The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.

Probing interactions between HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its DNA substrate with backbone-modified nucleotides. (1/4423)

BACKGROUND: To gain a molecular understanding of a biochemical process, the crystal structure of enzymes that catalyze the reactions involved is extremely helpful. Often the question arises whether conformations obtained in this way appropriately reflect the reactivity of enzymes, however. Rates that characterize transitions are therefore compulsory experiments for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Such experiments have been performed for the reverse transcriptase of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 RT). RESULTS: We have developed a methodology to monitor the interplay between HIV-1 RT and its DNA substrate. To probe the protein-DNA interactions, the sugar backbone of one nucleotide was modified by a substituent that influenced the efficiency of the chain elongation in a characteristic way. We found that strand elongation after incorporation of the modified nucleotide follows a discontinuous efficiency for the first four nucleotides. The reaction efficiencies could be correlated with the distance between the sugar substituent and the enzyme. The model was confirmed by kinetic experiments with HIV-1 RT mutants. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments with HIV-1 RT demonstrate that strand-elongation efficiency using a modified nucleotide correlates well with distances between the DNA substrate and the enzyme. The functional group at the modified nucleotides acts as an 'antenna' for steric interactions that changes the optimal transition state. Kinetic experiments in combination with backbone-modified nucleotides can therefore be used to gain structural information about reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases.  (+info)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (2/4423)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

Nucleoside-3'-phosphotriesters as key intermediates for the oligoribonucleotide synthesis. III. An improved preparation of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters, their 1H NMR characterization and new conditions for removal of 2-cyanoethyl group. (3/4423)

An improved procedure for the transformation of 5'-O-monomethoxytrityl-2'-O-acetyl-3'-phosphates of uridine la, inosine ib and 6-N-benzoyladenosine lc into corresponding 3'/2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 2-cyanoethyl/-phosphates iiaic is reported. H NMR characterization of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters is presented. New conditions i.e. anhydrous triethylamine-pyridine treatment have been found for the selective removal of 2-cyanoethyl group from nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters in the presence of neighbouring 2'-O-acetyl one.  (+info)

Crystal structure of deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4, a component of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate-synthesizing complex. (4/4423)

Bacteriophage T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase (EC 2.1.2.8), a homodimer of 246-residue subunits, catalyzes hydroxymethylation of the cytosine base in deoxycytidylate (dCMP) to produce 5-hydroxymethyl-dCMP. It forms part of a phage DNA protection system and appears to function in vivo as a component of a multienzyme complex called deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthetase. We have determined its crystal structure in the presence of the substrate dCMP at 1.6 A resolution. The structure reveals a subunit fold and a dimerization pattern in common with thymidylate synthases, despite low (approximately 20%) sequence identity. Among the residues that form the dCMP binding site, those interacting with the sugar and phosphate are arranged in a configuration similar to the deoxyuridylate binding site of thymidylate synthases. However, the residues interacting directly or indirectly with the cytosine base show a more divergent structure and the presumed folate cofactor binding site is more open. Our structure reveals a water molecule properly positioned near C-6 of cytosine to add to the C-7 methylene intermediate during the last step of hydroxymethylation. On the basis of sequence comparison and crystal packing analysis, a hypothetical model for the interaction between T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase and T4 thymidylate synthase in the dNTP-synthesizing complex has been built.  (+info)

P1 ParA interacts with the P1 partition complex at parS and an ATP-ADP switch controls ParA activities. (5/4423)

The partition system of P1 plasmids is composed of two proteins, ParA and ParB, and a cis-acting site parS. parS is wrapped around ParB and Escherichia coli IHF protein in a higher order nucleoprotein complex called the partition complex. ParA is an ATPase that autoregulates the expression of the par operon and has an essential but unknown function in the partition process. In this study we demonstrate a direct interaction between ParA and the P1 partition complex. The interaction was strictly dependent on ParB and ATP. The consequence of this interaction depended on the ParB concentration. At high ParB levels, ParA was recruited to the partition complex via a ParA-ParB interaction, but at low ParB levels, ParA removed or disassembled ParB from the partition complex. ADP could not support these interactions, but could promote the site-specific DNA binding activity of ParA to parOP, the operator of the par operon. Conversely, ATP could not support a stable interaction of ParA with parOP in this assay. Our data suggest that ParA-ADP is the repressor of the par operon, and ParA-ATP, by interacting with the partition complex, plays a direct role in partition. Therefore, one role of adenine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis by ParA is that of a molecular switch controlling entry into two separate pathways in which ParA plays different roles.  (+info)

Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition. (6/4423)

Three ATP-dependent enzymes with different folds, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, D-Ala:D-Ala ligase and the alpha-subunit of the alpha2beta2 ribonucleotide reductase, have a similar organization of their ATP-binding sites. The most meaningful similarity was found over 23 structurally equivalent residues in each protein and includes three strands each from their beta-sheets, in addition to a connecting loop. The equivalent secondary structure elements in each of these enzymes donate four amino acids forming key hydrogen bonds responsible for the common orientation of the "AMP" moieties of their ATP-ligands. One lysine residue conserved throughout the three families binds the alpha-phosphate in each protein. The common fragments of structure also position some, but not all, of the equivalent residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with the adenine ring. These examples of convergent evolution reinforce the view that different proteins can fold in different ways to produce similar structures locally, and nature can take advantage of these features when structure and function demand it, as shown here for the common mode of ATP-binding by three unrelated proteins.  (+info)

Dietary nucleotide supplementation raises erythrocyte 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in neonatal rats. (7/4423)

The present study was designed to test if dietary intake of nucleotides increases erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in neonatal rats. To this end, rat pups were fed a nucleotide-supplemented formula (S, n = 14) from d 9 until d 16 after birth. The results were compared with those obtained from a group of breast-fed pups (C, n = 14) and a group of pups artificially fed with nucleotide-free formula (NS, n = 14). Neonatal weight, 2,3-DPG concentration, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were determined before the experiment (d 9) and after 7 d of treatment (d 16). In all groups, 2,3-DPG concentration was greater at d 16 than d 9, and the increase was greater in the S group than in the NS group. Alterations in neonatal weight, Hct and Hb concentration did not differ among the groups. On d 16 the 2, 3-DPG/Hb ratio, reflecting the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, was significantly higher in the C and S groups than in the NS group. We conclude that in neonatal rats, dietary nucleotides increase erythrocyte 2,3-DPG concentration. Studies need to be conducted in humans to assess the effect of this increase on both neonatal peripheral hemodynamics and metabolism in this species.  (+info)

Rapid purification of membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase in monodisperse form suitable for 3D-crystallization. (8/4423)

A new chromatographic procedure for purification of the membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase is presented. The purification is achieved by a single anion exchange chromatography step. Determination of the enzyme-bound nucleotides reveals only 1 mole of ADP per complex. The purified enzyme shows a latent Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of 1.0 mumol.mg-1 min-1 and a Mg(2+)-dependent activity of 4.4 mumol.mg-1 .min-1. Both activities are increased up to 8-10-fold after dithiothreitol activation. Analysis of the purified F1-complex by SDS/PAGE, silver staining and immunoblotting revealed that the preparation is uncontaminated by fragmented subunits or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Gel filtration experiments indicate that the preparation is homogenous and monodisperse. In order to determine the solubility minimum of the purified F1-complex the isoelectric point of the preparation was calculated from pH mapping on ion exchange columns. In agreement with calculations based on the amino acid sequence, a slightly acidic pI of 5.7 was found. Using ammonium sulphate as a precipitant the purified CF1-complex could be crystallized by MicroBatch.  (+info)

