Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.

Daidzein and genistein glucuronides in vitro are weakly estrogenic and activate human natural killer cells at nutritionally relevant concentrations. (1/1547)

Daidzein and genistein glucuronides (DG and GG), major isoflavone metabolites, may be partly responsible for biological effects of isoflavones, such as estrogen receptor binding and natural killer cell (NK) activation or inhibition. DG and GG were synthesized using 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver microsomes. The Km and Vmax for daidzein and genistein were 9.0 and 7.7 micromol/L, and 0.7 and 1.6 micromol/(mg protein. min), respectively. The absence of ultraviolet absorbance maxima shifts in the presence of sodium acetate confirmed that the synthesized products were 7-O-glucuronides. DG and GG were further purified by a Sephadex LH-20 column. DG and GG competed with the binding of 17beta-(3H) estradiol to estrogen receptors of B6D2F1 mouse uterine cytosol. The concentrations required for 50% displacement of 17beta-(3H) estradiol (CB50) were: 17beta-estradiol, 1.34 nmol/L; diethylstilbestrol, 1.46 nmol/L; daidzein, 1.6 micromol/L; DG, 14.7 micromol/L; genistein, 0.154 micromol/L; GG, 7.27 micromol/L. In human peripheral blood NK cells, genistein at <0.5 micromol/L and DG and GG at 0.1-10 micromol/L enhanced NK cell-mediated K562 cancer cell killing significantly (P < 0.05). At > 0.5 micromol/L, genistein inhibited NK cytotoxicity significantly (P < 0.05). The glucuronides only inhibited NK cytotoxicity at 50 micromol/L. Isoflavones, and especially the isoflavone glucuronides, enhanced activation of NK cells by interleukin-2 (IL-2), additively. At physiological concentrations, DG and GG were weakly estrogenic, and they activated human NK cells in nutritionally relevant concentrations in vitro, probably at a site different from IL-2 action.  (+info)

Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. (2/1547)

Choline and folate share methylation pathways and, in studies of rats, were shown to be metabolically inter-related. To determine whether choline status is related to folate intake in humans, we measured the effect of controlled folate depletion and repletion on the plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations of 11 healthy men (33-46 y) and 10 healthy women (49-63 y) fed low-choline diets in two separate metabolic unit studies. Total folate intake was varied by supplementing low folate (25 and 56 microg/d for men and women, respectively) and low choline (238 and 147 mg/d for men and women, respectively) diets with pteroylglutamic acid for 2-6 wk following folate-depletion periods of 4-5 wk. The low folate/choline intakes resulted in subclinical folate deficiencies; mean plasma choline decreases of 28 and 25% in the men and women, respectively; and a plasma phosphatidylcholine decrease of 26% in the men (P < 0. 05). No functional choline deficiency occurred, as measured by serum transaminase and lipid concentrations. The decreases in choline status measures returned to baseline or higher upon moderate folate repletion and were more responsive to folate repletion than plasma folate and homocysteine. Feeding methionine supplements to the men did not prevent plasma choline depletion, indicating that folate is a more limiting nutrient for these methylation pathways. The results indicate that 1) choline is utilized as a methyl donor when folate intake is low, 2) the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is insufficient to maintain choline status when intakes of folate and choline are low, and 3) dietary choline is required by adults in an amount > 250 mg/d to maintain plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine when folate intake is low.  (+info)

Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health. (3/1547)

Substantial evidence indicates that diets high in plant-based foods may explain the epidemiologic variance of many hormone-dependent diseases that are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western populations. There is now an increased awareness that plants contain many phytoprotectants. Lignans and isoflavones represent two of the main classes of phytoestrogens of current interest in clinical nutrition. Although ubiquitous in their occurrence in the plant kingdom, these bioactive nonnutrients are found in particularly high concentrations in flaxseeds and soybeans and have been found to have a wide range of hormonal and nonhormonal activities that serve to provide plausible mechanisms for the potential health benefits of diets rich in phytoestrogens. Data from animal and in vitro studies provide convincing evidence for the potential of phytoestrogens in influencing hormone-dependent states; although the clinical application of diets rich in these estrogen mimics is in its infancy, data from preliminary studies suggest beneficial effects of importance to health. This review focuses on the more recent studies pertinent to this field and includes, where appropriate, the landmark and historical literature that has led to the exponential increase in interest in phytoestrogens from a clinical nutrition perspective.  (+info)

European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (4/1547)

The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however.  (+info)

Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940. (5/1547)

In the last fifteen years, a large series of controlled clinical trials showed that vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries. It is less well known that vitamin A underwent two decades of intense clinical investigation prior to World War II. In the 1920s, a theory emerged that vitamin A could be used in "anti-infective" therapy. This idea, largely championed by Edward Mellanby, led to a series of at least 30 trials to determine whether vitamin A--usually supplied in the form of cod-liver oil--could reduce the morbidity and mortality of respiratory disease, measles, puerperal sepsis, and other infections. The early studies generally lacked such innovations known to the modern controlled clinical trial such as randomization, masking, sample size and power calculations, and placebo controls. Results of the early trials were mixed, but the pharmaceutical industry emphasized the positive results in their advertising to the public. With the advent of the sulfa antibiotics for treatment of infections, scientific interest in vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy waned. Recent controlled clinical trials of vitamin A from the last 15 y follow a tradition of investigation that began largely in the 1920s.  (+info)

Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, Part I: The public health implications of variations in lactase persistence. (6/1547)

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the basis for all federal nutrition programs and incorporate the Food Guide Pyramid, a tool to educate consumers on putting the Guidelines into practice. The Pyramid recommends two to three daily servings of dairy products. However, research has shown that lactase nonpersistence, the loss of enzymes that digest the milk sugar lactose, occurs in a majority of African-, Asian-, Hispanic-, and Native-American individuals. Whites are less likely to develop lactase nonpersistence and less likely to have symptoms when it does occur. Calcium is available in other foods that do not contain lactose. Osteoporosis is less common among African Americans and Mexican Americans than among whites, and there is little evidence that dairy products have an effect on osteoporosis among racial minorities. Evidence suggests that a modification of federal nutrition policies, making dairy-product use optional in light of other calcium sources, may be a helpful public health measure.  (+info)

Food price policy can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China. (7/1547)

The rapid change in diets, physical activity and body composition in low income countries has led to the coexistence of large pockets of undernutrition and overnutrition. Public health strategies for addressing this situation may be necessary, and price policy options are examined for China. Longitudinal dietary data collected in China in 1989-1993 on a sample of 5625 adults aged 20-45 y were examined. Three-day averages of food group consumption and nutrient intake were used in longitudinal statistical models to examine separately the effects of food prices on the decision to consume each food group and then the amount consumed. The effects of changes in six food prices on the consumption of each of six food groups, not just the food group whose price had changed, and on three macronutrients were estimated. The effects show large and significant price effects. If the joint effects of the nutrition transition are to be considered, then there are clear tradeoffs among which foods to tax and which to subsidize. Most important is the effect of prices in reducing fat intake of the rich but not adversely affecting protein intake for the poor. Increases in the prices of pork, eggs and edible oils are predicted to lower fat intake. Only increases in pork prices led to reduced protein intakes. This raises questions about earlier policy changes being implemented in China and provides insight into an important and controversial area for public health policy.  (+info)

