defined. ... Class III antigens are not tumor-specific and are found on both ... Class I antigens are restricted to autologous astrocytoma cells. Class II antigens are shared by autologous as well as certain ... Tumor-specific antigens Recent Results Cancer Res. 1980;75:1-9. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-81491-4_1. ...
... CDC is expecting a 3-10 month nationwide shortage of Aplisol, a product ... Two FDA-approved PPD tuberculin antigen products are available in the United States for use in performing TSTs: Tubersol ( ... 06/21/2019: Lab Advisory: Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens. ... of Par Pharmaceuticals, and one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens licensed by the Food and Drug ...
World Health Organization Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, Immunization schedules
Download CD Antigens Information Finder and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about CD Antigens Information Finder. ... The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al., 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies ... The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including ...
The first step of peptide selection in antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules Malgorzata A. Garstka, Alexander Fish, ... Cocapture of cognate and bystander antigens can activate autoreactive B cells Nicholas S. R. Sanderson, Maria Zimmermann, Luca ... Autophagy-related protein Vps34 controls the homeostasis and function of antigen cross-presenting CD8α+ dendritic cells Vrajesh ... MERS-CoV and H5N1 influenza virus antagonize antigen presentation by altering the epigenetic landscape Vineet D. Menachery, ...
An antigen (Australia antigen) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several ... that some cases of polyarteritis may result from the deposition in blood vessels of immune complexes of viral antigen and ... Other articles where Australia antigen is discussed: connective tissue disease: Necrotizing vasculitides: ... An antigen (Australia antigen) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several ...
Antigens with a high incidence.. Br Med J 1969; 3 doi: (Published 12 July 1969) Cite this ...
... an antigen used in performing tuberculin skin tests. How long will the shortage last, and what alternatives are available in ... Two FDA-approved PPD tuberculin antigen products are available in the United States for use in performing TSTs: Tubersol ( ... Nationwide Shortage of Tuberculin Skin Test Antigens. CDC Recommendations for Patient Care and Public Health Practice. ... tuberculin antigens licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in performing tuberculin skin tests. This time ...
Cancer Tumor antigens.. Boon T1, Old LJ.. Author information. 1. Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Avenue Hippocrate 74, UCL ...
New antigenic determinants can be attached to self proteins, or the shape of a self antigen can shift-for a variety of reasons- ... Alteration of self antigens: Various mechanisms can alter self components so that they seem foreign to the immune system. ... Other articles where Self antigen is discussed: immune system disorder: ... types of antigens. *. In antigen. …(or heteroantigens) and autoantigens (or self-antigens). Foreign antigens originate from ...
This article explains what antigen characteristics are and the best method to choose an antigen against which to raise an ... What is an Antigen?. An antigen is simply any substance foreign to the immune system that causes an immune response, such as ... Antigen-antibody interaction is optimal when the epitope, or antibody recognition/binding site on the antigen, is open to the ... Some epitopes are found to occur only in the native or unprocessed state of the antigen, while others require the antigen to be ...
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... you correctly express concern about the recent mixed public health messaging around the role of rapid antigen tests for the ... detection of Covid-19 ("The Irish Times view on antigen testing: A study in mixed messaging", May 11th). ...
... is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal amount may be suggestive of ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal ... It is also referred to as an oncofetal antigen because of its similarity to fetal tissue. ...
Evaluating Rapid Antigen Testing for SARS-CoV-2. *Reporting Rapid Antigen Test Results for SARS-CoV-2 to Health Departments and ... CDC recently issued new antigen testing guidance for evaluating and testing persons for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). This ... Performance of Rapid Antigen Tests for SARS-CoV-2. * ... Regulatory Requirements for Using Rapid Antigen Tests for SARS- ... LOCS message is intended to share the new guidance with clinical laboratories that might be asked to perform COVID-19 antigen ...
antigens synonyms, antigens pronunciation, antigens translation, English dictionary definition of antigens. Substances that on ... antigens. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to antigens: tumor antigens antigens. Substances ... In addition, each antigen fragment is fused to the ubiquitin protein to increase antigen expression and target these antigens ... To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen-presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these ...
... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukoc ... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is ... Tissue Antigens 2004; 64:631.. *Horton R, Wilming L, Rand V, et al. Gene map of the extended human MHC. Nat Rev Genet 2004; 5: ... Tissue Antigens 2011; 77:206.. *Erlich RL, Jia X, Anderson S, et al. Next-generation sequencing for HLA typing of class I loci ...
In a direct manner some of the MHC antigens, the class I molecules, seem to be involved in combatting... ... Evolutionary relationship between HLA-DR antigen ß chains, HLA-A, B, C antigen subunits and immunoglobulin chains. Scand J. ... Molecular association between transplantation antigens and a cell surface antigen in an adenovirus-transformed cell line. Proc ... A pseudogene homologous to mouse transplantation antigens: Transplantation antigens are encoded by eight exons that correlate ...
When antigens exist in candida bacteremia, both its sensitivity and specificity are over 80%. So fungal antigens test can be ... Second, when sandwich ELISA are used to galactomannan antigen in fungal cell wall, the antigens can release into the blood. ... How Important Fungal Antigens Test Are. By Thomas Schmitt. See all Articles by Thomas SchmittGet Updates on Alternative ... The fungal antigens test can be applied to the following diagnoses.. First, use ELISA or Latex agglutination to test mannan ...
Antigens, and Molecular Mimicry, Volume 178 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121820794, 9780080882956 ... J. McCray and G. Werner, Production and Properties of Site-Specific Antibodies to Synthetic Peptide Antigens Related to ...
How to Lower Prostate-Specific Antigens (PSA). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells in your prostate ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells in your prostate gland.[1] A PSA test measures PSA levels in ... Menurunkan Kadar Antigen Spesifik Prostat, Français: réduire le taux dantigènes prostatiques spécifiques (APS), العربية: خفض ...
... wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. ... The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical ... c) separating the antigen coated solid support from the specimen;. (d) treating the antigen coated solid support with labeled ... c) separating the antigen coated solid support from the specimen;. (d) treating the antigen coated solid support with ...
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. (
  • No antibodies against prostate-specific antigen were detected. (
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells in your prostate gland. (
  • What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? (
  • Prostate -specific antigen ( PSA ) is something made by the prostate gland. (
  • When Should Prostate-Specific-Antigen (PSA) Testing Be Stopped? (
  • New York, NY, 20 February 2009 - Although widespread Prostate-Specific-Antigen (PSA) testing has undoubtedly decreased prostate cancer mortality, is there a point of diminishing returns? (
  • The article is "Prostate Specific Antigen Testing Among the Elderly: When To Stop? (
  • [3] Antigens are usually proteins , peptides (amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of white blood cells. (
  • Research on human blood cells in the 1950s identified three genes associated with the HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). In the 1970s, another gene was identified (HLA-D). With the advent of molecular technology beginning in the 1980s, more genes that code for proteins that function in the antigen complex have continued to be identified. (
  • Most antigens have a large molecular weight and are chemically composed of proteins or polysaccharides, but may also be lipids, polypeptides, or nuclear acids, among others. (
  • These peptide antigens are sometimes superior to the whole proteins because they can produce antibodies that are directed against unique regions of the sequence, particularly when the proteins under study are part of a family of extremely homologous proteins. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a term used to describe a group of genes in animals and humans that encode a variety of cell surface markers, antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. (
  • A histocompatibility antigen blood test looks at proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). (
  • This spike fragment resembles the bacterial toxins known as super antigens-proteins that generate excessive reaction from T cells, a vital member of the immune system. (
  • The collection features a comprehensive collection of influenza antigens , an exclusive coronavirus catalog and many other hard-to-find viral proteins such as Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, RSV and Zika. (
  • Trogocytosis, the uptake of membrane proteins by an antigen-presenting cell from its cognate T cell, allows the identification of neoepitopes targeted by T cell receptors with high sensitivity. (
  • SILVER SPRING, Md. , Oct. 10, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration allowed marketing of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to detect Ebola virus antigens (proteins) in human blood from certain living individuals and samples from certain recently deceased individuals suspected to have died from Ebola (cadaveric oral fluid). (
