Nucleolus Organizer Region
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.)
Human Genome Project
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
RNA Polymerase I
Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Ectopic NORs on human chromosomes 4qter and 8q11: rare chromosomal variants detected in two families. (1/367)Two different NOR bearing non-acrocentric chromosomes were detected during prenatal diagnosis performed on two probands because of advanced maternal age. In the first case, a chromosome 4 carried a NOR in the telomeric region of the long arm (4qs), while in the second case a NOR was inserted into chromosome 8q11. Family analysis showed the variant chromosomes to be transmitted through at least three generations in each family. There were no reports of reproductive problems or phenotypic effects in the carriers of these chromosomes, indicating the benign character of the aberrant chromosomes. In order to characterise the chromosomal variants more precisely, various differential banding techniques were applied. (+info)
Cell cycle-dependent regulation of RNA polymerase I transcription: the nucleolar transcription factor UBF is inactive in mitosis and early G1. (2/367)Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes by RNA polymerase (pol) I oscillates during the cell cycle, being maximal in S and G2 phase, repressed during mitosis, and gradually recovering during G1 progression. We have shown that transcription initiation factor (TIF)-IB/SL1 is inactivated during mitosis by cdc2/cyclin B-directed phosphorylation of TAFI110. In this study, we have monitored reactivation of transcription after exit from mitosis. We demonstrate that the pol I factor UBF is also inactivated by phosphorylation but recovers with different kinetics than TIF-IB/SL1. Whereas TIF-IB/SL1 activity is rapidly regained on entry into G1, UBF is reactivated later in G1, concomitant with the onset of pol I transcription. Repression of pol I transcription in mitosis and early G1 can be reproduced with either extracts from cells synchronized in M or G1 phase or with purified TIF-IB/SL1 and UBF isolated in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors. The results suggest that two basal transcription factors, e.g., TIF-IB/SL1 and UBF, are inactivated at mitosis and reactivated by dephosphorylation at the exit from mitosis and during G1 progression, respectively. (+info)
Colchicine therapy for hepatic murine schistosomal fibrosis: image analysis and serological study. (3/367)Colchicine in a dose of 200 micrograms kg body weight/day (5 days/week) was administered to groups of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice 12 weeks post infection, either alone or following previous praziquantel therapy at the 8th week of infection. Certain groups received colchicine for 6 weeks and others received it for 10 weeks. Colchicine alone did not significantly change the light microscopic appearance of schistosomal liver fibrosis, or hepatic collagen content estimated histomorphometrically, and did not reduce the elevated IL-2 serum level. Colchicine induced hepatic injury consisted of intense inflammatory reaction in granuloma and portal tracts, hepatocytic degeneration, and elevation of serum AST and ALT levels. Colchicine seemed to postpone granulomatous reaction healing and collagen deposition rather than inhibiting collagen formation or degrading it. Colchicine inhibited proliferation of hepatocytes of infected mice by expanding G2-M phases of cell cycle, thus reduced Ag NOR count and raised cell ploidy and cyclic AMP serum level. Subsidence of schistosomal infection by praziquantel prior to colchicine therapy greatly reduced inflammatory cellular reaction, significantly diminished hepatic collagen deposition and serum IL-2 level, minimized the elevated nuclear ploidy and cyclic AMP serum level that followed colchicine therapy when administered alone. (+info)
Research on nucleolar organizer regions of hippocampal neuron in Alzheimer's disease. (4/367)OBJECTIVE: To understand the cellular genetic expression of the cell's population by studying the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of hippocampal neuron of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: The postmortem human hippocampal tissues were divided into three groups, namely, the young, the elderly and the AD groups. Each group contained tissues from 10 patients. The study was conducted using image pattern analysis of the nucleoli-nucleoplasms ratio of the neurons of Nissl's stained pathological cerebral hippocampal tissues, the area of stain, and the integrating absorption of nucleoli of silver-stained NORs. RESULTS: The nucleoli-nucleoplasms ratio of the neurons of Nissl's stained cerebral hippocampal tissues, the area of stain, and the integrating absorption of the nucleoli of hippocampal neuron were decreased in the elderly and the AD groups as compared with the young group. However, the area of stain and the integrating absorption of the nucleoli of the hippocampal neurons were relatively increased in the AD group in comparison with the elderly group. CONCLUSION: Nissl's stain demonstrates the hypofunction of the hippocampal neurons in the elderly and the AD patients. The Silver stain of NORs shows the decline of rDNA transcription activity of the nucleoli of the hippocampal neurons in the elderly and the AD patients. However, the transcription activity of the nucleoli of the hippocampal neurons of AD patients was relatively improved, and the cellular genetic expression of the cell's population was relatively strengthened. These cellular morphological changes have probably reflected the cellular defensive system. (+info)
The mitotically phosphorylated form of the transcription termination factor TTF-1 is associated with the repressed rDNA transcription machinery. (5/367)The transcription termination factor TTF-1 exerts two functions in ribosomal gene (rDNA) transcription: facilitating initiation and mediating termination of transcription. Using HeLa cells, we show that TTF-1 protein is colocalized with the active transcription machinery in the nucleolus and also with the inactive machinery present in certain mitotic nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) when rDNA transcription is repressed. We also show that TTF-1 is specifically phosphorylated during mitosis in a manner dependent on the cdc2-cyclin B kinase pathway and on an okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase. Interestingly, the mitotically phosphorylated form of TTF-1 appearing at the G(2)/M transition phase was more easily solubilized than was the interphase form. This indicates that the chromatin-binding affinity of TTF-1 appears to be different in mitotic chromosomes compared to the interphase nucleolus. Correlated with this, the other DNA-binding factor, UBF, which interferes with chromatin conformation in the rDNA promoter, was more strongly bound to rDNA during mitosis than at interphase. The reorganization of the mitotic rDNA promoter might be induced by phosphorylation of certain components of the rDNA transcription machinery and participate in silencing of rDNA during mitosis. (+info)
Chromosomes as well as chromosomal subdomains constitute distinct units in interphase nuclei. (6/367)Fluorescence in situ hybridization has demonstrated that chromosomes form individual territories in interphase nuclei. However, this technique is not suitable to determine whether territories are mutually exclusive or interwoven. This notion, however, is essential for understanding functional organizations in the cell nucleus. Here, we analyze boundary areas of individual chromosomes during interphase using a sensitive method based on replication labeling and immunocytochemistry. Thymidine analogues IdUrd and CldUrd were incorporated during S-phase into DNA of Chinese Hamster fibroblasts. Cells labeled with IdUrd were fused with cells labeled with CldUrd. Fused nuclei contained both IdUrd or CldUrd labeled chromosomes. Alternatively, the two labels were incorporated sequentially during successive S-phases and segregated to separate chromosomes by culturing the cells one more cell cycle. Metaphase spreads showed IdUrd-, CldUrd- and unlabeled chromosomes. Some chromatids were divided sharply in differently labeled subdomains by sister chromatid exchanges. With both methods, confocal imaging of interphase nuclei revealed labeled chromosomal domains containing fiber-like structures and unlabeled areas. At various sites, fiber-like structures were embedded in other territories. Even so, essentially no overlap between chromosome territories or between subdomains within a chromosome was observed. These observations indicate that chromosome territories and chromosomal subdomains in G(1)-phase are mutually exclusive at the resolution of the light microscope. (+info)
