The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.

Probing interactions between HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its DNA substrate with backbone-modified nucleotides. (1/4423)

BACKGROUND: To gain a molecular understanding of a biochemical process, the crystal structure of enzymes that catalyze the reactions involved is extremely helpful. Often the question arises whether conformations obtained in this way appropriately reflect the reactivity of enzymes, however. Rates that characterize transitions are therefore compulsory experiments for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Such experiments have been performed for the reverse transcriptase of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 RT). RESULTS: We have developed a methodology to monitor the interplay between HIV-1 RT and its DNA substrate. To probe the protein-DNA interactions, the sugar backbone of one nucleotide was modified by a substituent that influenced the efficiency of the chain elongation in a characteristic way. We found that strand elongation after incorporation of the modified nucleotide follows a discontinuous efficiency for the first four nucleotides. The reaction efficiencies could be correlated with the distance between the sugar substituent and the enzyme. The model was confirmed by kinetic experiments with HIV-1 RT mutants. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments with HIV-1 RT demonstrate that strand-elongation efficiency using a modified nucleotide correlates well with distances between the DNA substrate and the enzyme. The functional group at the modified nucleotides acts as an 'antenna' for steric interactions that changes the optimal transition state. Kinetic experiments in combination with backbone-modified nucleotides can therefore be used to gain structural information about reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases.  (+info)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (2/4423)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

Nucleoside-3'-phosphotriesters as key intermediates for the oligoribonucleotide synthesis. III. An improved preparation of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters, their 1H NMR characterization and new conditions for removal of 2-cyanoethyl group. (3/4423)

An improved procedure for the transformation of 5'-O-monomethoxytrityl-2'-O-acetyl-3'-phosphates of uridine la, inosine ib and 6-N-benzoyladenosine lc into corresponding 3'/2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 2-cyanoethyl/-phosphates iiaic is reported. H NMR characterization of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters is presented. New conditions i.e. anhydrous triethylamine-pyridine treatment have been found for the selective removal of 2-cyanoethyl group from nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters in the presence of neighbouring 2'-O-acetyl one.  (+info)

Crystal structure of deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4, a component of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate-synthesizing complex. (4/4423)

Bacteriophage T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase (EC 2.1.2.8), a homodimer of 246-residue subunits, catalyzes hydroxymethylation of the cytosine base in deoxycytidylate (dCMP) to produce 5-hydroxymethyl-dCMP. It forms part of a phage DNA protection system and appears to function in vivo as a component of a multienzyme complex called deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthetase. We have determined its crystal structure in the presence of the substrate dCMP at 1.6 A resolution. The structure reveals a subunit fold and a dimerization pattern in common with thymidylate synthases, despite low (approximately 20%) sequence identity. Among the residues that form the dCMP binding site, those interacting with the sugar and phosphate are arranged in a configuration similar to the deoxyuridylate binding site of thymidylate synthases. However, the residues interacting directly or indirectly with the cytosine base show a more divergent structure and the presumed folate cofactor binding site is more open. Our structure reveals a water molecule properly positioned near C-6 of cytosine to add to the C-7 methylene intermediate during the last step of hydroxymethylation. On the basis of sequence comparison and crystal packing analysis, a hypothetical model for the interaction between T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase and T4 thymidylate synthase in the dNTP-synthesizing complex has been built.  (+info)

P1 ParA interacts with the P1 partition complex at parS and an ATP-ADP switch controls ParA activities. (5/4423)

The partition system of P1 plasmids is composed of two proteins, ParA and ParB, and a cis-acting site parS. parS is wrapped around ParB and Escherichia coli IHF protein in a higher order nucleoprotein complex called the partition complex. ParA is an ATPase that autoregulates the expression of the par operon and has an essential but unknown function in the partition process. In this study we demonstrate a direct interaction between ParA and the P1 partition complex. The interaction was strictly dependent on ParB and ATP. The consequence of this interaction depended on the ParB concentration. At high ParB levels, ParA was recruited to the partition complex via a ParA-ParB interaction, but at low ParB levels, ParA removed or disassembled ParB from the partition complex. ADP could not support these interactions, but could promote the site-specific DNA binding activity of ParA to parOP, the operator of the par operon. Conversely, ATP could not support a stable interaction of ParA with parOP in this assay. Our data suggest that ParA-ADP is the repressor of the par operon, and ParA-ATP, by interacting with the partition complex, plays a direct role in partition. Therefore, one role of adenine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis by ParA is that of a molecular switch controlling entry into two separate pathways in which ParA plays different roles.  (+info)

Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition. (6/4423)

Three ATP-dependent enzymes with different folds, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, D-Ala:D-Ala ligase and the alpha-subunit of the alpha2beta2 ribonucleotide reductase, have a similar organization of their ATP-binding sites. The most meaningful similarity was found over 23 structurally equivalent residues in each protein and includes three strands each from their beta-sheets, in addition to a connecting loop. The equivalent secondary structure elements in each of these enzymes donate four amino acids forming key hydrogen bonds responsible for the common orientation of the "AMP" moieties of their ATP-ligands. One lysine residue conserved throughout the three families binds the alpha-phosphate in each protein. The common fragments of structure also position some, but not all, of the equivalent residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with the adenine ring. These examples of convergent evolution reinforce the view that different proteins can fold in different ways to produce similar structures locally, and nature can take advantage of these features when structure and function demand it, as shown here for the common mode of ATP-binding by three unrelated proteins.  (+info)

Dietary nucleotide supplementation raises erythrocyte 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in neonatal rats. (7/4423)

The present study was designed to test if dietary intake of nucleotides increases erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in neonatal rats. To this end, rat pups were fed a nucleotide-supplemented formula (S, n = 14) from d 9 until d 16 after birth. The results were compared with those obtained from a group of breast-fed pups (C, n = 14) and a group of pups artificially fed with nucleotide-free formula (NS, n = 14). Neonatal weight, 2,3-DPG concentration, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were determined before the experiment (d 9) and after 7 d of treatment (d 16). In all groups, 2,3-DPG concentration was greater at d 16 than d 9, and the increase was greater in the S group than in the NS group. Alterations in neonatal weight, Hct and Hb concentration did not differ among the groups. On d 16 the 2, 3-DPG/Hb ratio, reflecting the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, was significantly higher in the C and S groups than in the NS group. We conclude that in neonatal rats, dietary nucleotides increase erythrocyte 2,3-DPG concentration. Studies need to be conducted in humans to assess the effect of this increase on both neonatal peripheral hemodynamics and metabolism in this species.  (+info)

Rapid purification of membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase in monodisperse form suitable for 3D-crystallization. (8/4423)

A new chromatographic procedure for purification of the membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase is presented. The purification is achieved by a single anion exchange chromatography step. Determination of the enzyme-bound nucleotides reveals only 1 mole of ADP per complex. The purified enzyme shows a latent Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of 1.0 mumol.mg-1 min-1 and a Mg(2+)-dependent activity of 4.4 mumol.mg-1 .min-1. Both activities are increased up to 8-10-fold after dithiothreitol activation. Analysis of the purified F1-complex by SDS/PAGE, silver staining and immunoblotting revealed that the preparation is uncontaminated by fragmented subunits or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Gel filtration experiments indicate that the preparation is homogenous and monodisperse. In order to determine the solubility minimum of the purified F1-complex the isoelectric point of the preparation was calculated from pH mapping on ion exchange columns. In agreement with calculations based on the amino acid sequence, a slightly acidic pI of 5.7 was found. Using ammonium sulphate as a precipitant the purified CF1-complex could be crystallized by MicroBatch.  (+info)