  • From one mouse survivor, they isolated immune cells, called T cells, which play the most important role in protecting the body from cancer, and used them to pluck the antigen out of the many proteins in prostate cells. (
  • The exogenous pathway is utilized by specialized antigen-presenting cells to present peptides derived from proteins that the cell has endocytosed. (
  • In Cross-presentation , peptides derived from extracellular proteins are presented in the context of MHC class I. The cell starts off with the exogenous pathways but diverts the antigens (cytosolic diversion) to the endogenous pathway. (
  • Most antigens are high molecular weight substances, but low molecular weight substances will also act as antigens if they bind to proteins in the body. (
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (
  • The two classes of histocompatibility molecules allow an organism to in essence establish an inventory of what cells are "self" and to expose foreign antigens to the immune system so that antibodies to these antigens can be made. (
  • CD molecules are cell-surface antigens identifiable by their reactions with specific monoclonal antibodies, which represent an important system for identifying and differentiating human cells. (
  • In a direct manner some of the MHC antigens, the class I molecules, seem to be involved in combatting virus-infections inasmuch as MHC antigens on virus-infected cells are part of the target for T-killer cells. (
  • Antigens are molecules that immune systems can recognize as foreign and mark for destruction. (
  • The molecules themselves can have long and complicated scientific names, so antigens may be given short names for easy recall. (
  • Sometimes, the antigens are simply given letters to distinguish them from other molecules, and this may result in different antigens having the same name. (
  • By contrast, small molecules have been used to target those intracellular antigens with a functionality that is suitable for drug screening. (
  • subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. (
  • Cross-presentation involves parts of the exogenous and the endogenous pathways but ultimately involves the latter portion of the endogenous pathway (e.g. proteolysis of antigens for binding to MHC I molecules). (
  • We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. (
  • Lymphocytes traffic through the secondary lymphoid organs and interact in lymph nodes (LNs) with dendritic cells transporting tissue antigens to initiate immune responses to model antigens, microbial antigens, and apoptotic cells ( 1 ). (
  • now find that the most efficient of the antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells and B cells) harbor exceptionally low concentrations of lysosomal proteases when these levels are compared with those of macrophages. (
  • Thus, whereas macrophages rapidly degrade the antigens they encounter, dendritic cells may protect the very same antigens, facilitating their dissemination to and survival in secondary lymphoid organs. (
  • In immunology , antigens ( Ag ) are structures (aka substances) specifically bound by antibodies (Ab) or a cell surface version of Ab ~ B cell antigen receptor (BCR). (
  • The CD Antigen Information Finder was adapted from Current Protocols in Immunology (Beare, et al. (
  • Antigens for the Detection of Candida guilliermondii var. (
  • Some antibodies are thus excellent for antibody detection in immunohistochemistry where the antigenic site is well maintained, but perform poorly in Western blotting, which requires sample preparation that changes the conformation of the protein and in so doing, alters the antigen site at which antibody binding occurs. (
  • Sir, - In your editorial, you correctly express concern about the recent mixed public health messaging around the role of rapid antigen tests for the detection of Covid-19 (" The Irish Times view on antigen testing: A study in mixed messaging ", May 11th). (
  • The present disclosure relates to a solid phase immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in a clinical specimen, wherein the Chlamydia trachomatis antigens to be determined are coated or adsorbed on the solid phase. (
  • Adenovirus antigen detection is useful to confirm the diagnosis of adenovirus infection in patients with respiratory illness. (
  • The Rapid Antigen test is an immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative detection of nucleocapsid protein antigen from SARS-CoV-2 in direct nasopharyngeal (NP) swab from individuals who are suspected of COVID-19 by their healthcare provider. (
  • Even one species can produce different flagellar antigens that may help avoid detection by the immune system. (
  • Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), partially digested into peptide fragments and then displayed on the surface of the APC associated with an antigen-presenting molecule such as MHC class I or MHC class II, for recognition by certain lymphocytes such as T cells. (
  • COVID-19 antigen tests are designed for the rapid diagnosis of active infection primarily by detecting the nucleocapsid protein antigen of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (the virus that causes COVID-19) via nasal swabs or similar clinical specimens. (
