Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.3 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 1.2.1.2.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Reductases that catalyze the reaction of peptide-L-methionine -S-oxide + thioredoxin to produce peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 6,7-dihydropteridine to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine in the presence of NADP+. Defects in the enzyme are a cause of PHENYLKETONURIA II. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.99.7.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A subtype of thioredoxin reductase found primarily in the CYTOSOL.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Cytochromes of the b group that are found bound to cytoplasmic side of ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. They serve as electron carrier proteins for a variety of membrane-bound OXYGENASES. They are reduced by the enzyme CYTOCHROME-B(5) REDUCTASE.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.
Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A triazine herbicide.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
... mammalian NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, eukaryotic NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, nitrate reductase from plants, nitric-oxide ... A family of flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (35): 23542-7. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258( ... nitrate reductase and its relationship to the sequences of other flavoprotein oxidoreductases. ... Chloroplast ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (EC 1.18.1.2) may play a key role in regulating the relative amounts of cyclic and non- ...
NADPH-nitrate reductase, assimilatory NADPH-nitrate reductase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase, NADPH:nitrate ... H+ Nitrate reductase is an iron-sulfur molybdenum flavoprotein. Nason A (1963). "Nitrate reductases". In Boyer PD, Lardy H, ... Nitrate reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.7.1.3, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ... Nicholas DJ, Nason A (March 1954). "Molybdenum and nitrate reductase. II. Molybdenum as a constituent of nitrate reductase". ...
Nicholas DJ, Nason A (May 1955). "Diphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli". Journal of ... Nason A (1963). "Nitrate reductases". In Boyer PD, Lardy H, Myrbäck K (eds.). The Enzymes. 7 (2nd ed.). New York: Academic ... Nitrate reductase (NADH) (EC 1.7.1.1, assimilatory nitrate reductase, NADH-nitrate reductase, NADH-dependent nitrate reductase ... nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase (NADH2), NADH2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name nitrite:NAD+ ...
H+ Nitrate reductase is an iron-sulfur molybdenum flavoprotein. Nason, A.; Lardy, H.; Myrbäck, K. (1963). "Nitrate reductases ... Paneque A, Del Campo FF, Ramírez JM, Losada M (September 1965). "Flavin nucleotide nitrate reductase from spinach". Biochimica ... assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H bispecific nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase ... nitrate reductase NAD(P)H, NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H2], NAD(P)H2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an ...
... nitrate reductase and its relationship to the sequences of other flavoprotein oxidoreductases. A family of flavoprotein ... nitrate reductases, cytochrome b5 reductases, cytochrome P450 reductases, sulphite reductases, nitric oxide synthases, ... Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases catalyse the interchange of reducing equivalents between one-electron ... comparison of phthalate dioxygenase reductase with ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin". Protein Sci. 2 (12): 2112-2133. doi: ...
As shown above, E. coli can grow with reducing agents such as formate, hydrogen, or lactate as electron donors, and nitrate, ... Both the α and β subunits bind nucleotides, but only the β subunits catalyze the ATP synthesis reaction. Reaching along the ... In some eukaryotes, such as the parasitic worm Ascaris suum, an enzyme similar to complex II, fumarate reductase (menaquinol: ... This flexibility is possible because different oxidases and reductases use the same ubiquinone pool. This allows many ...
Nitrate reductase Nitrate / Nitrite +0.42 Nitrite reductase Nitrite / Ammonia +0.36 Dimethyl sulfoxide reductase DMSO / DMS + ... Alternative reductases and oxidasesEdit. Many eukaryotic organisms have electron transport chains that differ from the much- ... Both the α and β subunits bind nucleotides, but only the β subunits catalyze the ATP synthesis reaction. Reaching along the ... Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase is also known as cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome bc1 complex, or simply complex III.[34][35] ...
... nitrate reductases MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.124 - nitrate reductase MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.200 - nitrate reductase (nadh) ... cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.160 - 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases MeSH D08.811. ... nitrate reductase (nad(p)h) MeSH D08.811.682.655.500.374 - nitrate reductase (nadph) MeSH D08.811.682.655.750 - nitrite ... testosterone 5-alpha-Reductase MeSH D08.811.682.662.162 - dihydropteridine reductase MeSH D08.811.682.662.171 - FMN reductase ...