DNA is a remarkable macromolecule that functions primarily as the carrier of the genetic information of organisms ranging from viruses to bacteria to eukaryotes. The ability of DNA polymerases to efficiently and accurately replicate genetic material represents one of the most fundamental yet complex biological processes found in nature. The central dogma of DNA polymerization is that the efficiency and fidelity of this biological process is dependent upon proper hydrogen-bonding interactions between an incoming nucleotide and its templating partner. However, the foundation of this dogma has been recently challenged by the demonstration that DNA polymerases can effectively and, in some cases, selectively incorporate non-natural nucleotides lacking classic hydrogen-bonding capabilities into DNA. In this review, we describe the results of several laboratories that have employed a variety of non-natural nucleotide analogs to decipher the molecular mechanism of DNA polymerization. The use of various non
Research, media articles and webinars on dietary nucleotides and its benefits on gut health, immune support, DNA repair and recovery. Restricted access for practitioners. Log-in to view.
(NaturalHealth365) Find out how to heal the digestive system naturally by getting enough dietary nucleotides. Plus, discover a way to improve immunity.
16) Devadoss, B., Lee, I., and Berdis, A. J. (2007) Is a thymine dimer replicated via a transient abasic site intermediate? A comparative study using non-natural nucleotides. Biochemistry 46, 4486-4498.(15) Lee, I. and Berdis, A. (2006) Fluorescent analysis of translesion DNA synthesis by using a novel, non-natural nucleotide analogue. ChemBioChem. 7, 1990-1997.. (14) Zhang, X., Donnelly, A., Lee, I., and Berdis, A. J. (2006) Rational attempts to optimize non-natural nucleotides for selective incorporation opposite an abasic site. Biochemistry 45, 13293-13303.. (13) Zhuang, Z., Berdis, A. J., and Benkovic, S. J. (2006) An alternative clamp loading pathway via T4 clamp loader gp44/62-DNA complex. Biochemistry 45, 7976-7989.. (12) Zhang, X., Zhou, X, Lee, I., and Berdis, A.J. (2005) Hydrophobicity, shape, and -electron density during translesion DNA synthesis. Journal of American Chemical Society, 128, 143-149.. (11) Zhang, X., Lee, I., and Berdis, A. J.(2005) The use of nonnatural nucleotides ...
This report describes the use of several isosteric non-natural nucleotides as probes to evaluate the roles of nucleobase shape, size, solvation energies, and π-electron interactions as forces influencing key kinetic steps of the DNA polymerization cycle. Results are provided using representative high- and low-fidelity DNA polymerases. Results generated with the E. coli Klenow fragment reveal that this high-fidelity polymerase utilizes hydrophobic nucleotide analogues with higher catalytic efficiencies compared to hydrophilic analogues. These data support a major role for nucleobase desolvation during nucleotide selection and insertion. In contrast, the low-fidelity HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates against hydrophobic analogues and only tolerates non-natural nucleotides that are capable of hydrogen-bonding or π-stacking interactions. Surprisingly, hydrophobic analogues that function as efficient substrates for the E. coli Klenow fragment behave as noncompetitive or uncompetitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of the ε-subunit on nucleotide binding to Escherichia coli F1- ATPase catalytic sites. AU - Weber, Joachim. AU - Dunn, Stanley D.. AU - Senior, Alan E.. PY - 1999/7/2. Y1 - 1999/7/2. N2 - The influence of the ε-subunit on the nucleotide binding affinities of the three catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase was investigated, using a genetically engineered Trp probe in the adenine-binding subdomain (β-Trp-331). The interaction between ε and F1 was not affected by the mutation. K(d) for binding of ε to βY331W mutant F1 was ~1 nM, and ε inhibited ATPase activity by 90%. The only nucleotide binding affinities that showed significant differences in the ε-depleted and ε-replete forms of the enzyme were those for MgATP and MgADP at the high-affinity catalytic site 1. K(d1)(MgATP) and K(d1)(MgADP) were an order of magnitude higher in the absence of ε than in its presence. In contrast, the binding affinities for MgATP and MgADP at sites 2 and 3 were similar in the ...
The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein kinase A-phosphorylated and the non-phosphorylated forms of the protein. Binding of GTP[S] (guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) or GDP was found to be slow in the presence of free Mg2+, but very rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The binding of guanine nucleotides was found to correlate with the loss of endogenous nucleotide from the rap1 protein, which was rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The relative affinities of GTP and GDP for the binding site on rap1 were modulated by the presence of Mg2+, with a preferential affinity (approx. 15-fold) for GTP observed only in the absence of this bivalent cation. The dissociation of GDP from rap1 was not affected by the G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex. Phosphorylation of rap1 in vitro by protein kinase A did not modify any of the observed nucleotide-binding parameters. Furthermore, the ability of a cytosolic rap1 ...
gs99, invoking micro-intelligence isnt needed to explain the arrival of activated nucleotides during replication. The Polymerase doesnt send out for the right nucleotide triphosphate; instead, random nucleotide triphosphates bump into the template nucleotide. If the nucleotide triphosphate hydrogen bonds correctly with the template nucleotide, the new phosphodiester linkage forms. If the nucleotide triphosphate is the wrong one then usually it will not slip into the correct orientation to form the new bond, so it is quickly displaced and another random activated nucleotide slips into position at the polymerase active site and bumps against the template nucleotide. Eventually (in a tiny fraction of a second) a correct nucleotide is fitted and reacted and the polymerase advances. If a mistake is made (and this sometimes happens), it is almost always caught by the proofreading function of the polymerase and corrected. If not, a mutation has occurred (a rare event). The process is driven by ...
gs99, invoking micro-intelligence isnt needed to explain the arrival of activated nucleotides during replication. The Polymerase doesnt send out for the right nucleotide triphosphate; instead, random nucleotide triphosphates bump into the template nucleotide. If the nucleotide triphosphate hydrogen bonds correctly with the template nucleotide, the new phosphodiester linkage forms. If the nucleotide triphosphate is the wrong one then usually it will not slip into the correct orientation to form the new bond, so it is quickly displaced and another random activated nucleotide slips into position at the polymerase active site and bumps against the template nucleotide. Eventually (in a tiny fraction of a second) a correct nucleotide is fitted and reacted and the polymerase advances. If a mistake is made (and this sometimes happens), it is almost always caught by the proofreading function of the polymerase and corrected. If not, a mutation has occurred (a rare event). The process is driven by ...
In Genome Research this week: transcriptome interrogation at single-nucleotide resolution with RNA-seq, three-level genome annotations, analyzing P450s in the human liver, and more.
Chakraborty S, Krishnan Y. 2017. A structural map of oncomiR-1 at single-nucleotide resolution.. Nucleic Acids Res. 45(16):9694-9705. ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Using in silico analysis tools, we compiled Arabidopsis nuclear mRNA poly(A) signals from two independently produced 3′-UTR datasets covering about 17,000 independent genes. Beyond confirming the previous working model on the NUE and FUE, we revealed complex nucleotide distribution patterns around the CS and poly(A) site. The signal surrounding the CS is named CE here. A set of prevailing, although not highly conserved, patterns that are potentially poly(A) signals for each of the three elements are presented. Conserved secondary structures surrounding the CSs were also predicted using the RNA secondary structure prediction program, mFold. Using data from the literature, it is confirmed that these structures are important for the functionality of the signals because only those mutations that altered secondary structures had impact on the efficiency of the signals. These findings should serve as a new starting point for plant poly(A) signal study, e.g. the basis for mutagenesis tests of CE, the ...
Biology Assignment Help, What is nucleotides, What is Nucleotides? Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen base, a 5-carbon sugar called a pentose, and an associated phosphate group. The nitrogen bases are composed of either