  • Libraries built with SABRs can screen thousands of epitopes for the discovery of T cell target antigens. (
  • 1) It is possible for antibodies (or their derivatives) to target antigens that are normally intracellular but become externalized (for example, during disease). (
  • All immunohistochemical techniques are based upon the same principle: a specific antibody binds with its specific antigen to produce a unique antigen-antibody complex. (
  • 2002). With the numerous antigens that can be used in immunotherapy the decision making process for researchers, hospitals, and companies, in whether or not invest resources in a specific antigen has been always a very complicated matter both for classic therapeutic vaccines and even more for anti-idiotype vaccines. (
  • 4. The device of claim 1 wherein said first zone consists of at least two individual layers, with one of said layers containing enzyme-linked antibodies and another layer containing specific antigen bound and immobilized in said layer. (
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (
  • Because many such antigens may also be present in normal prostate epithelial cells as well as PCA cells, one major therapeutic challenge for induction of anti-PCA immune responses may be the need to overcome immune tolerance against normal prostate antigens. (
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (
  • In yet another aspect, compositions of antigens are prepared and provided to immunize animals and induce strong immune responses. (
  • 3 Humoral Immune Responses against Cancer Antigens: Serological Identification Methods. (
  • The major challenge of immunotherapy using -anti-idiotype vaccines is to identify the optimal anti-idiotype antibody that will function as a true surrogate antigen for a TAA system, and ideally will generate both humoral and cellular immune responses. (
  • The uptake and processing of antigens by macrophages in the tissue is an initial, critical step in most immune responses. (
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (
  • As a result of the increasing switch from live-attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines to subunit antigens , there is a need for novel antigen delivery technologies to improve vaccine efficacy and safety. (
  • One of the caveats about this type of vaccine therapy, however, is that vaccines have the potential to attack not only cancerous tissue but also healthy tissue, since the antigens are often present on healthy as well as cancerous cells. (
  • Having already cloned the gene, he and his colleagues now are looking in other survivor mice for further antigens that could serve as targets for vaccines. (
  • Cancer antigen prioritization: a road map to work in defining vaccines against specific targets. (
  • A range of strategies can be followed to present these antigens to the immune system of the host ranging from the use of live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, vector vaccines and protein vaccines to RNA or DNA vaccines. (
  • Depending on the nature of the antigen, immunomodulation is required to create effective vaccines. (
  • Test fungal bacterial components and fungal antigens, which is a significant ways to diagnose fungal infection in modern clinics. (
  • This is the case for H antigen , which can either refer to a human blood antigen or a bacterial antigen. (
  • The priority is now to demonstrate that immunization against some of these antigens is clinically valuable for antitumor therapy, and the first results of clinical pilot studies are now emerging. (
  • Tissue homogenates from antibiotic-treated mice induced IgG reactive with B. burgdorferi antigens after immunization of naive mice and stimulated TNF-α production from macrophages in vitro. (
  • It can happen as a response to several different bacteria and parasites, as well as to the antigen/antibody reaction. (
  • An alternative type of H antigen can be found in some bacteria. (
  • The H antigen refers to the flagella, a propeller-like structure that many bacteria use to move around. (
  • We have multiple vaccine development strategies for antigen discovery of both viruses and bacteria, and we can monitor the effect of antigen presentation. (
  • The scientists then followed up on these efforts by assembling antibiotic-antigen conjugates against gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The PMB-antigen conjugates successfully recruited the antibodies found in human serum, giving an indication that they may be capable of harnessing the immune system to eliminate dangerous, disease-causing bacteria. (
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (
  • The database is searchable by the official CD designation of the antigen as well as by synonyms and other keywords including associated diseases and tissue/organ names. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. (
  • It is also referred to as an 'oncofetal antigen' because of its similarity to fetal tissue. (