DNA is a remarkable macromolecule that functions primarily as the carrier of the genetic information of organisms ranging from viruses to bacteria to eukaryotes. The ability of DNA polymerases to efficiently and accurately replicate genetic material represents one of the most fundamental yet complex biological processes found in nature. The central dogma of DNA polymerization is that the efficiency and fidelity of this biological process is dependent upon proper hydrogen-bonding interactions between an incoming nucleotide and its templating partner. However, the foundation of this dogma has been recently challenged by the demonstration that DNA polymerases can effectively and, in some cases, selectively incorporate non-natural nucleotides lacking classic hydrogen-bonding capabilities into DNA. In this review, we describe the results of several laboratories that have employed a variety of non-natural nucleotide analogs to decipher the molecular mechanism of DNA polymerization. The use of various non
Research, media articles and webinars on dietary nucleotides and its benefits on gut health, immune support, DNA repair and recovery. Restricted access for practitioners. Log-in to view.
(NaturalHealth365) Find out how to heal the digestive system naturally by getting enough dietary nucleotides. Plus, discover a way to improve immunity.
16) Devadoss, B., Lee, I., and Berdis, A. J. (2007) Is a thymine dimer replicated via a transient abasic site intermediate? A comparative study using non-natural nucleotides. Biochemistry 46, 4486-4498.(15) Lee, I. and Berdis, A. (2006) Fluorescent analysis of translesion DNA synthesis by using a novel, non-natural nucleotide analogue. ChemBioChem. 7, 1990-1997.. (14) Zhang, X., Donnelly, A., Lee, I., and Berdis, A. J. (2006) Rational attempts to optimize non-natural nucleotides for selective incorporation opposite an abasic site. Biochemistry 45, 13293-13303.. (13) Zhuang, Z., Berdis, A. J., and Benkovic, S. J. (2006) An alternative clamp loading pathway via T4 clamp loader gp44/62-DNA complex. Biochemistry 45, 7976-7989.. (12) Zhang, X., Zhou, X, Lee, I., and Berdis, A.J. (2005) Hydrophobicity, shape, and -electron density during translesion DNA synthesis. Journal of American Chemical Society, 128, 143-149.. (11) Zhang, X., Lee, I., and Berdis, A. J.(2005) The use of nonnatural nucleotides ...
This report describes the use of several isosteric non-natural nucleotides as probes to evaluate the roles of nucleobase shape, size, solvation energies, and π-electron interactions as forces influencing key kinetic steps of the DNA polymerization cycle. Results are provided using representative high- and low-fidelity DNA polymerases. Results generated with the E. coli Klenow fragment reveal that this high-fidelity polymerase utilizes hydrophobic nucleotide analogues with higher catalytic efficiencies compared to hydrophilic analogues. These data support a major role for nucleobase desolvation during nucleotide selection and insertion. In contrast, the low-fidelity HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates against hydrophobic analogues and only tolerates non-natural nucleotides that are capable of hydrogen-bonding or π-stacking interactions. Surprisingly, hydrophobic analogues that function as efficient substrates for the E. coli Klenow fragment behave as noncompetitive or uncompetitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of the ε-subunit on nucleotide binding to Escherichia coli F1- ATPase catalytic sites. AU - Weber, Joachim. AU - Dunn, Stanley D.. AU - Senior, Alan E.. PY - 1999/7/2. Y1 - 1999/7/2. N2 - The influence of the ε-subunit on the nucleotide binding affinities of the three catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase was investigated, using a genetically engineered Trp probe in the adenine-binding subdomain (β-Trp-331). The interaction between ε and F1 was not affected by the mutation. K(d) for binding of ε to βY331W mutant F1 was ~1 nM, and ε inhibited ATPase activity by 90%. The only nucleotide binding affinities that showed significant differences in the ε-depleted and ε-replete forms of the enzyme were those for MgATP and MgADP at the high-affinity catalytic site 1. K(d1)(MgATP) and K(d1)(MgADP) were an order of magnitude higher in the absence of ε than in its presence. In contrast, the binding affinities for MgATP and MgADP at sites 2 and 3 were similar in the ...
The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein kinase A-phosphorylated and the non-phosphorylated forms of the protein. Binding of GTP[S] (guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) or GDP was found to be slow in the presence of free Mg2+, but very rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The binding of guanine nucleotides was found to correlate with the loss of endogenous nucleotide from the rap1 protein, which was rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The relative affinities of GTP and GDP for the binding site on rap1 were modulated by the presence of Mg2+, with a preferential affinity (approx. 15-fold) for GTP observed only in the absence of this bivalent cation. The dissociation of GDP from rap1 was not affected by the G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex. Phosphorylation of rap1 in vitro by protein kinase A did not modify any of the observed nucleotide-binding parameters. Furthermore, the ability of a cytosolic rap1 ...
gs99, invoking micro-intelligence isnt needed to explain the arrival of activated nucleotides during replication. The Polymerase doesnt send out for the right nucleotide triphosphate; instead, random nucleotide triphosphates bump into the template nucleotide. If the nucleotide triphosphate hydrogen bonds correctly with the template nucleotide, the new phosphodiester linkage forms. If the nucleotide triphosphate is the wrong one then usually it will not slip into the correct orientation to form the new bond, so it is quickly displaced and another random activated nucleotide slips into position at the polymerase active site and bumps against the template nucleotide. Eventually (in a tiny fraction of a second) a correct nucleotide is fitted and reacted and the polymerase advances. If a mistake is made (and this sometimes happens), it is almost always caught by the proofreading function of the polymerase and corrected. If not, a mutation has occurred (a rare event). The process is driven by ...
gs99, invoking micro-intelligence isnt needed to explain the arrival of activated nucleotides during replication. The Polymerase doesnt send out for the right nucleotide triphosphate; instead, random nucleotide triphosphates bump into the template nucleotide. If the nucleotide triphosphate hydrogen bonds correctly with the template nucleotide, the new phosphodiester linkage forms. If the nucleotide triphosphate is the wrong one then usually it will not slip into the correct orientation to form the new bond, so it is quickly displaced and another random activated nucleotide slips into position at the polymerase active site and bumps against the template nucleotide. Eventually (in a tiny fraction of a second) a correct nucleotide is fitted and reacted and the polymerase advances. If a mistake is made (and this sometimes happens), it is almost always caught by the proofreading function of the polymerase and corrected. If not, a mutation has occurred (a rare event). The process is driven by ...
In Genome Research this week: transcriptome interrogation at single-nucleotide resolution with RNA-seq, three-level genome annotations, analyzing P450s in the human liver, and more.
Chakraborty S, Krishnan Y. 2017. A structural map of oncomiR-1 at single-nucleotide resolution.. Nucleic Acids Res. 45(16):9694-9705. ...
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Using in silico analysis tools, we compiled Arabidopsis nuclear mRNA poly(A) signals from two independently produced 3′-UTR datasets covering about 17,000 independent genes. Beyond confirming the previous working model on the NUE and FUE, we revealed complex nucleotide distribution patterns around the CS and poly(A) site. The signal surrounding the CS is named CE here. A set of prevailing, although not highly conserved, patterns that are potentially poly(A) signals for each of the three elements are presented. Conserved secondary structures surrounding the CSs were also predicted using the RNA secondary structure prediction program, mFold. Using data from the literature, it is confirmed that these structures are important for the functionality of the signals because only those mutations that altered secondary structures had impact on the efficiency of the signals. These findings should serve as a new starting point for plant poly(A) signal study, e.g. the basis for mutagenesis tests of CE, the ...
Biology Assignment Help, What is nucleotides, What is Nucleotides? Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen base, a 5-carbon sugar called a pentose, and an associated phosphate group. The nitrogen bases are composed of either
TrkH is a bacterial ion channel implicated in K uptake and pH regulation. TrkH assembles with its regulatory protein, TrkA, which closes the channel when bound to ADP and opens it when bound to ATP. However, it is unknown how nucleotides control the gating of TrkH through TrkA. Here we report the structures of the TrkH-TrkA complex in the presence of ADP or ATP. TrkA forms a tetrameric ring when bound to ADP and constrains TrkH to a closed conformation. The TrkA ring splits into two TrkA dimers in the presence of ATP and releases the constraints on TrkH, resulting in an open channel conformation. Functional studies show that both the tetramer-to-dimer conversion of TrkA and the loss of constraints on TrkH are required for channel gating. In addition, deletion of TrkA in Escherichia coli depolarizes the cell, suggesting that the TrkH-TrkA complex couples changes in intracellular nucleotides to membrane potential ...
Nucleotides can be synthesized through a variety of methods both in vitro and in vivo. This can involve salvage synthesis (the re-use of parts of nucleotides in resynthesizing new nucleotides through breakdown and synthesis reactions in order to exchange useful parts), or the use of protecting groups in a laboratory. In the latter case, a purified nucleoside or nucleobase is protected to create a phosphoramidite, and can be used to obtain analogues not present in nature and/or to create an oligonucleotide. ...
To conquer this problem, we calculated one nucleotide turnovers by first incubating the fiber in a comforting resolution that contained 250 μM mantATP. MantATP
free nucleotides of adenine/A bond only with thymine/T / vice versa and free nucleotides of cytosine/C bond only with guanine/G / vice versa; thus copying the opposite strand of the original DNA molecule ...
Nucleotides may help maintain the optimum rate of cell replacement and help support the immune system. Quality Nucleotide supplements plus free UK delivery.
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
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English: Nucleotides are nucleosides with one or more phosphate group. They may also contain diphosphate and triphosphate groups ...
Nucleotides are involved in the most cellular processes and play an important role in the structural and regulatory functions in the body
A nucleotide is an organic molecule that is the building block of DNA and RNA. They also have functions related to cell signaling, metabolism, and enzyme reactions
The Nucleotide database is a collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA and PDB. Genome, gene and transcript sequence data provide the foundation for biomedical research and discovery ...
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
You may be asked to name the three parts of a nucleotide and explain how they are connected or bonded to each other. Here's the answer for both DNA and RNA.
|p class=Fliess|Nucleotides:|br /|Nucleotides are the primary building blocks of cell replication (RNA and DAN). Whenever cells need to be re-formed, such as in the formation of white blood cells during an immune response, nucleotides play a central rol