Association of morbidity with markers of nutrition and inflammation in chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study. (8/1547)

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest a strong association between nutrition and clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological link between malnutrition and morbidity remains to be clarified. In addition, recent evidence suggests that nutritional indices may reflect an inflammatory response, as well as protein-calorie malnutrition. In this study, we prospectively assessed the relative importance of markers of nutritional status and inflammatory response as determinants of hospitalization in CHD patients. METHODS: The study consisted of serial measurements of concentrations of serum albumin, creatinine, transferrin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and reactance values by bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an indirect measure of lean body mass every 3 months over a period of 15 months in 73 CHD patients. Outcome was determined by hospitalizations over the subsequent three months following each collection of data. RESULTS: Patients who required hospitalization in the three months following each of the measurement sets had significantly different values for all parameters than patients who were not hospitalized. Thus, serum albumin (3.93 +/- 0.39 vs. 3.74 +/- 0.39 g/dl), serum creatinine (11.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.5 mg/dl), serum transferrin (181 +/- 35 vs. 170 +/- 34 mg/dl), serum prealbumin (33.6 +/- 9.2 vs. 30.0 +/- 10.1 mg/dl), and reactance (50.4 +/- 15.6 vs. 43.0 +/- 13.0 ohms) were higher for patients not hospitalized, whereas CRP (0.78 +/- 0.89 vs. 2.25 +/- 2.72 mg/dl) was lower in patients who were not hospitalized. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for all parameters). When multivariate analysis was performed, serum CRP and reactance values were the only statistically significant predictors of hospitalization (P < 0.05 for both). When a serum CRP concentration of 0.12 mg/dl was considered as a reference range (relative risk 1.0), the relative risk for hospitalization was 7% higher (relative risk = 1.07) for a CRP concentration of 0.92 mg/dl and was 30% (relative risk = 1.30) higher for a CRP concentration of 3.4 mg/dl. When a reactance value of 70 ohms was considered as a reference range with a relative risk of 1.0, the relative risk of hospitalization increased to 1.09 for a reactance value of 43 ohms and further increased to 1.14 for a reactance value of 31 ohms. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study strongly indicate that both nutritional status and inflammatory response are independent predictors of hospitalization in CHD patients. CRP and reactance values by BIA are reliable indicators of hospitalization. Visceral proteins such as serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin are influenced by inflammation when predicting hospitalization. When short-term clinical outcomes such as hospitalizations are considered, markers of both inflammation and nutrition should be evaluated.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a broad concept that combines elements from sports nutrition, physiology, and potentially some biochemical phenomena.

1. Sports Nutrition: This involves the study of how diet can impact physical performance during sporting activities. It includes understanding the role of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in athletic performance and recovery.

2. Physiological Phenomena: This refers to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes. In the context of sports, this could include how the body responds to exercise, such as increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolism.

If you're looking for a definition that encompasses these areas, it might be something like: "The study of how nutritional intake and physiological responses interact during sporting activities, including the impact on performance, recovery, and overall health." However, this is not a standard medical definition. If you could provide more context or clarify what specific aspects you're interested in, I might be able to give a more precise answer.

I cannot provide a medical definition for the term "Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine or nutrition. It seems to be a very specific and narrow term that may refer to certain age-related changes in nutritional status and physiological functions among older adults. However, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or geriatric specialist for a more accurate and detailed explanation based on the context and specific phenomena being referred to.

Dental physiological phenomena refer to the various natural and normal functions, processes, and responses that occur in the oral cavity, particularly in the teeth and their supporting structures. These phenomena are essential for maintaining good oral health and overall well-being. Some of the key dental physiological phenomena include:

1. Tooth formation (odontogenesis): The process by which teeth develop from embryonic cells into fully formed adult teeth, including the growth and mineralization of tooth enamel, dentin, and cementum.
2. Eruption: The natural movement of a tooth from its developmental position within the jawbone to its final functional position in the oral cavity, allowing it to come into contact with the opposing tooth for biting and chewing.
3. Tooth mobility: The normal slight movement or displacement of teeth within their sockets due to the action of masticatory forces and the elasticity of the periodontal ligament that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone.
4. Salivary flow: The continuous production and secretion of saliva by the major and minor salivary glands, which helps maintain a moist oral environment, neutralize acids, and aid in food digestion, speech, and swallowing.
5. pH balance: The regulation of acidity and alkalinity within the oral cavity, primarily through the buffering capacity of saliva and the action of dental plaque bacteria that metabolize sugars and produce acids as a byproduct.
6. Tooth sensitivity: The normal response of teeth to various stimuli such as temperature changes, touch, or pressure, which is mediated by the activation of nerve fibers within the dentin layer of the tooth.
7. Oral mucosal immune response: The natural defense mechanisms of the oral mucosa, including the production of antimicrobial proteins and peptides, the recruitment of immune cells, and the formation of a physical barrier against pathogens.
8. Tooth wear and attrition: The normal gradual loss of tooth structure due to natural processes such as chewing, grinding, and erosion by acidic substances, which can be influenced by factors such as diet, occlusion, and bruxism.
9. Tooth development and eruption: The growth and emergence of teeth from the dental follicle through the alveolar bone and gingival tissues, which is regulated by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The process begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down carbohydrates.

The oral physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in the mouth during eating and digestion. These include:

1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by chewing, which increases the surface area for enzymes to act on.
3. Chemical digestion: The chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler substances that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. In the mouth, this is initiated by salivary amylase, an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
4. Taste perception: The ability to detect different flavors through specialized taste buds located on the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity.
5. Olfaction: The sense of smell, which contributes to the overall flavor experience by interacting with taste perception in the brain.
6. Salivation: The production of saliva, which helps moisten food, making it easier to swallow, and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process.
7. Protective mechanisms: The mouth has several defense mechanisms to protect against harmful bacteria and other pathogens, such as the flow of saliva, which helps wash away food particles, and the presence of antibacterial compounds in saliva.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to human reproduction, which include:

1. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: The regulation of reproductive hormones through a feedback mechanism between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males).
2. Oogenesis/Spermatogenesis: The process of producing mature ova (eggs) or spermatozoa (sperm) capable of fertilization.
3. Menstrual Cycle: A series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over approximately 28 days, including follicular development, ovulation, and endometrial changes.
4. Pregnancy and Parturition: The process of carrying a developing fetus to term and giving birth.
5. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands for nourishment of the newborn.

Urinary physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to the urinary system, which include:

1. Renal Filtration: The process of filtering blood in the kidneys to form urine.
2. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion: The active transport of solutes and water between the tubular lumen and peritubular capillaries, resulting in the formation of urine with a different composition than plasma.
3. Urine Concentration and Dilution: The ability to regulate the concentration of urine by adjusting the amount of water reabsorbed or excreted.
4. Micturition: The process of storing and intermittently releasing urine from the bladder through a coordinated contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the urethral sphincter.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes and functions that occur within the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, and other tissues that provide support, shape, and movement to the body. Examples of musculoskeletal physiological phenomena include muscle contraction and relaxation, bone growth and remodeling, joint range of motion, and the maintenance and repair of connective tissues.