  • HLA genes express their gene products on the surface of white blood cells (hence the name 'human leukocyte antigen,' although HLA class I genes (see 'Class I region' below) are also expressed on all nucleated cells) and were originally recognized to contain the genes encoding 'tissue antigens' or 'tissue types. (
  • Thus, cutaneous immunopathology can be directed through antigen presentation by tissue-resident keratinocytes to autoreactive TCR Tg CD4 + cells. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing is also called HLA typing or tissue typing. (
  • A pattern of antigens, called a tissue type, is inherited from your parents. (
  • The presence of certain antigens is the criterion for typing in the ABO blood group system and is important in tissue cross-matching for transplants (e.g., the HLA antigen in kidney transplants). (
  • Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant . (
  • At the outer surface of the cell the molecule contains an antigen that has been acquired from the surrounding environment. (
  • Based on autologous serological typing of cultured astrocytoma cells from 30 patients, three classes of surface antigens have been defined. (
  • This analysis of human astrocytoma, with the recognition of three classes of surface antigens recognized by autologous sera, resembles the results of autologous typing of human malignant melanoma, acute leukemia, and renal carcinoma. (
  • 2008. Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Cell Surface Antigens. (
  • Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (
  • F.S. Walsh, and M.,J. Crumpton, Orientation of cell-surface antigens in the lipid bilayer of lymphocyte plasma membrane. (
  • Chan, J.-A., Fowkes, F. J. I. & Beeson, J. G. Surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes as immune targets and malaria vaccine candidates. (
  • Parasite antigens on the infected red cell surface are targets for naturally acquired immunity to malaria. (
  • This viral capsid acts as a core antigen, the major immunodominant region lying at the tips of the alpha-helical hairpins that form spikes on the capsid surface. (
  • This system of blood typing separates people into A, B, AB, or O blood types, judging by the type of antigen the person has on the surface of the red blood cells. (
  • If someone has genes for A, B, or both, then enzymes work to finish off the raw material of the H antigens to make a new A or B antigen on the surface of the cell. (
  • Therefore, the H antigens present on the surface of the red blood cell remain unaltered. (
  • However, their target repertoire is limited as there are relatively few tumor-specific or tumor-associated cell surface or soluble antigens. (
  • Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. (
  • Amorphous GFP+ deposits were visualized by intravital microscopy in the entheses of antibiotic-treated mice infected with GFP-expressing spirochetes and on the ear cartilage surface in sites where immunofluorescence staining detected spirochete antigens. (
  • It is a blood test that identifies antigens on the surface of cells and tissues. (
  • hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs.My ALT level & liver ultrasound test normal.I wish to go abroad for a job and there Hep.B Surface antigen is tested.If one is positive, it is a sure rejection.Can inj. (
  • Interferon treatment cure this disease and gives a Surface antigen negative result.Doctors even i insisted, did not prescribe me the (
  • Engineered, bifunctional receptors present antigens and initiate signaling in response to binding to the cognate T cell receptor. (
  • 1 - you have to have antibody and antigen parametrized using the same forcefield (FF). (
  • Hiv and Hcv Negative Antibody and Antigen Test At 15 Week conclusive? (
  • Thus phenomenon is referred to as antigen presentation. (
  • The number and location of the epitopes, along with the size, varies with the extent of antigen presentation during the process of antibody production. (
  • The specific function of the MHC system, including the mechanisms of antigen presentation, is discussed separately. (
  • To address one of the highest risk locations for transmission of COVID-19, the CDC also developed considerations for use and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing results in nursing homes , which includes testing information depending on the clinical presentation and the epidemiologic context. (
  • WBVR can monitor the effect of antigen presentation by studying host responses. (
  • In general, vaccine platforms are innovative antigen presentation methodologies suitable for different pathogens or antigens. (
  • Please feel free to contact the experts of our contract research organization (CRO) if you have a question concerning antigen discovery and presentation. (
  • Antigen processing , or the cytosolic pathway , is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes . (
  • It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. (
  • MHC I antigen presentation typically (considering cross-presentation ) involves the endogenous pathway of antigen processing, and MHC II antigen presentation involves the exogenous pathway of antigen processing. (
  • [2] Not all antigen-presenting cells utilize cross-presentation. (
  • or heteroantigens) and autoantigens (or self-antigens). (
