An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The consumption of edible substances.
Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A plant species of the family Moringaceae, order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae. It is a source of niaziminin and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae. They possess more than three pore pairs per ambulacral plate. The species STRONGYLOCENTROTUS PURPURATUS is commonly used for research.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is used for forage.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
The selection of one food over another.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.

The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans. (1/1069)

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

Variation in ruminants' preference for tall fescue hays cut either at sundown or at sunup. (2/1069)

Plants vary diurnally in concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates. If ruminants prefer forages with higher total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), then the preference for hays harvested within the same 24-h period may vary. An established field of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was harvested six times in the vegetative stage. Harvests were paired such that each cutting at sundown (PM) was followed by a cutting the next morning at sunup (AM). We harvested in this manner three times, resulting in six hays. The hays were field-dried, baled, and passed through a hydraulic bale processor prior to feeding. Experiments were conducted with sheep, goats, and cattle, using six animals in each case. During an adaptation phase, hays were offered alone as meals. In the experimental phase, every possible pair of hays (15 pairs) was presented for a meal. Data were analyzed by multidimensional scaling and by traditional analyses. Multidimensional scaling indicated that selection was based on a single criterion. Preference for PM hays was greater than for AM hays (P < .01) in all experiments. Increased preference was associated with increased TNC (P < .01) and in vitro true DM disappearance (P < .01) and decreased fiber concentration (P < .01; NDF, ADF, cellulose, and ADL). Mowing hay late in the day was effective in increasing forage preference.  (+info)

The energy content of barley fed to growing pigs: characterizing the nature of its variability and developing prediction equations for its estimation. (3/1069)

Currently, the pork industry attempts to formulate energy levels in swine diets to within a tolerance of 1.5%. This is difficult to achieve in practice when the energy content of primary ingredients fluctuates by up to 15%. This experiment was carried out to define the sources of variation in the energy content of barley and to develop a practical method to accurately estimate the DE and ME content of individual barley samples. Four samples of each of five covered barley varieties (AC Lacombe, B-1602, Bedford, Harrington, and Manley) were collected to obtain a range of quality within each variety. Five measurements were collected on each barley sample using 60 crossbred barrows in an apparent total tract digestibility study. The barrows, average BW of 35.3 kg, were housed in individual metabolism crates to facilitate separate collection of urine and feces. Five-day collection periods followed 5-d diet acclimation periods. Levels of total beta-glucan, ADF, CP, and starch (90% DM) in the 20 barley samples ranged from 2.7 to 4.5%, 4.5 to 9.2%, 10.8 to 15.1%, and 42.3 to 53.4%, respectively. The mean DE and ME content of the 20 samples were 2,934 and 2,857 kcal/kg (90% DM), respectively, and varied among samples by 15.2% (447 kcal). The complex structural cell wall carbohydrates seemed to have the greatest influence on the energy content of individual barley samples. The ADF fraction alone accounted for 85% of the total variation in energy content of the 20 samples. Converted into a prediction equation, DE = 3,526 - 92.8 x ADF (90% DM), the ADF content was used to estimate the DE content of barley with 85% accuracy. This experiment confirms the large variation in the energy content of barley, describes the factors that influence this variation, and presents equations based on chemical and(or) physical measurements that may be used to predict the DE and ME content of individual barley samples.  (+info)

Impact of amino acid nutrition during lactation on body nutrient mobilization and milk nutrient output in primiparous sows. (4/1069)