One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide. NAD exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form ... However, there are a few exceptions to this general rule, and enzymes such as aldose reductase, glucose-6-phosphate ... For example, nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrobacter oxidize nitrite to nitrate, which releases sufficient energy to pump ... these enzymes are also referred to as dehydrogenases or reductases, with NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase commonly being called ...
Nitrate reductase. Nitrogenase Nickel. Urease Zinc. Alcohol dehydrogenase. Carbonic anhydrase. DNA polymerase ... Nucleotide sugars [54]. Monosaccharides. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate [55]. Sulfate ... This reduced cofactor is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that require electrons to reduce their ... Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD+. ...
"Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases". Chem. Soc. Rev. 43 (2): 676-706. doi:10.1039/c3cs60249d. ISSN 1460-4744. PMC ... nitrate reductase). There are a few notable and well-known exceptions that include most Prochlorococcus and some Synechococcus ... While many animals, fungi, and other heterotrophic organisms obtain nitrogen by ingestion of amino acids, nucleotides, and ... Plants can absorb nitrate or ammonium from the soil by their root hairs. If nitrate is absorbed, it is first reduced to nitrite ...
Nitrate reductases enzymes are important for the nitrogen cycle. They belong to a class of enzymes with a mononuclear Mo center ... Iron can be taken up selectively as ferredoxins, Fe-O-Fe (hemerythrin and ribonucleotide reductase), Fe (many oxidases), apart ... CO and HCN were precursor molecules of the essential biomolecules, proteins, lipids, nucleotides and sugars. However, ... for instance in certain class I ribonucleotide reductases) and in the oxidation of water by photosystem II (PSII), where the ...
Med te uvrščamo nitrate, sulfate in ogljikov dioksid. Ti procesi vodijo do ekološko pomembnih procesov denitrifikacije, ... a b Stubbe J (5 April 1990). "Ribonucleotide reductases: amazing and confusing". J Biol Chem 265 (10): 5329-32. PMID 2180924. ... Beis I., and Newsholme E. A. (October 1, 1975). "The contents of adenine nucleotides, phosphagens and some glycolytic ... Chimploy K, Tassotto M, Mathews C (2000). "Ribonucleotide reductase, a possible agent in deoxyribonucleotide pool asymmetries ...
1989) Nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli: completion of the nucleotide sequence of the nar operon and reassessment of the ... Activities of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide reductases were measured in intact cells grown anaerobically on nitrite. There ... Reduced levels of nitrate reductase expression were confirmed by measuring nitrate and chlorate reductase activity in cell ... The expression ofnarGHJI, encoding the membrane-bound nitrate reductase, as judged by nitrate reductase activity at the enzyme ...
Assimilatory Nitrate Reductase, NADPH Dependent. *Triphosphopyridine Nucleotide-Nitrate Reductase. *Nucleotide-Nitrate ... Nitrate Reductases [D08.811.682.655.500]. *Nitrate Reductase (NADPH) [D08.811.682.655.500.374]. *Amino Acids, Peptides, and ... "Nitrate Reductase (NADPH)" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Nitrate Reductase (NADPH)" was a major ... "Nitrate Reductase (NADPH)" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
NADPH-nitrate reductase, assimilatory NADPH-nitrate reductase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase, NADPH:nitrate ... H+ Nitrate reductase is an iron-sulfur molybdenum flavoprotein. Nason A (1963). "Nitrate reductases". In Boyer PD, Lardy H, ... Nitrate reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.7.1.3, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ... Nicholas DJ, Nason A (March 1954). "Molybdenum and nitrate reductase. II. Molybdenum as a constituent of nitrate reductase". ...
H+ Nitrate reductase is an iron-sulfur molybdenum flavoprotein. Nason, A.; Lardy, H.; Myrbäck, K. (1963). "Nitrate reductases ... Paneque A, Del Campo FF, Ramírez JM, Losada M (September 1965). "Flavin nucleotide nitrate reductase from spinach". Biochimica ... assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H bispecific nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase ... nitrate reductase NAD(P)H, NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H2], NAD(P)H2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an ...