  • Furthermore, another characteristic of Th2 responses is the suppression of the immune response to bystander antigens, which may compromise the effectiveness of vaccination [ 7 ] and alter the immune response to several other antigens, even autoantigens. (
  • Autoantigens , for example, are a person's own self antigens. (
  • The present invention also provides a method of immunizing a mammal against an antigen using the vaccine, and a method of inducing antigen -presenting mammalian cells to present specific antigens via the MHC class I processing pathway. (
  • In this sense V1 is similar to the first generation of commercial Hepatitis B vaccine, which contained pooled viral antigens derived from the blood of hepatitis B carriers. (
  • The ProVir™ collection also includes 630+ ME, NA and HA antigens from more than 250 strains of influenza viruses, including vaccine strains and the pandemic strains. (
  • Recombinant flu antigens from all WHO-recommended vaccine strains in recent years are offered by Sino Biological. (
  • Although broadly reactive antibodies against these antigens could be useful as therapeutics and in vaccine design, their identification has proven elusive. (
  • If the protein, called an antigen, is truly unique to prostate cancer cells, it could lead to diagnostics for prostate cancer and a potential vaccine therapy against the disease, which is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, after lung cancer. (
  • And two, we can start thinking about using the antigens to develop a specific vaccine. (
  • The corresponding human prostate antigen is the protein that could be used to generate a vaccine against prostate cancer. (
  • This method of attack could lead researchers to other antigens involved in tumors and could make vaccine therapies against cancer more widespread. (
  • Vaccine development starts with antigen discovery. (
  • Vaccine antigens should evoke a protective immune response. (
  • An antigen ( Australia antigen ) associated with viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) has been found in the serum of several persons with polyarteritis nodosa, raising the possibility that some cases of polyarteritis may result from the deposition in blood vessels of immune complexes of viral antigen and antibody. (
  • ProVir™ , the world's largest recombinant viral antigen collection, has been independently developed by Sino Biological. (
  • The ProVir™ viral antigen bank includes more than 1,000 antigens from 90 virus types/subtypes and 350 strains. (
  • The term antigen originally described a structural molecule that binds specifically to an antibody only in the form of native antigen. (
  • It was expanded later to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment after processing the native antigen that can be recognized by T-cell receptor (TCR). (
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (
  • H antigen is a molecule that is present on most people's red blood cells. (
  • A antigens are produced by an enzyme adding an N-acetyl galactosamine molecule onto the H antigen, and enzymes add a D-galactose onto the H antigen to make a B antigen. (
  • So fungal antigens test can be used in early diagnosis of deep candida infections. (
  • It is meaningful to early diagnosis of deep fungal infections for the fungal antigens test can get continuous monitoring of high-risk patients. (
  • The Giardia antigen test is used to make a diagnosis of giardiasis , the digestive tract illness caused by Giardia lamblia . (
  • It's important to remember that the Gardia antigen test detects the presence of only that specific parasite, so the doctor may order additional tests to reach a definitive diagnosis. (
  • Two testing modalities, molecular and antigen tests, are currently used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells ) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (
  • The immune system is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body and usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus . (
  • Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and massive cytokine release. (
  • Essentially the different HLA arrangement on cells allows the immune system to develop an inventory of "self" antigens in the body. (
  • Class I antigens are restricted to autologous astrocytoma cells. (
  • Class II antigens are shared by autologous as well as certain allogeneic tumors, but are not detected on normal cells. (
  • Class III antigens are not tumor-specific and are found on both normal and malignant cells. (
  • To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen -presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these fragments all over the body, and sailing around offering them on stick-like projections to the cells they pass. (
  • These are large white blood cells that ingest antigens and other foreign substances. (
  • Their major function is to obtain antigen in tissues, migrate to lymphoid organs and activate T cells . (
  • Microfold cells (M-cell) are specialized cells of the intestine that sample luminal microbiota and dietary antigens. (
  • Allison and his team are continuing to characterize the antigen gene, which they dubbed Stimulator of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Specific T Cells. (