The likely nucleotide content of our modern Western diet has changed considerably when compared to that of our grandparents. If we go back even further in time to before the domestication of animals and plants and the industrialisation of agriculture and food production methods we find the changes to be even more significant.. A selection of results from recent investigations into the nucleotide content of a range of different foodstuffs is shown in figure 1 below. Based on the analysis of freeze-dried samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) the total nucleotide content for a typical adult portion size is shown in each case.. The results reveal some dramatic differences in the likely nucleotide intake of meat versus vegetarian diets, pointing to the highest contents in the offal-type (or organ) meats far less likely to be found on dinner plates today.. ...
With SeqCap Epi you can choose your own content or select the CpGiant Enrichment Kit. This off-the-shelf probe-set interrogates over 5.5 million methylation sites per sample at single-nucleotide resolution. This kit can serve as a screening tool to identify specific regions in the genome for methylation variation assessment. Capturing of known differentially methylated regions vastly reduces the sequencing output required to analyze the whole methylation landscape, compared to whole genome sequencing. Furthermore, it enables you to observe the methylation changes on both strands, while you can still study the SNPs in the targeted regions.. ...
ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate vital transport processes in every living cell. ATP hydrolysis, which fuels transport, displays positive cooperativity in numerous ABC transporters. In particular, heterodimeric ABC exporters exhibit pronounced allosteric coupling between a catalytically impaired degenerate site, where nucleotides bind tightly, and a consensus site, at which ATP is hydrolyzed in every transport cycle. Whereas the functional phenomenon of cooperativity is well described, its structural basis remains poorly understood. Here, we present the apo structure of the heterodimeric ABC exporter TM287/288 and compare it to the previously solved structure with adenosine 5-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) bound at the degenerate site. In contrast to other ABC exporter structures, the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of TM287/288 remain in molecular contact even in the absence of nucleotides, and the arrangement of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) is not influenced by ...
deoxy)ribose unit and the base, a β -glycosidic bond, has a different connectivity according to whether the link is to a purine or a pyrimidine. Although the linkage involves a C1′ carbon in both cases, the β -glycosidic bond in the case of a purine nucleotide is a link to the N-9 of the purine base , but to the N-1 of the pyrimidine base . Nucleotides are also found in which two or three phosphate groups are linked together, the chain of phosphate groups bonded to the sugars 5′-position. In these cases, they are nucleoside diphosphates (5′-NDP) and nucleoside triphosphates (5′-NTP). The bases have very limited solubilities in water, whereas the nucleosides and nucleotides have greater solubilities, due to the presence of polar sugars, or of both sugars and charged phosphate groups, respectively. The nucleoside triphosphates are of special interest for at least two reasons. First, they are the actual precursor molecules used in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Second, ATP is a ...
Detection of variable nucleotide(s) is based on primer extension and incorporation of detectable nucleoside triphosphates. By selecting the detection step primers from the region immediately adjacent to the variable nucleotide, this variation can be detected after incorporation of as few as one nucleoside triphosphate. Labelled nucleoside triphosphates matching the variable nucleotide are added and the incorporation of a label into the detection step primer is measured. The selection of the detection step primer is important to the method according to this invention and is dependent on the nucleotide sequence of interest. The detection step primers are preferably selected so to span the region immediately toward the 3 end from the variable nucleotide to be detected. The method is useful in identifying specific point mutations and genetic variations.
0 votes . Nucleotides also serve as an energy source. A. B. They are building blocks of nucleic acid, as nucleotides consist of the same components such as a nitrogenous base, sugar and a phosphate group. ? Hence, by adding a phosphate group, a nucleoside can be converted into a nucleotide by the enzymes called kinase. Cytosine, thymine and uracil are pyrimidine bases. 1800-212-7858 / 9372462318. … There are mainly two groups of nitrogenous bases such as purines and pyrimidines. This is because nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids and certain nucleotides serve as the energy currency of the cell. On the contrary, when the pentose sugar is deoxyribose, the forming polynucleotide is called as DNA. Nucleotide is the building block of two crucial macromolecules (nucleic acids) in living organisms called DNA and RNA. 176 views. Nucleoside: A nucleoside is the precursor of nucleotide. Biology. 4. Nucleoside: Several nucleoside analogues are used as antiviral or anticancer agents. ...
Use TriLink biotin monophosphates for functionalization of RNA through in vitro transcription. Use our biotin dNTPs for efficient uniform labeling in PCR.. Labeled nucleoside monophosphates enable capture and enrichment during procedures such as aptamer development by SELEX. For example, use of 5-biotin-labeled nucleotides in in vitro transcription reactions yield transcribed aptamers containing biotin at the 5 terminus, which allows their subsequent immobilization on a avadin-coated chip.. Labeled nucleoside triphosphates can be incorporated into nucleic acids during amplification, such as PCR or in vitro transcription, to incorporate a biotin handle for use in affinity capture/purification, hybrid capture, immunoassays, tracer labeling, and nucleic acid detection. Our biotinylated nucleoside triphosphates are modified in positions that will not affect the ability of the base to pair with its partner. We also offer dye-labeled nucleoside triphosphates for incorporation into and fluorescent ...
Among these four types of SNPs, C ↔ T/A ↔ G, A ↔ C/G ↔ T, A ↔ T, and C ↔ G, the neighborhood patterns of nucleotide distributions were, however, quite different from each other (Figure 2). For example, at the −1 site, the trend of nucleotide dynamics was A , T , C , G for the combined C ↔ T/A ↔ G transitions (Figure 2, A and B), T , A , G , C for the combined A ↔ C/G ↔ T transversions (Figure 2, C and D), T , A , C , G for the A ↔ T transversions (Figure 2E), and A , T , G , C for the C ↔ G transversions (Figure 2F), respectively. However, at the +1 site, the trend was G , A , T , C for the combined C ↔ T/A ↔ G transitions (Figure 2, A and B), T , A , G , C for the combined A ↔ C/G ↔ T transversions (Figure 2, C and D), A , T , G , C for the A ↔ T transversions (Figure 2E), and T , A , C , G for the C ↔ G transversions (Figure 2F), respectively.. For the C ↔ T/A ↔ G transitions (Figure 2, A and B), nucleotide A had a high average frequency of 0.3548 ...
They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. Nucleic Acids - Structure and Function. Normally, they are not needed in the diet. The formation of the polymeric nucleotides follows the polyester synthesis principle. Natural & modified nucleotides sorted by chemical structure motifs. DNA Definition and Structure . Each nucleotide is a polymer made up of three parts: A five-carbon sugar (2-deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA) A phosphate molecule; A nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) base ARN (acide ribonucléique) ou RNA (ribonucleic acid). nucleic-acids. So the two pyrimidines for RNA are cytosine and uracil (green and pink beads). i include the base thymine. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), shown in Figure 19.4 Structures of Two Important Adenine-Containing Nucleotides, have a role in cell metabolism that we will discuss in Chapter 20 Energy Metabolism. The supposed ...
Try NEN Life Science Products at: http://www.nenlifesci.com for analogs list under Renaissance Nonrad. Nucleotides where there are over 100 different fluorescent and hapten labeled nucleotides as riboNTPs (except GTP early 1999), deoxyNTPs and dideoxyNTPs. Philip R. Buzby, Ph.D. Nonrad. Nucleotide R&D Phone: 617-350-9343 NEN Life Science Products, Inc. Voice Mail: 800-446-0035, 1, 9343 PO BOX 199151 FAX: 617-350-9658 Boston, MA 02119 E-Mail: buzbypr at nenlifesci.com ...
Pippucci T, Savoia A, Perrotta S, Pujol-Moix N, Noris P, Castegnaro G, Pecci A, Gnan C, Punzo F, Marconi C, Gherardi S, Loffredo G, De Rocco D, Scianguetta S, Barozzi S, Magini P, Bozzi V, Dezzani L, Di Stazio M, Ferraro M, Perini G, Seri M, Balduini CL (2011) Mutations in the 5 UTR of ANKRD26, the ankirin repeat domain 26 gene, cause an autosomal-dominant form of inherited thrombocytopenia, THC2. Am J Hum Genet 88(1):115-120. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​ajhg.​2010.​12.​006 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ...
Définitions de Nucleotide salvage, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Nucleotide salvage, dictionnaire analogique de Nucleotide salvage (anglais)
Nucleotides contain a high and very variable proportion of water. Vitablend assays each batch of incoming nucleotide raw material and adjusts the premix formulation for every batch produced in accordance with those assay results. Our approach guarantees a low tolerance nucleotide profile blend compared to a typical approach using a fixed recipe of raw materials ...
In article ,[email protected][144.92.64.174],, mlsulliv at facstaff.wisc.edu (Michael L. Sullivan) wrote: , ,Something I would check would be the pH of the dNTP stock using pH paper. ,pH should be ,7, I think. If the solution is acid, I think the dNTPs ,disproparionate into dNDP and dNtetraP. If the pH is acid the purine nucleotides will depurinate (the adenine or guanine moiety will part company with the ribose triphosphate part of the dATP or dGTP). According to what I read many years ago in the then Pabst Laboratories catalog (a division of Pabst brewery--brewers have yeast, and yeast is a source of ATP;later the company was called PL laboratories, and still later Pharmacia(?)), disproportionation is only a problem in the *solid* state. According to PL, solid nucleotide triphosphates should be kept at -80 C, but the solutions are stable at -20 C. Makes me wonder about the 5-gm bottles of ATP that seem to be in a freezer in every laboratory. -- Ned Mantei Department of Cell Biology, ...
The technology science behind next-generation sequencing is varied and can get complicated, but heres an overview. It relies on an ingenious method of identifying different nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Sequencing by synthesis technology can identify the different nucleotides by examining the light they emit after being exposed to a laser. The four nucleotides have a specific fluorescent molecule that emits a unique wavelength of light when its hit by the laser, so A, G, C, or T can be identified separately. A sophisticated camera captures this light, recording the overall order (sequence) of the nucleotides. This information is stored in a form that researchers can use to compare pieces of DNA and create vast libraries of genes for any type of living creature that carries DNA ...
Ein. Consequently, MAG_5040 could be a critical pathogenic contributor to M. agalactiae persistence by providing essential nucleotide precursors for
Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. They differ from ATPases, which specifically hydrolyse ATP, by hydrolysing both ATP and ADP. The eukaryotic enzymes requires Ca2+, but Mg2+ can substitute. Most of the ecto-ATPases that occur on the cell surface and hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides belong to this enzyme family ...
Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δ13C) in Organs of Weaned Piglets - Liver;Pancreas;Pigs;Stable Isotopes;
Nucleotide degradation is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide synthesis and salvage
A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides. Salvage pathways are used to recover bases and nucleosides that are formed during…
23DD Nucleotide Set K-1004 2,3-Dideoxynucleotide Kit (DNA chain terminators)Contains 1.0 umole each of 4 nucleotides: -N-4002 2,3-Dideoxyguanosine-5-Tri
Nucleotide, any member of a class of organic compounds in which the molecular structure comprises a nitrogen-containing unit (base) linked to a sugar and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are of great importance to living organisms, as they are the building blocks of nucleic acids, the substances
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Start typing in the text box, then select your taxid. Use the plus button to add another organism or group, and the exclude checkbox to narrow the subset. The search will be restricted to the sequences in the database that correspond to your subset. ...
Start typing in the text box, then select your taxid. Use the plus button to add another organism or group, and the exclude checkbox to narrow the subset. The search will be restricted to the sequences in the database that correspond to your subset. ...
Welcome to Nucleotides for Health your place on the web for information on or about nucleotides, immunity, figestive health, endurance, research and development .....
Communicated by Olle E. Bjorkman, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA, December 9, 2003 (received for review June 12, 2003) ArticleFigures SIInfo however, where indicated, pea and Arabidopsis were used. Intact pea chloroplasts
1A4R: Nucleotide binding to the G12V-mutant of Cdc42 investigated by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy: two different nucleotide states in one crystal.
Tool: bedtools nuc (aka nucBed) Version: v2.16.2 Summary: Profiles the nucleotide content of intervals in a fasta file. Usage: bedtools nuc [OPTIONS] -fi ,fasta, -bed ,bed/gff/vcf, Options: -fi Input FASTA file -bed BED/GFF/VCF file of ranges to extract from -fi -s Profile the sequence according to strand. -seq Print the extracted sequence -pattern Report the number of times a user-defined sequence is observed (case-sensitive). -C Igore case when matching -pattern. By defaulty, case matters. Output format: The following information will be reported after each BED entry: 1) %AT content 2) %GC content 3) Number of As observed 4) Number of Cs observed 5) Number of Gs observed 6) Number of Ts observed 7) Number of Ns observed 8) Number of other bases observed 9) The length of the explored sequence/interval. 10) The seq. extracted from the FASTA file. (opt., if -seq is used) 11) The number of times a users pattern was observed. (opt., if -pattern is used ...
A building block of DNA or RNA- nucleotide is made up of the sugar, nitrogenous bases and phosphate while the nucleoside is made up of sugar and bases only.
Nucleotides are used for creating cells, replacing cells, including developing immune cells, developing sperm cells and supporting the female reproductive tract.
I discovered (no, not me: my team) the function of sugar nucleotides in cell metabolism. I want others to understand this, but ... Sugar nucleotides[edit]. Chemical structure of galactose. Leloir and his team discovered that in galactosemia, patients lacked ... At the beginning of 1948, Leloir and his team identified the sugar nucleotides that were fundamental to the metabolism of ... his research into sugar nucleotides, carbohydrate metabolism, and renal hypertension has garnered international attention and ...
Main article: Single nucleotide polymorphism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a difference in a single nucleotide ... Nucleotide diversity is the average proportion of nucleotides that differ between two individuals. As of 2004, the human ... Single nucleotide polymorphisms[edit]. DNA molecule 1 differs from DNA molecule 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T ... A tandem repeat is the adjacent repetition of a short nucleotide sequence. Tandem repeats exist on many chromosomes, and their ...
Purine nucleotide and nucleobase uptake[edit]. As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically ...
Subgenomic promoters range from 24 nucleotide (Sindbis virus) to over 100 nucleotides (Beet necrotic yellow vein virus) and are ... and have regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide and this occurs frequently in the ... Probability of occurrence of each nucleotide[edit]. for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G ... In bacteria, the promoter contains two short sequence elements approximately 10 (Pribnow Box) and 35 nucleotides upstream from ...
Christie, S. M. H.; Kenner, G. W.; Todd, A. R. (1954). "Nucleotides. Part XXV. A synthesis of flavin?adenine dinucleotide". ... "Genetic Control of Biosynthesis and Transport of Riboflavin and Flavin Nucleotides and Construction of Robust Biotechnological ...
Nucleotides serve as the building blocks for nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. They are composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose ... Like nucleotides, biosynthesis of histidine is initiated by the conversion of R5P to PRPP. The step of histidine biosynthesis ... Nucleotides contain either a purine or a pyrimidine nitrogenous base. All intermediates in purine biosynthesis are constructed ... "Nucleotides". IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2009. doi:10.1351/ ...
The RNA segment contains 4 contiguous purine nucleotides. The probes should be less than 30 nucleotides in length and designed ... Nucleotides. 18 (6-7): 1297-9. doi:10.1080/07328319908044696. PMID 10474219. Tang T, Badal MY, Ocvirk G, Lee WE, Bader DE, ...
Nucleotides. Part XLI. Mixed anhydrides as intermediates in the synthesis of dinucleoside phosphates". J. Chem. Soc.: 3291. doi ... Oligonucleotide synthesis is carried out by a stepwise addition of nucleotide residues to the 5'-terminus of the growing chain ... Ogilvie, K. K.; Usman, N.; Nicoghosian, K.; Cedergren, R. J. (1988). "Total chemical synthesis of a 77-nucleotide-long RNA ... Michelson, A. M.; Todd, A. R. (1955). "Nucleotides part XXXII. Synthesis of a dithymidine dinucleotide containing a 3′: 5′- ...
These chain-terminating nucleotides lack a 3'-OH group required for the formation of a phosphodiester bond between two ... Extension fragments are immobilized by the gel matrix, and excess primer, template, free nucleotides, and salts are eluted ... Current methods can directly sequence only relatively short (300-1000 nucleotides long) DNA fragments in a single reaction. The ... Other useful applications of DNA sequencing include single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection, single-strand conformation ...
... essentially all of the nucleotides take the form of Watson-Crick base pairs between nucleotides on the two complementary ... DNA, RNA, and proteins all consist of a repeating structure of related building blocks (nucleotides in the case of DNA and RNA ... Indeed, they can be viewed as a string of beads, with each bead representing a single nucleotide or amino acid monomer linked ... In most cases, the monomers within the chain have a strong propensity to interact with other amino acids or nucleotides. In DNA ...
2,992,245 nucleotides), and S. tokodaii str. 7 (2,694,756 nucleotides). The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has a circular ... The complete genomes have been sequenced for S. acidocaldarius DSM 639 (2,225,959 nucleotides), S. solfataricus P2 ( ...
Nucleosides and Nucleotides. 16 (1-2): 1-10. doi:10.1080/07328319708002516. Catechol Histidine utilizing Protein India portal ...
Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Taxonomy by nucleotides". Nature. 305 (5929): 17-18. doi:10.1038/305017a0. PMID 6888547. Loo, D. D.; ...
A Novel Pro-Drug of the TS Inhibitory Nucleotide FdUMP". Nucleosides and Nucleotides. 18 (6-7): 1729-1730. doi:10.1080/ ... Due to this, dTTP (the precursor nucleotide of DNA) will not be synthesized either, causing an alteration in the balance of ... This inhibition leads to an imbalance of the nucleotide grouping, stopping the DNA synthesis. The prodrug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU ... nucleotides, so there will be variations in the mechanisms of synthesis and repair of DNA by the absence of thymine, causing ...
Each three-nucleotide codon is translated into one of twenty naturally occurring amino acids. There is at least one tRNA for ... The 3'-end of the tRNA is mutated from CCA to CGA, while two cytidine nucleotides in the ribosomes A- and P-sites are mutated ... However, by co-mutating the binding nucleotides in such a way, that they can still base pair, the translational fidelity can be ... The tRNA recognizes a specific three nucleotide codon in the mRNA with a complementary sequence called the anticodon on one of ...
Minakawa N, Takeda T, Sasaki T, Matsuda A, Ueda T (February 1991). "Nucleosides and nucleotides. 96. Synthesis and antitumor ...
April 2007). "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nature Chemical Biology. 3 (4): 211-2. doi:10.1038/ ... June 2009). "Thiaminylated adenine nucleotides. Chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence". The ...
The number of possible nucleotide triplets, or codons, available in protein synthesis depends on the number of nucleotides ... which includes two additional nonstandard nucleotides (Z and P) in addition to the four standard nucleotides (G, A, C, and T). ... According to the double-helix model, DNA is composed of two complementary strands of nucleotides coiled around each other. ... Howgego, Josh (25 February 2014). "On stranger nucleotides". Chemistry World. Retrieved 1 July 2016. "Firebird BioMolecular ...
Montandon PE, Stutz E (September 1983). "Nucleotide sequence of a Euglena gracilis chloroplast genome region coding for the ... is 277 nucleotides." Their conserved sequences proximal to the splicing sites have similarities to those of group II introns, ... ranging from 95 to 110 nucleotides amongst those known to Christopher and Hallick, and identified in chloroplasts. On the other ...
23 nucleotides. Avg identity:. 00%. The Hepatitis B virus PRE stem-loop beta (HBV PRE SL-beta) is an RNA structure that is ...
To GenBank (2 nucleotides; 1 proteins) To USNM Invertebrate Zoology Mollusca Collection To World Register of Marine Species " ...
2006). "A Turkish case with molybdenum cofactor deficiency". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1087-91. doi: ...
The resulting nucleotides are similar enough to the nucleotides used in DNA or RNA synthesis to be incorporated into growing ... Nucleotides are commonly abbreviated with 3 letters (4 or 5 in case of deoxy- or dideoxy-nucleotides). The first letter ... It is an example of a nucleotide. They are the molecular precursors of both DNA and RNA, which are chains of nucleotides made ... Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002). Nucleotide Biosynthesis. "Nucleotide Metabolism: Nucleic Acid Synthesis". ...
Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 37 (6): 348-352. doi:10.1080/15257770.2018.1465185. ISSN 1525-7770. PMID 29750589. S2CID 21662596 ...
Kit S, Kit M, Qavi H, Trkula D, Otsuka H (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) thymidine ... McKnight SL (1980). "The nucleotide sequence and transcript map of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene". Nucleic ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1185-8. doi:10.1080/15257770600894436. PMID 17065087. Kit S, Dubbs DR (1963 ... Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 858-62. doi:10.1080/15257770802146510. PMID 18600552. Schollenberger S, Taureck D, ...