Neural physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the electrical and chemical processes and functions that occur within the nervous system. This system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia that are responsible for processing information, controlling body movements, and maintaining homeostasis. Examples of neural physiological phenomena include action potential generation and propagation, neurotransmitter release and reception, sensory perception, and cognitive processes such as learning and memory.

Musculoskeletal and neural physiological phenomena are closely interrelated, as the nervous system controls the musculoskeletal system through motor neurons that innervate muscles, and sensory neurons that provide feedback to the brain about body position, movement, and pain. Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions that affect the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the functions, processes, and mechanisms that occur in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to maintain homeostasis and support life.

The circulatory system, which includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood, is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. The respiratory system, which consists of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm, enables the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.

Physiological phenomena in the circulatory system include heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, blood flow, and vascular resistance. These phenomena are regulated by various factors such as the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and metabolic demands.

Physiological phenomena in the respiratory system include ventilation, gas exchange, lung compliance, airway resistance, and respiratory muscle function. These phenomena are influenced by factors such as lung volume, airway diameter, surface area, and diffusion capacity.

Understanding circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and managing various medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and metabolic disorders. It also provides a foundation for developing interventions to improve health outcomes and prevent disease.

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, responsible for providing a protective barrier against the external environment. The physiological phenomena associated with the integumentary system encompass a range of functions and processes that occur within the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. These phenomena include:

1. Barrier Function: The skin forms a physical barrier that protects the body from external threats such as pathogens, chemicals, and radiation. It also helps prevent water loss and regulates electrolyte balance.
2. Temperature Regulation: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in maintaining core body temperature through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin, as well as through sweat production by eccrine glands.
3. Sensory Perception: The skin contains various sensory receptors that detect touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold. These receptors transmit information to the central nervous system for processing and response.
4. Vitamin D Synthesis: The skin is capable of synthesizing vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. This process involves the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin into previtamin D3, which then undergoes further transformation into vitamin D3.
5. Excretion: Sweat glands within the integumentary system help eliminate waste products and excess heat through the production and secretion of sweat. The two types of sweat glands are eccrine glands, which produce a watery, odorless sweat, and apocrine glands, which produce a milky, odorous sweat primarily in response to emotional stimuli.
6. Immunological Function: The skin serves as an essential component of the immune system by providing a physical barrier against pathogens and housing various immune cells such as Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and T-cells. These cells help recognize and respond to potential threats, contributing to the body's overall defense mechanisms.
7. Wound Healing: The integumentary system has the remarkable ability to repair itself following injury through a complex process involving inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. This process involves the coordinated efforts of various cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells, as well as the production and deposition of extracellular matrix components such as collagen and elastin.
8. Growth and Development: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in growth and development by producing hormones such as vitamin D and melatonin, which contribute to various physiological processes throughout the body. Additionally, the skin serves as an essential sensory organ, providing information about temperature, touch, pain, and pressure through specialized nerve endings called mechanoreceptors.
9. Social Communication: The integumentary system can convey important social signals through changes in coloration, texture, and odor. For example, blushing or sweating may indicate embarrassment or anxiety, while certain skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema may signal underlying health issues. Additionally, the release of pheromones through sweat glands can influence social behavior and attraction.
10. Aesthetic Appeal: The integumentary system contributes significantly to an individual's appearance and self-esteem. Healthy skin, hair, and nails are often associated with youthfulness, attractiveness, and vitality, while skin conditions such as acne, wrinkles, or discoloration can negatively impact one's self-image and confidence. As a result, maintaining the health and appearance of the integumentary system is an essential aspect of overall well-being and quality of life.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and changes that occur in the reproductive system, enabling the production, development, and reproduction of offspring in living organisms. These phenomena encompass a wide range of events, including:

1. Hormonal regulation: The release and circulation of hormones that control and coordinate reproductive functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and inhibin.
2. Ovarian and testicular function: The development and maturation of ova (eggs) in females and sperm in males, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
3. Menstrual cycle: The series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over a 28-day period, consisting of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase, resulting in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur.
4. Fertilization: The process by which a sperm penetrates and fuses with an egg to form a zygote, initiating embryonic development.
5. Implantation: The attachment and embedding of the developing blastocyst (early-stage embryo) into the uterine lining, leading to pregnancy.
6. Pregnancy: The physiological state of carrying a developing offspring within the female reproductive system, characterized by hormonal changes, growth and development of the fetus, and preparation for childbirth.
7. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide nutrition for newborn offspring.
8. Menopause: The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles and reproductive function in females, typically occurring in the fourth or fifth decade of life, characterized by a decline in hormone production and various physical and emotional symptoms.

These reproductive physiological phenomena are complex and highly regulated processes that ensure the continuation of species and the maintenance of genetic diversity.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functional and mechanical activities that occur within a living organism or in any of its parts. These phenomena are associated with the normal functioning of the body and its organs, including biological processes such as digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, metabolism, and nerve impulse transmission. They can be studied at different levels, from molecular and cellular to organ system and whole-body levels, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis and promoting the survival and health of the organism.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for the term "Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is quite broad and can encompass various aspects related to nutrition and physiological changes that occur during adolescence. However, I can provide some insight into the nutritional and physiological changes that typically occur during adolescence.

Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, and proper nutrition is essential to support these changes. During this time, adolescents experience significant increases in height, weight, and muscle mass, as well as sexual maturation and reproductive development. As a result, their nutrient needs are higher than those of children or adults.

Some key nutritional physiological phenomena that occur during adolescence include:

1. Increased energy needs: Adolescents require more calories to support their rapid growth and development. The estimated daily calorie needs for boys aged 14-18 years are 2,500-3,000 calories, while for girls aged 14-18 years, the estimated daily calorie needs are 2,200-2,400 calories.
2. Increased protein needs: Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, including muscle mass. Adolescents require more protein to support their growth and development, with an estimated daily need of 46 grams for girls aged 14-18 years and 52 grams for boys aged 14-18 years.
3. Increased calcium needs: Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. Adolescents undergo significant bone growth during this time, making it crucial to meet their increased calcium needs. The recommended daily intake of calcium for adolescents is 1,300 milligrams.
4. Increased iron needs: Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Adolescent girls, in particular, have increased iron needs due to menstruation. The recommended daily intake of iron for adolescents is 8 mg for boys aged 14-18 years and 15 mg for girls aged 14-18 years.
5. Increased nutrient needs: Adolescents require a variety of vitamins and minerals to support their growth and development, including vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and magnesium. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products can help meet these needs.

In summary, adolescents have increased nutrient needs to support their growth and development. Meeting these needs requires a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food groups. It is essential to ensure adequate intake of protein, calcium, iron, and other vitamins and minerals during this critical period of growth and development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can provide information about the physiology of the urinary tract, which may be what you are looking for.

