Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Home Care Agencies: Public or private organizations that provide, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations, home health services in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)Accidents, HomeHome Care Services, Hospital-Based: Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)Hemodialysis, Home: Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.National Health Insurance, United StatesUniversal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.United StatesHome Health Aides: Persons who assist ill, elderly, or disabled persons in the home, carrying out personal care and housekeeping tasks. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms. 2d ed, p202)Housing: Living facilities for humans.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.House Calls: Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Group Homes: Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.Home Infusion Therapy: Use of any infusion therapy on an ambulatory, outpatient, or other non-institutionalized basis.Parenteral Nutrition, Home: The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Competitive Medical Plans: Alternative health care delivery mechanisms, such as PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS or other health insurance services or prepaid plans (other than HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS), that meet Medicare qualifications for a risk-sharing contract. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Accountable Care Organizations: Organizations of health care providers that agree to be accountable for the quality, cost, and overall care of Medicare beneficiaries who are enrolled in the traditional fee-for-service program who are assigned to it. Assigned means those beneficiaries for whom the professionals in the organization provide the bulk of primary care services. (www.cms.gov/OfficeofLegislation/Downloads/Accountable CareOrganization.pdf accessed 03/16/2011)Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Managed Competition: A strategy for purchasing health care in a manner which will obtain maximum value for the price for the purchasers of the health care and the recipients. The concept was developed primarily by Alain Enthoven of Stanford University and promulgated by the Jackson Hole Group. The strategy depends on sponsors for groups of the population to be insured. The sponsor, in some cases a health alliance, acts as an intermediary between the group and competing provider groups (accountable health plans). The competition is price-based among annual premiums for a defined, standardized benefit package. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Home Health Nursing: A nursing specialty in which skilled nursing care is provided to patients in their homes by registered or licensed practical NURSES. Home health nursing differs from HOME NURSING in that home health nurses are licensed professionals, while home nursing involves non-professional caregivers.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.MassachusettsCommunity Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Insurance Pools: An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Housing for the Elderly: Housing arrangements for the elderly or aged, intended to foster independent living. The housing may take the form of group homes or small apartments. It is available to the economically self-supporting but the concept includes housing for the elderly with some physical limitations. The concept should be differentiated from HOMES FOR THE AGED which is restricted to long-term geriatric facilities providing supervised medical and nursing services.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Geriatric Nursing: Nursing care of the aged patient given in the home, the hospital, or special institutions such as nursing homes, psychiatric institutions, etc.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Great BritainCosts and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Institutionalization: The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.Defensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Hospice Care: Specialized health care, supportive in nature, provided to a dying person. A holistic approach is often taken, providing patients and their families with legal, financial, emotional, or spiritual counseling in addition to meeting patients' immediate physical needs. Care may be provided in the home, in the hospital, in specialized facilities (HOSPICES), or in specially designated areas of long-term care facilities. The concept also includes bereavement care for the family. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Hospital Restructuring: Reorganization of the hospital corporate structure.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.EnglandFirearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Socialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.New YorkChild Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Employee Incentive Plans: Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Communism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Dependency (Psychology): The tendency of an individual or individuals to rely on others for advice, guidance, or support.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.ColombiaRehabilitation Nursing: A nursing specialty involved in the diagnosis and treatment of human responses of individuals and groups to actual or potential health problems with the characteristics of altered functional ability and altered life-style.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)California