Alternative notations for nucleotide sequences have been attempted, however general uptake has been low. Several of these ... Their strategy was to encode nucleotides as circles on series of horizontal bars akin to notes on musical stave. As illustrated ... This universally accepted notation uses the Roman characters G, C, A, and T, to represent the four nucleotides commonly found ... AmbiScript was also designed to indicate ambiguous nucleotide positions via compound symbols. This strategy aimed to offer a ...
Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 769-78. doi:10.1080/15257770802145819. PMID 18600539. Gray JH, Owen RP, Giacomini KM ( ...
To GenBank (3 nucleotides; 2 proteins) To World Register of Marine Species v t e. ...
W and S denote "weak" and "strong", respectively, and indicate a number of the hydrogen bonds that a nucleotide uses to pair ... An IUPAC code that specifically excludes one of the three nucleotides can be complementary to an IUPAC code that excludes the ... The degree of complementarity between two nucleic acid strands may vary, from complete complementarity (each nucleotide is ... Rozak DA (2006). "The practical and pedagogical advantages of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation". Nucleosides Nucleotides ...
Krecmerova M (2017). "Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Antivirals". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. ... Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 24 (5-7): 767-70. doi:10.1081/ncn-200060112. PMID 16248033. S2CID 23883085. Toniutto P, Fabris C, ...
Finally, the model predicted a therapeutic strategy to deliver nucleotide receptor agonists to effectively rehydrate the ASL of ... Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic ... Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic ... Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic ...
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a variation at a single site in DNA, is the most frequent type of variation in the ... Zheng, Hai-Tao (2005). "Loss of heterozygosity analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism array in cancer". World Journal of ... LaFramboise, T. (1 July 2009). "Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays: a decade of biological, computational and technological ... Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Sanada, Masashi; Ogawa, Seishi (February 2012). "Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Array Karyotyping in ...
Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids is a monthly academic journal published by Taylor & Francis since 2000, continuing the ... earlier Nucleosides and Nucleotides in series. It discusses topics relating to the biochemistry of molecules in these classes. ...
Nucleotides are obtained in the diet and are also synthesized from common nutrients by the liver. Nucleotides are composed of ... In vivo, nucleotides can be synthesized de novo or recycled through salvage pathways. The components used in de novo nucleotide ... Nucleotides undergo breakdown such that useful parts can be reused in synthesis reactions to create new nucleotides. The ... Examples of non-nucleic acid nucleotides cAMP, a cyclic nucleotide signaling molecule with a single phosphate linked to both 5 ...
A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the ... The salvaged bases and nucleosides can then be converted back into nucleotides. Salvage pathways are targets for drug ... degradative pathway for nucleotides. Salvage pathways are used to recover bases and nucleosides that are formed during ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nucleotide_salvage&oldid=859198147" ...
nucleotide (plural nucleotides) *(biochemistry) The monomer constituting DNA or RNA biopolymer molecules. Each nucleotide ... Magid draws [...] a diagram depicting a restriction enzyme cutting neatly through a sequence of nucleotides. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=nucleotide&oldid=62613973" ...
... sidechain representation [ sidechain-options ] atom-spec Usage: nucleotides ndbcolor atom-spec Usage: ~nucleotides ... nucleotides add custom-style anchor sugar,base purine x1 y1 x2 y2 pyrimidine x1 y1 x2 y2 Usage: nucleotides delete custom-style ... The command ~nucleotides removes special representations of nucleotide residues to reveal atoms and bonds (equivalent to nuc ... The nucleotides command generates special representations of nucleotide bases and sugars; it is the command-line implementation ...
The nucleotides are of great importance to living organisms, as they are the building blocks of nucleic acids, the substances ... Nucleotide, any member of a class of organic compounds in which the molecular structure comprises a nitrogen-containing unit ( ... The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supplies the driving force of many metabolic processes. Several nucleotides are ... Nucleotide, any member of a class of organic compounds in which the molecular structure comprises a nitrogen-containing unit ( ...
At the present time, from five to ten publications relevant to cyclic nucleotides and the nervous system appear each week. ... Research on the significance of cyclic nucleo- tides to the function of nervous systems is particularly illustrative of the ... experiments with or related to cyclic nucleotides. ...
In the hunt for these details, scientists have focused on four RNA building blocks, or nucleotides, deep within the machine ... Because they sit where the protein chain is actually built, these "universally conserved" nucleotides in the ribosome were ...
The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
Nucleotide receptors; Purinergic receptors Signaling by extracellular ATP was first reported in 1929 (Drury and Szent-Györgyi ... Release of Nucleotides in the Extracellular Fluids. Although nucleotides, such as ATP and UTP, are mainly intracellular, they ... 2018) Nucleotide Receptor P2Y. In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, Cham. * .RIS Papers ... Nucleotides released by apoptotic cells act as a find-me signal to promote phagocytic clearance. Nature. 2009;461:282-6.PubMed ...
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a population, DNA pools are created and a target locus under query is ... exploits the fact that CEL I endonuclease cleaves heteroduplexes at positions of single nucleotide or small indel mismatches. ... To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a population, DNA pools are created and a target locus under query is ... Lesions IN Genomes) exploits the fact that CEL I endonuclease cleaves heteroduplexes at positions of single nucleotide or small ...
Can you name the nucleotides in DNA and RNA?? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score ... QUIZ: Can you name the nucleotides in DNA and RNA??. by ariana24 ... Science Quiz / Nucleotides. Random Science or Numbers Quiz ...
Nucleotides where there are over 100 different fluorescent and hapten labeled nucleotides as riboNTPs (except GTP early 1999), ... Source of fluorescent nucleotides. Buzby, Philip Buzbypr at nenlifesci.com Tue Sep 15 12:42:34 EST 1998 *Previous message: Rat ... Nucleotide R&D Phone: 617-350-9343 NEN Life Science Products, Inc. Voice Mail: 800-446-0035, 1, 9343 PO BOX 199151 FAX: 617-350 ...
If the added nucleotide is not incorporated, no light will be produced and the nucleotide will simply be washed away or ... If the added nucleotide is complementary with the first available base on the template, the nucleotide will be incorporated and ... Polymerase Extension Using 3′-O-modified Nucleotides and Characterization by MALDI-TOF MS.. 3′-O-modified nucleotides pose a ... We report here the development of a method to solve this problem by using nucleotide reversible terminators. These nucleotide ...
New biosensor chip detects single nucleotide polymorphism in real time with high sensitivity A team led by the University of ... of Oulu in Finland have discovered novel genes and mechanisms that can explain how a genomic variant in a single nucleotide ... California San Diego has developed a chip that can detect a type of genetic mutation known as a single nucleotide polymorphism ...
Nucleotides are the building blocks of amino acids. They can either be synthesized in a process called "de novo" synthesis-- ... Contrary to common belief, the nucleotides are not synthesized as bases first then attached to a sugar. As seen in the first ... All five nucleotides (including the RNA base "uracil") are synthesized through complex metabolic pathways involving several ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=Nucleotide_Synthesis&oldid=708751" ...
DNA consists of two nucleotide chains bonded to and... ... Long chains of nucleotides are called nucleic acids. Two types ... How many nucleotides make up a codon?. A: A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides. Each codon provides the template for the ... What five-carbon sugars are found in DNA nucleotides?. A: The five-carbon sugar found in DNA nucleotides is called 2?- ... A: A codon is a series of three nucleotides used to specify a specific an amino acid. These nucleotides are labeled with G, C, ...
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation in people. Learn more about SNPs and what ... For example, a SNP may replace the nucleotide cytosine (C) with the nucleotide thymine (T) in a certain stretch of DNA. ... They occur almost once in every 1,000 nucleotides on average, which means there are roughly 4 to 5 million SNPs in a persons ... Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs (pronounced "snips"), are the most common type of genetic variation ...
The nucleotide diversity (pi) in humans is studied by using published cDNA and genomic sequences that have been carefully ... Low nucleotide diversity in man.. W H Li and L A Sadler ... Low nucleotide diversity in man.. W H Li and L A Sadler ... Low nucleotide diversity in man.. W H Li and L A Sadler ... Low nucleotide diversity in man. Message Subject (Your Name) ... This measure of genetic variability is defined as the number of nucleotide differences per site between two randomly chosen ...
2 Nucleotides are the components of DNA and RNA. *3 Nucleotides function in cell metabolism *3.1 ATP is the universal energy ... Nucleotides are the components of DNA and RNA. The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotide units; that is, they ... Origin of nucleotides. One explanation for the near ubiquity of nucleotides in the chemical processes of life is the RNA world ... Nucleotides play a variety of key roles in cellular metabolism: *ATP, an adenine nucleotide, is a universal energy currency in ...
... is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide ... Nucleotide degradation is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide ... Fate of oral purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in humans. (a) Up to 50% of dietary purines are degraded to CO2 in the gut by ... The purine nucleotides IMP and GMP are degraded via the corresponding nucleosides to the constituent bases hypoxanthine and ...
Present Status of Adenine Nucleotides in Bodily Response to Injury Br Med J 1950; 1 :805 doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4657.805 ... Present Status of Adenine Nucleotides in Bodily Response to Injury. Br Med J 1950; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4657. ...
Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781483200231, ... Nucleotides. 1. Ribonucleotides. 2. Deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Other Nucleotides. 4. Biosynthesis of Mononucleotides. References ... Purines, Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... Purines, Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids is a five-chapter text that presents a simple ...