The impact of amino acid nutrition during lactation on body nutrient mobilization and milk nutrient output in primiparous sows was evaluated. Thirty-six sows, nursing litters of 13 pigs, were allocated daily 6 kg of a fortified corn-soybean meal diet containing a high (HP, 1.20% lysine) or low (LP, .34% lysine) protein content during a 23-d lactation. Dietary lysine concentration was achieved by altering the ratio of corn and soybean meal in the diet. The LP sows consumed less daily ME (14.2 vs 16.1 Mcal; P < .11) and daily lysine (16 vs 59 g; P < .01) than the HP sows. Daily litter weight gain was less (P < .01) for sows fed the LP vs HP diet, and the differences increased (P < . 01) as lactation progressed. The lower litter weight gain for the LP sows was reflective of the lower (P < .01) estimated milk DM, CP, and GE output of these sows. The LP sows lost more body weight (1.23 vs .21 kg/d; P < .01) during the initial 20 d of lactation. In the LP sows, 59% of the weight loss was protein, water, and ash, and 37% was fat. Weight loss in the HP sows was entirely accounted for by body fat mobilization, because these sows accrued body protein, water, and ash. Muscle myofibrillar breakdown rate was higher in LP sows than in HP sows (4.05 vs 2.80%/d; P < .01). On the basis of these data, dietary amino acid restriction during lactation increases maternal mobilization of proteinaceous tissue and reduces milk nutrient output. Maternal protein mobilization is maintained over the entire lactation even though milk output is decreased as lactation progresses.  (+info)

Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? (5/1069)

Inulin is a term applied to a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers found widely distributed in nature as plant storage carbohydrates. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, consisting of polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) +info)

Expression of the insecticidal bean alpha-amylase inhibitor transgene has minimal detrimental effect on the nutritional value of peas fed to rats at 30% of the diet. (6/1069)

The effect of expression of bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) transgene on the nutritional value of peas has been evaluated by pair-feeding rats diets containing transgenic or parent peas at 300 and 650 g/kg, respectively, and at 150 g protein/kg diet, supplemented with essential amino acids to target requirements. The results were also compared with the effects of diets containing lactalbumin with or without 0.9 or 2.0 mg bean alpha-AI, levels equivalent to those in transgenic pea diets. When 300 and 650 g peas/kg diet were fed, the daily intake of alpha-AI was 11.5 or 26.3 mg alpha-AI, respectively. At the 300 g/kg level, the nutritional value of the transgenic and parent line peas was not significantly different. The weight gain and tissue weights of rats fed either of the two pea diets were not significantly different from each other or from those of rats given the lactalbumin diet even when this was supplemented with 0.9 g alpha-AI/kg. The digestibilities of protein and dry matter of the pea diets were slightly but significantly lower than those of the lactalbumin diet, probably due to the presence of naturally occurring antinutrients in peas. The nutritional value of diets containing peas at the higher (650 g) inclusion level was less than that of the lactalbumin diet. However, the differences between transgenic and parent pea lines were small, possibly because neither the purified recombinant alpha-AI nor that in transgenic peas inhibited starch digestion in the rat small intestine in vivo to the same extent as did bean alpha-AI. This was the case even though both forms of alpha-AI equally inhibited alpha-amylase in vitro. Thus, this short-term study indicated that transgenic peas expressing bean alpha-AI gene could be used in rat diets at 300 g/kg level without major harmful effects on their growth, metabolism and health, raising the possibility that transgenic peas may also be used at this level in the diet of farm animals.  (+info)

Effects of underfeeding and refeeding on weight and cellularity of splanchnic organs in ewes. (7/1069)