Molecular dissection of nucleolin's role in growth and cell proliferation: new insights. (7/367)Cells require optimum protein synthetic activity in order to support cell proliferation, maintain homeostatic and metabolic integrity, and repair damage. Since growth depends on protein synthesis through ribosome biogenesis, the control of biosynthesis of ribosomes is necessarily a key element for control of growth. Nucleolin is a major nucleolar protein of exponentially growing eukaryotic cells, which is directly involved in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis and maturation. The highly conserved nucleolin contains three major domains through which it controls the organization of nucleolar chromatin, packaging of pre-RNA, rDNA transcription, and ribosome assembly. Numerous reports have implicated the involvement of nucleolin either directly or indirectly in the regulation of cell proliferation and growth, cytokinesis, replication, embryogenesis, and nucleogenesis. Nucleolin, an RNA binding protein, is also an autoantigen, a transcriptional repressor, and a switch region targeting factor. In addition, nucleolin exhibits autodegradation, DNA and RNA helicase activities, and DNA-dependent ATPase activity. An interesting aspect of nucleolin action is that it is a target for regulation by proteolysis, methylation, ADP-ribosylation, and phosphorylation by CKII, cdc2, PKC-xi, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and ecto-protein kinase. For these and other reasons, nucleolin is fundamental to the survival and proliferation of cells. Considerable progress has been made in recent years with the identification of new nucleolin binding proteins that may mediate these many nucleolin-dependent functions. Nucleolin also functions as a cell surface receptor, where it acts as a shuttling protein between cytoplasm and nucleus, and thus can even provide a mechanism for extracellular regulation of nuclear events. Exploration of the regulation of this multifaceted protein in a remarkable number of diverse functions is challenging. (+info)
Human Nopp140, which interacts with RNA polymerase I: implications for rRNA gene transcription and nucleolar structural organization. (8/367)Nopp140 is thought to shuttle between nucleolus and cytoplasm. However, the predominant nucleolar localization of Nopp140 homologues from different species suggests that Nopp140 is also involved in events occurring within the nucleolus. In this study, we demonstrated that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I, RPA194, was coimmunoprecipitated with the human Nopp140 (hNopp140). Such an interaction is mediated through amino acids 204 to 382 of hNopp140. By double immunofluorescence, hNopp140 was colocalized with RNA polymerase I at the rDNA (rRNA genes) transcription active foci in the nucleolus. These results suggest that Nopp140 can interact with RNA polymerase I in vivo. Transfected cells expressing the amino-terminal half of hNopp140, hNopp140N382 (amino acids 1 to 382), displayed altered nucleoli with crescent-shaped structures. This phenotype is reminiscent of the segregated nucleoli induced by actinomycin D treatment, which is known to inhibit rRNA synthesis. Consistently, the hNopp140N382 protein mislocalized the endogenous RNA polymerase I and shut off cellular rRNA gene transcription as revealed by an in situ run-on assay. These dominant negative effects of the mutant hNopp140N382 suggest that Nopp140 plays an essential role in rDNA transcription. Interestingly, ectopic expression of hNopp140 to a very high level caused the formation of a transcriptionally inactive spherical structure occupying the entire nucleolar area which trapped the RNA polymerase I, fibrillarin, and hNopp140 but excluded the nucleolin. The mislocalizations of these nucleolar proteins after hNopp140 overexpression imply that Nopp140 may also play roles in maintenance of nucleolar integrity. (+info)
Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in mucosal epithelium under experimental denture bases in rats<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in mucosal epithelium under experimental denture bases in rats. AU - Hara, Tetsuya. AU - Sato, Takashi. AU - Mori, Shingo. AU - Shiral, Hajime. AU - Maruo, Yukinori. AU - Minagi, Shogo. PY - 2000/1. Y1 - 2000/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) counts in mucosal epithelium induced by continuous or intermittent compressive pressure exerted through experimental denture bases and to examine the relationships between the AgNOR count, histopathological changes and the intensity of the pressure under denture bases. Continuous or intermittent compressive pressure exerted through the denture bases was applied to the hard palate of the molar region in rats. A morphometric analyses of AgNORs was performed in denture-supporting tissue 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks after the denture insertion. From the results of this study, it was found that non-pressure ...
Standardized AgNOR analysis as a prognostic parameter in endometrial carcinoma, endometrioid type<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Standardized AgNOR analysis as a prognostic parameter in endometrial carcinoma, endometrioid type. AU - Giuffrè, G.. AU - Fulcheri, E.. AU - Gualco, M.. AU - Fedele, F.. AU - Tuccari, G.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interobserver reproducibility of histologic grade in endometrial adenocarcinomas of endometrioid type (EC), to assess the relationships between nuclear grade and the amount of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) proteins and to determine the prognostic value of AgNOR proteins and the main clinicopathologic parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Architectural and nuclear grading were independently assessed by two pathologists in 64 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical samples of EC obtained from an equal number of patients (age range, 38-84 years; mean, 63.5). Interobserver agreement was determined using the κ statistic; discrepant cases were reviewed, and a consensus was reached. Standardized AgNOR analysis was performed according to the ...
DBLP: Til Aach
André A. Bell, Jens N. Kaftan, Til Aach, Dietrich Meyer-Ebrecht, Alfred Böcking: High Dynamic Range Images as a Basis for Detection of Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions Under Varying Stain Intensities. ICIP 2006: 2541- ...
Elimination of nucleolus organizers in a case of 13/14 Robertsonian translocation - Semantic Scholar
A Robertsonian translocation 45,XY, t(13q; 14q) was detected in the leukocyte cultures of a phenotypically normal male. Silver staining technique for nucleolus organizer regions revealed that both acrocentrics involved in the translocation had lost their nucleolus organizers.
Ag-staining of nucleolus organizer regions of chromosomes after A-,C-, G-, or R-banding procedures.
Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1 v/v), then dropped on cold, wet slides which were air-dried before storage at 4 degrees C. The slides were st
1997. Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Doctoral thesis. Orienting Professor: Dr. Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda. Cytogenetic analysis of 133 specimens of Brazilian rodents of genus Akodon (Muridae: Sigmodontinae) from several localities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, was performed in the present study. The analysis was carried out on the species A. cursor (2n = 14, 15 and 16), A. montensis (2n = 23, 24 and 25), A. nigrita (2n = 52) and A. serrensis (2n = 46). The metaphases obtained from bone marrow and fibroblast culture preparations were analyzed after GTG- and CBG-banding and nucleolus organizer regions after silver-staining (Ag-NORs) techniques. Some specimens were also analyzed by in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomeric and ribosomal probes, and by chromosome painting using probes obtained from microdissected chromosomes amplified by DOP-PCR (degenerated oligonucleotide priming-polymerase chain reaction). Twenty-four ...