TrkH is a bacterial ion channel implicated in K uptake and pH regulation. TrkH assembles with its regulatory protein, TrkA, which closes the channel when bound to ADP and opens it when bound to ATP. However, it is unknown how nucleotides control the gating of TrkH through TrkA. Here we report the structures of the TrkH-TrkA complex in the presence of ADP or ATP. TrkA forms a tetrameric ring when bound to ADP and constrains TrkH to a closed conformation. The TrkA ring splits into two TrkA dimers in the presence of ATP and releases the constraints on TrkH, resulting in an open channel conformation. Functional studies show that both the tetramer-to-dimer conversion of TrkA and the loss of constraints on TrkH are required for channel gating. In addition, deletion of TrkA in Escherichia coli depolarizes the cell, suggesting that the TrkH-TrkA complex couples changes in intracellular nucleotides to membrane potential ...
Nucleotides can be synthesized through a variety of methods both in vitro and in vivo. This can involve salvage synthesis (the re-use of parts of nucleotides in resynthesizing new nucleotides through breakdown and synthesis reactions in order to exchange useful parts), or the use of protecting groups in a laboratory. In the latter case, a purified nucleoside or nucleobase is protected to create a phosphoramidite, and can be used to obtain analogues not present in nature and/or to create an oligonucleotide. ...
To conquer this problem, we calculated one nucleotide turnovers by first incubating the fiber in a comforting resolution that contained 250 μM mantATP. MantATP
free nucleotides of adenine/A bond only with thymine/T / vice versa and free nucleotides of cytosine/C bond only with guanine/G / vice versa; thus copying the opposite strand of the original DNA molecule ...
Nucleotides may help maintain the optimum rate of cell replacement and help support the immune system. Quality Nucleotide supplements plus free UK delivery.
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
We are facing some problems with user registration at the moment. If you would like to register to the website please email to Achchuthan Shanmugasundram ([email protected]) from your institutional email to request for an account.. ...
English: Nucleotides are nucleosides with one or more phosphate group. They may also contain diphosphate and triphosphate groups ...
Nucleotides are involved in the most cellular processes and play an important role in the structural and regulatory functions in the body
A nucleotide is an organic molecule that is the building block of DNA and RNA. They also have functions related to cell signaling, metabolism, and enzyme reactions
The Nucleotide database is a collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA and PDB. Genome, gene and transcript sequence data provide the foundation for biomedical research and discovery ...
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
You may be asked to name the three parts of a nucleotide and explain how they are connected or bonded to each other. Here's the answer for both DNA and RNA.
|p class=Fliess|Nucleotides:|br /|Nucleotides are the primary building blocks of cell replication (RNA and DAN). Whenever cells need to be re-formed, such as in the formation of white blood cells during an immune response, nucleotides play a central rol
The likely nucleotide content of our modern Western diet has changed considerably when compared to that of our grandparents. If we go back even further in time to before the domestication of animals and plants and the industrialisation of agriculture and food production methods we find the changes to be even more significant.. A selection of results from recent investigations into the nucleotide content of a range of different foodstuffs is shown in figure 1 below. Based on the analysis of freeze-dried samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) the total nucleotide content for a typical adult portion size is shown in each case.. The results reveal some dramatic differences in the likely nucleotide intake of meat versus vegetarian diets, pointing to the highest contents in the offal-type (or organ) meats far less likely to be found on dinner plates today.. ...
With SeqCap Epi you can choose your own content or select the CpGiant Enrichment Kit. This off-the-shelf probe-set interrogates over 5.5 million methylation sites per sample at single-nucleotide resolution. This kit can serve as a screening tool to identify specific regions in the genome for methylation variation assessment. Capturing of known differentially methylated regions vastly reduces the sequencing output required to analyze the whole methylation landscape, compared to whole genome sequencing. Furthermore, it enables you to observe the methylation changes on both strands, while you can still study the SNPs in the targeted regions.. ...
ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate vital transport processes in every living cell. ATP hydrolysis, which fuels transport, displays positive cooperativity in numerous ABC transporters. In particular, heterodimeric ABC exporters exhibit pronounced allosteric coupling between a catalytically impaired degenerate site, where nucleotides bind tightly, and a consensus site, at which ATP is hydrolyzed in every transport cycle. Whereas the functional phenomenon of cooperativity is well described, its structural basis remains poorly understood. Here, we present the apo structure of the heterodimeric ABC exporter TM287/288 and compare it to the previously solved structure with adenosine 5-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) bound at the degenerate site. In contrast to other ABC exporter structures, the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of TM287/288 remain in molecular contact even in the absence of nucleotides, and the arrangement of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) is not influenced by ...
deoxy)ribose unit and the base, a β -glycosidic bond, has a different connectivity according to whether the link is to a purine or a pyrimidine. Although the linkage involves a C1′ carbon in both cases, the β -glycosidic bond in the case of a purine nucleotide is a link to the N-9 of the purine base , but to the N-1 of the pyrimidine base . Nucleotides are also found in which two or three phosphate groups are linked together, the chain of phosphate groups bonded to the sugars 5′-position. In these cases, they are nucleoside diphosphates (5′-NDP) and nucleoside triphosphates (5′-NTP). The bases have very limited solubilities in water, whereas the nucleosides and nucleotides have greater solubilities, due to the presence of polar sugars, or of both sugars and charged phosphate groups, respectively. The nucleoside triphosphates are of special interest for at least two reasons. First, they are the actual precursor molecules used in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Second, ATP is a ...
Detection of variable nucleotide(s) is based on primer extension and incorporation of detectable nucleoside triphosphates. By selecting the detection step primers from the region immediately adjacent to the variable nucleotide, this variation can be detected after incorporation of as few as one nucleoside triphosphate. Labelled nucleoside triphosphates matching the variable nucleotide are added and the incorporation of a label into the detection step primer is measured. The selection of the detection step primer is important to the method according to this invention and is dependent on the nucleotide sequence of interest. The detection step primers are preferably selected so to span the region immediately toward the 3 end from the variable nucleotide to be detected. The method is useful in identifying specific point mutations and genetic variations.
0 votes . Nucleotides also serve as an energy source. A. B. They are building blocks of nucleic acid, as nucleotides consist of the same components such as a nitrogenous base, sugar and a phosphate group. ? Hence, by adding a phosphate group, a nucleoside can be converted into a nucleotide by the enzymes called kinase. Cytosine, thymine and uracil are pyrimidine bases. 1800-212-7858 / 9372462318. … There are mainly two groups of nitrogenous bases such as purines and pyrimidines. This is because nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids and certain nucleotides serve as the energy currency of the cell. On the contrary, when the pentose sugar is deoxyribose, the forming polynucleotide is called as DNA. Nucleotide is the building block of two crucial macromolecules (nucleic acids) in living organisms called DNA and RNA. 176 views. Nucleoside: A nucleoside is the precursor of nucleotide. Biology. 4. Nucleoside: Several nucleoside analogues are used as antiviral or anticancer agents. ...