We assessed the effects of a long and severe period of underfeeding, followed by a rapid refeeding with a high-concentrate diet, on weight, protein mass, and cellularity of the splanchnic organs in adult ewes. Twenty-four ewes, allocated to four groups of six, were fed a forage diet (50% regrowth of natural grassland hay and 50% wheat straw) either at maintenance (groups M and MO) or at 40% maintenance (groups U and UO) for 78 d. Groups M and U were then slaughtered, and groups MO and UO were subsequently overfed a high-concentrate diet (52% hay, 20% barley, 16% rapeseed meal, 4% fish meal, and 8% Megalac) at 236% maintenance for 26 d before being slaughtered. During the experiment, feed was adjusted to maintain feed supply at a constant percentage of animal requirements. After slaughter, fresh weight, dry weight, and protein mass of the reticulorumen, omasum, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine, and liver were measured. Cellularity was assessed from nucleic acids and protein contents for both ruminal mucosa and muscular-serosa layers, jejunum, and liver. The concentrations of ubiquitin and cathepsin D mRNA were measured in ruminal mucosa and muscular-serosa layers and in jejunum. Underfeeding decreased protein mass of splanchnic organs, especially in liver (-29%) and reticulorumen (-39%). Refeeding previously underfed animals increased protein mass of liver (+102%) and small intestine (+59%). No carry-over effect of the previous level of intake (UO vs. MO) was observed on the protein mass of splanchnic tissues after 26 d of refeeding. Variations in liver mass were mainly due to hypertrophy, as determined by the protein:DNA ratio, whereas variations in small intestinal mass were mainly due to hyperplasia, as determined by the amount of DNA. By contrast, changes in rumen mass associated with increasing ME intake seemed to be related to hypertrophy in the muscular-serosal component and hyperplasia in the epithelial component. The concentrations of ubiquitin and cathepsin D mRNA in the rumen and jejunum were not modified by feeding level, demonstrating that the expression of these genes for proteolytic enzymes was unchanged under these conditions.  (+info)

Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. (8/1069)

Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world. In contrast in Western countries beans tend to play only a minor dietary role despite the fact that they are low in fat and are excellent sources of protein, dietary fiber, and a variety of micronutrients and phytochemicals. Soybeans are unique among the legumes because they are a concentrated source of isoflavones. Isoflavones have weak estrogenic properties and the isoflavone genistein influences signal transduction. Soyfoods and isoflavones have received considerable attention for their potential role in preventing and treating cancer and osteoporosis. The low breast cancer mortality rates in Asian countries and the putative antiestrogenic effects of isoflavones have fueled speculation that soyfood intake reduces breast cancer risk. The available epidemiologic data are limited and only weakly supportive of this hypothesis, however, particularly for postmenopausal breast cancer. The data suggesting that soy or isoflavones may reduce the risk of prostate cancer are more encouraging. The weak estrogenic effects of isoflavones and the similarity in chemical structure between soybean isoflavones and the synthetic isoflavone ipriflavone, which was shown to increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, suggest that soy or isoflavones may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Rodent studies tend to support this hypothesis, as do the limited preliminary data from humans. Given the nutrient profile and phytochemical contribution of beans, nutritionists should make a concerted effort to encourage the public to consume more beans in general and more soyfoods in particular.  (+info)

Nutritive value is a term used to describe the amount and kind of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water, that a food provides. It refers to the ability of a food to supply the necessary components for growth, repair, maintenance, and energy in the body. The nutritive value of a food is usually expressed in terms of its content of these various nutrients per 100 grams or per serving. Foods with high nutritive value are those that provide a significant amount of essential nutrients in relation to their calorie content.

Digestion is the complex process of breaking down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. This process involves both mechanical and chemical actions that occur in the digestive system, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and accessory organs such as the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

The different stages of digestion are:

1. Ingestion: This is the first step in digestion, where food is taken into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and mixing with digestive enzymes.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves breaking down food molecules into simpler forms using various enzymes and chemicals produced by the digestive system.
4. Absorption: Once the food is broken down into simple molecules, they are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream and transported to different parts of the body.
5. Elimination: The undigested material that remains after absorption is moved through the large intestine and eliminated from the body as feces.

The process of digestion is essential for maintaining good health, as it provides the necessary nutrients and energy required for various bodily functions.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Silage is not typically considered a medical term. It is an agricultural term that refers to fermented, moist green fodder (such as grasses, clover, or corn) that are stored in a silo and used as animal feed. However, if contaminated with harmful bacteria like Listeria or mold, it can cause foodborne illness in animals and potentially in humans who consume the contaminated silage or products made from contaminated animals.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Dietary proteins are sources of protein that come from the foods we eat. Protein is an essential nutrient for the human body, required for various bodily functions such as growth, repair, and immune function. Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids during digestion, which are then absorbed and used to synthesize new proteins in the body.

Dietary proteins can be classified as complete or incomplete based on their essential amino acid content. Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Examples of complete protein sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, soy, and quinoa.

Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids and are typically found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, by combining different incomplete protein sources, it is possible to obtain all the essential amino acids needed for a complete protein diet. This concept is known as complementary proteins.

It's important to note that while dietary proteins are essential for good health, excessive protein intake can have negative effects on the body, such as increased stress on the kidneys and bones. Therefore, it's recommended to consume protein in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

"Sucking behavior" is not a term typically used in medical terminology. However, in the context of early childhood development and behavior, "non-nutritive sucking" is a term that may be used to describe an infant or young child's habitual sucking on their thumb, fingers, or pacifiers, beyond what is necessary for feeding. This type of sucking behavior can provide a sense of security, comfort, or help to self-soothe and manage stress or anxiety.

It's important to note that while non-nutritive sucking is generally considered a normal part of early childhood development, persistent sucking habits beyond the age of 2-4 years may lead to dental or orthodontic problems such as an overbite or open bite. Therefore, it's recommended to monitor and address these behaviors if they persist beyond this age range.

Cereals, in a medical context, are not specifically defined. However, cereals are generally understood to be grasses of the family Poaceae that are cultivated for the edible components of their grain (the seed of the grass). The term "cereal" is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest.

The most widely consumed cereals include:

1. Wheat
2. Rice
3. Corn (Maize)
4. Barley
5. Oats
6. Millet
7. Sorghum
8. Rye

Cereals are a significant part of the human diet, providing energy in the form of carbohydrates, as well as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They can be consumed in various forms, such as whole grains, flour, flakes, or puffed cereals. Some people may have allergies or intolerances to specific cereals, like celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that requires a gluten-free diet (wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten).

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Nutritive sweeteners are caloric sugars that provide energy in the form of carbohydrates. They are commonly added to foods and beverages to provide sweetness, texture, and bulk. Examples of nutritive sweeteners include:

1. Sucrose (table sugar) - derived from sugarcane or sugar beets
2. Fructose - found in fruits, vegetables, and honey
3. Glucose - found in corn syrup, honey, and some fruits
4. Lactose - found in milk and dairy products
5. Maltose - found in grains and malted barley
6. Dextrose - a form of glucose used as a sweetener and food additive

These sweeteners contain calories and can affect blood sugar levels, making them less suitable for people with diabetes or those following a low-calorie diet. It is recommended to consume nutritive sweeteners in moderation due to their potential contribution to weight gain, dental caries, and other health concerns when consumed in excess.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

Bottle feeding is a method of providing nutrition to infants and young children using a bottle and an artificial nipple. The bottle is filled with milk or formula, and the child sucks on the nipple to draw the liquid out. This can be done with expressed breast milk or commercial infant formula. Bottle feeding can be a convenient alternative to breastfeeding, but it is important to follow proper techniques to ensure that the baby is receiving adequate nutrition and to prevent dental problems and ear infections. It's also important to clean the bottles and nipples properly to avoid contamination and growth of bacteria.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

"Moringa oleifera" is not a medical term or condition, but rather the botanical name of a plant species commonly known as the "moringa tree" or "drumstick tree." It is native to India and widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. Various parts of this plant, including its leaves, seeds, and bark, have been used in traditional medicine systems for centuries due to their rich nutritional profile and potential health benefits. However, it's important to note that while some preliminary research suggests possible therapeutic uses for Moringa oleifera, more rigorous scientific studies are needed to confirm its safety and efficacy as a medical treatment.

Sweetening agents are substances that are added to foods or drinks to give them a sweet taste. They can be natural, like sugar (sucrose), honey, and maple syrup, or artificial, like saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose. Artificial sweeteners are often used by people who want to reduce their calorie intake or control their blood sugar levels. However, it's important to note that some sweetening agents may have potential health concerns when consumed in large amounts.

"Strongylocentrotus" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the phylum Echinodermata, which includes sea urchins. The most common species included in this genus are Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Green Sea Urchin) and Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Purple Sea Urchin). These species have been used in some medical research due to their biochemical properties, but they are not typically associated with human diseases or conditions.