CD3EAP - Wikipedia
DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA34 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CD3EAP gene. CD3EAP has been shown to interact with T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain, POLR1E and POLR1C. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117877 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000047649 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Yamazaki T, Hamano Y, Tashiro H, Itoh K, Nakano H, Miyatake S, Saito T (Jul 1999). CAST, a novel CD3epsilon-binding protein transducing activation signal for interleukin-2 production in T cells. J Biol Chem. 274 (26): 18173-80. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.26.18173. PMID 10373416. Whitehead CM, Winkfein RJ, Fritzler MJ, Rattner JB (Mar 1998). ASE-1: a novel protein of the fibrillar centres of the nucleolus and nucleolus organizer region of mitotic chromosomes. Chromosoma. 106 (8): 493-502. doi:10.1007/s004120050271. PMID 9426281. Yamamoto K, Yamamoto M, Hanada K, Nogi Y, Matsuyama T, Muramatsu M (Jun 2004). ...
Institute of Biophysics AS CR
The dynamics of genome modification that occurred from the initial hybridization event to the stabilization of allopolyploid species remains largely unexplored. Here, we studied inheritance and expression of rDNA loci in the initial generations of Brassica napus allotetraploids (2n = 38, AACC) resynthesized from Brassica oleracea (2n = 18, CC) and B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and compared the patterns to natural forms. Starting already from F1 generation, there was a strong uniparental silencing of B. oleracea genes. The epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied with immediate condensation of C-genome nucleolar organizer region (NOR) and progressive transgeneration hypermethylation of polymerase I promoters, mainly at CG sites. No such changes were observed in the A-genome NORs. Locus loss and gains affecting mainly non-NOR loci after the first allotetraploid meiosis did not influence established functional status of NORs. Collectively, epigenetic and genetic modifications in synthetic lines resemble ...
UTL Repository: Genome restructuring in rye affects the expression, organization and disposition of homologous rDNA loci
The standard rye cultivar Imperial and a structural variant carrying an intact 1R chromosome and two telocentric 1R chromosomes (short and long arms) were used to investigate expression patterns of homologous rDNA loci, and the influence of chromosome structural change on their interphase organisation and relative disposition. Sequential silver staining and in situ hybridization with the rDNA probe pTa71, established a correspondence between the expression and organization patterns of rDNA domains in metaphase and interphase cells. In most cells of the cultivar Imperial, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) silver staining on metaphase chromosomes with equivalent numbers of rDNA genes revealed a size heteromorphism between homologousrDNA loci, resulting from their differential expression. NOR heteromorphism in the structural variant line was significantly reduced. The preferential activity of one NOR over its homologue was found to be random within cells and independent of parental origin. ...
Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of nucleolin by p34cdc2 protein kinase. | Molecular and Cellular Biology
Nucleolin is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein involved in preribosome assembly and associated with both nucleolar chromatin in interphase and nucleolar organizer regions on metaphasic chromosomes in mitosis. Extensive nucleolin phosphorylation by a casein kinase (CKII) occurs on serine in growing cells. Here we report that while CKII phosphorylation is achieved in interphase, threonine phosphorylation occurs during mitosis. We provide evidence that this type of in vivo phosphorylation involves a mammalian homolog of the cell cycle control Cdc2 kinase. In vitro M-phase H1 kinase from starfish oocytes phosphorylated threonines in a TPXK motif present nine times in the amino-terminal part of the protein. The same sites which matched the p34cdc2 consensus phosphorylation sequence were used in vivo during mitosis. We propose that successive Cdc2 and CKII phosphorylation could modulate nucleolin function in controlling cell cycle-dependent nucleolar function and organization. Our results, along ...
0214100T100 | Histoline
Method to detect to argentafin proteins associated to the nucleolar organizing region (NOR).. Through Silver impregnation, of proteins (100KD) associated to Nucleolar organizer region (NOR). ...
Effect of diabetes mellitus on AgNOR count in mucosal epithelium subjected to continuous pressure under denture base<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of diabetes mellitus on AgNOR count in mucosal epithelium subjected to continuous pressure under denture base. AU - Shirai, Hajime. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. M3 - Article. VL - 40. SP - 194. EP - 194. JO - The Journal of the Japan Prosthodontic Society. JF - The Journal of the Japan Prosthodontic Society. IS - 96specialNo.. ER - ...
APRG1 - AP20 region protein 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - APRG1 gene & protein
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Min | Animal Genetics Training Resources
Min pig has high lean meat percentage. When it reaches to carcass weight of 60kg, 90kg and 120kg, the lean meat percentage is about 53.29%, 46.13%, 39.14%, and its fat percentage rate is about 24.14%, 35.88% and 45.38%, respectively.. Utilization style:. 1. Crossbreeding programmes: When Min pig is used as a dam line and mated with Large White, Landrace, Soviet White, Berkshire, Northeast Spotted and Harbin white sires, the average daily gain of crossbred offsprings were 560A1A2544A1A2499A1A2526 and 575g, respectively. when used as a sire line and mated to west-north black and blue, Habai, Landrace and XinJin Pig dams, the average daily gain of crossbred offsprings were 615A1A2642A1A2555 and 531g, respectively.. Used as a dam in a three breed terminal crossbreeding scheme, the average dairy gain of the three breed crossbred offspring was higher than that of two breed crossbred offspring.. Evaluation of the genetic diversity: Zhan et al (1989) studied the silver staining nucleolus organizer ...
Smith Lab - Xenbase Lab Page
The different cell types of the body are formed in the right place and at the right time in response to signals that are produced by special organiser regions of the embryo. These so-called morphogens act in a concentration-dependent manner to induce the formation of different cell types at different positions within developing tissues. One of the earliest interactions of this kind is mesoderm induction, which results in the formation of organs and cell types such as heart, muscle, kidney and bone. We use frog, zebrafish and mouse embryos to study mesoderm-inducing factors and to ask how cells respond to them. One aim is to understand how the signals exert long-range effects in the embryo, and how cells distinguish between different morphogen concentrations to activate different genes. We go on to explore how these different genes then participate in the genetic regulatory networks that result in the formation of specific cell types. The principles we define in the early embryo inform additional ...
shh.lt - Paslaptys | N-18 | paslaptis N. 505
Sveiki man 21 metai,esu bx ir man taip gėda,kad esu dar tiek metų skaistus,nors nesu bjaurus vaikinas.Gėda darau vyrų giminei.
First Cytogenetic Characterization of the Amazon Catfish Leiarius marmoratus (Gill, 1870) and Its Hybrid with Pseudoplatystoma...
Buitrago-Suarez UA, Burr BM. 2007. Taxonomy of the catfish genus Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) with recognition of eight species. Zootaxa 1512: 1-38. Campos JL. 2010. O cultivo do pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Spix; Agassiz, 1829), outras espécies do gênero Pseudoplatystoma e seus híbridos. In: Baldisserotto B, Gomes LC, editors. Espécies nativas para a piscicultura no Brasil. 1st ed. Santa Maria (RS): Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; p. 335-361. Cioffi MB de, Moreira-Filho O, Ráb P, Sember A, Molina WF, Bertollo LAC. 2018. Conventional cytogenetic approaches - useful and indispensable tools in discovering fish biodiversity. Curr Genet Med Rep. 6: 176-186. Feldberg E, Bertollo LAC. 1985. Nucleolar organizing regions in some species of Neotropical cichlid fish (Pisces, Perciformes). Caryologia. 38: 319-324. Foresti F, Toledo LA. 1981. Polymorphic nature of nucleolus organizer regions in fishes. Cytogenet Genome Res. 31: 137-144. Foresti F, Oliveira C, ...