The urinary tract is a system responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine from the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The physiological phenomena associated with the urinary tract include:

1. Glomerular filtration: In the kidneys, blood is filtered through structures called glomeruli, which remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine.
2. Tubular reabsorption: As urine moves through the tubules of the nephron in the kidney, essential substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes are actively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
3. Hormonal regulation: The urinary system plays a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance through hormonal mechanisms, such as the release of erythropoietin (regulates red blood cell production), renin (activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance), and calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).
4. Urine storage: The bladder serves as a reservoir for urine, expanding as it fills and contracting during urination.
5. Micturition (urination): Once the bladder reaches a certain volume or pressure, nerve signals are sent to the brain, leading to the conscious decision to urinate. The sphincters of the urethra relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body through the urethral opening.

If you could provide more context about what specific information you're looking for, I would be happy to help further!

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the various functions, processes, and responses that occur in the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the muscles, bones, joints, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues that work together to support the body's structure, enable movement, and protect vital organs.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena can be categorized into several areas:

1. Muscle contraction and relaxation: This involves the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in muscle fibers, leading to muscle shortening or lengthening.
2. Bone homeostasis: This includes the maintenance of bone mass, density, and strength through a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts.
3. Joint movement and stability: The movement of joints is enabled by the interaction between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage, while stability is maintained through the passive tension provided by ligaments and the active contraction of muscles.
4. Connective tissue repair and regeneration: This involves the response of tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles to injury or damage, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and matrix remodeling.
5. Neuromuscular control: The coordination of muscle activity through the integration of sensory information from proprioceptors (e.g., muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) and motor commands from the central nervous system.
6. Skeletal development and growth: This includes the processes of bone formation, mineralization, and modeling during fetal development and childhood, as well as the maintenance of bone mass and strength throughout adulthood.
7. Aging and degeneration: The progressive decline in musculoskeletal function and structure with age, including sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass), osteoporosis (brittle bones), and joint degeneration (osteoarthritis).

Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may relate to various physiological processes and phenomena related to infant nutrition.

To try and provide some clarity, I can offer a brief explanation of the individual terms:

1. Infant: A young child, typically under one year of age.
2. Nutritional: Relating to food or nourishment, particularly in relation to energy and the balance of essential nutrients required for growth, repair, and maintenance of bodily functions.
3. Physiological: Describing processes and functions that occur within a living organism as part of normal bodily function, including biochemical reactions, organ function, and responses to environmental stimuli.
4. Phenomena: Observable events or occurrences.

So, "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could refer to observable events or processes related to an infant's nutrition and physiology. However, without further context, it is difficult to provide a more precise definition. Examples of such phenomena might include the development of feeding skills, growth patterns, or changes in metabolism related to dietary intake.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virus Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two concepts: "virus" and "physiological phenomena."

1. A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can cause many different types of illnesses, from the common cold to more serious diseases like HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.

2. Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including cells, tissues, and organs.

If you're looking for information about how viruses affect physiological processes in the body, I would be happy to help provide some general information on that topic! However, it would be best to consult a specific medical text or expert for more detailed or specialized knowledge.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

"Blood physiological phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various functions, processes, and characteristics related to the blood in the body. Here are some definitions of specific blood-related physiological phenomena:

1. Hematopoiesis: The process of producing blood cells in the bone marrow. This includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis).
2. Hemostasis: The body's response to stop bleeding or prevent excessive blood loss after injury. It involves a complex interplay between blood vessels, platelets, and clotting factors that work together to form a clot.
3. Osmoregulation: The regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the blood. This is achieved through various mechanisms such as thirst, urine concentration, and hormonal control.
4. Acid-base balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood. This involves the balance between acidic and basic components in the blood, which can be affected by factors such as respiration, metabolism, and kidney function.
5. Hemoglobin function: The ability of hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells to bind and transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body.
6. Blood viscosity: The thickness or flowability of blood, which can affect its ability to circulate through the body. Factors that can influence blood viscosity include hematocrit (the percentage of red blood cells in the blood), plasma proteins, and temperature.
7. Immunological function: The role of white blood cells and other components of the immune system in protecting the body against infection and disease. This includes the production of antibodies, phagocytosis (the engulfing and destruction of foreign particles), and inflammation.

"Ocular physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some examples of ocular physiological phenomena, which refer to various normal functions and processes that occur in the eye. Here are a few examples:

1. Accommodation: The ability of the eye to change optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by changing the curvature of the lens through the action of the ciliary muscles.
2. Pupillary reflex: The automatic adjustment of the pupil's size in response to changes in light intensity. In bright light, the pupil constricts (miosis), while in dim light, it dilates (mydriasis). This reflex helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye.
3. Tear production: The continuous secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands to keep the eyes moist and protected from dust, microorganisms, and other foreign particles.
4. Extraocular muscle function: The coordinated movement of the six extraocular muscles that control eyeball rotation and enable various gaze directions.
5. Color vision: The ability to perceive and distinguish different colors based on the sensitivity of photoreceptor cells (cones) in the retina to specific wavelengths of light.
6. Dark adaptation: The process by which the eyes adjust to low-light conditions, improving visual sensitivity primarily through changes in the rod photoreceptors' sensitivity and pupil dilation.
7. Light adaptation: The ability of the eye to adjust to different levels of illumination, mainly through alterations in pupil size and photoreceptor cell response.

These are just a few examples of ocular physiological phenomena. There are many more processes and functions that occur within the eye, contributing to our visual perception and overall eye health.

'Nervous system physiological phenomena' refer to the functions, activities, and processes that occur within the nervous system in a healthy or normal state. This includes:

1. Neuronal Activity: The transmission of electrical signals (action potentials) along neurons, which allows for communication between different cells and parts of the nervous system.

2. Neurotransmission: The release and binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on neighboring cells, enabling the transfer of information across the synapse or junction between two neurons.

3. Sensory Processing: The conversion of external stimuli into electrical signals by sensory receptors, followed by the transmission and interpretation of these signals within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

4. Motor Function: The generation and execution of motor commands, allowing for voluntary movement and control of muscles and glands.

5. Autonomic Function: The regulation of internal organs and glands through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, maintaining homeostasis within the body.

6. Cognitive Processes: Higher brain functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, learning, and emotion, which are supported by complex neural networks and interactions.

7. Sleep-Wake Cycle: The regulation of sleep and wakefulness through interactions between the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, ensuring proper rest and recovery.

8. Development and Plasticity: The growth, maturation, and adaptation of the nervous system throughout life, including processes such as neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity.

9. Endocrine Regulation: The interaction between the nervous system and endocrine system, with the hypothalamus playing a key role in controlling hormone release and maintaining homeostasis.

10. Immune Function: The communication between the nervous system and immune system, allowing for the coordination of responses to infection, injury, or stress.