"Paspalum" is not a medical term. It is a genus of plants, also known as "darnel grasses," which includes several species of warm-season annual and perennial grasses that are native to tropical and temperate regions around the world. Some Paspalum species are used for turfgrass, forage, or erosion control, while others can be invasive weeds in certain areas. There is no direct medical relevance of "Paspalum" as a genus of plants.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

Fertilizers are substances that are added to soil to provide nutrients necessary for plant growth and development. They typically contain macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in forms that can be readily taken up by plants. These three nutrients are essential for photosynthesis, energy transfer, and the production of proteins, nucleic acids, and other vital plant compounds.

Fertilizers may also contain secondary nutrients like calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) as well as micronutrients such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo). These elements play crucial roles in various plant metabolic processes, including enzyme activation, chlorophyll synthesis, and hormone production.

Fertilizers can be organic or synthetic. Organic fertilizers include materials like compost, manure, bone meal, and blood meal, which release nutrients slowly over time as they decompose. Synthetic fertilizers, also known as inorganic or chemical fertilizers, are manufactured chemicals that contain precise amounts of specific nutrients. They can be quickly absorbed by plants but may pose environmental risks if not used properly.

Proper fertilization is essential for optimal plant growth and crop yield. However, overuse or improper application of fertilizers can lead to nutrient runoff, soil degradation, water pollution, and other negative environmental impacts. Therefore, it's crucial to follow recommended fertilizer application rates and practices based on the specific needs of the plants and local regulations.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

Food preferences are personal likes or dislikes towards certain types of food or drinks, which can be influenced by various factors such as cultural background, individual experiences, taste, texture, smell, appearance, and psychological factors. Food preferences can also be shaped by dietary habits, nutritional needs, health conditions, and medication requirements. They play a significant role in shaping an individual's dietary choices and overall eating behavior, which can have implications for their nutritional status, growth, development, and long-term health outcomes.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Saccharin is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used as an artificial sweetener. Medically speaking, saccharin is classified as an intense sugar substitute, meaning it is many times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) but contributes little to no calories when added to food or drink.

Saccharin is often used by people with diabetes or those who are trying to reduce their calorie intake. It has been in use for over a century and has undergone extensive safety testing. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified saccharin as generally recognized as safe (GRAS), although it once required a warning label due to concerns about bladder cancer. However, subsequent research has largely dismissed this risk for most people, and the warning label is no longer required.

It's important to note that while saccharin and other artificial sweeteners can be helpful for some individuals, they should not be used as a replacement for a balanced diet and regular exercise. Additionally, excessive consumption of these sugar substitutes may have negative health consequences, such as altering gut bacteria or contributing to metabolic disorders.

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

A medical definition of 'food' would be:

"Substances consumed by living organisms, usually in the form of meals, which contain necessary nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These substances are broken down during digestion to provide energy, build and repair tissues, and regulate bodily functions."

It's important to note that while this is a medical definition, it also aligns with common understanding of what food is.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