A study on nucleolar DNA: isolation of DNA from fibrillar components and ultrastructural localization of different DNA probes |...
The nature and localization of DNA contained in the fibrillar centres and the dense fibrillar component (the fibrillar complex) in the nucleoli, was studied in human LEP cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia A and in mitotic chromosomes of stimulated lymphocytes. A novel procedure for isolating the intact fibrillar complex from LEP cells was used; the complex contains DNA that hybridizes to secondary constrictions of mitotic chromosomes and to 28 S rDNA sequences, on Southern blots. Electron microscopic DNA-DNA in situ hybridization was performed, with (a) a probe prepared from DNA extracted from the fibrillar complex of LEP cells, (b) a probe for human total genomic DNA, and (c) a probe for the transcribed part of human rDNA. On the basis of the results obtained we conclude that the ribosomal RNA genes in human Sertoli cells and spermatogonia A are predominantly associated with the dense fibrillar component, including the border region between fibrillar centres and the dense fibrillar component. ...
CONICET | Buscador de Institutos y Recursos Humanos
Abstract In this paper, we describe a Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon from allotetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its putative diploid ancestors Arachis duranensis (A-genome) and Arachis ipaënsis (Bgenome). The consensus sequence is 11,223 bp. The element, named FIDEL (Fairly long Inter-Dispersed Euchromatic LTR retrotransposon), is more frequent in the A- than in the B-genome, with copy numbers of about 3,000 (±950, A. duranensis), 820 (±480, A. ipaënsis), and 3,900 (±1,500, A. hypogaea) per haploid genome. Phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase sequences showed distinct evolution of FIDEL in the ancestor species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed disperse distribution in euchromatin and absence from centromeres, telomeric regions, and the nucleolar organizer region. Using paired sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes, we showed that elements appear less likely to insert near conserved ancestral genes than near the fast evolving disease resistance gene homologs. ...
A 116,000 Mr nucleolar antigen specific for the dense fibrillar component of the nucleoli | Journal of Cell Science
In ATT, a human autoimmune serum, we found anti-nucleolar antibodies that recognized nucleolar antigens confined to a single nucleolar compartment, the dense fibrillar component (DFC). We localized these antigens by immunoelectron microscopy in DFC of HeLa cell nucleoli both on Lowicryl sections and cryoultrathin sections without embedding. The antigens were solubilized by incubation with 2M NaCl but not by RNase or DNase treatment. The ATT serum crossreacted with rat liver nucleoli and PtK1 cell nucleoli in which immunofluorescence labelling displayed a clumpy pattern. During mitosis, the antigens dispersed in the cytoplasm until late telophase, when they gathered in the prenucleolar bodies. In human peripheral lymphocytes, or HeLa cells treated with actinomycin D, the antigens were still present but the fluorescence intensity decreased. By immunoblotting using human nuclear extracts, the ATT serum bound to a 116,000 Mr protein at dilutions up to 1:2000. The reactivity of this band diminished ...
Identification of Pax2-regulated genes by expression profiling of the mid-hindbrain organizer region | Development
The midbrain and cerebellum develop from an organizing center that is formed at the junction between the embryonic midbrain and hindbrain, known as the isthmus. This isthmic organizer (IsO) was discovered because of its property of inducing an ectopic midbrain or cerebellum, when transplanted into the chick diencephalon or hindbrain, respectively (reviewed by Liu and Joyner, 2001a; Wurst and Bally-Cuif, 2001). The IsO activity recruits the surrounding tissue into either a midbrain or cerebellum fate by controlling cell survival, proliferation and differentiation along the anteroposterior axis of the mid-hindbrain region. The formation of the IsO is the result of complex cross-regulatory interactions between transcription factors (Otx, Gbx, Pax and En) and secreted proteins (Wnts and Fgfs), culminating in the expression of the signaling molecule Fgf8 at the mid-hindbrain boundary (Liu and Joyner, 2001a; Wurst and Bally-Cuif, 2001; Ye et al., 2001). Fgf8 is the central mediator of IsO activity, as ...
Relationship between the Ag-Nor Proteins and the Functional Changes in Nucleoli of the Rat Hepatocytes Stimulated by Cortisol...
In the interphase cell nucleus, the ribosomal genes are located in the fibrillar centers and in the associated dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus (Hernandez-Verdun, 1983; 1986; Goessens,...
Rule-Based Reactive Organizer - W3C RIF-WG Wiki
Ken is on a business trip attending a conference in Seattle. He uses a personal organizer for planning his trips: the organizer is notified about changes affecting his itinerary (told by the airline, bus, or railway companies) and has rules to automatically react appropriately. While packing, Kens organizer receives a notification stating that his fight back home is canceled due to rain and he is instead booked for the next day. Fortunately Kens organizer has (reactive) rules in place to react to this event. Kens organizer automatically tries to extend Kens stay in the hotel. Since for the next night no single rooms are available, Ken is being placed in a more expensive double room. Before the booking is made, the new price is checked against the rules for business trip expenses of Kens company. Further the organizer recognizes that Kens coming home one day late affects its business and private plans. The organizer requests rescheduling of Kens business meetings on the next day by ...
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Location of the nucleolar ribosomal chromatin at telophase: as the nucleolus becomes active the ribosomal chromatin and associated ribonucleoprotein transcripts compose the more peripherally located dense fibrillar component
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What is a Nucleolus Function? Nucleolus Function: The nucleolus is a round body located inside the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. It is not surrounded by a… ...
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What is a Nucleolus Function? Nucleolus Function: The nucleolus is a round body located inside the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. It is not surrounded by a… ...
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The nucleolus is a cellular structure found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Some cells have several nucleoli, which work as a...
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Nucleolus organizer region - Wikipedia
Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) are chromosomal regions crucial for the formation of the nucleolus. In humans, the NORs are ... Baicharoen S, Hirai Y, Srikulnath K, Kongprom U, Hirai H (2016). "Hypervariability of Nucleolus Organizer Regions in Bengal ... Sowmya GV, Nahar P, Astekar M, Agarwal H, Singh MP (2017). "Analysis of silver binding nucleolar organizer regions in ... Bloom SE, Goodpasture C (October 1976). "An improved technique for selective silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions in ...
Nucleolus organizer region - definition of Nucleolus organizer region by The Free Dictionary
Nucleolus organizer region synonyms, Nucleolus organizer region pronunciation, Nucleolus organizer region translation, English ... dictionary definition of Nucleolus organizer region. Noun 1. nucleolar organizer - the particular part of a chromosome that is ... associated with a nucleolus after nuclear division nucleolar organiser, nucleolus... ... nucleolar organiser, nucleolus organiser, nucleolus organizer. anatomical structure, bodily structure, body structure, complex ...