Nucleotide sequence of the narB gene encoding assimilatory nitrate reductase from the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria chalybea. ... Bacterial nitrate reductases are also different from eukaryotic nitrate reductase. The three bacterial nitrate reductases, all ... Formation of active heterologous nitrate reductase between nitrate reductases A and Z of Escherichia coli.Mol. Microbiol.61992 ... Nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli: sequence of the second nitrate reductase and comparison with that encoded by the narGHJI ...
nitrate; N. O. 2. −. ; nitrite; NiR; nitrite reductase; NR, nitrate reductase; NT, nucleotides. ... molecular properties and functional distinction among bacterial nitrate reductases. J. Bacteriol. 181, 6573-6584. ... Dortch, Q., and Maske, H. (1982). Dark uptake of nitrate and nitrate reductase activity of a red-tide population off peru. Mar ... Light-dark changes in cytosolic nitrate pools depend on nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis leaf cells. Plant Physiol. ...
Functional domains of assimilatory nitrate reductases and nitrite reductases.. Campbell WH, Kinghorn KR.. Trends Biochem. Sci. ... A family of flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases.. Hyde GE, Crawford NM, Campbell WH.. J. Biol. Chem. 266 ... Structural studies on corn nitrate reductase: refined structure of the cytochrome b reductase fragment at 2.5 A, its ADP ... Crystal structure of the FAD-containing fragment of corn nitrate reductase at 2.5 A resolution: relationship to other ...
... triphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase; NADPH:nitrate reductase; nitrate reductase (NADPH2); NADPH2:nitrate ... Nitrate reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 49 (1961) 335-349.. 2. Nason, A. Nitrate reductases. In: ... NADH-nitrate reductase; NADH-dependent nitrate reductase; assimilatory NADH: nitrate reductase; nitrate reductase (NADH2); NADH ... assimilatory nitrate reductase; assimilatory NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase; NAD(P)H bispecific nitrate reductase; nitrate reductase ...
Cloning of DNA fragments complementary to tobacco nitrate reductase mRNA and encoding epitopes common to the nitrate reductases ... Complete nucleotide sequence of the two homeologous tobacco nitrate reductase genes.. Vaucheret H, Kronenberger J, Rouzé P, ... Coaction of light, nitrate and a plastidic factor in controlling nitrite-reductase gene expression in tobacco. ... Molecular cloning and characterisation of the two homologous genes coding for nitrate reductase in tobacco. ...
... nitrate reductase (NR) bind to the enzyme at the regulatory phosphorylation site (Ser-543). First, a phosphorylated synthetic ... Nitrate Reductases / metabolism *. Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Modulation of nitrate reductase: some new insights, an unusual case and a potentially important side reaction. Kaiser WM, ... Phosphorylated nitrate reductase from spinach leaves is inhibited by 14-3-3 proteins and activated by fusicoccin. Moorhead G, ...
Overall, reduction of nitrate to nitrite, nitrogen fixation, higher tolerance to ammonium than nitrate and tolerance and ... were observed for production of nitrite and nitrous oxide from nitrate or ammonium, nitrogen fixation and tolerance to high ... except that nitrite from nitrate can be produced by both assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reductases [6, 28]. ... Smith MS: Nitrous oxide production by Escherichia coli is correlated with nitrate reductase activity. Appl Environ Microbiol. ...