Use TriLink biotin monophosphates for functionalization of RNA through in vitro transcription. Use our biotin dNTPs for efficient uniform labeling in PCR.. Labeled nucleoside monophosphates enable capture and enrichment during procedures such as aptamer development by SELEX. For example, use of 5-biotin-labeled nucleotides in in vitro transcription reactions yield transcribed aptamers containing biotin at the 5 terminus, which allows their subsequent immobilization on a avadin-coated chip.. Labeled nucleoside triphosphates can be incorporated into nucleic acids during amplification, such as PCR or in vitro transcription, to incorporate a biotin handle for use in affinity capture/purification, hybrid capture, immunoassays, tracer labeling, and nucleic acid detection. Our biotinylated nucleoside triphosphates are modified in positions that will not affect the ability of the base to pair with its partner. We also offer dye-labeled nucleoside triphosphates for incorporation into and fluorescent ...
Among these four types of SNPs, C ↔ T/A ↔ G, A ↔ C/G ↔ T, A ↔ T, and C ↔ G, the neighborhood patterns of nucleotide distributions were, however, quite different from each other (Figure 2). For example, at the −1 site, the trend of nucleotide dynamics was A , T , C , G for the combined C ↔ T/A ↔ G transitions (Figure 2, A and B), T , A , G , C for the combined A ↔ C/G ↔ T transversions (Figure 2, C and D), T , A , C , G for the A ↔ T transversions (Figure 2E), and A , T , G , C for the C ↔ G transversions (Figure 2F), respectively. However, at the +1 site, the trend was G , A , T , C for the combined C ↔ T/A ↔ G transitions (Figure 2, A and B), T , A , G , C for the combined A ↔ C/G ↔ T transversions (Figure 2, C and D), A , T , G , C for the A ↔ T transversions (Figure 2E), and T , A , C , G for the C ↔ G transversions (Figure 2F), respectively.. For the C ↔ T/A ↔ G transitions (Figure 2, A and B), nucleotide A had a high average frequency of 0.3548 ...
They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. Nucleic Acids - Structure and Function. Normally, they are not needed in the diet. The formation of the polymeric nucleotides follows the polyester synthesis principle. Natural & modified nucleotides sorted by chemical structure motifs. DNA Definition and Structure . Each nucleotide is a polymer made up of three parts: A five-carbon sugar (2-deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA) A phosphate molecule; A nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) base ARN (acide ribonucléique) ou RNA (ribonucleic acid). nucleic-acids. So the two pyrimidines for RNA are cytosine and uracil (green and pink beads). i include the base thymine. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), shown in Figure 19.4 Structures of Two Important Adenine-Containing Nucleotides, have a role in cell metabolism that we will discuss in Chapter 20 Energy Metabolism. The supposed ...
Try NEN Life Science Products at: http://www.nenlifesci.com for analogs list under Renaissance Nonrad. Nucleotides where there are over 100 different fluorescent and hapten labeled nucleotides as riboNTPs (except GTP early 1999), deoxyNTPs and dideoxyNTPs. Philip R. Buzby, Ph.D. Nonrad. Nucleotide R&D Phone: 617-350-9343 NEN Life Science Products, Inc. Voice Mail: 800-446-0035, 1, 9343 PO BOX 199151 FAX: 617-350-9658 Boston, MA 02119 E-Mail: buzbypr at nenlifesci.com ...
Pippucci T, Savoia A, Perrotta S, Pujol-Moix N, Noris P, Castegnaro G, Pecci A, Gnan C, Punzo F, Marconi C, Gherardi S, Loffredo G, De Rocco D, Scianguetta S, Barozzi S, Magini P, Bozzi V, Dezzani L, Di Stazio M, Ferraro M, Perini G, Seri M, Balduini CL (2011) Mutations in the 5 UTR of ANKRD26, the ankirin repeat domain 26 gene, cause an autosomal-dominant form of inherited thrombocytopenia, THC2. Am J Hum Genet 88(1):115-120. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​ajhg.​2010.​12.​006 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ...
Définitions de Nucleotide salvage, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Nucleotide salvage, dictionnaire analogique de Nucleotide salvage (anglais)
Nucleotides contain a high and very variable proportion of water. Vitablend assays each batch of incoming nucleotide raw material and adjusts the premix formulation for every batch produced in accordance with those assay results. Our approach guarantees a low tolerance nucleotide profile blend compared to a typical approach using a fixed recipe of raw materials ...
In article ,[email protected][144.92.64.174],, mlsulliv at facstaff.wisc.edu (Michael L. Sullivan) wrote: , ,Something I would check would be the pH of the dNTP stock using pH paper. ,pH should be ,7, I think. If the solution is acid, I think the dNTPs ,disproparionate into dNDP and dNtetraP. If the pH is acid the purine nucleotides will depurinate (the adenine or guanine moiety will part company with the ribose triphosphate part of the dATP or dGTP). According to what I read many years ago in the then Pabst Laboratories catalog (a division of Pabst brewery--brewers have yeast, and yeast is a source of ATP;later the company was called PL laboratories, and still later Pharmacia(?)), disproportionation is only a problem in the *solid* state. According to PL, solid nucleotide triphosphates should be kept at -80 C, but the solutions are stable at -20 C. Makes me wonder about the 5-gm bottles of ATP that seem to be in a freezer in every laboratory. -- Ned Mantei Department of Cell Biology, ...
The technology science behind next-generation sequencing is varied and can get complicated, but heres an overview. It relies on an ingenious method of identifying different nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Sequencing by synthesis technology can identify the different nucleotides by examining the light they emit after being exposed to a laser. The four nucleotides have a specific fluorescent molecule that emits a unique wavelength of light when its hit by the laser, so A, G, C, or T can be identified separately. A sophisticated camera captures this light, recording the overall order (sequence) of the nucleotides. This information is stored in a form that researchers can use to compare pieces of DNA and create vast libraries of genes for any type of living creature that carries DNA ...
Ein. Consequently, MAG_5040 could be a critical pathogenic contributor to M. agalactiae persistence by providing essential nucleotide precursors for
Apyrases are active against both di- and triphosphate nucleotides (NDPs and NTPs) and hydrolyse NTPs to nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) in two distinct successive phosphate-releasing steps, with NDPs as intermediates. They differ from ATPases, which specifically hydrolyse ATP, by hydrolysing both ATP and ADP. The eukaryotic enzymes requires Ca2+, but Mg2+ can substitute. Most of the ecto-ATPases that occur on the cell surface and hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides belong to this enzyme family ...
Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δ13C) in Organs of Weaned Piglets - Liver;Pancreas;Pigs;Stable Isotopes;
Nucleotide degradation is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide synthesis and salvage
Nucleotides, in addition to performing a number of independent function in cells, are the basic units of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). They include a sugar, one to three phosphate groups, and a base. The nucleoside structure is simply a nucleotide stripped of its phosphate group(s).
A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides. Salvage pathways are used to recover bases and nucleosides that are formed during…
23DD Nucleotide Set K-1004 2,3-Dideoxynucleotide Kit (DNA chain terminators)Contains 1.0 umole each of 4 nucleotides: -N-4002 2,3-Dideoxyguanosine-5-Tri
Nucleotide, any member of a class of organic compounds in which the molecular structure comprises a nitrogen-containing unit (base) linked to a sugar and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are of great importance to living organisms, as they are the building blocks of nucleic acids, the substances
You searched for: Exhibit Tags discovery Remove constraint Exhibit Tags: discovery Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Genre Laboratory notes Remove constraint Genre: Laboratory notes Subject Nucleotides Remove constraint Subject: Nucleotides ...
You searched for: Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Genre Graphs Remove constraint Genre: Graphs Genre Laboratory notes Remove constraint Genre: Laboratory notes Subject Nucleotides Remove constraint Subject: Nucleotides ...
Start typing in the text box, then select your taxid. Use the plus button to add another organism or group, and the exclude checkbox to narrow the subset. The search will be restricted to the sequences in the database that correspond to your subset. ...