Nucleolus organizer region heteromorphism in patients with Down syndrome and their parents
Nazmy, N.A., Kotb, S.M., Mokhtar, M.M. & Ismail, S.R. (1999). Nucleolus organizer region heteromorphism in patients with Down ... Nucleolus organizer region heteromorphism in patients with Down syndrome and their parents. ... The study aimed to evaluate the role of nucleolus organizer region [NOR] heteromorphism as an etiological factor for parental ...
Ag-staining of nucleolus organizer regions of chromosomes after A-,C-, G-, or R-banding procedures.
Identification of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in normal and neoplastic human cells by the silver-staining technique.
Nucleolus organizer region | definition of nucleolus organizer region by Medical dictionary
What is nucleolus organizer region? Meaning of nucleolus organizer region medical term. What does nucleolus organizer region ... Looking for online definition of nucleolus organizer region in the Medical Dictionary? nucleolus organizer region explanation ... Nucleolus organizer region , definition of nucleolus organizer region by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/nucleolus+organizer+region,nucleolus organizer region,/a,. *Facebook ...
Apoptosis and expression of argyrophilic nucleolus organizer regions in epithelial neoplasms of the larynx | Braz. j....
... while a greater number of total nucleolus organizer regions, cells expressing nucleolus organizer regions above average and a ... of expressed nucleolus organizer regions and cells that expressed a greater than average number of nucleolus organizer regions ... Apoptosis and expression of argyrophilic nucleolus organizer regions in epithelial neoplas Apoptosis and expression of ... Nucleolus Organizer Region Type of study: Prevalence study Limits: Adult / Female / Humans / Male Language: English Journal: ...
Premeiotic change of nucleolus organizer size in Neurospora. | Genetics
We have investigated the heritability of nucleolus organizer region (NOR) size in Neurospora crassa. By pulsed-field gel ... Premeiotic change of nucleolus organizer size in Neurospora. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Premeiotic change of nucleolus organizer size in Neurospora.. D K Butler and R L Metzenberg ... Premeiotic change of nucleolus organizer size in Neurospora.. D K Butler and R L Metzenberg ...
Transcriptional analysis of nucleolar dominance in polyploid plants: Biased expression/silencing of progenitor rRNA genes is...
nucleolus organizer region. *Received December 2, 1996.. *Accepted December 31, 1996.. *Copyright © 1997, The National Academy ... Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon that describes the formation of nucleoli around rRNA genes inherited from only ... Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon that describes the formation of nucleoli around rRNA genes inherited from only ...
Gene dosage and stochastic effects determine the severity and direction of uniparental ribosomal RNA gene silencing (nucleolar...
... nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were identified as loci where genes encoding the precursor of the 18S, 5.8S, and 25-28S ... simulans nucleolus formation in trans without reducing D. melanogaster rRNA gene or nucleolus expression (38). Therefore, ... Southern blot hybridization using a probe that hybridizes to all A. suecica rRNA genes in the conserved ≈2-kb region from the ... 2-kb region from −365 to the beginning of the 18S rRNA coding sequences. This probe detects both A. thaliana and C. arenosa ...
Chromosome mapping of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters in 35 species of acridid grasshoppers | SpringerLink
nucleolus organizer region. PCR. polymerase chain reaction. rDNA. ribosomal DNA. Responsible Editor: Walther Traut ... As in other organisms, H3 and H4 co-localized in the same chromosome region in the 11 species where double FISH was performed ... Fox DP, Santos JL (1985) N-bands and nucleolus expression in Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. Heredity 54:333-341 ... Chromosomal location of active Nucleolar Organizing Regions. Can J Genet Cytol 28:540-544Google Scholar ...
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 2016, Vol. 149, No. 4 - Karger Publishers
Relationship between the Ag-Nor Proteins and the Functional Changes in Nucleoli of the Rat Hepatocytes Stimulated by Cortisol...
... the ribosomal genes are located in the fibrillar centers and in the associated dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus ( ... Selective staining of Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs). In The Cell Nucleus, Vol. XI, Busch H., and Rothblum L. editors, ... Improvement in the staining and in the visualization of the argyrophilic proteins of the nucleolar organizer region at the ... Relationship between interphasic Nucleolar Organizer Regions and growth rate in two neuroblastoma cell lines. Am. J. Pathol. ...
Variability of nucleolus organizer regions in phyllostomid bats | Rev. bras. genét;11(4): 853-71, Dec. 1988. ilus, tab |...
Variability of nucleolus organizer regions in phyllostomid bats Variability of nucleolus organizer regions in phyllostomid bats ... Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Chiroptera / Nucleolus Organizer Region Limits: Animals Language: English Journal: Rev. ... Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Chiroptera / Nucleolus Organizer Region Limits: Animals Language: English Journal: Rev. ...
Developmental duration as an organizer of the evolving mammalian brain: scaling, adaptations, and exceptions.
Nucleolus Organizer Region. The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis ... The organizer is an essential signaling center required for axial formation during vertebrate embryonic development. In the ... Chick Models and Human-Chick Organizer Grafts.. The combination of affordability, large size, and ease of access at almost ... Developmental duration as an organizer of the evolving mammalian brain: scaling, adaptations, and exceptions.. 07:00 EST 3rd ...
Rat Olfactory Nerve Development to Rat Nuclease Activity from Cell Signaling Technology
Karyotypes, Heterochromatin, and Physical Mapping of 18S-26S rDNA in Cactaceae
A predictive computational model of the dynamic 3D interphase yeast nucleus
Valoración de las regiones organizadoras nucleares en lesiones melánicas benignas y malignas de piel
Previous reports used FISH to determine the location and number of nucleolus-organizer region (NOR) and 5S gene clusters in A. ... For various reasons, some regions of the genome exhibit much higher variations in coverage than others. Those regions could ... The missing 5S gene cluster is located in the pericentromeric region of the A. arenosa chromosome 8, a region rich in ... If the paired regions leading to exchanges are located on chromosomes that are structurally diverged (e.g., have inverted ...
UBTF Gene - GeneCards | UBF1 Protein | UBF1 Antibody
90-KDa Nucleolus Organizer Region Autoantigen 3 * Nucleolar Transcription Factor 1 3 ... mediating the recruitment of RNA polymerase I to rDNA promoter regions. The encoded protein may also play important roles in ... Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for UBTF Gene ...
Ribosomal DNA - Wikipedia
These rDNA regions are also called nucleolus organizer regions, as they give rise to the nucleolus. In rDNA, the tandem repeats ... In the human genome there are 5 chromosomes with nucleolus organizer regions: the acrocentric chromosomes 13 (RNR1), 14 (RNR2 ... In the nucleus, the rDNA region of the chromosome is visualized as a nucleolus which forms expanded chromosomal loops with rDNA ... Coding regions of rDNA are highly conserved among species but ITS regions are variable due to insertions, deletions, and point ...