  • Respiratory reduction of nitrate to nitrite is the first key step in the denitrification process that leads to nitrate loss from soils. (asm.org)
  • NarR is shown to require nitrate and/or nitrite is order to activate gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Organisms such as Escherichia coli reduce nitrate to nitrite and subsequently ammonia, whereas the denitrifying bacteria reduce nitrate via nitrite to the gaseous products nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and finally dinitrogen gas. (asm.org)
  • The four reactions of denitrification are linked to the membrane-associated electron transport chain such that the transfer of electrons to the reductases for nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide is associated with the generation of proton motive force and hence the conservation of energy in the form of ATP. (asm.org)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. (harvard.edu)
  • Nitrogen is removed from the environment by both nitrification, the oxidative conversion of ammonia to nitrate, and denitrification, a respiratory process whereby nitrate is successively reduced to nitrite, N oxides (NO and N 2 O), and dinitrogen (N 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Four types of nitrate reductases catalyze the two-electron reduction of nitrate to nitrite: the eukaryotic assimilatory nitrate reductases and three distinct bacterial enzymes, comprising the cytoplasmic assimilatory (Nas), membrane-bound respiratory (Nar), and periplasmic dissimilatory (Nap) nitrate reductases. (asm.org)
  • Nitrite oxidase of nitrifying bacteria also shows nitrate reductase activity. (asm.org)
  • This membrane-bound enzyme, which contains MGD and shows a high sequence similarity to the membrane-bound Nar, catalyzes nitrite oxidation to nitrate to allow chemoautotrophic growth, but it can also catalyze the reverse reaction ( 89 ). (asm.org)
  • This enzyme catalises the following chemical reaction nitrite + NADP+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } nitrate + NADPH + H+ Nitrate reductase is an iron-sulfur molybdenum flavoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H) (EC 1.7.1.2, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H bispecific nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)), nitrate reductase NAD(P)H, NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H2], NAD(P)H2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name nitrite:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalises the following chemical reaction nitrite + NAD(P)+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } nitrate + NAD(P)H + H+ Nitrate reductase is an iron-sulfur molybdenum flavoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional domains of assimilatory nitrate reductases and nitrite reductases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction and ammonium assimilation in barley roots in response to anoxia. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. (bireme.br)
  • This session will address clinical studies of nitric oxide and nitrate/nitrite actions, with focus placed on nitrogen oxide effects on subcellular organelle function, blood pressure regulation and organ responses during metabolic and inflammatory stress. (no2018.org.uk)
  • Nitrate reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.7.1.3, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-nitrate reductase, NADPH-nitrate reductase, assimilatory NADPH-nitrate reductase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase, NADPH:nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase (NADPH2), NADPH2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name nitrite:NADP+ oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase from pig liver at 2.4 A resolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structural comparison of bovine erythrocyte, brain, and liver NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase by HPLC mapping. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Identification of the NH2-terminal blocking group of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase as myristic acid and the complete amino acid sequence of the membrane-binding domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The sequence of squash NADH:nitrate reductase and its relationship to the sequences of other flavoprotein oxidoreductases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structural analysis of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase in relation to hereditary methemoglobinemia. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of human erythrocyte NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The structure and biochemistry of NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase are now consistent. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Three lines of evidence indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins that inactivate the phosphorylated form of spinach leaf NADH:nitrate reductase (NR) bind to the enzyme at the regulatory phosphorylation site (Ser-543). (nih.gov)
  • Nitrate Reductase (NADPH)" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nitrate Reductase (NADPH)" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Nitrate Reductase (NADPH)" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nitrate Reductase (NADPH)" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Nitrate reductase in Escherichia coli K-12: involvement of chlC , chlE , and chlG loci. (asmscience.org)
  • This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.3 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H). (harvard.edu)
  • Well-characterized examples from this superfamily include enzyme subfamilies such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase, formate dehydrogenase (Fdh), and nitrate reductase (Nar). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Nitrate reductase enzyme complex allows bacteria to use nitrate as an electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. (jcvi.org)
  • Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by soybean and winged bean during the in vivo nitrate reductase assay. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Antibodies to assess phosphorylation of spinach leaf nitrate reductase on serine 543 and its binding to 14-3-3 proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylated nitrate reductase from spinach leaves is inhibited by 14-3-3 proteins and activated by fusicoccin. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of Ser-543 as the major regulatory phosphorylation site in spinach leaf nitrate reductase. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of the S127P mutant of cytochrome b5 reductase that causes methemoglobinemia shows the AMP moiety of the flavin occupying the substrate binding site. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • YeAs showed no detectable respiratory arsenate reductase but did display significant detoxification arsenate reductase activity. (asm.org)