... is quicker to absorb moisture and slower to release it to the environment than sucrose, glucose, or other nutritive ... Hyvonen, L. & Koivistoinen, P (1982). "Fructose in Food Systems". In Birch, G.G. & Parker, K.J (eds.). Nutritive Sweeteners. ...
... special nutritive cells are absent. Furthermore, the genus may also share similar reproductive patters with other members of ...
A 2020 Cochrane systematic review compared several non-nutritive sweeteners to sugar, placebo and a nutritive low-calorie ... "Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweetener Resources , Food and Nutrition Information Center , NAL , USDA". ... The World Health Organization does not recommend using non-nutritive sweeteners to control body weight, based on a 2022 review ... Other reviews concluded that use of non-nutritive sweeteners instead of sugar reduces body weight. There is little evidence ...
... or nutritive value as part of food quality is the measure of a well-balanced ratio of the essential nutrients ... "Nutritive value - Biology-Online Dictionary , Biology-Online Dictionary". 7 October 2019. "Nutrient ... On a biological scale, nutritive value of food may vary for different health conditions (leading to dietary recommendations and ...
nutrition) nutritive nymph (Old Fr. nimphe) Top J K L M N O P Q R See also References obedient, Old Fr. obedient obeisance, Old ...
"Nutritive Value of Indian Foods". "Results of your search: Citrus limetta". Archived from the ...
It is nutritive when dry. Certain groups of American Indians used it for its emetic and contraceptive properties. The Onondaga ...
Padmavathi, P.; Rao, M. Prabhakara (April 1990). "Nutritive value ofSauropus androgynus leaves". Plant Foods for Human ...
As of 2017,[update] reviews of clinical trials showed that using aspartame (or other non-nutritive sweeteners) in place of ... Ager DJ, Pantaleone DP, Henderson SA, Katritzky AR, Prakash I, Walters DE (1998). "Commercial, Synthetic Non-nutritive ...
Nutritive amendments should also be considered. Calcium and magnesium will be lacking in coir potting mixes, so a naturally ...
Feeds information summaries and nutritive values. FAO Animal Production and Health. Vol. 12. Stockholm: Food and Agriculture ...
doi:10.1071/AR04031 (HTML abstract) Wilson, A.D.; Harrington, G.N. (1980). "Nutritive value of Australian browse plants". ...
Malleshi, N. G.; Desikachar, H. S. R. (1986). "Nutritive value of malted millet flours". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 36 (3 ...
2009) Nutritive value Ying et al. (2001) v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... 2001) Three edible odonata species and their nutritive value. Forest Research 14:421-424 Needham (1930) Zool Sinica A 11:50 ...
McKinley had been given nutritive enemas; on September 11, he took some broth by mouth. When it seemed to do him good, the ...
Feed information summaries and nutritive values. By B. Gohl. 1981. FAO Animal Production and Health Series 12. FAO, Rome. Cited ...
Fitch C, Keim KS (May 2012). "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners ... Allen AL, McGeary JE, Knopik VS, Hayes JE (June 2013). "Bitterness of the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium varies ... Reviews and dietetic professionals have concluded that moderate use of non-nutritive sweeteners as a safe replacement for ... Shankar P, Ahuja S, Sriram K (1 December 2013). "Non-nutritive sweeteners: review and update". Nutrition. 29 (11-12): 1293-9. ...
A 2020 Cochrane systematic review compared several non-nutritive sweeteners to sugar, placebo and a nutritive low-calorie ... "Non-nutritive sweeteners for diabetes mellitus". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (5): CD012885. doi:10.1002/ ...
Wilson, A. D. & Harrington, G. N. (1980). "Nutritive value of Australian browse plants". International Livestock Centre for ...
cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) Haschke, Ferdinand; Haiden, Nadja; Thakkar, Sagar K. (2016). "Nutritive and Bioactive ...
... and Nutritive Values. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 307-8. ISBN 978-1-4615-6015-9. Jaime Prohens-Tomás; Fernando Nuez ...
Non-nutritive sucking habits (thumb and pacifier); - Dental trauma: what to do if it happens; - Dental caries as a disease, and ...
Langar, P. N.; Bakshi, M. P. S. (1990). "Nutritive evaluation of fodders of Kashmir valley". Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ...
1908). "Human Foods and their Nutritive value". The MacMillan Company. "Nutrition Facts". USDA Agricultural Research Service ...
Minimal nutritive requirements of the genus Erwinia". Journal of Bacteriology. 60 (5): 669-672. doi:10.1128/JB.60.5.669- ...
Herbage Nutritive Value and Condensed Tannin Concentrations". Agronomy Journal. 100 (6): 1635-1639. doi:10.2134/agronj2008.0093 ... "and should improve the overall nutritive value of unfertilized grass stands used for ruminant production." "Ruminants" for ...