Cell physiological phenomena refer to the functional activities and processes that occur within individual cells, which are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and normal physiology. These phenomena include various dynamic and interrelated processes such as:

1. Cell membrane transport: The movement of ions, molecules, and nutrients across the cell membrane through various mechanisms like diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis/exocytosis.
2. Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life, including catabolic (breaking down) and anabolic (building up) processes for energy production, biosynthesis, and waste elimination.
3. Signal transduction: The process by which cells receive, transmit, and respond to external or internal signals through complex signaling cascades involving various second messengers, enzymes, and transcription factors.
4. Gene expression: The conversion of genetic information encoded in DNA into functional proteins and RNA molecules, including transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications.
5. Cell cycle regulation: The intricate mechanisms that control the progression of cells through various stages of the cell cycle (G0, G1, S, G2, M) to ensure proper cell division and prevent uncontrolled growth or cancer development.
6. Apoptosis: Programmed cell death, a physiological process by which damaged, infected, or unwanted cells are eliminated in a controlled manner without causing inflammation or harm to surrounding tissues.
7. Cell motility: The ability of cells to move and change their position within tissues, which is critical for various biological processes like embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses.
8. Cytoskeleton dynamics: The dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) that provides structural support, enables cell shape changes, and facilitates intracellular transport and organelle positioning.
9. Ion homeostasis: The regulation of ion concentrations within cells to maintain proper membrane potentials and ensure normal physiological functions like neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme activity.
10. Cell-cell communication: The exchange of signals between neighboring or distant cells through various mechanisms like gap junctions, synapses, and paracrine/autocrine signaling to coordinate cellular responses and maintain tissue homeostasis.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

Bacterial physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and activities that occur within bacteria, which are necessary for their survival, growth, and reproduction. These phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: This is the process by which bacteria convert nutrients into energy and cellular components. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
2. Respiration: This is the process by which bacteria use oxygen to convert organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Some bacteria can also perform anaerobic respiration, using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate or sulfate instead of oxygen.
3. Fermentation: This is a type of anaerobic metabolism in which bacteria convert organic compounds into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Unlike respiration, fermentation does not require an external electron acceptor.
4. Motility: Many bacteria are capable of moving independently, using various mechanisms such as flagella or twitching motility. This allows them to move towards favorable environments and away from harmful ones.
5. Chemotaxis: Bacteria can sense and respond to chemical gradients in their environment, allowing them to move towards attractants and away from repellents.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other using signaling molecules called autoinducers. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a certain threshold, the bacteria can coordinate their behavior, such as initiating biofilm formation or producing virulence factors.
7. Sporulation: Some bacteria can form spores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Spores can remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate when conditions are favorable.
8. Biofilm formation: Bacteria can form complex communities called biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can provide protection from environmental stressors and host immune responses.
9. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process is regulated by various cell cycle checkpoints and can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrient availability.

Cardiovascular physiological phenomena refer to the various functions and processes that occur within the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These phenomena are responsible for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and other essential molecules to tissues throughout the body, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide.

Some examples of cardiovascular physiological phenomena include:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract regularly and coordinate its contractions with the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients.
2. Blood pressure: The force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, which is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
3. Cardiac output: The volume of blood that the heart pumps in one minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per beat) and heart rate.
4. Blood flow: The movement of blood through the circulatory system, which is influenced by factors such as blood pressure, vessel diameter, and blood viscosity.
5. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation: The narrowing or widening of blood vessels in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and changes in temperature or oxygen levels.
6. Autoregulation: The ability of blood vessels to maintain a constant blood flow to tissues despite changes in perfusion pressure.
7. Blood clotting: The process by which the body forms a clot to stop bleeding after an injury, which involves the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade.
8. Endothelial function: The ability of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, and thrombosis.
9. Myocardial contractility: The strength of heart muscle contractions, which is influenced by factors such as calcium levels, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
10. Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical properties of the heart, including the conduction system that allows for the coordinated contraction of heart muscle.