  • This is the sixth in a series of Alerts by Center for Medicare Advocacy regarding Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (HCERA). (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • On August 22, 1996, President bill clinton, a Democrat, signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (popularly known as the Welfare Reform Act), a bill passed by the Republican-controlled Congress. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act's (OBRA) Nursing Home Reform Act led to federal regulations requiring preadmission screening for mental disorders, prohibiting the inappropriate (eg, for discipline) use of restraints, and creating specific indications and guidelines for the use of antipsychotics. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • With medical tourism being defined as the idea of patients traveling expressly for certain types of medical procedures at discounted rates, a nurse can often find work abroad temporarily or permanently in some very exotic locations. (preferredcare.org)
  • Hospital nurses' and physicians' production and exchange of accurate information between levels of care are crucial for ensuring safe and seamless care for patients in transition. (bibsys.no)
  • With the shift of postacute care patients from hospitals into skilled nursing units, nursing homes are providing more rehabilitative care (9-11). (cdc.gov)
  • Given that an estimated 5.4 million Americans have Alzheimer disease and that neuropsychiatric symptoms eventually develop in 60% of community-dwelling patients and more than 80% of nursing home patients, one can appreciate the scope of this problem. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Moreover, historical accounts of treatment of nursing home patients with such mental disorders (including dementia-related neuropsychi-atric symptoms) and recent data on the risks of using antipsychotic medications in this population have made choosing a course of action even more complex. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • As the article indicates, the homes studied are from different areas of the state (note in recent news and blog posts here that Lee, Whiteside, Ogle and Carroll Counties in particular had incidents with patients that led to substantial sanctions). (levinperconti.com)
  • That particular facility had a reported minimum of 11 violations, according to a federal inspection report, related to patients' nursing and diet, further showing how things as seemingly simple as malnutrition and dehydration as a result of neglect of a patient can lead to catastrophic consequences. (levinperconti.com)
  • For these types of patients, mealtimes are especially dangerous-a time when nursing home staff should be constantly monitoring or physically assisting the patient. (pintas.com)
  • Similar to choking, nursing home patients can also suffer from clogged breathing tubes. (pintas.com)
  • Programs deemed successful for helping patients stay at home longer, for example, or for delivering care at lower costs can then be expanded. (alzinfo.org)
  • Some geriatric patients hesitate to use call lights, not wishing to "bother" the staff, whereas others may be cognitively or physically unable to activate their nurse-call buttons. (mnnursinghomeneglect.com)
  • If more workers would do as the two nurse assistants at the Road's Princeton Place Nursing Home did, our nation's nursing homes would cease to be a cess pool of abuse of nursing home patients. (lakecountyindianalawyer.com)
  • At most of the nation's nursing homes, nurses (who are not always certified or professionals) average between 25 and 30 patients, by themselves, per shift. (pintas.com)
  • It was created by a geriatrician from New York, Dr. Bill Thomas, who conceived of the idea in the 1990s when he realized the drugs he was prescribing to his patients in nursing home were not treating - and never could treat - the real source of their suffering, which was loneliness. (pintas.com)
  • He has drafted policies and procedures to address issues such as disruptive patients, criminal background investigations of nursing home applicants, and involuntary discharge from long-term care. (archerlaw.com)
  • The new year brings a stronger focus on payment reform policies, value-based purchasing and observation stays, said a top executive with the nation's largest nursing home association on Monday. (mcknights.com)
  • These reforms acknowledge the shared responsibility of disaster response and recovery, aim to reduce the complexity of FEMA and build the nation's capacity for the next catastrophic event. (fema.gov)
  • As of January 1, 2001, legislation mandated that each Maryland nursing facility establish an effective quality assurance program. (hhs.gov)
  • Facing a new wave of congressional scrutiny, the nursing home industry is mobilizing some of Washington's most well-connected lobbyists to fend off tough reform-minded legislation. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The 1906 act marked the start of federal food and drug legislation designed to protect Americans against threats from harmful substances and deceptive practices. (fda.gov)