Start typing in the text box, then select your taxid. Use the plus button to add another organism or group, and the exclude checkbox to narrow the subset. The search will be restricted to the sequences in the database that correspond to your subset. ...
Welcome to Nucleotides for Health your place on the web for information on or about nucleotides, immunity, figestive health, endurance, research and development .....
Communicated by Olle E. Bjorkman, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA, December 9, 2003 (received for review June 12, 2003) ArticleFigures SIInfo however, where indicated, pea and Arabidopsis were used. Intact pea chloroplasts
1A4R: Nucleotide binding to the G12V-mutant of Cdc42 investigated by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy: two different nucleotide states in one crystal.
Tool: bedtools nuc (aka nucBed) Version: v2.16.2 Summary: Profiles the nucleotide content of intervals in a fasta file. Usage: bedtools nuc [OPTIONS] -fi ,fasta, -bed ,bed/gff/vcf, Options: -fi Input FASTA file -bed BED/GFF/VCF file of ranges to extract from -fi -s Profile the sequence according to strand. -seq Print the extracted sequence -pattern Report the number of times a user-defined sequence is observed (case-sensitive). -C Igore case when matching -pattern. By defaulty, case matters. Output format: The following information will be reported after each BED entry: 1) %AT content 2) %GC content 3) Number of As observed 4) Number of Cs observed 5) Number of Gs observed 6) Number of Ts observed 7) Number of Ns observed 8) Number of other bases observed 9) The length of the explored sequence/interval. 10) The seq. extracted from the FASTA file. (opt., if -seq is used) 11) The number of times a users pattern was observed. (opt., if -pattern is used ...
A building block of DNA or RNA- nucleotide is made up of the sugar, nitrogenous bases and phosphate while the nucleoside is made up of sugar and bases only.
Christie, S. M. H.; Kenner, G. W.; Todd, A. R. (1954). "Nucleotides. Part XXV. A synthesis of flavin?adenine dinucleotide". ... "Genetic Control of Biosynthesis and Transport of Riboflavin and Flavin Nucleotides and Construction of Robust Biotechnological ...
Nucleotides serve as the building blocks for nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. They are composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose ... Like nucleotides, biosynthesis of histidine is initiated by the conversion of R5P to PRPP. The step of histidine biosynthesis ... Nucleotides contain either a purine or a pyrimidine nitrogenous base. All intermediates in purine biosynthesis are constructed ... "Nucleotides". IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2009. doi:10.1351/ ...
The RNA segment contains 4 contiguous purine nucleotides. The probes should be less than 30 nucleotides in length and designed ... Nucleotides. 18 (6-7): 1297-9. doi:10.1080/07328319908044696. PMID 10474219. Tang T, Badal MY, Ocvirk G, Lee WE, Bader DE, ...
Nucleotides. Part XLI. Mixed anhydrides as intermediates in the synthesis of dinucleoside phosphates". J. Chem. Soc.: 3291. doi ... Oligonucleotide synthesis is carried out by a stepwise addition of nucleotide residues to the 5'-terminus of the growing chain ... Ogilvie, K. K.; Usman, N.; Nicoghosian, K.; Cedergren, R. J. (1988). "Total chemical synthesis of a 77-nucleotide-long RNA ... Michelson, A. M.; Todd, A. R. (1955). "Nucleotides part XXXII. Synthesis of a dithymidine dinucleotide containing a 3′: 5′- ...
RO)2P-N(R1)2 + R2-N3 + H2O ---- (RO)2P(=O)-N(R1)2 + R2-NH2 + N2; The naturally occurring nucleotides (nucleoside-3'- or 5'- ... McBride, L. J.; Kierzek, R.; Beaucage, S. L.; Caruthers, M. H. (1986). "Nucleotide chemistry. 16. Amidine protecting groups for ... Reese C. B. (2002). "The chemical synthesis of oligo- and poly-nucleotides: a personal commentary". Tetrahedron. 58 (44): 8893- ... Nucleotides. 10 (1-3): 319-322. doi:10.1080/07328319108046469. Guzaev, A. P. (2011). "Reactivity of 3H-1,2,4-dithiazole-3- ...
2,225,959 nucleotides), S. solfataricus P2 (2,992,245 nucleotides), and S. tokodaii str. 7 (2,694,756 nucleotides). The ...
Nucleosides and Nucleotides. 16 (1-2): 1-10. doi:10.1080/07328319708002516. Catechol Histidine utilizing Protein India portal ...
Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Taxonomy by nucleotides". Nature. 305 (5929): 17-18. doi:10.1038/305017a0. PMID 6888547. Loo, D. D.; ...
A Novel Pro-Drug of the TS Inhibitory Nucleotide FdUMP". Nucleosides and Nucleotides. 18 (6-7): 1729-1730. doi:10.1080/ ... Due to this, dTTP (the precursor nucleotide of DNA) will not be synthesized either, causing an alteration in the balance of ... This inhibition leads to an imbalance of the nucleotide grouping, stopping DNA synthesis. The prodrug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was ... nucleotides, so there will be variations in the mechanisms of synthesis and repair of DNA by the absence of thymine, causing ...
Each three-nucleotide codon is translated into one of twenty naturally occurring amino acids. There is at least one tRNA for ... The 3'-end of the tRNA is mutated from CCA to CGA, while two cytidine nucleotides in the ribosomes A- and P-sites are mutated ... However, by co-mutating the binding nucleotides in such a way, that they can still base pair, the translational fidelity can be ... The tRNA recognizes a specific three nucleotide codon in the mRNA with a complementary sequence called the anticodon on one of ...
Minakawa N, Takeda T, Sasaki T, Matsuda A, Ueda T (February 1991). "Nucleosides and nucleotides. 96. Synthesis and antitumor ...
Nucleosides and Nucleotides. 2: 1-20. doi:10.1080/07328318308078845. Bjork, Glenn; Rasmusen, Torgny (1998). Modification and ...
Nucleosides and Nucleotides. 14: 1901-1904. Barrios, A.M. and Lippard, S.J. (2000). "Interaction of Urea with a Hydroxide- ...
Jordheim LP, Durantel D, Zoulim F, Dumontet C (June 2013). "Advances in the development of nucleoside and nucleotide analogues ... February 2021). "Targeting CTP Synthetase 1 to Restore Interferon Induction and Impede Nucleotide Synthesis in SARS-CoV-2 ... including the nucleotide analogues cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and gemcitabine. Cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) is an inhibitor ... Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 850-857. doi:10.1080/15257770802146502. PMID 18600551. S2CID 33594588. Olsen JV, Blagoev B ...
... which includes two additional nonstandard nucleotides (Z and P) in addition to the four standard nucleotides (G, A, C, and T). ... According to the double-helix model, DNA is composed of two complementary strands of nucleotides coiled around each other. ... Howgego, Josh (25 February 2014). "On stranger nucleotides". Chemistry World. Retrieved 1 July 2016. "Firebird BioMolecular ... available in protein synthesis depends on the number of nucleotides available. The standard alphabet (G, A, C, and T) yields 43 ...
Montandon PE, Stutz E (September 1983). "Nucleotide sequence of a Euglena gracilis chloroplast genome region coding for the ... is 277 nucleotides." Their conserved sequences proximal to the splicing sites have similarities to those of group II introns, ... ranging from 95 to 110 nucleotides amongst those known to Christopher and Hallick, and identified in chloroplasts. On the other ...
To GenBank (2 nucleotides; 1 proteins) To USNM Invertebrate Zoology Mollusca Collection To World Register of Marine Species " ...
2006). "A Turkish case with molybdenum cofactor deficiency". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1087-91. doi: ...
The resulting nucleotides are similar enough to the nucleotides used in DNA or RNA synthesis to be incorporated into growing ... Nucleotides are commonly abbreviated with 3 letters (4 or 5 in case of deoxy- or dideoxy-nucleotides). The first letter ... Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002). Nucleotide Biosynthesis. "Nucleotide Metabolism: Nucleic Acid Synthesis". ... These enzymes covalently link the free -OH group on the 3' carbon of a growing chain of nucleotides to the α-phosphate on the 5 ...
Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 37 (6): 348-352. doi:10.1080/15257770.2018.1465185. ISSN 1525-7770. PMID 29750589. S2CID 21662596 ...
Kit S, Kit M, Qavi H, Trkula D, Otsuka H (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) thymidine ... McKnight SL (1980). "The nucleotide sequence and transcript map of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene". Nucleic ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1185-8. doi:10.1080/15257770600894436. PMID 17065087. S2CID 26971963. Kit S, ... "Activities of various enzymes of pyrimidine nucleotide and DNA syntheses in normal and neoplastic human tissues". Gan. 73 (2): ...