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It has been shown that this phenomenon is mediated by an epigenetic modification of DNA known as CpG methylation. Silencing the ... Kucharski R, Maleszka, J, Foret, S, Maleszka, R, Nutritional Control of Reproductive Status in Honeybees via DNA Methylation. ... the two adults would be strongly differentiated across a wide range of characteristics including anatomical and physiological ... Kucharski, R.; Maleszka, J.; Foret, S.; Maleszka, R. (2008). "Nutritional Control of Reproductive Status in Honeybees via DNA ...
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"USANA Named Official Nutritional Partner of Spartan U.S. Obstacle Course Racing". 5 June 2019. "USANA Health Sciences Reports ... as the belief he was more vigorous led to his making poorer dietary decisions-a phenomenon referred to as the "licensing effect ... experienced a placebo response where that act of taking the supplements made him feel more vigorous despite no physiological ... It also was announced as the official nutritional partner of the Spartan Race endurance brand in the United States. Its sales ...
Factors such as nutritional requirements and physical environments which have so far not been examined will become important. ... The majority of current data comes from missions of short duration and so some of the long-term physiological effects of living ... Another effect is known as cosmic ray visual phenomena. [a] NASA survey of 300 male and female astronauts, about 23 percent of ... To prevent some of these adverse physiological effects, the ISS is equipped with two treadmills (including the COLBERT), and ...
Studies of Nonlinear Phenomena in Life Science. Vol. 11. New Jersey: World Scientific. doi:10.1142/6175. ISBN 978-981-256-883-0 ... Riggs, D.S. (1970). Control theory and physiological feedback mechanisms. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Hall, John (2011). ... Nutritional Neuroscience. 21 (10): 695-714. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2017.1347373. ISSN 1028-415X. PMID 28686542. S2CID 40659630. " ... Behavioral thermoregulation takes precedence over physiological thermoregulation since necessary changes can be affected more ...
This phenomenon has been observed in several species, with the most prominent examples including the ingestion of whole leaves ... Physiological and behavioral changes during reproduction are known to influence the immune system. Trade-offs occur between ... The availability of nutritional resources The intensity of pathogen exposure Signals of extrinsic mortality risk Among ... The upregulation of the immune system incurs significant nutritional costs in the forms of protein and energy. Immune costs are ...
Chronobiology - field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- ... Paleopathology - the study of pathogenic conditions observable in bones or mummified soft tissue, and on nutritional disorders ... Behavioral neuroscience - study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals ... Theoretical Biology - the mathematical modeling of biological phenomena. Zoology - study of animals, including classification, ...
This parallels the phenomenon of osteophagy in birds, in which snail shells are ingested by egg-laying females to supplement ... The bones do not satisfy seasonal nutritional deficiency, they prevent overgrown teeth but the shavings are ingested as the ... Therefore, it would be expected that the increased physiological needs of juvenile and gravid female tortoises would also ... This lack of protein during winter conditions can be attributed to the scarcity of animal proteins, a phenomenon that occurs in ...
However, its presence and physiological significance in non-mammalian land vertebrates is unclear. For example although some ... The alanine supplication was enough to promote HCC cell growth under those conditions- a phenomenon called metabolic ... cancers cells heavily rely on amino acid metabolism to satisfy their avid nutritional needs. The researchers involved in this ...
The mantle of B. thermophilus serves two physiological roles, one being the accumulation of somatic reserves, and the other ... A potential reason for this phenomenon is due to enhanced predation or avoidance of superior competitors. Bathymodiolus ... especially when studying the bacterial symbionts that are fundamental to the mussels nutritional needs. When reaching maturity ...
... is a physiological phenomenon in which psychosocial stress experienced by a mother during her ... Therefore, environmental factors such as parental care and nutritional availability, alongside help given to the child such as ... This biological phenomena is problematic due to the impact that an increased level of cortisol has on the foetal HPA axis. The ... Biologically speaking, this phenomenon can also cause the hippocampus, a very important component of the stress response, to be ...
In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term (biochemie in German) as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the ... Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena. ... Nutrition studies how to maintain health and wellness and also the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, ... Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the biological phenomena, focusing on molecular synthesis, ...
This phenomenon was observed in xeromorphic species of Cactaceae, Crassulaceae, and Liliaceae. As the epidermis of the plant is ... Despite the many stresses, xerophytes have the ability to survive and thrive in drought conditions due to their physiological ... there is selection for plants having thin and efficient cuticles to limit the nutritional and energy costs for the cuticle ... Stomata closure not only restricts the movement of water out of the plant, another consequence of the phenomenon is that carbon ...
"NFHS-3 Nutritional Status of Adults". Retrieved 26 November 2009. Kanjilal, B; et al. (2010). "Nutritional Status of Children ... Additionally, physiological or chronic stress is strongly correlated in women being underweight. India has one of the worst ... This phenomenon is most prevalent in the rural areas of India where more malnutrition exists on an absolute level. Whether ... religion and caste affect the nutritional status of Indians. Living in rural areas also contribute to nutritional status. In ...
This same phenomenon can cause significant over-reporting of B12 content in other types of foods as well. A common way to ... Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Academic Press. 2 September 2009. ISBN 978-0-12-375661-9. Whitney N, Rolfes S, Crowe T, ... Stipanuk, M.H. (2006). Biochemical, physiological, molecular aspects of human nutrition (2nd ed.). St Louis: Saunders Elsevier ... ISBN 978-1-118-38383-4. Bender DA (11 September 2003). Nutritional Biochemistry of the Vitamins. Cambridge University Press. p ...
This is a complex factor embracing both nutritional and physiological requirements, together with behavioural trends, dispersal ... Researchers themselves may be subject to psychological phenomena. For example, a publication in 2004 claiming that springtails ... and no such phenomenon has ever been scientifically confirmed, though it has been documented that the scales or hairs from ... a phenomenon the measure of which has been called colonisation credit. Springtails are well known as pests of some agricultural ...
In addition to physiological roles, small amounts of carbon monoxide can be inhaled or administered in the form of carbon ... In toxicology, hormesis is a dose response phenomenon to xenobiotics or other stressors characterized by a low-dose stimulation ... However, in over 19 clinical trials, "nutritional and genetic interventions to boost antioxidants have generally failed to ... Physiological concentrations deviating above or below homeostasis concentrations adversely affects an organism, thus in this ...
Biofeedback helps people be conscious of some physiological parameters so as to control them and try to relax and may be ... Aura is a transient focal neurological phenomenon that occurs before or during the headache. Aura appears gradually over a ... Preventive treatments of migraine include medications, nutritional supplements, lifestyle alterations, and surgery. Prevention ... These symptoms may include a wide variety of phenomena, including altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria, fatigue, ...
Thomas, R.J.; Stanton, D.S.; Longendorfer, D.H. & Farr, M.E. (1978), "Physiological evaluation of the nutritional autonomy of a ... This phenomenon is also known as heterogamy. Presently, the term "alternation of generations" is almost exclusively associated ... 1 Physiological Ecology (PDF), Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists, archived ( ... However, flowering plants have in addition a phenomenon called 'double fertilization'. In the process of double fertilization, ...
Supplementing nutritional intake can lead to an earlier return of menses and ovulation than exclusive breastfeeding. Nursing ... Beyond the physiological factors that influence lactational amenorrhea, cross cultural differences can help account for many of ... An additional study that references this phenomenon cross-culturally was completed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and has ... In Egypt, this has been shown to combat poor nutritional practices of mothers. To make sure infants are getting fully enriching ...
An orchid seed does not have enough nutritional support to grow on its own. Instead, it gets nutrients needed for germination ... The evolutionary reasoning for this phenomenon is yet to be deduced. Due to this orchid mycorrhiza in general are considered at ... which may be the mechanism behind the peloton collapse by producing physiological and structural changes of the hyphae. The ... Orchid mycorrhizal associations involve a plethora of distinctive nutrient transport systems, structures and phenomena which ...
The role of major nutritional elements in fetal growth. The role of abnormal amino acid supply in growth limited neonates. The ... An example of this phenomenon is a study published in 2018 by the Royal Society, which found that hypoxic stress from differing ... the molecular mechanisms are broadly caused by a suboptimal environment in the reproductive tract or maternal physiological ... From the review of the existing literature, they posited that poor nutritional status in fetal and early neonatal stages could ...
In more specific studies looking at the link between cortisol levels and psychological phenomena, it has been found that ... Kapil V, Haydar SM, Pearl V, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Ahluwalia A (2013). "Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral ... and markers of nutritional status. According to Wong, scientists are now viewing saliva as "a valuable biofluid…with the ... In situations where a subject undergoes induced anxiety, high cortisol levels correspond with experiencing more physiological ...