Our current work aims at understanding how nucleotides, the building blocks of RNA and DNA, might have interacted with ... We built a comprehensive, generalized model of the adsorption mechanisms of nucleotides onto phyllosilicate particles, mainly ... in order to acquire direct data on the adsorption configurations and localization of nucleotides on mineral surfaces. Although ... How do Nucleotides Adsorb Onto Clays? Ulysse Pedreira-Segade 1. , Jihua Hao 2. , Angelina Razafitianamaharavo 3, Manuel ...
... Jie Zhao,1 Jia-Xi Zhao,1 and Ya-Jun Xu1,2 ... V. Y. H. Yu, "Scientific rationale and benefits of nucleotide supplementation of infant formula," Journal of Paediatrics and ... N. Sato, Y. Murakami, T. Nakano et al., "Effects of dietary nucleotides on lipid metabolism and learning ability of rats," ... J. D. Carver, "Dietary nucleotides: effects on the immune and gastrointestinal systems," Acta Paediatrica. Supplement, vol. 88 ...
This study provides evidence of accelerated glycolysis and purine nucleotide catabolism, performed by purine nucleotide cycle, ... This resource discusses several disorders of nucleotide metabolism; including disorders of purine salvage, purine nucleotide ... Metabolomics/Metabolites/Nucleotides. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. , Metabolomics‎ , Metabolites. This page ... Purine nucleotides are built upon a sugar. In the first step, catalyzed by glutamine-PRPP amidotransferase, glutamine acts as a ...
Nucleotide sequence studies of two of the clones and hybridization studies show that a common 82-nucleotide sequence is ... Common 82-nucleotide sequence unique to brain RNA. J G Sutcliffe, R J Milner, F E Bloom, and R A Lerner ... Although the cDNA inserts are 500-1,250 base pairs long, they hybridize to a 160-nucleotide RNA species that is present in ...
  • In experimental biochemistry, nucleotides can be radiolabeled using radionuclides to yield radionucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The powerful combination of electrophysiology, biochemistry, patch‐clamp fluorometry and X‐ray crystallography has begun to unravel the mystery of how CNG channels are regulated and how the binding of cyclic nucleotides lead to channel opening. (els.net)
  • The purpose of the present volume, the first of two on the pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology of cyclic nucleotides, is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date anthology on the nature and role of these important chemical regulators. (springer.com)
  • The second section is concerned with the biochemistry of protein phosphorylation, a process which appears to be one of the most important mechanisms for the intracellular expression of cyclic nucleotide action in eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • In nucleic acids, nucleotides contain either a purine or a pyrimidine base-i.e., the nucleobase molecule, also known as a nitrogenous base-and are termed ribonucleotides if the sugar is ribose, or deoxyribonucleotides if the sugar is deoxyribose. (wikipedia.org)
  • A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides ( purine and pyrimidine ) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogen-containing base of a nucleotide (also called the nucleobase ) is typically a derivative of either purine or pyrimidine , which are heterocyclic compounds (organic compounds that contain a ring structure that has, in addition to carbon , such atoms as sulfur , oxygen , or nitrogen ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Routes of pyrimidine (green) and purine (red) nucleotide degradation showing the structural formula and numbering of the atoms in the respective ring structures of UMP (uridine 5′‐monophosphate) and IMP (inosine 5′‐monophosphate), central intermediates in nucleotide degradation. (els.net)
  • Fate of oral purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in humans. (els.net)
  • Metabolic pathways of purine (red) and pyrimidine (green) nucleotide degradation, via the nucleoside and base to the respective metabolic end products (blue), indicating the enzymes (pink) deficient in genetic disorders affecting these pathways. (els.net)
  • These include biosynthesis, catabolism, salvage pathways, and regulation as well as clinical significance of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (wikibooks.org)
  • A method of making a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is described. (google.com)
  • In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing. (google.com)
  • In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (google.com)
  • ii) a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide and (iii) an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (google.com)
  • 5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide comprises a trimethyl stannyl analogue or a tributylstannyl analogue of a pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (google.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (google.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein a radioactive iodide ion is used to label the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (google.com)
  • 12. A kit suitable for forming a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide, the kit comprising a premeasured amount of a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide in a first sterile, non-pyrogenic container and an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v) in a second sterile, non-pyrogenic container. (google.com)
  • 15. The kit of claim 12, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to methods for making radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides and, more specifically, to a fast method for labeling with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine, particularly by destannylation of a stannyl precursor. (google.com)
  • In the most common nucleotides the base is a derivative of purine or pyrimidine , and the sugar is the pentose deoxyribose or ribose . (bionity.com)
  • Nucleotides can be synthesized with both purine and pyrimidine as bases. (bionity.com)
  • [1] [2] Nucleotides contain either a purine or a pyrimidine base. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a SNP may replace the nucleotide cytosine (C) with the nucleotide thymine (T) in a certain stretch of DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adenine nucleotides are base-paired opposite thymine nucleotides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A team from the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, led by Floyd Romesberg, have synthesized two new nucleotides, which they have called X and Y, and incorporated them into the genome of the bacteria Escherichia coli, which contains four natural bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. (georgetown.edu)
  • DNA is made up of four building blocks called nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). The nucleotides attach to each other (A with T, and G with C) to form chemical bonds called base pairs, which connect the two DNA strands. (cancer.gov)
  • Previously, we have reported the development of a general strategy to rationally design cleavable fluorescent nucleotide reversible terminators (NRTs) for four-color DNA sequencing by synthesis ( 19 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nucleotide degradation is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide synthesis and salvage. (els.net)
  • The fumarate produced in step eight can be used to replenish citric acid cycle intermediates, meaning that purine nucleotide synthesis acts as an anaplerotic reaction. (wikibooks.org)
  • It is one of the enzymes of the anaerobic pathway of cobalamin biosynthesis, and one of the four proteins (CobU, CobT, CobC, and CobS) involved in the synthesis of the lower ligand and the assembly of the nucleotide loop [ PMID: 12101181 , PMID: 7592411 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The cobT gene of Salmonella typhimurium encodes the NaMN: 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of N1-(5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, an intermediate in the synthesis of the nucleotide loop of cobalamin. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Many tissues are not able to manufacture (via synthesis) the nucleotides called purines. (exoticpetvet.net)
  • This can involve salvage synthesis (the re-use of parts of nucleotides in resynthesizing new nucleotides through breakdown and synthesis reactions in order to exchange useful parts), or the use of protecting groups in a laboratory. (bionity.com)
  • The de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides by which these precursors are incorporated into the purine ring, proceeds by a 10 step pathway to the branch point intermediate IMP, the nucleotide of the base hypoxanthine. (bionity.com)
  • Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nucleotide is composed of three distinctive chemical sub-units: a five-carbon sugar molecule, a nucleobase-the two of which together are called a nucleoside-and one phosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • With all three joined, a nucleotide is also termed a "nucleoside monophosphate", "nucleoside diphosphate" or "nucleoside triphosphate", depending on how many phosphates make up the phosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 108-page document presents cyclic nucleotide-based modulators of protein kinases, phosphodiesterases and ion channels, as well as nucleotide and nucleoside analogs. (photonics.com)
  • A nucleotide can thus also be defined as the phosphate ester of a nucleoside. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The addition of one to three phosphate groups generates a nucleotide, also known as a nucleoside monophosphate, nucleoside diphosphate, or nucleoside triphosphate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The adenine nucleoside is called adenosine and lacks only a phosphate to form a nucleotide. (conservapedia.com)
  • This meeting seeks to explore and celebrate the chemistry that drives the development of modern nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • A nucleotide is comprised of a ring of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms, a five carbon sugar (together referred to as a nucleoside) and one or more phosphate groups. (bionity.com)
  • The nucleoside may bond to one, two or three functional group(s) of phosphate(s), forming respectively a monophosphate, diphosphate or triphosphate nucleotide. (bionity.com)
  • Tenofovir DF (TDF) is an experimental nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed by Gilead Sciences of Foster City, CA. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors are similar to nucleoside analog (NRTI) drugs such as d4T (Zerit) but do not require the same degree of processing within cells to become active (see full explanation below ). (thebody.com)
  • Is anyone interested in trying some new fluorescent nucleotide analogs for fluorescence in situ hybridization, point mutation analysis or genome mapping? (bio.net)
  • A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a variation at a single site in DNA , is the most frequent type of variation in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrosequencing has been widely used in single nucleotide polymorphism detection and DNA methylation analysis ( 16 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism sampling at OHSU? (ohsu.edu)
  • Intriguingly, a specific alteration in the DNA sequence near the FMR1 gene-a "single-nucleotide polymorphism" or SNP-has been linked to an increased risk of repeat expansion in some premutation carriers. (newswise.com)
  • In the double helix of DNA, guanine nucleotides are base-paired opposite cytosine nucleotides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The nucleotides are molecules, called guanosine and cytosine , that pair up together, or adenosine and thymidine , which also pair up together. (exoticpetvet.net)