or Corrypha utan) and its nutritive value". Philippine Journal of Crop Science (Philippines). ISSN 0115-463X.{{cite journal}}: ...
... an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, ...
"Nutritive value of Centrosema and animal production". In: Schultze-Kraft, R. & Clements, R.J. (eds.). Centrosema: Biology, ...
1984). Nutritive value of maygrass, Phalaris caroliniana. Economic Botany 38:1 114-20. Jepson Manual Treatment - Phalaris ...
Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits among Iranian girls ... Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits among Iranian girls ... The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits and the ... Cette étude portait sur la prévalence des habitudes de succion nutritive et non nutritive et leur association avec certains ...
Kerastase Nutritive Bain Satin Riche very dry hair ( Thick to Medium) €27.60. ...
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The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes. The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you. ...
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QUEIROZ, Alexandra Mussolino de et al. Interrelation between feeding and non nutritive habits. Odontol. Clín.-Cient. (Online) [ ... Palavras-chave : feeding; non nutritive suction habits; children. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · pdf em Português ... Current researches have been focused on the relationship between feeding and presence of non nutritive habits in children. The ...
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Forage Nutritive Value on Livestock Production: Why CP and TDN Matter?. Filed Under: Forages ... This type of nutritive value could exist in cool-season grasses such as annual ryegrass that are kept vegetative in the late ... ...
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Nitrogen Fertilization in Paspalum dilatatum, Poir: Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Structural Characteristics. ... Nitrogen Fertilization in Paspalum dilatatum, Poir: Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Structural Characteristics ...
Forage yield and nutritive quality of summer-planted annual forages in semi-arid regions after irrigated wheat or in a dryland ... Forage yield and nutritive quality of summer-planted annual forages in semi-arid regions after irrigated wheat or in a dryland ... Forage yield and nutritive quality of summer-planted annual forages in semi-arid regions after irrigated wheat or in a dryland ... Forage yield and nutritive quality of summer-planted annual forages in semi-arid regions after irrigated wheat or in a dryland ...
Fructose is quicker to absorb moisture and slower to release it to the environment than sucrose, glucose, or other nutritive ... Hyvonen, L. & Koivistoinen, P (1982). "Fructose in Food Systems". In Birch, G.G. & Parker, K.J (eds.). Nutritive Sweeteners. ...
In this sense the nutritive power is said to serve the generative power: because what is transformed by the nutritive power is ... which power in living bodies is the nutritive power. Nothing, therefore, would be added to living bodies by their nutritive ... But the "nutritive humor" is that which has not yet received perfectly the specific nature, but is on the way thereto; such is ... by the nutritive power, imprint the true form of human nature on the food which is assimilated. Thirdly, because food is needed ...
They may also be called artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), and noncaloric ... They may also be called artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), and noncaloric ... High-intensity sweeteners; Non-nutritive sweeteners - (NNS); Nutritive sweeteners; Noncaloric sweeteners; Sugar alternatives ... Nutritive sweetener -- has calories, but is very sweet, so little is needed. ...
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  • The candy bars were seized on charges of misbranding and adulteration, the latter charge being based on use of non-nutritive artificial sweeteners. (
  • The court condemned the candy on the misbranding charges but ruled that it was not adulterated because the non-nutritive sweeteners were not harmful or deceptive. (
  • This interpretation led FDA to not permit the use of non-nutritive sweeteners in a confectionery for the purpose of caloric reduction and sweetening because neither use was considered to have a technical effect in the confectionery. (
  • FDA reexamined this position in 1992 and concluded that Congress did not intend to exclude the use of non-nutritive sweeteners in a confectionery. (
  • They may also be called artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), and noncaloric sweeteners. (
  • 3) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. (
  • A gut reaction: Microbiome-driven glycemic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners. (
  • Nutritive Bain Satin Riche by Kérastase is a rich, nourishing shampoo for very dry hair. (