Although there are no physiological tests that confirm any mental illness, medical tests may be employed to exclude any co- ... observation for pallor and nutritional deficiencies, palpation for lymph nodes, palpation of the abdomen for organ enlargement ... and sees diagnosis as a socially constructed phenomenon. From a solution focused perspective, the assessment deliberately ...
Primary nutritional groups Autotroph Heterotroph Photosynthesis Movile Cave Julian Chela-Flores (2000): "Terrestrial microbes ... The role of Sergey Winogradsky in discovering the phenomenon of chemosynthesis is underestimated and needs further research and ... His discovery suggested that some microbes could live solely on inorganic matter and emerged during his physiological research ...
This phenomenon is known as the premature ovarian failure (POF) and it is used as the model for the study of the genetics of ... The assumption that energy measured in calories can be used as a universal measure of nutritional cost is criticized by a ... Lactation is one of the costliest forms of parental investment because it is taxing at a metabolic and physiological level, but ... This phenomenon is referred to as the secular trend. Age at menarche is one measure of the fecundity of an individual female. ...
The more D-isomer or multiple enantiomers present in food, the lower the nutritional value of the food is, so using D-amino ... This results in a number of physiological effects in various systems, most notably the brain. The enzyme is most active toward ... There is evidence to show that schizophrenia, as a neural phenomenon, is associated with both hyper- and hypoglutamatergic ... Khoronenkova SV, Tishkov VI (December 2008). "D-amino acid oxidase: physiological role and applications". Biochemistry. ...
In addition to physiological degradation, pacific salmon become more lethargic as mating goes on, which makes some individuals ... Cole, Lamont C. (June 1954). "The Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 29 (2): ... larvae only feed in restricted periods of the year because of the nutritional state of their host plants (as a result, they are ... While the individuals in a 2001 study mostly died from vehicles or predation, researchers found evidence of physiological ...
The phenomenon has long been known in animals and plants. Heterosis appears to be largely due to genetic complementation, that ... "Physiological studies of conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 28: 375-394. ... and allowed the investigator to determine whether any two nutritional mutants were defective in the same or different genes. ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Nutritional Physiological Phenomena (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Nutrition for Vulnerable Groups, Body Image, Body Image, Diet Therapy, Dietary Fats, ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Nutrition for Vulnerable Groups, Surgery, Plastic, Body Image, Body Image, Diet Therapy, ...
Africa, Africa, Northern, Birth Intervals, Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Contraception, Contraception Behavior, ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Organization and Administration, Population, Population Dynamics, Primary Health Care, ...
Phenomena, Nutrition Physiological. Phenomena, Nutritional. Phenomena, Nutritional Physiological. Phenomena, Nutritional ... Nutritional Physiology Phenomena Nutritional Physiology Phenomenon Phenomena, Nutrition Physiological Phenomena, Nutritional ... Phenomena, Nutritional Physiology Phenomenon, Nutrition Physiological Phenomenon, Nutritional Physiological Phenomenon, ... Physiological Phenomena, Nutrition Physiological Phenomena, Nutritional Physiological Phenomenon, Nutrition Physiological ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena * Mice, Inbred Strains * Obesity * Offspring Obesity * Pregnancy * Proto-Oncogene ...
Physiological Phenomena [G07] Diet, Food and Nutrition [G07.203] Nutritional Physiological Phenomena [G07.203.650] Appetite ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G] Physiological Phenomena [G07] Diet, Food, and Nutrition [G07.203] Nutritional Physiological ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G] Physiological Phenomena [G07] Physiological Processes [G07.700] Nutrition Processes [G07.700.620] ... it is now under the descriptor Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, having the hierarchical code G07.203.650. Note the changes ...
Physiological Phenomena [G07] Diet, Food and Nutrition [G07.203] Nutritional Physiological Phenomena [G07.203.650] Appetite ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G] Physiological Phenomena [G07] Diet, Food, and Nutrition [G07.203] Nutritional Physiological ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G] Physiological Phenomena [G07] Physiological Processes [G07.700] Nutrition Processes [G07.700.620] ... it is now under the descriptor Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, having the hierarchical code G07.203.650. Note the changes ...
Physiological Phenomena [G07] Diet, Food and Nutrition [G07.203] Nutritional Physiological Phenomena [G07.203.650] Appetite ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G] Physiological Phenomena [G07] Diet, Food, and Nutrition [G07.203] Nutritional Physiological ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G] Physiological Phenomena [G07] Physiological Processes [G07.700] Nutrition Processes [G07.700.620] ... it is now under the descriptor Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, having the hierarchical code G07.203.650. Note the changes ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. 650 22 - SUBJECT ADDED ENTRY--TOPICAL TERM. Topical term or geographic name as ... two generations at nutritional risk / Anne Marie Coufopoulos and Allan Frederick Hackett -- Life cycle influences and ...
Palavras-chave : Tooth erosion; Oral health; Sports nutritional physiological phenomena.. · resumo em Português · texto em ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Diet, Gluten-Free/methods, Alimentación, alimentos libres de gluten ...
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena 100% * Milk 64% * infant 57% * Food 48% * food 47% ...
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Female Food Habits Health services needs and demand Humans Male Odds Ratio Ontario ...
Becker DV (1983). "Physiological basis for the use of potassium iodide as a thyroid blocking agent logistic issues in its ... "Escape phenomenon" is believed to occur because of decreased inorganic iodine concentration inside the thyroid follicle below a ... Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects. Academic Press. p. 304. ISBN 9780080920863. Wolff J, Chaikoff ... The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is subject to an escape phenomenon that limits its action after several days. It is to be ...
The descriptors Diet and Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, along with their child descriptors, were moved there. In ... PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES [G]. Biological Phenomena [G16]. Ecological and Environmental Phenomena [G16.500]. Environment [G16.500 ... To respond to these problems major changes were made to the organization of nutritional phenomena for the 2016 edition. ... For example, a search for diet, food, and nutrition and spinach to find specific citations about the nutritional value of ...
In this process, physiological and nutritional changes are observed in individuals, accompanied by a decline in daily ... Introduction: population aging is a universal phenomenon due to the demographic transition process characteristic of several ... The mini nutritional assessment was developed to detect malnutrition or nutritional risk. It is a simple, easy-to-apply, ... Objective: to evaluate the nutritional status through the application of the mini nutritional assessment (man) and associated ...
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G8.686.785.760.769.600 G8.686.784.769.600 Prenylation G2.111.87.679 G2.111.672 ... Physicochemical Phenomena G2.842 Physicochemical Processes G2.149.767 G2.842.750 Physiological Processes G7.700 Physostigmine ... Blood Physiological Processes G9.188.124 Blood-Borne Pathogens B1.300.248 B5.155 B2.50 B3.165 B4.194 Body Composition G2.111.97 ... Physiological G3.495.23.500 G3.15.500 Absorption, Radiation G1.595.14.249.500 G1.15.249.500 G2.149.767.19.500.500 G2.10.500.500 ...
G07 - Physiological Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiology Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Feedback, ... Feedback, Physiological. G11 - Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena. Spreading Cortical Depression. Cortical ...
G07 - Physiological Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiology Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Feedback, ... Feedback, Physiological. G11 - Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena. Spreading Cortical Depression. Cortical ...
G07 - Physiological Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiology Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Feedback, ... Feedback, Physiological. G11 - Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena. Spreading Cortical Depression. Cortical ...
G07 - Physiological Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiology Phenomena. Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Feedback, ... Feedback, Physiological. G11 - Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena. Spreading Cortical Depression. Cortical ...
The increase in the elderly population is a global phenomenon reflecting the increase in life expectancy that has changed the ... process is associated with reduced appetite and energy expenditure coupled with a decline in biological and physiological ... Prevalence of nutritional disorders. Two-thirds of the participants suffered from nutritional disorders according to the total ... An individuals nutritional status is classified according to the score obtained as: normal nutritional status (score 24-30); ...
As a result of nutritional deficiencies, these patients often develop osteoporosis. When they go on the GAPS nutritional ... They have solid physiological reasons for being finicky eaters. They get stuck in a vicious cycle of cravings and dependency ... Today, this phenomenon is well known. Gut dysbiosis can result in a chronic state of semi-drunkenness, which is particularly ... Some of them may look well-nourished or even be overweight but when we test for nutritional deficiencies, we find they are ...
Child nutritional physiological phenomena ; Adolescent nutritional physiological phenomena ; Feeding behavior ; Posture ; ...
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Cooking -- methods. Food Services. Healthy Diet. Schools. Financing, Government. ... Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Food Services -- standards. Government Programs -- standards. Public Assistance -- ... 2. The physiological reasons why: an essay on school hygiene, with reference to the physiological relations of age and sex to ...