  • Purines, Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids is a five-chapter text that presents a simple introduction to the basic chemistry of purines and pyrimidines and their derivatives. (elsevier.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2141323 Title: Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids. (worldcat.org)
  • Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides. (worldcat.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence (8024 nucleotides) of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. (nih.gov)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn 10 has been determined. (asm.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn 10 was determined using a primer walking strategy (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Nucleotides are composed of three subunit molecules: a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group consisting of one to three phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide cofactors include a wider range of chemical groups attached to the sugar via the glycosidic bond, including nicotinamide and flavin, and in the latter case, the ribose sugar is linear rather than forming the ring seen in other nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleic acid DNA (which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid ) is built of nucleotides with a deoxyribose sugar, whereas RNA (or ribonucleic acid ) contains nucleotides composed of ribose sugars. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The sugar in RNA nucleotides is ribose. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyclic nucleotides, including cyclic AMP (cAMP), cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cyclic ADP-ribose, have been extensively studied as second messengers of intracellular events initiated by activation of GPCRs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase (nitrogenous base), a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or 2-deoxyribose ), and one phosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribonucleotides are nucleotides in which the sugar is ribose . (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, CNG channels contain a cyclic nucleotide‐binding domain in the C ‐terminus of each subunit, connected to the transmembrane domain by a region called the C‐linker. (els.net)
  • The cyclic nucleotide‐binding domain contains four α‐helices with a β‐roll separating the first two α‐helices. (els.net)
  • By so doing, the contributors present the role of cyclic nucleotides in relationship to other intracellular regulators. (springer.com)
  • The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supplies the driving force of many metabolic processes. (britannica.com)
  • Nucleotides are the structural units of RNA , DNA , and several cofactors - CoA , flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide , adenosine triphosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate . (bionity.com)
  • These methods are generally based on the detection of microbial nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (google.com.au)
  • The salvaged bases and nucleosides can then be converted back into nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to common belief, the nucleotides are not synthesized as bases first then attached to a sugar. (wikiversity.org)
  • The purine nucleotides IMP and GMP are degraded via the corresponding nucleosides to the constituent bases hypoxanthine and guanine, respectively, and recycled at this level. (els.net)
  • Custom oligos are offered with standard deoxynucleotides, modified bases and 5' and 3'-modified nucleotides. (thermofisher.com)
  • Specifically defined" means those amino acids other than "Xaa" and those nucleotide bases other than "n" defined in accordance with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Handbook on Industrial Property Information and Documentation, Standard ST.25: Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in Patent Applications (1998), including Tables 1 through 6 in Appendix 2, herein incorporated by reference. (uspto.gov)
  • Modifications, e.g. , methylated bases, may be described as set forth in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 2, but shall not be shown explicitly in the nucleotide sequence. (uspto.gov)
  • Individual phosphate molecules repetitively connect the sugar-ring molecules in two adjacent nucleotide monomers, thereby connecting the nucleotide monomers of a nucleic acid end-to-end into a long chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA and DNA are both nucleic acid macromolecules that are comprised of a set of monomers known as nucleotides. (reference.com)
  • Individual nucleotide monomers (single units) are linked together to form polymers, or long chains. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids , with three or more bonding together in order to form a nucleic acid. (bionity.com)
  • Because they sit where the protein chain is actually built, these "universally conserved" nucleotides in the ribosome were thought to help that process. (news-medical.net)
  • Update and subclassification of the P2Y G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors: from molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology to therapy. (springer.com)
  • The positive strand coding sequence starts 69 nucleotides from the 5' end with a reading frame for a protein of Mr 125,941 and terminates with UAG. (pnas.org)
  • This gene terminates two nucleotides before the initiator codon of the coat protein gene. (pnas.org)
  • Within a gene , the sequence of nucleotides along a DNA strand defines a messenger RNA sequence, which in turn defines a protein. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Evidence from competition binding assays determined that protein interactions occurred by specific binding of cGMP into the binding pockets of its target proteins, and were also highly stereo-specific to cGMP against other nucleotides. (wikibooks.org)
  • Compares a protein query sequence against a nucleotide sequence database dynamically translated in all reading frames. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • cAMP modifies cell function in all eukaryotic cells, principally through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) , but also through cAMP-gated ion channels and guanine nucleotide exchange factors directly activated by cAMP. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The researchers speculate that because the heart cells also produce ANT2, another form of the adenine nucleotide translocator protein, enough ATP gets out to prevent enlargement of the mitochondria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparisons with an LpxA:peptide inhibitor complex indicate that the peptide competes with both nucleotide and acyl carrier protein substrates. (rcsb.org)
  • A small ribosomal subunit protein helps translate nucleotide repeats into poly-dipeptides. (alzforum.org)
  • Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). (abcam.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and immunoblotted with an Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 mouse polyclonal antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids is a monthly academic journal published by Taylor & Francis since 2000, continuing the earlier Nucleosides and Nucleotides in series. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids then are polymeric macromolecules assembled from nucleotides, the monomer-units of nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to being building blocks for the construction of nucleic acid polymers, singular nucleotides play roles in cellular energy storage and provision, cellular signaling, as a source of phosphate groups used to modulate the activity of proteins and other signaling molecules, and as enzymatic cofactors, often carrying out redox reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of non-nucleic acid nucleotides cAMP, a cyclic nucleotide signaling molecule with a single phosphate linked to both 5- and 3-positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleotides are of great importance to living organisms, as they are the building blocks of nucleic acids, the substances that control all hereditary characteristics. (britannica.com)
  • Nucleic acids are polynucleotides-that is, long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides. (britannica.com)
  • In the two families of nucleic acids, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA or RNA codes for the structure of proteins synthesized in the cell. (britannica.com)
  • Long chains of nucleotides are called nucleic acids. (reference.com)
  • Although best known as the structural units of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA , which store and transfer genetic information in organisms, nucleotides participate in nearly all biochemical processes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made up of chains of nucleotides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some signaling nucleotides differ from the standard single-phosphate group configuration, in having multiple phosphate groups attached to different positions on the sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nucleotide is a chemical compound with three components: a nitrogen -containing base, a pentose (five-carbon) sugar (relatively simple carbohydrates ), and one or more phosphate groups. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nucleotides consist of a pentose sugar (brown), one or more phosphate groups (red), and a heterocyclic base (blue). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. (bionity.com)
  • To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a population, DNA pools are created and a target locus under query is PCR-amplified and subjected to heteroduplex formation, followed by CEL I cleavage. (psu.edu)
  • What are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs (pronounced "snips"), are the most common type of genetic variation among people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They occur almost once in every 1,000 nucleotides on average, which means there are roughly 4 to 5 million SNPs in a person's genome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Several previously unknown single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to diet were discovered. (eurekalert.org)
  • This specification addresses the need for a standardized data exchange format for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) entities in the Life Sciences domains. (omg.org)
  • Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP+). (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling cyclic nucleotides are formed by binding the phosphate group twice to the same sugar molecule, bridging the 5'- and 3'- hydroxyl groups of the sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • pppGpp, a nucleotide signaling molecule with both 5'- and 3'-phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Showcasing the recent progresses of the field, Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling covers the major tools and methodologies used in various areas of research. (routledge.com)
  • Students and investigators new to the field will find this book particularly informative, as will scientists already actively researching nucleotide signaling. (routledge.com)