  • Despite such occasional deceptive enterprises, President Theodore Roosevelt saw no need to ask for legislation concerning medical devices 200 years later, when the Pure Food and Drugs Act was enacted. (fda.gov)
  • Although low health literacy is certainly not a featured concern of the health care reform legislation passed in early 2010, there are those who would argue that the law cannot be successful without a redoubling of national efforts to address the issue. (nap.edu)
  • With this Act, a "super committee" was created to find $1.5 trillion in debt reduction on top of the $1.5 trillion the legislation allegedly reduces. (ascopost.com)
  • One nursing home - the Hebrew Home at Riverdale in New York - established, in 1995, a policy recognizing the right to "sexual expression," and it's often trotted out as the progressive example. (dailytidings.com)
  • Statements made in this release that are not statements of historical or current facts are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • In August 2020, CMS reported imposing more than $15 million in civil penalties to more than 3,400 nursing homes for noncompliance with infection control requirements and failing to report COVID-19 data during the public health emergency. (ncsl.org)
  • Human Rights Watch writes in strong support of a provision to strengthen the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Reauthorization Act (JJDPA) of 2008, S. 3155, by improving the treatment of juveniles with mental health or substance abuse disorders. (hrw.org)
  • Based on our research, we urge the Committee to strengthen the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Reauthorization Act and improve the treatment of juveniles with mental health or substance abuse disorders. (hrw.org)
  • In accordance with these international standards, Human Rights Watch urges the Committee to incorporate language in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Reauthorization Act to promote early identification of mental health and substance abuse disorders among juveniles in the justice system. (hrw.org)
  • Nursing homes receive Medicaid and Medicare payments for long-term care of residents only if they are certified by the state to be in substantial compliance with the requirements of the Nursing Home Reform Act. (aarp.org)
  • State Nursing Home Quality Improvement Programs: Site Visit and Synthesis Report. (hhs.gov)
  • Chicago aldermen are to be commended for their decision not to wait for the state to take action, by initiating their own investigation into the appalling conditions at some of Chicago's nursing homes ("Nursing home reform weighed in city," News, Jan. 13). (chicagotribune.com)
  • AARP has provided testimony at those hearings and is committed to work with our state on reforms that increase the number of options for older adults to receive the care and services they need, and age with independence and dignity in their own homes but that also increase the safety and quality of care conditions at existing nursing homes. (chicagotribune.com)
  • AARP believes the state should provide more options for older adults to receive home and community-based care services. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Eighty-four percent of respondents support shifting state funding for LTC so a greater percentage goes toward home- and community-based services (HCBS). (aarp.org)
  • PROVIDENCE, R.I. (AP) - Gov. Gina Raimondo has asked the General Assembly to amend her budget proposal to include reforms to the Medicaid system designed to save the state $91 million. (washingtontimes.com)
  • State citations for inflicting residents with "actual harm" or putting them in "immediate jeopardy" were given to 17 percent of Maryland's 234 nursing homes last year, up from only 8 percent in 2005 and 2006. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Many states also require that nursing homes meet individual state standards relating to the type and quality of care required. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • Most states have addressed the institutional abuse issue with laws that require doctors, nurses and other health care professionals to report suspected neglect to a designated state office. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • State laws typically require a nursing home to be licensed in order to operate, provides for annual inspections, sets up a procedure for handling complaints, prohibits discrimination, and imposes sanctions for violation, such as licensure suspension and revocation. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • In the lawsuit, nursing homes are seeking an injunction to stop a freeze in rates of Medicaid payments imposed by the state Oct. 1. (ljworld.com)
  • Rep. John Solbach, D-Lawrence, estimated the nursing home suit could cost the state between $5 million and $13 million, should the nursing homes win. (ljworld.com)
  • He said that SRS itself said nursing homes would need a total of $220 million in state and federal Medicaid payments, but the Legislature provided only $190 million. (ljworld.com)
  • State legislators continue to seek policy options to ensure that nursing facility residents receive quality care by adequate and trained personnel in a safe and comfortable environment, including and especially during the global pandemic. (ncsl.org)