  • Someone with A-type blood has red blood cells with only the A antigen, for example, and someone with O-type blood produces neither A nor B antigen. (
  • The antigen-presenting cells that initiate and maintain MHC class II-associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases are poorly defined. (
  • We now describe a new T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model of inflammatory skin disease in which keratinocytes activate and are the primary target of autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (
  • The antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that drive the various phases of MHC class II-dependent organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, experimental allergic encephalitis, and thyroiditis, are not fully identified. (
  • We have developed a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model in which CD4 + cells are positively and negatively selected by endogenous peptides. (
  • Antibodies have been developed to target externalized antigens, have also been engineered to enter into cells or may be expressed intracellularly with the aim of binding intracellular antigens. (
  • It has been assumed that antigen-presenting cells must have exceptionally well developed capacities for proteolysis because they must degrade protein antigens to perform their function. (
  • Heterophile antigens are identical antigens found in the cells of different species. (
  • Pan-T antigens are antigens found on all T cells. (
  • Knowing the "self" antigen allows the immune system to rapidly distinguish foreign antigens. (
  • 2009) was developed a method for prioritization of cancer antigens paving the way to take more rational, informed decisions. (
  • The fungal antigens test can be applied to the following diagnoses. (
  • As immunological testing technology advances, the application area of fungal antigens test are widening. (
  • One such type is the food-poisoning bacterium E. coli 0157:H7, which has the seventh type of H flagellar antigen of that species. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. (
  • In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. (
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Marker for Colorectal Cancer: Is It Clinically Useful? (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein normally found in very low levels in the blood of adults. (
  • As of May 27, 2021, twenty-five antigen tests have received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (
  • The Food and Drug Administration has granted emergency-use authorization to Quidel Corp. for the first antigen test for the Covid-19 virus -a step that could escalate the nation's ability to test for the disease. (
  • Photo (c) filadendron - Getty Images The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted emergency use authorization (EAU) to a new antigen test that reportedly provides faster and more accurate results when patients are tested for the coronavirus (COVID-19). (
  • We also anticipate providing an emergency use authorization template for antigen tests, similar to ones we've released for other test types, to help manufacturers streamline submissions and help expedite our review and issuance of additional EUAs. (
  • Retrieved on August 01, 2021 from (
  • However, in late March / early April 2021, FDA issued multiple EUAs for serial antigen testing products. (
  • An increasing number of these antigens appear to result from tumor-specific mutations, and some of these mutations may be implicated in oncogenesis. (
  • Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is specific to one of the antigen's epitopes. (
  • Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different lock (antibody). (
  • Some epitopes are found to occur only in the native or unprocessed state of the antigen, while others require the antigen to be denatured before they are exposed. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans refers to a genetic region containing hundreds of genes, including the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes ( figure 1 ). (
  • Adapative immunity: Histocompatibility antigens and immune response genes. (
  • Moreover, testing aflatoxin in food and soluble antigen of sporothrix patients are early, rapid and specific method to diagnose antigens. (
  • It is commonly accepted that most of these changes in leukocyte phenotype and activation, as well as in the induction of the inflammatory milieu, are dependent upon the ability of the parasite to excrete/secrete antigens with immunoregulatory properties [ 8 - 12 ]. (
  • The antigen test is more sensitive in detecting Giardia lamblia than the ova and parasite (O&P) exam, but it can't identify any other organisms or conditions that cause gastrointestinal distress. (
  • The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens. (
  • When Antigen 7.5 for Microsoft Exchange is installed on Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 2003, the Library registry entry will have a value of ANTIGENVSAPI.DLL . (