Alternative notations for nucleotide sequences have been attempted, however general uptake has been low. Several of these ... Their strategy was to encode nucleotides as circles on series of horizontal bars akin to notes on musical stave. As illustrated ... This universally accepted notation uses the Roman characters G, C, A, and T, to represent the four nucleotides commonly found ... AmbiScript was also designed to indicate ambiguous nucleotide positions via compound symbols. This strategy aimed to offer a ...
Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 769-78. doi:10.1080/15257770802145819. PMID 18600539. Gray JH, Owen RP, Giacomini KM ( ...
To GenBank (3 nucleotides; 2 proteins) To World Register of Marine Species v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
To GenBank (2 nucleotides; 1 proteins) To USNM Invertebrate Zoology Mollusca Collection To World Register of Marine Species " ...
W and S denote "weak" and "strong", respectively, and indicate a number of the hydrogen bonds that a nucleotide uses to pair ... An IUPAC code that specifically excludes one of the three nucleotides can be complementary to an IUPAC code that excludes the ... The degree of complementarity between two nucleic acid strands may vary, from complete complementarity (each nucleotide is ... Rozak DA (2006). "The practical and pedagogical advantages of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation". Nucleosides Nucleotides ...
Krecmerova M (2017). "Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Antivirals". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. ... Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 24 (5-7): 767-70. doi:10.1081/ncn-200060112. PMID 16248033. S2CID 23883085. Toniutto P, Fabris C, ...
Zhu XF (March 2000). "The latest progress in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic ...
2006). "A Turkish case with molybdenum cofactor deficiency". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1087-91. doi: ...
Sautin YY, Johnson RJ (June 2008). "Uric acid: the oxidant-antioxidant paradox". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 ( ...
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation in people. Learn more about SNPs and what ... For example, a SNP may replace the nucleotide cytosine (C) with the nucleotide thymine (T) in a certain stretch of DNA. ... They occur almost once in every 1,000 nucleotides on average, which means there are roughly 4 to 5 million SNPs in a persons ... Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs (pronounced "snips"), are the most common type of genetic variation ...
The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. ...
Nucleosides and nucleotides remain one of the most fruitful drug classes, providing about 50% of antiviral drugs and 20% of ... Nucleosides and Nucleotides: synthetic and biological chemistry 17 April 2015, London, United Kingdom ... Nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry constitute a vibrant field of research for both synthetic and biological chemists. This ... ProTides and phosphorodiamidates as nucleotide pro-drug forms: from the lab to clinical use ...
... Great simulation explaining how nucleotides are added in DNA replication, good ... You just viewed How Nucleotides are Added in DNA.... Please take a moment to rate this material. ... Goes step by step showing how nucleotides are added to both leading and lagging strands. ... Disciplines with similar materials as How Nucleotides are Added in DNA Replication ...
Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ADIPOQ, serum adiponectin and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk ...
We use cookies to offer you the best experience on our site. You can find out further details and change your personnal settings below ...
SFARI , Tag: single-nucleotide polymorphisms on SFARI
P W Lowry, C L Franklin, A L Weaver, M Gennett Pike, D C Mays, W J Tremaine, J J Lipsky, W J Sandborn ...
Nucleotide Exchange Intermediates in the eEF1A-eEF1Ba Complex ... Nucleotide Exchange Intermediates in the eEF1A-eEF1Ba Complex. ... Crystal structures of nucleotide exchange intermediates in the eEF1A-eEF1Balpha complex.. Andersen, G.R., Valente, L., Pedersen ... Structural basis for nucleotide exchange and competition with tRNA in the yeast elongation factor complex eEF1A:eEF1Balpha. ... The base, sugar and alpha-phosphate bind as in other known nucleotide G-protein complexes, whereas the beta- and gamma- ...
The IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology
Nucleotide excision repair - Streptomyces avermitilis [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Hide ... Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental ...
Silent Nucleotide Polymorphisms and a Phylogeny for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lucy Baker*, Tim Brown*, Martin Maiden†, and ... A) Maximum parsimony tree of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis based on 37 silent single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 225 isolates. ... Silent Nucleotide Polymorphisms and a Phylogeny for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...
2015)‎. Genetic diversity of wildtype measles viruses and the global measles nucleotide surveillance database (‎MeaNS)‎ = La ... Genetic diversity of wildtype measles viruses and the global measles nucleotide surveillance database (‎MeaNS)‎ = La diversité ... génétique des virus rougeoleux de type sauvage et la base de données MeaNS (‎Measles Nucleotide Surveillance)‎. ... diversité génétique des virus rougeoleux de type sauvage et la base de données MeaNS (‎Measles Nucleotide Surveillance)‎. ...
Taen frae "https://sco.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Nucleotides&oldid=494977" ...
Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. This study evaluated whether there are ... Turnover rates (de novo synthesis rate/adenine nucleotide pool size) were highest in high oxidative muscle (0.82-1.06%/h), ... Label incorporation into adenine nucleotides from the [1-14C]glycine precursor was determined and used to calculate synthesis ... that differences in adenine nucleotide management among fiber types extends to the process of de novo adenine nucleotide ...
H. A. Shihab, J. Gough, M. Mort, D. N. Cooper, I. N. Day, and T. R. Gaunt, "Ranking non-synonymous single nucleotide ... Prediction of Deleterious Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Human p53 Gene. Saruar Alam, Mohammad Sayem, Md. Kamrul Hasan, ... A. Chakravarti, "Single nucleotide polymorphisms: … to a future of genetic medicine," Nature, vol. 409, no. 6822, pp. 822-823, ... Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is the most prevalent form of genetic mutation occurs in human. About 93% of human genes ...
Nucleotides & Other ConjugatesHRP & Alkaline Phosphatase ConjugatesIn Vivo ImagingLuciferase Reporter Gene AssaysMagnesium, ...
... some nucleotide transport proteins are capable of exchanging nucleotides across the membrane (32). Alternatively, in non- ... Nucleotide sequence of 42 kbp of vaccinia virus strain WR from near the right inverted terminal repeat. J Gen Virol (1991) 72( ... Fine structure analysis and nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (1983) 80 ... Targeting Nucleotide Biosynthesis: A Strategy for Improving the Oncolytic Potential of DNA Viruses. Chad R. Irwin1,2, Mary M. ...
... bioinformatics library for nucleotide sequence manipulation and analysis. - ... nucleotides long.. var seq = (new Nt.Seq()).read(ATGCCCGACTGCA); var querySeq = (new Nt.Seq()).read(TGCTC); var map = new ... Performs exhaustive degenerate nucleotide matching at every combination of nucleotides and stores the results. Results are ... More specifically, its a library for dealing with all kinds of nucleotide sequences, including degenerate nucleotides. Its ...
Biotechnological Production of Amino Acids and Nucleotides. Author(s): Volker F Wendisch, Dorit Eberhardt, Marius Herbst and *, ... L-glutamic acid and its salts as well as 5-nucleotides are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or ... L-amino acids and nucleotides are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the ... Biotechnological Production of Amino Acids and Nucleotides, Biotechnological Production Of Natural Ingredients For Food ...
Since the initial discovery of bacterial nucleotide second messengers (NSMs), we have made huge progress towards understanding ... Since the initial discovery of bacterial nucleotide second messengers (NSMs), we have made huge progress towards understanding ...
DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the __________ of the leading strands and to the __________ of the lagging strands (Okazaki ... DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the __________ of the leading strands and to the __________ of the lagging strands (Okazaki ...
View mouse Hint1 Chr11:54757209-54761327 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
New methods for measuring CSA tensors : applications to nucleotides and nucleosides Author: Wu, Yanqi ISNI: 0000 0004 2709 457X ... This advantage has been proved by extracting the CSA tensors for a novel vinylphosphonate-linked nucleotide. The application of ... multi-nuclear solid-state NMR experiments are used to study some novel vinyl phosphonate-linked oligo-nucleotides. ...