  • These factors have led state and federal governments to implement nursing facility oversight measures to control the spread of COVID-19. (ncsl.org)
  • They seek to compel the state to provide services that will allow them to live in their homes and communities, to cease the practice of denying or reducing Plaintiffs' services at recertification where there has been no change in the medical necessity of such services, and to award compensatory services to the Plaintiffs to remedy conditions that have resulted from past failures to provide medically necessary services. (clearinghouse.net)
  • Specifically, the United States stated that plaintiffs have adequately identified a state policy that placed them at risk of unnecessary institutionalization in violation of the ADA, stated a valid claim that defendants violated the "reasonable promptness" provision and EPSDT provisions of the Medicaid Act by unreasonably applying their definition of medical necessity, and alleged a clear violation of PASRR requirements of the Nursing Home Reform Act. (clearinghouse.net)
  • This brief summarizes one aspect of the state of Washington's mature and balanced long-term care system - a successful effort to identify and assist nursing home residents to relocate to community settings. (nashp.org)
  • The continued problems to this date are notable because the state enacted reforms through the Illinois Nursing Home Safety Act in 2010. (levinperconti.com)
  • 4 A companion document to this Technical Users Guide (Nursing Home Compare Five Star Quality Rating System: Technical Users Guide State-Level Cut Point Tables) provides the data for the statelevel cut points for the star ratings included in the health inspection and the quality measure domains. (docplayer.net)
  • State survey teams spend several days in the nursing home to assess whether the nursing home is in compliance with federal requirements. (docplayer.net)
  • Consumer Reports has also just released its fifth Nursing Home Quality Monitor list of the 10 best and the 10 worst nursing homes in each state. (lakecountyindianalawyer.com)
  • Bottom line is that in the choosing of a Nursing Home , whether it be a nursing home in the state of Indiana, or Illinois, or Texas, or any other state, there are some critical things to know. (lakecountyindianalawyer.com)
  • He has successfully represented physicians, nurses, and other licensed professionals before the State professional licensing boards, and a variety of Federal agencies, and new graduates before the United States Medical Licensing Examination. (archerlaw.com)
  • There are certain rules that apply regardless of the state you are in because of the Nursing Home Reform Act. (galdrichlaw.com)
  • The act eliminated some federal welfare programs, placed permanent ceilings on the amount of federal funding for welfare, and gave each state a block grant of money to help run its own welfare programs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The insurance program will help people with Alzheimer's to live at home and remain independent longer by providing benefits that can be used to pay for home care aides, transportation and respite care. (alzinfo.org)
  • An average of $75 as a daily benefit doesn't sound like a lot, but it could help a husband get necessary respite care, paying for a half day of in-home services for his wife with Alzheimer's. (vital-aging-network.org)
  • The 1985 Elder Abuse Prevention, Identification, and Treatment Act defines abuse as the "willful infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or cruel punishment with resulting physical harm or pain or mental anguish, or the willful deprivation by a caretaker of goods or services which are necessary to avoid physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness. (lww.com)
  • Maryland's nursing homes, usually among the best in the nation, had an off year in 2007, according to newly published information from the Government Accountability Office. (baltimoresun.com)
  • GRACE, THE KAHA president, said the nursing homes feel funding levels set by the 1990 Legislature did not consider the needs of clients, but were "strictly budget-driven. (ljworld.com)
  • The National Nursing Home Survey: 1999 Summary, page 2 (DHHS June 2002), available Projections for the future predict that two out of every five persons who turned 65 in 1990 will enter a nursing home at some time before they die. (docplayer.net)
  • The United States Bipartisan Commission on Comprehensive Health Care, also known as the Pepper Commission, released its Call for Action blueprint for health reform in 1990. (vital-aging-network.org)
  • Non-significant results favouring not-for-profit homes were found for the two other most frequently used measures: physical restraint use (odds ratio 0.93, 0.82 to 1.05, P=0.25) and fewer deficiencies in governmental regulatory assessments (ratio of effect 0.90, 0.78 to 1.04, P=0.17). (bmj.com)
  • In addition, 18 percent of all nursing homes in Alabama had deficiencies in the urinary or incontinence care provided for residents. (nursinghomelawcenter.org)
  • In order to ensure that this happens, it is imperative that trial lawyers learn to recognize nursing home cases and be prepared to litigate these cases. (leesfield.com)
  • Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence suggests that, on average, not-for-profit nursing homes deliver higher quality care than do for-profit nursing homes. (bmj.com)