  • KINDERHOOK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / December 14, 2020 / American Bio Medica Corporation (OTCQB:ABMC), a manufacturer of accurate, cost-effective immunoassay test kits, announced today that it is now distributing a Rapid Covid-19 Antigen test. (
  • Antigen-antibody interaction is optimal when the epitope, or antibody recognition/binding site on the antigen, is open to the surroundings and therefore available for the antibody to bind it. (
  • Whether one T-cell receptor jointly recognizes a virus product in association with a class I antigen or whether separate T-cell receptors independently recognize the virus product and the class I antigen, respectively, is not yet resolved (for a recent review see ref. 2). (
  • As a leading technology provider, Creative Biolabs has established CellRapeutics™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Technology platform. (
  • A T-cell receptor can now recognise the antigen linked with the MHC and thus binds to it. (
  • Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. (
  • For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not all) with ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter syndrome . (
  • This is the first prostate cancer antigen found. (
  • Allison and his colleagues found the cancer antigen by looking in a strain of mice prone to prostate cancer. (
  • Once they found the protein, and then the gene for this antigen, they looked in databases and found a corresponding gene in the human prostate that had not been identified before. (
  • To date, only a few antigens unique to tumors have been found, limiting the usefulness of vaccination against cancer. (
  • Test manufacturer's Instructions for Use (IFU) can be found on FDA's website on antigen diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 . (
  • Alloantigens are antigens found in different members of the same species (the red blood cell antigens A and B are examples). (
  • In the future, an invading organism that possesses one or some of these "non-self" antigens will be swiftly recognized as an invader and will be dealt with. (
  • Substance (e.g., a toxin) or organism (e.g., an amoeba) that, when entering the body, causes the production of an antibody that reacts specifically with the antigen to neutralize, destroy, or weaken it. (
  • Critical reagents in infectious disease research are recombinant antigens. (
  • T lymphocytes are part of the immune system involved in identifying antigens . (
  • The resulting conjugate may induce an immune response directed against the antigen. (
  • Forth, enolase of molecular weight 48kD can be detected by ELISA kits and WB, which is beneficial to test antigen with candida specificity. (
  • The company focuses on developing proprietary technology in immune enhancers, carriers and antigens - new therapeutic agents aimed at enabling physicians to modulate the body's immune system by providing protection and treatment against an array of diseases. (
  • This review will summarize multiple approaches to targeting intracellular antigens with therapeutic antibodies, in particular describing the production and characterization of TCRm antibodies, the factors influencing their target identification, their advantages and disadvantages in the context of TCR therapies, and the potential to advance TCRm-based therapies into the clinic. (
  • In general terms, the antigen mimicry by anti-Id antibodies has reflected structural homology in the most of the cases, and amino acid sequence homology in a minority of them. (
  • First, use ELISA or Latex agglutination to test mannan antigens which exist in yeast cell wall. (
  • Second, when sandwich ELISA are used to galactomannan antigen in fungal cell wall, the antigens can release into the blood. (
  • Think of antigens as the locks (or gates) to a cell, and antibodies as the weapon (or key). (
  • This can be due to the natural life-span of a red blood cell, or it may be as a result of an antigen-antibody interaction. (
  • T cell defined antigens have now been characterized in a large variety of tumor types, in both mice and humans. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is synonymous with the human MHC. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen: the major histocompatibility complex of humans. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen and human neutrophil antigen systems. (
  • This entry represent the core antigen of the viral capsid (HBcAg) from various Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is a major human pathogen. (
  • Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are important mediators of alloresponses, but structural insights on antibody:HLA interaction are still lacking. (
  • We think this method of using mouse models to track down human antigens might be a general method for identifying targets for immunological attack in many different kinds of human tumors, Allison said. (
  • The human H antigen forms part of the ABO blood system. (
  • A number of monoclonal anti-Id antibodies that mimic different human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed and tested in the clinic, demonstrating interesting. (
  • The Proceedings of the 7th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen (HLDA) Workshop are about to be published, detailing more than 80 new CD specificities. (