AmpliconNoise - remove noise from high throughput nucleotide sequence data VERSION. This documentation refers to version 1.22 ...
We determined the prevalence of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in patients with ... Novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the calsequestrin-1 gene are associated with Graves’ ophthalmopathy and ... rs74123279 SNP is in promoter region of CASQ1 gene, and the change in nucleotide is from G , A; therefore, genotypes are wild ... rs74123279 SNP is in promoter region of CASQ1 gene, and the change in nucleotide is from G , A; therefore, genotypes are wild- ...
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • More specifically, it's a library for dealing with all kinds of nucleotide sequences, including degenerate nucleotides . (github.com)
  • Nt.MatchMap allows you to find all ungapped alignments between two degenerate nucleotide sequences, ordered by the number of matches . (github.com)
  • Rank--frequency distributions of nucleotide sequences in mitochondrial DNA are defined in a way analogous to the linguistic approach, with the highest-frequent nucleobase serving as a whitespace. (arxiv.org)
  • The approach based on the nonadditive generalization of the Bose-distribution is used to analyze the frequency spectra of the nucleotide sequences. (arxiv.org)
  • Displays both strands of base paired nucleotide sequences with annotated enzymes, plasmid features, ORFs (theoretical open reading frames) and primers. (addgene.org)
  • In some PCR reactions multiple sequences have identical nucleotide sequences, for example if five PCR products have identical sequences a 5 will be found in this column. (cdc.gov)
  • Partial nucleotide sequence of DMV and PMV morbillivirus P gene compared with published DMV and PMV sequences (12) . (cdc.gov)
  • What are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs (pronounced "snips"), are the most common type of genetic variation among people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They occur almost once in every 1,000 nucleotides on average, which means there are roughly 4 to 5 million SNPs in a person's genome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We determined the prevalence of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders, GO, Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH), or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and control subjects with no personal or family history of autoimmune thyroid disorders. (dovepress.com)
  • 1 ) discussed the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , strains H37Rv ( 2 ) and CDC1551 (unpublished). (cdc.gov)
  • Our estimate did not include SNPs located in putative regulatory regions of structural genes (intergenic regions), nor did it include nonsynonymous nucleotide changes in structural genes. (cdc.gov)
  • is based on a genomewide frequency of SNPs (1/3,000 nucleotide sites), 50% of which presumably are located in intergenic regions and 50% in structural genes. (cdc.gov)
  • however, results for associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of allergy-related genes and glioma risk have been inconsistent and restricted to a small number of SNPs. (harvard.edu)
  • We investigated the associations between FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) and functional seizures (FS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Tocriscreen TM Cyclic Nucleotide Tools (Cat. (tocris.com)
  • A collection of 22 high purity compounds with defined biological actions in the field of cyclic nucleotide research. (tocris.com)
  • Currently there are no citations for Tocriscreen TM Cyclic Nucleotide Tools. (tocris.com)
  • Be the first to review Tocriscreen TM Cyclic Nucleotide Tools and earn rewards! (tocris.com)
  • Have you used Tocriscreen TM Cyclic Nucleotide Tools? (tocris.com)
  • Adv. cyclic nucleotide protein phosphorylation Res. (bvs.br)
  • Whole genome sequencing data and RNA-seq data from this study have been submitted to the European Nucleotide Archive under accessions PRJEB14604 and PRJEB14606. (plos.org)
  • Nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry constitute a vibrant field of research for both synthetic and biological chemists. (rsc.org)
  • Enables the transfer of a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate, from one side of a membrane to the other. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Three additional adenine nucleotide metabolizing enzymes, including mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1 and CKMT2) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase isoform D (NDPK-D), have been found in IMS. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • The structure of the yeast GDP-mannose transporter, Vrg4, revealed a requirement for short chain lipids and a marked difference in transport rate between the nucleotide sugar and nucleoside monophosphate, suggesting a complex network of regulatory elements control transport into these organelles. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Sugar nucleotides of triticale grains. (who.int)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Occurrence & nucleotide sequence analysis of hepatitis G virus in patients with acute viral hepatitis & fulminant hepatitis. (who.int)
  • Nucleosides and nucleotides remain one of the most fruitful drug classes, providing about 50% of antiviral drugs and 20% of cancer drugs used in the UK. (rsc.org)
  • Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. (genome.jp)
  • This service specification outlines the provision of a single, nationally integrated, multidisciplinary clinical and molecular diagnostic service to co-ordinate the care and management of patients with DNA nucleotide excision repair disorders. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study evaluated whether there are corresponding differences in the rates of de novo synthesis of adenine nucleotide among fiber type sections of skeletal muscle using an isolated perfused rat hindquarter preparation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is indicated that high-intensity intermittent exercise causes a decrease in resting levels of skeletal muscle adenine nucleotide without a concomitant indication of muscle damage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Weight loss observed in animals upon progression of the fast-growing CT26 tumors was slowed markedly in adenine nucleotide-treated mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Adenine nucleotide dynamics in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) play a key role in oxidative phosphorylation. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is the most prevalent form of genetic mutation occurs in human. (biorxiv.org)
  • Over the past two years, a new method for the detection of de novo germline mutations in the children of nuclear workers was developed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array technologies. (cdc.gov)
  • 15. McCarthy JJ, Hilfiker R. The use of single-nucleotide polymorphism maps in pharmacogenomics. (bvsalud.org)
  • Base editing by nucleotide deaminases linked to programmable DNA-binding proteins represents a promising approach to permanently remedy blood disorders, although its application in engrafting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unexplored. (nature.com)
  • Identify the key features of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, nucleotides and lipids and use these features in frame of a biochemical experimental design and method in a laboratory context, with some guidance. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Activation of Rho proteins through release of bound GDP and subsequent binding of GTP, is catalysed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in the Dbl family. (embl.de)
  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Dbl targets Rho family proteins thereby stimulating their GDP/GTP exchange, and thus is believed to be involved in receptor-mediated regulation of the proteins. (embl.de)
  • This finding was unexpected given the relatively large population size of M. tuberculosis and paleopathologic evidence suggesting its presence in humans as early as 3700 B.C. Subsequent sequence analysis of two megabases in 26 structural genes or loci in strains recovered globally confirmed the striking reduction of silent (synonymous) nucleotide substitutions compared with other human bacterial pathogens ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A large study (approximately 2 Mb of comparative sequence data) of 12 genes potentially involved in ethambutol resistance ( 5 ) and 24 genes encoding protein targets of the host immune system ( 6 ) provided data consistent with the original estimate of 1 synonymous nucleotide change per 10,000 synonymous sites in structural genes in this pathogen. (cdc.gov)