  • From our new Nutritive range, discover the split-ends serum which can lead to up to 2x fewer visible split-ends! (
  • This is a hair nutritive leave-in conditioner made with ingredients that love your hair and scalp. (
  • This nutritive leave in conditioner will leave hair with restored shine, strength and frizz-free smoothness. (
  • Apply an adequate amount of the nutritive leave in conditioner from mid-shaft to ends on wet, shampooed hair. (
  • As a nutrient dense food, meat provides major nutritive contributions to your diet relative to the amount of calories it contains. (
  • For many years, FDA interpreted this provision as allowing only those non-nutritive substances that had a technical effect in the production of a confectionery, i.e., that affected the candy in some way in attaining or maintaining certain physical characteristics, to be used in candy. (
  • The intentional ingestion of soil and other non-nutritive substances. (
  • Widespread publicity about use in candy of non-nutritive fillers, poisonous colors, narcotics, and alcoholic liquors helped arouse support for passage of the Food and Drugs Act of 1906. (
  • This study assessed the prevalence of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits and their association with some contributing factors among 7-year-old girls in Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Current researches have been focused on the relationship between feeding and presence of non nutritive habits in children. (
  • Cissé M., Doué G. G., Yao W. K., Zoué T. L. . Kinetics Approach on the Evolution of the Nutritive Properties, Antinutritonal Factors and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of DPPH during Germination of Two Local Legume Varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata). (
  • 824). The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 included a provision under which a confectionery was deemed to be adulterated "if it bears or contains any alcohol or non-nutritive article or substance except authorized coloring, harmless flavoring, harmless resinous glaze not in excess of four-tenths of 1 percentum, natural gum, and pectin. (
  • Nutritive, our new and improved intensely nourishing haircare range for dry hair. (
  • More modern & expert, the new Nutritive range is the ultimate healthy ritual for dry hair. (
  • Immersion Nutritive is used as a pre-treatment of dry hair before washing. (
  • Immersion Nutritive prevents dry hair and nourishes the dry hair fibres. (
  • One of the authors of the report, Cathy Kapica, PhD, who an adjunct professor of nutrition at Tufts University near Boston, said she and her colleagues wanted to see if coconut water could be a viable substitute for the significant slice of the US nutritional pie occupied by non nutritive beverages. (
  • Although non-nutritive sucking behaviours in infants may be a sign of psychological and physiological needs for nutrition [1], it may be a risk factor for maldevelopment of orofacial structures and dental occlusion. (
  • Undesirable changes involved are loss of nutritive quality e.g. due to degradation of heat - susceptible vitamins. (
  • Non-nutritive sweetener" is listed in 21 CFR 170.3(o) (19) as a technical effect. (
  • Kérastase Nutritive 8H Magic Night Serum is a luxurious serum that deeply nourishes and revitalizes dry, dull, and brittle hair while you sleep. (
  • Revlon Equave Nutritive Detangling Conditioner is a leave-in conditioner that instantly detangles and nourishes hair, leaving it soft, shiny, and manageable. (
  • To use Revlon Equave Nutritive Detangling Conditioner, simply spray onto damp or dry hair and comb through. (
  • Can Revlon Equave Nutritive Detangling Conditioner be used on all hair types? (
  • Yes, Revlon Equave Nutritive Detangling Conditioner is suitable for all hair types. (
  • Yes, Revlon Equave Nutritive Detangling Conditioner is safe to use on color-treated hair. (
  • Revlon Equave Nutritive Detangling Conditioner can be used daily or as needed to detangle and nourish hair. (
  • nutritive (voedzame) shampoo Professionele kappers shampoo voor verzorging en zacht haar. (
  • Nutritive Shampoo with bamboo extract to regenerate and nourish. (
  • Upon ingestion it is poorly metabolized, and most is excreted in the urine, so it is characterized as a "zero calorie", "non-nutritive," or "natural sweetener. (
  • Nutritive sweetener -- has calories, but is very sweet, so little is needed. (
  • Radix Nutritive® features in Industry Outlook, Jul 2023 edition among 'Top 10 Alternative Foods and Proteins Startups, 2023. (
  • SpiruSkin Nutritive Cream supplies extensive care especially for dry, sensitive skin. (
  • Shop online Pearl millet-based Radix Nutritive® products. (
  • Here is the background, nutritional information and benefits of Browntop Millet Shop online browntop millet-based Radix Nutritive® products. (
  • Remove constraint Defendants: House of Nutritive Formulas. (