  • Signaling through cyclic nucleotide second messengers regulates a wide array of metabolic, physiological, functional processes, making cyclic nucleotides and related enzymes vital targets in research of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Given its role in disease, we know it is essential to ensure that your target is the right target, in order to translate the basic understanding of cyclic nucleotide signaling into therapeutic treatments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • [2] In addition, nucleotides work in cell signaling , and they are in important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A , FAD , FMN , NAD , and NADP + ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In any one strand, the chemical orientation (directionality) of the chain-joins runs from the 5'-end to the 3'-end (read: 5 prime-end to 3 prime-end)-referring to the five carbon sites on sugar molecules in adjacent nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine nucleotides are components of three major coenzymes, NAD + , FAD, and CoA, organic molecules that assist in various biochemical reactions by serving as carriers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • RNA molecules, for example, can contain as few as 75 nucleotides to more than five thousand nucleotides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • While all of this sounds very technical, what you need to understand is that nucleotides are molecules that are essential to the creation of new DNA and RNA molecules which are then used by new cells of all kinds. (exoticpetvet.net)
  • This is important because nucleotides, either by themselves, or in combination with other molecules, are involved in almost all activities of the cell (and therefore, the body). (exoticpetvet.net)
  • Cyclic nucleotide‐gated (CNG) ion channels are activated by cAMP or cGMP, crucial intracellular messenger molecules that regulate a wide variety of physiological activities. (els.net)
  • a diagram depicting a restriction enzyme cutting neatly through a sequence of nucleotides . (wiktionary.org)
  • All five nucleotides (including the RNA base "uracil") are synthesized through complex metabolic pathways involving several multi-subunit enzymes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyse the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, thereby regulating the intracellular concentrations of these cyclic nucleotides, their signalling pathways and, consequently, myriad biological responses in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • However, pharmaceutical interest in PDEs has been reignited by the increasing understanding of the roles of individual PDEs in regulating the subcellular compartmentalization of specific cyclic nucleotide signalling pathways, by the structure-based design of novel specific inhibitors and by the development of more sophisticated strategies to target individual PDE variants. (nih.gov)
  • A codon is a series of three nucleotides used to specify a specific an amino acid. (reference.com)
  • 3 nucleotides (called a codon) code for an amino acid. (biology-online.org)
  • 37 CFR 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (uspto.gov)
  • a) Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences as used in §§ 1.821 through 1.825 are interpreted to mean an unbranched sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides. (uspto.gov)
  • b) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences, in accordance with the definition in paragraph (a) of this section, shall, with regard to the manner in which the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences are presented and described, conform exclusively to the requirements of §§ 1.821 through 1.825 . (uspto.gov)
  • c) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences must contain, as a separate part of the disclosure, a paper copy disclosing the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences and associated information using the symbols and format in accordance with the requirements of §§ 1.822 and 1.823 . (uspto.gov)
  • Identification of amino acid residues at nucleotide-binding sites. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The model accurately predicted ASL height under basal normal and CF conditions and the collapse of surface hydration due to the accelerated nucleotide metabolism associated with CF exacerbations. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleotides also play a central role in metabolism at a fundamental, cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic AMP , another nucleotide, is involved in regulating many aspects of cellular metabolism, such as the breakdown of glycogen. (britannica.com)
  • Nucleotides also function as regulators of metabolism. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Main Focus: This resource provides a very comprehensive overview of multiple aspects of nucleotide metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Individual nucleotides also play important roles in cell metabolism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It was reported that nucleotides mixture can improve the potent of immunity, function of intestinal gut, memory, lipid metabolism, etc. (fuzing.com)
  • Deoxycytosine monophosphate (dCMP) is a DNA nucleotide with one phosphate attached. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cytidine 5'-Monophosphate Disodium Salt, Hydrate, also known as 5'-cytidylic acid, is a nucleotide used as a monomer in RNA. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Although either d -arabinosylcytosine 2′- or 3′-monophosphate is equally as effective as the 5′-nucleotide, no inhibition of cell multiplication was observed when cultures were treated with 2′,5′-cyclic arabinosylcytosine monophosphate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Depending on their base sugar, nucleotides are therefore known as "deoxyribonucleotides" or "ribonucleotides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Regulation of deoxyribonucleotides (dNTP's) and interconversion of nucleotides are also discussed. (wikibooks.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleotides are nucleotides in which the sugar is deoxyribose . (wikipedia.org)
  • Connections: When analyzing the mechanism for purine nucleotide biosynthesis, there are many common metabolic features present, which we've discussed throughout the quarter. (wikibooks.org)
  • Nucleotides are the building blocks of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). (encyclopedia.com)
  • These nucleotide analogues are modified with a reversible chemical moiety capping the 3′-OH group to temporarily terminate the polymerase reaction. (pnas.org)
  • DNA consists of two nucleotide chains bonded to and wrapped around one another in a twisted ladder shape called a double helix. (reference.com)
  • The two discontinuities in the beta strand, however, are not authentic gaps since no nucleotides are missing, but are instead regions of sequence overlap: a short sequence (19 residues for gap 2, t least 2 residues for gap 3) at one terminus of each discontinuity, probably the 5' terminus, is displaced from the double helix by an identical sequence at the other boundary of the discontinuity. (nih.gov)
  • Reduced pyridine nucleotides are oxidatively catalyzed in weakly acidic solutions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Effect of loss of P2Y 2 receptor gene expression on nucleotide regulation of murine epithelial Cl − transport. (springer.com)
  • It seems to me such a database would be necessary to do a proper analysis, as multiple copies of a single gene would bias the nucleotide frequencies. (bio.net)
  • A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides, and genes are what make up our chromosomes . (exoticpetvet.net)
  • Nucleosides are similar to nucleotides except that they lack the phosphate group. (britannica.com)
  • Nucleosides resemble the structure of nucleotides (i.e., they contain a base bonded to a sugar) but lack the phosphate group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • DNA and RNA polymers are constructed by forming phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • DNA and RNA are polymers comprised of many nucleotides, strung together like beads in a necklace. (cancer.gov)
  • This nucleotide contains: the five-carbon sugar deoxyribose (at center), a nitrogenous base called adenine (upper right), and one phosphate group (left). (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the model predicted a therapeutic strategy to deliver nucleotide receptor agonists to effectively rehydrate the ASL of CF airways. (nih.gov)
  • Because RPS25 doesn't appear to be required for global RNA translation, the authors suggest it could be a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases caused by nucleotide repeats. (alzforum.org)
  • Furthermore, it will explore recent progress made in identification and development of both new and established therapeutic targets modulating cyclic nucleotide signalling. (grc.org)
  • What five-carbon sugars are found in DNA nucleotides? (reference.com)
  • In fact, it is chemical bonds between the phosphates and the sugars that link one nucleotide to the next in the DNA strand. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The clinical conditions associated with defects of enzymes catalysing nucleotide degradation provide a valuable insight into the importance of this network. (els.net)
  • Enzymes defective in inborn errors of nucleotide degradation. (els.net)
  • The first section focuses on the detailed pharmacology and chemistry of cyclic nucleotides, including their formation, degradation, measurement, and interaction with various modulatory agents, such as receptors and calcium. (springer.com)
  • Uracil also recycles itself to form nucleotides by undergoing a series of phosphoribosyltransferase reactions. (conservapedia.com)
  • Although nucleotides, such as ATP and UTP, are mainly intracellular, they are released in the extracellular fluids by various mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • The nucleotide diversity (pi) in humans is studied by using published cDNA and genomic sequences that have been carefully checked for sequencing accuracy. (genetics.org)
  • This measure of genetic variability is defined as the number of nucleotide differences per site between two randomly chosen sequences from a population. (genetics.org)
  • dephd: Analyze quality of nucleotide sequences. (haskell.org)
  • Sequences with fewer than four specifically defined nucleotides or amino acids are specifically excluded from this section. (uspto.gov)
  • Cloning and functional expression of a human uridine nucleotide receptor. (springer.com)
  • NEW HAVEN, Conn., Nov. 2, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Achillion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:ACHN) today announced a poster presentation detailing the preclinical profile of ACH-3422, a uridine-analog nucleotide prodrug being advanced for the potential treatment of chronic hepatitis C viral infection (HCV). (cnbc.com)
  • For instance, guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is an RNA nucleotide with three phosphates attached. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These topics are followed by a discussion on the reactions and biosynthesis of nucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • If the added nucleotide is not incorporated, no light will be produced and the nucleotide will simply be washed away or degraded by the enzyme apyrase. (pnas.org)
  • 3. An electrode according to claim 2 wherein said isolated pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase module of an enzyme is the Iλ subcomplex of bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. An electrode according to claim 1 wherein said isolated pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase module of an enzyme is chemically or physically modified such that the pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase activity is retained. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A method for the selective determination of microbial cells, in a sample suspected of containing both microbial and non-microbial cells, is described which involves the selective release and enzymatic inactivation of non-microbial nucleotides, followed by the rapid and specific inhibition of the inactivating enzyme and the release and detection of microbial nucleotides in an appropriate assay, such as a bioluminescent assay. (google.com.au)
  • Nucleotides are bound to one another by phosphodiester bonds, which links the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the sugar molecule of another. (reference.com)