  • Pfam models PF00384 (Molybdopterin oxidoreductase) and PF01568(Molydopterin dinucleotide binding domain) will also match the nitrate reductase, alpha subunit. (jcvi.org)
  • Crystal structure of the FAD-containing fragment of corn nitrate reductase at 2.5 A resolution: relationship to other flavoprotein reductases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A family of flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 4. Spencer, D. A reduced diphosphopyridine-specific nitrate reductase from germinating wheat. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • All eukaryotic and bacterial nitrate reductases contain a molybdenum cofactor at their active sites. (asm.org)
  • 1980. Characterization of the molybdenum cofactor of sulfite oxidase, xanthine, oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (asmscience.org)
  • This model is specific for the alpha subunit for nitrate reductase I (narG) and nitrate reductase II (narZ) for gram positive and gram negative bacteria.A few thermophiles and archaea also match the model The seed members used to make the model include Nitrate reductases from Pseudomonas fluorescens (GP:11344601), E.coli (SP:P09152) and B.subtilis (SP:P42175). (jcvi.org)
  • Many bacteria use nitrate as an electron acceptor in the absence of oxygen ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Bacteria therefore tend to respire oxygen in preference to nitrate, and this process is regulated at the level of transcription such that anaerobic metabolic apparatus is down-regulated in the presence of oxygen. (asm.org)
  • Assimilatory nitrate reduction, performed by bacteria, fungi, algae, and higher plants, is one of the most fundamental biological processes, accounting for more than 10 4 megatons of inorganic nitrogen transformed each year ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Consumption of drinking water with high nitrate levels has been associated with methemoglobinemia and gastric cancer due to endogenous formation of genotoxic N -nitroso compounds by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract ( 93 ). (asm.org)
  • Nitrate reduction can be performed with three different purposes: the utilization of nitrate as a nitrogen source for growth (nitrate assimilation), the generation of metabolic energy by using nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor (nitrate respiration), and the dissipation of excess reducing power for redox balancing (nitrate dissimilation). (asm.org)
  • By contrast, the cofactor found in bacterial nitrate reductases and some molybdoenzymes is the bis -molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (MGD) form ( 7 , 24 , 69 , 100 ). (asm.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence data are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession numbers EU595730 for mecA gene and EU595731 for mecB gene. (springer.com)
  • nucleotide sequence comparison of al-3 genomic and cdna clones revealed that the al-3 gene is not interrupted by introns. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • nucleotide sequencing revealed an open reading frame capable to code for 144 amino acids including an amino-terminal pre-sequence of 63 amino acid residues for mitochondrial import of the pre-proteolipid. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Cove DJ (1966) The induction and repression of nitrate reductase in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans . (springer.com)
  • Briefly, inorganic nitrogen is converted to a biologically useful form by dinitrogen fixation or nitrate assimilation and the further incorporation of ammonia into C skeletons. (asm.org)
  • Mutational analysis reveals that NarR is required for maximal expression of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase genes and narK but has no other regulatory function related to denitrification. (asm.org)
  • This study revealed that NarJ members possessed unique motifs that distinguished Gram-negative from Gram-positive/Archaeal species and identified a strict genetic association with its nitrate reductase complex ( narGHI ) operon compared to all other members. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DmsD also showed close associations with the dimethylsulfoxide reductase ( dmsABC ) operon compared to TorD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytochrome c1, a subunit of the mitochondrial ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase, is synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as a precursor protein of 37 kda. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Although respiration can continue under anaerobic conditions at the expense of nitrate, the P/2e − ratio during denitrification is lower than during oxygen respiration. (asm.org)
  • Nitrate reduction plays a key role in the nitrogen cycle and has important agricultural, environmental, and public health implications. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, nitrate reduction has become an important focus for research in the last several years, generating a vast literature. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this minireview is to summarize recent advances in the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of prokaryotic nitrate reduction, emphasizing the different molecular characteristics of the bacterial nitrate reductases. (asm.org)
  • Studies of bacterial mutants that have lost catalytic activities associated with nitrate reductase A. II. (asmscience.org)
  • Study of bacterial mutants that have lost catalytic activity associated with nitrate reductase A. I. Description of isolation methods. (asmscience.org)
  • Modulation of nitrate reductase: some new insights, an unusual case and a potentially important side reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Some unpublished nitrate reductases, that are shorter sequences, and probably fragments fall in between the noise and trusted cutoffs. (jcvi.org)
  • Nitrate reductase structure, function and regulation: bridging the gap between biochemistry and physiology. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Structural studies on corn nitrate reductase: refined structure of the cytochrome b reductase fragment at 2.5 A, its ADP complex and an active-site mutant and modeling of the cytochrome b domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Expression of this cluster is maximal under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. (asm.org)
  • Structure-function relations for ferredoxin reductase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • However, there is worldwide concern over the excessive use of fertilizers in agricultural activities, leading to nitrate accumulation in groundwater. (asm.org)