Molecular Cytogenetic Mapping of Chromosomal Fragments and Immunostaining of Kinetochore Proteins in Beta
They reside at the chromosomal loci known as nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) . These genes are highly conserved in ... G. Martini, M. ODell, and R. B. Flavell, "Partial inactivation of wheat nucleolus organizers by nucleolus organizer ... B. McClintock, "The relation of a particular chromosomal element to the development of the nucleoli in Zea mays," Zeitschrift ... R. F. Barker, N. P. Harberd, M. G. Jarvis, and R. B. Flavell, "Structure and evolution of the intergenic region in a ribosomal ...
An improved silver staining technique for nucleolus organizer regions by using nylon cloth *Yoshiaki Kodama ... Rights & permissionsfor article An improved silver staining technique for nucleolus organizer regions by using nylon cloth . ... Assignment of a polymorphic locus of OS-4(D18S5) DNA segment to human chromosome region 18q21.3→qter *Isamu Nishisho ... Rights & permissionsfor article Assignment of a polymorphic locus of OS-4(D18S5) DNA segment to human chromosome region 18q21.3 ...
UBTF Antibody (2D8) [PE] (H00007343-M04PE): Novus Biologicals
van Vuuren C[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Tea in Health and Disease Prevention - Read Online
Nucleolar and nucleolus organizer regions in tea as visualized by silver staining. Afric Crop Sci J. 1997;5:253-258. ... This variety is also grown in Indias Darjeeling region to produce delicate black teas. The broad-leaf variety is generally ... However, both varieties can be used to produce different tea types and both varieties can be found across these regions. ... The center of diversity of Camellia sinensis is in the Upper Mekong River region of Yunnan Province of southwestern China (Chen ...
Dynamic Changes in the Distribution of a Satellite Homologous to Intergenic 26-18S rDNA Spacer in the Evolution of Nicotiana |...
1984 Heterochromatin and nucleolus-organizer region behaviour at a male pachytene of Sus scrofa domestica. Chromosoma 91: 12-19 ... 1988 Regulation of cytosine methylation in ribosomal DNA and nucleolus organizer expression in wheat. J. Mol. Biol. 204: 523- ... In more distantly related Nicotiana species the A1/A2 repeats were found only at the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR). There ... for rDNA genic regions, red fluorescence) to root-tip metaphases. When these probes label a chromosome region independently, ...
Frontiers | Extensive Cryptic Diversity Within the Physalaemus cuvieri-Physalaemus ephippifer Species Complex (Amphibia, Anura)...
Here, by 1) adding specimens from the Brazilian Amazon region, 2) employing sequence-based species delimitation approaches, and ... Here, by 1) adding specimens from the Brazilian Amazon region, 2) employing sequence-based species delimitation approaches, and ... Silva, A. P. Z., Haddad, C. F. B., Kasahara, S. (1999). Nucleolus organizer regions in Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, ... Schmid, M. (1978). Chromosome banding in Amphibia I: Constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizers regions in Bufo and ...
NORsChromosomesRDNAGenesRibosomalMitosisChromatinProteinsRRNAFibrillarMorphologyNucleusAgNORsCytoplasmMitoticNuclearHeterochromaticEukaryoticGenomeRibosome subunitsKaryotypeProtein synthesisProphaseInterphasicLocalizationTranscriptionStructuralGeneChromosome regionFluorescenceTerminalChromosomalCellsMammalianCentromericMRNAGranular
- Identification of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in normal and neoplastic human cells by the silver-staining technique. (biomedsearch.com)
- Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) are chromosomal regions crucial for the formation of the nucleolus. (wikipedia.org)
- NORs can also be seen in nucleoli using silver stain, and that is being used to investigate cancerous changes. (wikipedia.org)
- The distal flanking junction (DJ) of the NORs has been shown to associate with the periphery of nucleoli. (wikipedia.org)
- Kucukdumlu, "Variation in the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in two mole rat species (Spalax leucodon and Spalax ehrenbergi)" Turkish Journal of Biology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Decades later, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were identified as loci where genes encoding the precursor of the 18S, 5.8S, and 25-28S ribosomal RNAs are tandemly arrayed ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Selective staining of Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs). (springer.com)
- In this study nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) of Acomys cilicicus were examined. (tubitak.gov.tr)
- Ag-NORs are located on the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 5 and, as a secondary constriction, on the long arm of chromosome 6 in this species. (tubitak.gov.tr)
- During certain stages of the cell cycle, nucleoli form at the NORs. (phys.org)
- The nucleolus is a prominent nonmembrane-bound nuclear substructure that organizes around chromosome segments containing nucleolar-organizing regions (NORs). (rupress.org)
- In eukaryotic organisms, 18S and 28S rRNA is produced from a 35S-47S pre-rRNA that is transcribed by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Ribosomal genes (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) are highly repeated and organized as large tandem arrays termed nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). (asm.org)
- At the end of mitosis (M/G1), nucleolar domains start to reform around the active NORs and give rise to a complete nucleolus after association of several NORs in early G1. (biologists.org)
- These antigens were localized in the secondary constriction of PtK1 cells, i.e. the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) where ribosomal genes accumulate. (biologists.org)
- The molecular mass of the antigens, their characteristics in Western blotting and their localization in nucleoli and NORs during mitosis are consistent with them being RNA polymerase I transcriptional factor, UBF. (biologists.org)
- 1985 ). Structural and functional aspects of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of human chromosomes. (biologists.org)
- Here we review the existing information about B chromosome effects on AMPs, chiasma frequency and the number of active nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) per cell. (karger.com)
- The localization of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and heterochromatic bands allowed the differentiation of chromosomes that were morphologically indistinguishable between these species, such as pairs 1, 3 and 10, which showed interstitial C-bands in Ph. (brill.com)
- Surprisingly, attempts to map this variation by means of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) failed to identify either of the two likely sources, namely the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). (g3journal.org)
- In contrast the F.C. and D.F.C. are probably two aspects of the NORs whose typical distribution, relative to the other nucleolar components, gives the interphasic nucleolus its characteristic morphology. (uliege.be)
- Ag-staining of nucleolus organizer regions of chromosomes after A-,C-, G-, or R-banding procedures. (biomedsearch.com)
- There are also DNA sequences related to rDNA that are on other chromosomes and may be involved in nucleoli formation. (wikipedia.org)
- Notably, our model recapitulates the position and morphology of the nucleolus, the observed variations in locus positions, and variations in contact frequencies within and across chromosomes, as well as subchromosomal contact features. (nih.gov)
- Heterochromatin was allocated in terminal region of most chromosomes, plus a pericentromeric heterochromatic block in pair 1, a pair distinguished by size in relation to other chromosomes pairs. (scielo.br)
- Hybridization with [TTAGGG] n sequence marked the telomeres of all chromosomes, in addition to an ITS in the proximal region of the short arm of pair 1. (scielo.br)
- The repetitive [GATA] n sequence was dispersed, with preferential location in terminal region of the chromosomes. (scielo.br)
- At the G2/M transition, the rRNA processing machinery (green) leaves the nucleolus and during prophase becomes partially distributed over the surface of all the condensed chromosomes. (biologists.org)
- The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. (ufrgs.br)
- Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and Gbanding patterns were also seen. (ufrgs.br)