Articles Humans Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Nutritional Sciences Nutritional Status *. Source: Public Health Rep. 71(6 ... Nutritional knowledge and practices Cite CITE. Title : Nutritional knowledge and practices Personal Author(s) : Young, ... 1956). Nutritional knowledge and practices. 71(5). Young, Charlotte M. and Berresford, Kathleen and Waldner, Betty Greer " ... "Nutritional knowledge and practices" 71, no. 5 (1956). Young, Charlotte M. et al. "Nutritional knowledge and practices" vol. 71 ...
Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva. Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la ... G06 - Microbiological Phenomena. Microbiota. Microbiota. Microbiota. G07 - Physiological Phenomena. Diapause, Insect. Diapausa ... G15 - Plant Physiological Phenomena. Etiolation. Estiolamento. Etiolado. Organogenesis, Plant. Organogênese Vegetal. ... G04 - Cell Physiological Phenomena. Mean Platelet Volume. Volume Plaquetário Médio. Volúmen Plaquetario Medio. ...
  • instead of staying under Nutrition Processes, it is now under the descriptor Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , having the hierarchical code G07.203.650 . (bvsalud.org)
  • available both in 2016 and in 2017 in DeCS's G category - Phenomena and Processes . (bvsalud.org)
  • A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a physiological state during which inflammation occurs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The increase in the elderly population is a global phenomenon reflecting the increase in life expectancy that has changed the demographic profile of several countries. (who.int)
  • der the supervision of the Directorate is a global phenomenon reflecting the Malnutrition is common among of Social Security in Lattakia, which is increase in life expectancy that has residents of homes for the elderly and under the Ministry of Social Security. (who.int)
  • Therefore, hypoglycemia is a decisive factor in the appearance of physiological and psychological stress . (exploringyourmind.com)
  • The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is subject to an escape phenomenon that limits its action after several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • causing the subject low physiological function. (bvsalud.org)
  • changed the demographic profile of studies indicate that nutritional status The admission requirements to these several countries. (who.int)
  • This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the breast-fed infant, health benefits associated with breastfeeding, nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. (tau.ac.il)
  • Prior work has shown that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis strain 09 confers significantly greater growth and nutritional benefits to a variety of host plants than the AM fungus Glomus aggregatum strain 165. (usda.gov)
  • Cases tend to be underreported by physicians because most have not been informed of how to distinguish the symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon from other medical conditions where blanching or sensory loss occurs. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary" Raynaud's phenomenon, originally described by Dr. Maurice Raynaud, occurs spontaneously in less than 15% of the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • Optimal timing for the introduction of complementary foods will depend on the infant's physiological and developmental status. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This study aimed to identify the nutritional status of people in residential homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic, and to determine the factors that affected nutritional status in these homes. (who.int)
  • A total of 103 elderly people in 3 residential homes were interviewed individually using an Arabic version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, and anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess nutritional status. (who.int)
  • Nutritional status was significantly affected by age, level of education, source of income, duration of stay in the home, number of diseases, number of medicines taken, anthropometric data and teeth and vision problems. (who.int)
  • The homes are sponsored by Among the many health issues being go unrecognized because the anthro- charities and donors and the services investigated, the nutritional status of the pometric parameters of elderly people provided to residents include housing, elderly population has gained attention. (who.int)
  • eighty-six young subjects were distributed in two equal groups (n = 43) according to the nutritional status: obese and control following Body Mass Index. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2008), 'marker' is a term used to name a material used in the qualitative or quantitative estimation of physiological or nutritional phenomena. (animbiosci.org)
  • This is a really common but also a unique phenomenon, and one that deserves an in-depth analysis. (exploringyourmind.com)
  • In light of a recently completed, comprehensive study, conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Institute concludes that vibrating hand tools can cause vibration syndrome, a condition also known as vibration white finger and as Raynaud's phenomenon of occupational origin. (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of malnutrition is in- shows that if nutritional needs are ig- The services are paid for those who can creasing in this population, and this has nored, the health outcomes of older afford them and free-of-charge for those a negative influence on elderly peoples' people will be worsened, and this can who cannot. (who.int)
  • The Wolff-Chaikoff effect lasts several days (around 10 days), after which it is followed by an "escape phenomenon," which is described by resumption of normal organification of iodine and normal thyroid peroxidase function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the HRV is considered a functional marker of human development 6 and can be used to identify phenomena related to the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in healthy subjects and patients with diseases 7-9 . (bvsalud.org)
  • 3 "Secondary" Raynaud's phenomenon has the same signs and symptoms and progresses through the same stages of severity but may be correlated with a specific cause (i.e., other medical conditions, vinyl chloride, or vibrating handtools). (cdc.gov)
  • Some medical conditions, particularly fractures, lacerations, costoclavicular syndrome, connective tissue diseases, vascular disorders such as Buerger's disease, generalized atherosclerosis, or a long history of high blood pressure, may result in the same signs and symptoms as primary Raynaud's phenomenon. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, your brain continuously probes the energy and nutritional reserves of your body. (exploringyourmind.com)
  • In the maintenance of optimal energy availability, increased energy expenditure ideally justifies increased nutritional intake. (medscape.com)
  • The quality of the vegetable produce is a product of organoleptic, nutritional and hygienic traits and is dynamic. (arccjournals.com)
  • Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system. (inra.fr)
  • A total of 103 elderly people in 3 residential homes were interviewed individually using an Arabic version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, and anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess nutritional status. (who.int)
  • Au total, 103 personnes âgées dans trois maisons de retraite ont été interrogées en entretien individuel en recourant à la version en langue arabe de l'échelle d'évaluation de l'état nutritionnel Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), et des mesures anthropométriques ont été réalisées pour évaluer leur état nutritionnel. (who.int)
  • A full nutrition assessment is needed in these scenarios, but using a mini nutritional assessment (MNA) or subjective global assessment (SGA) can be a useful pre-screening tool. (longtermcarerd.com)
  • Edible films and coatings protect food from mechanical and microbial damage, reduce moisture and volatiles escape, inhibit biochemical deterioration processes and improve food appearance, as well as enhance the products' nutritional value. (arccjournals.com)
  • As someone ages, their nutritional needs and dietary habits can undergo various changes, often leading to appetite changes and subsequent challenges in maintaining proper nutrition. (longtermcarerd.com)
  • Since the harvested vegetables consist of living tissues, they remain 'alive' even after harvesting and consequently undergo physiological and biochemical changes that cause detrimental quality and shelf life changes. (arccjournals.com)
  • Nutritional and Health Benefits of Carrots and Their Seed Extracts. (futajeet.com)
  • Results suggest that the tested supplement can be used as part of a nutritional strategy to promote a more judicious use of fish oil in fish diets due to its decreasing availability and rising costs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effectiveness of interventions on nutrition social behaviour change communication in improving child nutritional status within the first 1000 days: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The theoretical advantage of insulin pump therapy is its ability to mimic physiological insulin release and meet physiological insulin needs in people with insulin deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Physiological role of taurine has been extensively researched but source of taurine in various foods has been relatively neglected. (medpdffinder.com)
  • Very little information on taurine is available on the nutritional requirement and or its biosynthetic ability in aquatic species. (medpdffinder.com)
  • This phenomenon is influenced by a complex interplay of physical, psychological, and social factors, making it crucial to understand the root causes in order to effectively address and manage this issue. (longtermcarerd.com)
  • Cork spot-like physiological disorder (CSPD) is a newly identified issue in 'Kurenainoyume' apples, yet its mechanism remains unclear. (mdpi.com)
  • This study aimed to identify the nutritional status of people in residential homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic, and to determine the factors that affected nutritional status in these homes. (who.int)
  • The increase in the elderly population is a global phenomenon reflecting the increase in life expectancy that has changed the demographic profile of several countries. (who.int)
  • The basal and bolus functions of the pump allow separate determination and adjustment of both these insulin requirements and also allow flexibility in timing and amounts of nutritional intake and physical activity, allowing for wide variations in lifestyle. (medscape.com)