  • At this point, data ( 3 - 6 ) are consistent with our original estimate of 1 synonymous nucleotide change per 10,000 synonymous sites in structural genes in natural populations of this pathogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the sugar residues are derived from nucleotide sugars and the genes for their biosynthesis seem to be well conserved among Gram-negative bacterial species. (kegg.jp)
  • The O-antigen nucleotide sugar biosynthesis genes often form gene clusters with glycosyltransferase genes and other processing genes such as for translocation and polymerization. (kegg.jp)
  • The nucleotide composition of genomes varies dramatically between and among taxa. (springer.com)
  • The structural chromosome alterations may arise at the chromosome level (e.g., translocations and gains or losses of large portions of chromosomes) or at the nucleotide level, which influence gene structure or expression such as mutations, insertions, deletions, gene amplifications, and gene silencing by epigenetic effects ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • L-amino acids and nucleotides find various applications in food biotechnology. (benthamscience.com)
  • L-amino acids and nucleotides are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. (benthamscience.com)
  • Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids and of nucleotides have been developed. (benthamscience.com)
  • Biotechnological Production of Amino Acids and Nucleotides, Biotechnological Production Of Natural Ingredients For Food Industry First Edition (2016) 1: 60. (benthamscience.com)
  • Synonymous mutation is the single nucleotide change that does not cause an amino acid change but can affect the rate and efficiency of translation. (hindawi.com)
  • The base, sugar and alpha-phosphate bind as in other known nucleotide G-protein complexes, whereas the beta- and gamma-phosphates are disordered. (rcsb.org)
  • A) Maximum parsimony tree of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis based on 37 silent single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 225 isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • As expected, these numbers differ from our estimate (1/10,000), in part because they contain both synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide polymorphisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Potential role of FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms in functional seizures. (bvsalud.org)
  • Each SNP represents a difference in a single DNA building block , called a nucleotide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It can run at a rate of up to approximately 500,000,000 nucleotide comparisons per second single-threaded on a 2.4GHz processor. (github.com)
  • Here we defined synonymous and missense variation as single nucleotide substitution variation. (hindawi.com)
  • And then we evaluated the intolerance of genic transcripts to single nucleotide substitution variation based on gnomAD 123136 individuals. (hindawi.com)
  • We constructed a total of 24799 nonoverlapped region-based intolerance score by their intolerance to single nucleotide substitution variation (Syntool). (hindawi.com)
  • We will focus on single nucleotide mutations. (unil.ch)
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Association of hepatitis G virus (HGV) with acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatitis (FH) is not clearly understood.This study was designed to asses the occurrence of HGV infection and its relationship with other hepatotropic viruses in patients with FH and AVH and also to determine the nucleotide sequence of HGV isolates. (who.int)
  • In the elongation cycle of protein biosynthesis, the nucleotide exchange factor eEF1Balpha catalyzes the exchange of GDP bound to the G-protein, eEF1A, for GTP. (rcsb.org)
  • Synonymous nucleotide changes (neutral mutations) are commonly used to estimate many values of interest to evolutionary biologists and population geneticists. (cdc.gov)
  • 2002) Methanocarba modification of uracil and adenine nucleotides: High potency of northern ring conformation at P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y11 but not P2Y6 receptors. (jenabioscience.com)
  • 1995) Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of human uridine nucleotide receptors. (jenabioscience.com)
  • Nucleotide sugars are the activated form of monosaccharides used by glycosyltransferases during glycosylation. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Displays a graphical map based on nucleotide sequence data labeled with restriction enzymes, plasmid features, ORFs (theoretical open reading frames) and primers. (addgene.org)
  • List of restriction enzymes that can cut a given nucleotide sequence. (addgene.org)
  • Even so, in a population of 10,000 individuals, every possible nucleotide substitution will have been 'tried out' on about 50 occasions in the course of a million years, which is a short span of time in relation to the evolution of species. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Nucleotides of the brain : metabolism and evaluation in oxygen deprivation] / E. M. Khvatova, A. N. Sirdokina, G. V. Mironova. (who.int)
  • Measurement of adenosine nucleotides, therefore, represents an important and insightful diagnostic. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Intense exercise induced the synthesis of purine nucleotide in the liver via a de novo pathway and these synthesized nucleotides were also degraded to nucleosides and excreted into urine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One pathway exploited in the development of oncolytic DNA viruses is that controlling the level of nucleotides available for DNA replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Describe the main aspects of the structures and functions of carbohydrates, nucleotides and lipids. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Great simulation explaining how nucleotides are added in DNA replication, good voice tutorial, online, easy to display with a pro-board or a projector. (merlot.org)
  • Subsequent refining of the organism, including switching to a new nucleotide transporter that would enable more stable DNA replication, a re-design of the Y base, and better delivery through the use of CRISPR-Cas9 , allowed it to remain stable even through division. (zmescience.com)
  • WRAP-structural-basis-substrate-specificity-nucleotide-sugar-lipid-Parker-2019.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the __________ of the leading strands and to the __________ of the lagging strands (Okazaki fragments). (pearson.com)
  • The DNA polymerase then extends the primer using the provided nucleotides. (jrank.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis, which control investigation. (cdc.gov)
  • Kumar D, Gupta RK, Anand R, Pasha ST, Rai A, Das BC, Kar P. Occurrence & nucleotide sequence analysis of hepatitis G virus in patients with acute viral hepatitis & fulminant hepatitis. (who.int)
  • 2011) Extracellular nucleotide derivatives protect cardiomyocytes against hypoxic stress. (jenabioscience.com)
  • While this rate is higher than that suggested ( 3 ), it still represents a lower nucleotide diversity than found in limited comparisons from other pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Nucleotide second messengers in bacterial decision making. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Since the initial discovery of bacterial nucleotide second messengers (NSMs), we have made huge progress towards understanding these complex signalling networks. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Goes step by step showing how nucleotides are added to both leading and lagging strands. (merlot.org)
  • 2011) Nucleotides affect neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation of mouse fetal midbrain-derived neural precursor cells. (jenabioscience.com)
  • They report that life understands the synthetic nucleotides embedded in DNA. (zmescience.com)
  • Scientists demonstrated this new transcription process in the E. coli strain, successfully transcribing its artificial X and Y nucleotides into biochemical compounds with the same efficiency it would for natural A, C, G, or T bases. (zmescience.com)
  • Daily intraperitoneal injections of adenine nucleotides in large volumes of saline, starting after the tumors became palpable, resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and a few "cures. (harvard.edu)
  • Minor changes, specifically around the nucleotide binding site, in eEF1A and eEF1Balpha are consistent with in vivo data. (rcsb.org)
  • keithwhor/NtSeq: JavaScript (node + browser) bioinformatics library for nucleotide sequence manipulation and analysis. (github.com)

No images available that match "nucleotides"