- The NOR is an area in the cells in which formation of nucleolus takes place around chromosomes. (biologywise.com)
- In this context, we investigated the contribution of ribosomal genes to genome reshuffling since they are generally located in pericentromeric or subtelomeric regions, and form repeat clusters on different chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We addressed this issue and investigated maintenance of various chromatin regions of unknown composition as well as nucleolus-associated chromatin, a significant part of which is composed of nucleolus organizer region-bearing chromosomes. (semanticscholar.org)
- rDNA operons in Escherichia coli have been found to cluster near each other, similar to a eukaryotic nucleolus. (wikipedia.org)
- Analysis of the nucleolus organizer regions in 5 species of the genus Pimelodus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) using AgN03, CMA3, and FISH with the 18S rDNA probe. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The encoded protein plays a critical role in ribosomal RNA transcription as a key component of the pre-initiation complex, mediating the recruitment of RNA polymerase I to rDNA promoter regions. (genecards.org)
- An ∼135-bp sequence called the A1/A2 repeat was isolated from the transcribed region of the 26-18S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of Nicotiana tomentosiformis . (genetics.org)
- The genetic map revealed regions of segregation distortion favoring SC alleles as well as recombination suppression regions coinciding with putative centromere, 45S, and 5S rDNA sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we utilize chromatin immunoprecipitation from a highly enriched nucleolar chromatin fraction to show for the first time that UBF binding in vivo is not restricted to known regulatory sequences but extends across the entire intergenic spacer and transcribed region of Xenopus , human, and mouse rDNA repeats. (asm.org)
- All species showed hybridization of 5S rDNA sequences in an interstitial region on an acrocentric chromosome pair. (biologists.org)
- There was a reduction of CG and CNG methylation in both intergenic and genic regions of the rDNA cistron in fully dedifferentiated callus and root compared to leaf. (plantphysiol.org)
- It is likely that the regions of the rDNA locus showing decondensation correspond to the clusters of hypomethylated units that occur in the tandem array at each locus. (plantphysiol.org)
- In this process of adapting to the terrestrial environment, the rDNA intergenic region saw a considerable rise. (biologywise.com)
- However, a comparison between the number of 45S rDNA sites per genome and the quantity of heterochromatin revealed (i) species presenting heterochromatin restricted to the centromeric/pericentromeric region that contained few rDNA sites and (ii) species with a high quantity of heterochromatin and a higher number of rDNA sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon that describes the formation of nucleoli around rRNA genes inherited from only one parent in the progeny of an interspecific hybrid. (pnas.org)
- This functionality is attributed to hundreds of r-genes that are present in the nucleolus. (biologywise.com)
- Several copies of genes of ribosomal RNA constitute the Nucleolus Organizer Region (NOR). (biologywise.com)
- Maize production has continuously risen over time, but to further increase selection gain and accelerate breeding processes profound knowledge is required regarding genes and genomic regions involved in agronomically important traits. (biomedcentral.com)
- These regions code for 5.8S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal RNA. (wikipedia.org)
- The mature rRNAs are subsequently assembled with ribosomal proteins into preribosomal particles in the nucleolus. (rupress.org)
- Molecular identity of nucleolus organizer region autoantigen NOR-90 and ribosomal RNA transcription upstream binding factor. (biologists.org)
- C. C. Morton, J. A. Brown, W. M. Holmes, W. E. Nance and B. Wolf, "Stain Intensity of Human Nucleolus Organizer Region Reflects Incorporation of Uridine in to Mature Ribosomal RNA," Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 145, No. 2, 1983, pp. 405-413. (scirp.org)
- The assembly of ribosomal subunits is transported to cell cytoplasm (i.e. outside the nucleolus) and it participates in the process of translation (protein synthesis). (biologywise.com)
- The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA. (bvsalud.org)
- In this case, mitosis follows an interphase during which nucleoli have been fully active, and nucleolar assembly benefits from machinery and complexes inherited from the previous cell cycle. (biologists.org)
- Behaviour of nucleolus during mitosis. (uliege.be)
- en] The aim of the present work was to study the distribution and the behaviour of the silver-staining nucleolar organizer region (Ag-NOR) proteins at the ultrastructural level during interphase and mitosis in five human and murine cancerous cell lines each characterized by a typical nucleolar morphology. (uliege.be)
- Silver staining during mitosis closely paralleled the distribution of protein C23, supporting previous conclusions that protein C23 is a silver staining nucleolus organizer region (NOR) protein [19, 20]. (meta.org)
- Some acidic proteins are associated with the fibrillar components and in particular with the highly decondensed chromatin of the nucleolus. (springer.com)
- surrounded nucleolus (SN), and one without chromatin surrounding the nucleolus , i. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Oocytes at this stage were found in slides made from tissues of females in all maturity stages, unlike the Chromatin nucleolus oocytes, which were observed only in immature females. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Improvement in the staining and in the visualization of the argyrophilic proteins of the nucleolar organizer region at the optical level. (springer.com)
- Pession A., Trerè D., Farabegoli F., Novello F., Romagnoli T., Derenzini M. (1990) Relationship between the Ag-Nor Proteins and the Functional Changes in Nucleoli of the Rat Hepatocytes Stimulated by Cortisol and by Partial Hepatectomy. (springer.com)
- For example, it is not clear whether specific proteins are stably associated with the nucleolus or are exchanged with the nucleoplasm. (rupress.org)
- Inside the nucleus is the nucleolus, a mass of RNA and proteins that contains the nucleolar organizer regions. (reference.com)
- They can be characterized as early 1 - 2 hours post infection (hpi) and temporary increase (duration about 1 hour) in the content of the acidic proteins of the nucleolus, changing their decline to the control values. (scirp.org)
- NPM1 serves as the glue that holds proteins and RNA together in the nucleolus , a membrane-less organelle that depends on liquid phase separation to form and is the site for the biogenesis of ribosomes, the molecular factories that synthesize all proteins in cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- During interphase, proteins B23 and C23 were both localized to the nucleolus. (meta.org)
- The open reading frames (ORFs) specifying group II intron-encoded proteins, when present, are located in the loop region of the structural domain IV, with most of the coding sequence outside the intron catalytic core. (asmscience.org)
- Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) analyses demonstrate that factors involved in rRNA transcription (upstream-binding factor [UBF]), processing (nucleolin, fibrillarin, and RNase MRP subunits, Rpp29), and ribosome assembly (B23) exchange rapidly between the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. (rupress.org)
- These findings suggest that the rapid exchange of nucleolar components between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm may represent a new level of regulation for rRNA synthesis. (rupress.org)
- Nucleolus is the site for transcription of rRNA precursor molecule from DNA. (biologywise.com)
- Nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were assessed, specially the number of particles by nucleus in melanocytic nevus (MN) and malignant melanomas , and their correlation with prognostic factors and survival rate. (sld.cu)
- Transmission Electron Microscopic observation of a normal liver revealed hepatocytes with well organized nucleus and nucleolus when present was prominent. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Amebae were identified by a nucleus containing a large central nucleolus (Figure 1C, inset). (thefreedictionary.com)
- In contrast to the nucleus, the nucleolus does not have a membrane and is referred to as a suborganelle. (reference.com)
- In the nucleus, the nucleolus (No) is detected as a large electron-dense region compared with low electron density of the nucleoplasm (Np). (hindawi.com)
- The nucleus appears outlined by a double envelope with pores, and the nucleolus is in close contact with the nuclear envelope. (hindawi.com)
- Then there is an increase in RNA content in the nucleus, roughly coinciding with the increased content of RNA in the nucleoli. (scirp.org)
- After the division of nucleus, this region gets associated with the nucleus. (biologywise.com)
- Nucleolar organiser regions have been quantified with computer-aided image analysis system in order to evaluate the mean area of AgNORs and their number relative to an internal reference, the number and areas of clusters of AgNORs and the area of the nucleus. (mysciencework.com)
- Staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (AgNORs) was carried following the procedure described by Howell and Black (1980). (thefreedictionary.com)
- C banding also revealed a large heterochromatic block in the secondary constriction (25th) region that was coincident with the AgNORs sites and CMA3 + bright bands. (scielo.br)
- In the current study detection of the proliferating potential of adenomas was attempted using silver colloid technique for argyrophilic protein associated with nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). (mysciencework.com)
- Ribosomes are individually localized in the cytoplasm (see individual ribosomes detected in the zoomed region). (hindawi.com)
- 30] The prolymphocytoid variant of MCL was characterized by morphologic features similar to the paraimmunoblastic variant of small lymphocytic lymphoma with sheets of intermediate-sized to large cells with a single prominent nucleolus associated with a brisk mitotic rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
- An early step in ribosome biogenesis is initiated by the extremely high transcriptional activity of Pol I and occurs in the largest nuclear domain, the nucleolus (Figure 1(b) ). (hindawi.com)
- The nucleolus is a large nuclear domain and the site of ribosome biogenesis. (biologists.org)
- Autoantibodies directed against nucleoli that recognized a doublet of 97-94 kDa in HeLa nuclear protein extracts were identified. (biologists.org)
- the nucleolus that is present in the nuclear matrix is not surrounded by any kind of membrane. (biologywise.com)
- Other prognostic indicators include DNA ploidy, AgNOR's (agyrophilic nucleolar organizing region), and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). (vin.com)
- With these results it was possible to make inferences on melon chromosome structure by relating zones of recombination suppression to centromeres and 45S and 5S heterochromatic regions. (biomedcentral.com)
- a secondary constriction was also visible, indicating that this GC rich heterochromatic region probably corresponds to the nucleolus organizer region (NOR). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The exact sequence of these regions is not included in the human reference genome as of 2016 or the GRCh38.p10 released January 6, 2017. (wikipedia.org)
- In particular, the identification of syntenic associations of homologous chromosomal segments has led to the delimitation of breakpoint sites, i.e., regions where genome synteny has been disrupted by chromosomal rearrangements. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nucleolus plays an indirect but crucial role in protein synthesis by assembling the ribosome subunits. (biologywise.com)
- cardosoi), the nucleolus organizer region is on the short arm of a small metacentric chromosome (pair 9), an arrangement similar to the NOR-bearing chromosome pair in the karyotype of P. poecilogaster and in karyotype II of Scythrophrys. (brill.com)
- The nucleoli are essential for ribosome assembly and protein synthesis in eukaryotes and are an important feature that differentiates eukaryotes from prokaryotes. (phys.org)
- As the nucleolus disappeared in prophase, the distribution of protein B23 became nucleoplasmic, whereas most of protein C23 remained associated with the disappearing nucleolus. (meta.org)
- Relationship between interphasic Nucleolar Organizer Regions and growth rate in two neuroblastoma cell lines. (springer.com)
- One of the breakthroughs was the preferential localization of evolutionary breakpoints in regions enriched in repetitive sequences (segmental duplications, telomeres and centromeres). (biomedcentral.com)
- These results are consistent with a structural role for UBF at active nucleolar organizer regions in addition to its recognized role in stable transcription complex formation at the promoter. (asm.org)
- It was also noted that nucleolar HPSE modulates DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I), an enzyme that is highly present in nucleoli, essential for DNA replication and transcription in a variety of tumors, and inhibited by heparan sulfate. (aacrjournals.org)
- Structural organization of the nucleolus inmammalian cells. (springer.com)
- The chains of RNA and DNA are the structural components of nucleolus. (biologywise.com)
- The complex structural organization of nucleolus has evolved during the transition phase of living beings from anamniotes to amniotes. (biologywise.com)
- A19 Genetic markers for protease inhibitor drug resistance in regions outside of the protease gene. (nih.gov)
- As in other organisms, H3 and H4 co-localized in the same chromosome region in the 11 species where double FISH was performed with the H3 and H4 DNA probes. (springer.com)
- Giemsa staining, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) banding, C-positive heterochromatin banding and DAPI fluorescence were used in N metaphases of a specimen collected in Asa Branca Farm, in Aurora do Tocantins municipality, Tocantins state, Brazil. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Interacts with POLR1E/PRAF1 through its N-terminal region (By similarity). (genecards.org)
- On the other hand, the banding patterns by NOR-banding technique showed that three pairs of autosomes have nucleolus organizer regions at the terminal ends of their long arm, and the Y chromosome has it in its short arm terminal. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Chromosomal location of active Nucleolar Organizing Regions. (springer.com)
- Apoptosis was significantly more frequent in well differentiated carcinomas and in papillomas , and a higher growth fraction of expressed nucleolus organizer regions and cells that expressed a greater than average number of nucleolus organizer regions were more frequently noted in undifferentiated carcinomas . (bvsalud.org)
- Thus, it was possible to verify that a high apoptotic index was associated with a lower chance of tumor differentiation in carcinomas , while a greater number of total nucleolus organizer regions , cells expressing nucleolus organizer regions above average and a higher growth fraction were associated with greater likelihood of abnormal cell proliferation and increased tumor differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
- Nucleolus cycle in human cells. (biologists.org)
- 1991 ). Interphase nucleolar organizer regions in cancer cells. (biologists.org)
- The nucleolus which is present in the budding form of yeast is bigger than that in other cells. (biologywise.com)
- The nucleolus carries out 50% of the total production of RNA that takes place in cells. (biologywise.com)
- Developmental duration as an organizer of the evolving mammalian brain: scaling, adaptations, and exceptions. (bioportfolio.com)
- Cytogenetic mapping with centromeric BAC contigs shows that this recombination-poor region comprises more than half of barley chromosome 3H. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
- Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus , suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome repatterning observed in this group. (biomedcentral.com)
- The centromeric regions of autosomes were positive to GTG-banding. (koreascience.or.kr)
- A. G. Aminev, S. P. Amineva and A. C. Palmenberg, "Encephalomyocarditis Viral Protein 2A Localizes to Nucleoli and Inhibits Cap-Dependent mRNA Transla- tion," Virus Research, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 45-57. (scirp.org)
- Nucleoli are known to play an important role in mRNA biogenesis. (biologywise.com)
- Granular components are dispersed throughout the rest of the nucleolus. (hindawi.com)