Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A species of HANTAVIRUS causing nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME. It is found in most of Europe and especially in Finland, along with its carrier rodent, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of one species (Lake Victoria marburgvirus) with several strains. The genus shows no antigenic cross-reactivity with EBOLAVIRUS.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of HANTAVIRUS which emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States in 1993. It causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME) in humans. Transmission is by inhaling aerosolized rodent secretions that contain virus particles, carried especially by deer mice (PEROMYSCUS maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
A viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by MORBILLIVIRUS. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic with the major lesions characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The disease was declared successfully eradicated worldwide in 2010.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A family of viruses, of the order NIDOVIRALES, containing spherical virions. In contrast to CORONAVIRIDAE, no protruding spikes are obvious on the surface.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing a severe, often fatal enteritis and pneumonia (PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS) in sheep and goats.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification, such as cleavage, to produce the active functional protein or peptide hormone.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (1/841)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Interferon-induced human MxA GTPase blocks nuclear import of Thogoto virus nucleocapsids. (2/841)

Interferon-induced human MxA protein belongs to the dynamin superfamily of large GTPases. It exhibits antiviral activity against a variety of RNA viruses, including Thogoto virus, an influenza virus-like orthomyxovirus transmitted by ticks. Here, we report that MxA blocks the transport of Thogoto virus nucleocapsids into the nucleus, thereby preventing transcription of the viral genome. This interaction can be abolished by a mAb that neutralizes the antiviral activity of MxA. Our results reveal an antiviral mechanism whereby an interferon-induced protein traps the incoming virus and interferes with proper transport of the viral genome to its ultimate target compartment within the infected cell.  (+info)

DNA vaccination with hantavirus M segment elicits neutralizing antibodies and protects against seoul virus infection. (3/841)

Seoul virus (SEOV) is one of four known hantaviruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Candidate naked DNA vaccines for HFRS were constructed by subcloning cDNA representing the medium (M; encoding the G1 and G2 glycoproteins) or small (S; encoding the nucleocapsid protein) genome segment of SEOV into the DNA expression vector pWRG7077. We vaccinated BALB/c mice with three doses of the M or S DNA vaccine at 4-week intervals by either gene gun inoculation of the epidermis or needle inoculation into the gastrocnemius muscle. Both routes of vaccination resulted in antibody responses as measured by ELISA; however, gene gun inoculation elicited a higher frequency of seroconversion and higher levels of antibodies in individual mice. We vaccinated Syrian hamsters with the M or S construct using the gene gun and found hantavirus-specific antibodies in five of five and four of five hamsters, respectively. Animals vaccinated with the M construct developed a neutralizing antibody response that was greatly enhanced in the presence of guinea pig complement. Immunized hamsters were challenged with SEOV and, after 28 days, were monitored for evidence of infection. Hamsters vaccinated with M were protected from infection, but hamsters vaccinated with S were not protected.  (+info)

The effect of template RNA structure on elongation by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (4/841)

Reverse transcription of the RNA genome of retroviruses has to proceed through some highly structured regions of the template. The RNA genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contains two hairpin structures within the repeat (R) region at the 5' end of the viral RNA (Fig. 1Fig. 1Template RNA structure of the HIV-1 R region and the position of reverse transcription pause sites. The HIV-1 R region (nucleotides +1/97) encodes two stable RNA structures, the TAR and polyA hairpins [5]. The latter hairpin contains the AAUAAA hexamer motif (marked by a box) that is involved in polyadenylation. The lower panel shows the predicted structures of the wild-type and two mutant forms of the polyA hairpin that were used in this study. Nucleotide substitutions are boxed, deletions are indicated by black triangle. The thermodynamic stability (free energy or DeltaG, in kcal/mol) was calculated according to the Zucker algorithm [71]. The TAR hairpin has a DeltaG of -24.8 kcal/mol. Minus-strand DNA synthesis on these templates was initiated by a DNA primer annealed to the downstream PBS. The position of reverse transcription pause sites observed in this study are summarized. All numbers refer to nucleotide positions on the wild-type HIV-1 transcript. Filled arrows represent stops observed on the wild-type template, and open arrows mark the pause sites that are specific for the structured A-mutant template. The sizes of the arrows correspond to the relative frequency of pausing. Little pausing was observed on the B-mutant template with the destabilized polyA hairpin.). These structures, the TAR and polyA hairpins, fulfil important functions in the viral life cycle. We analyzed the in vitro elongation properties of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme on the wild-type RNA template and mutants thereof with either a stabilized or a destabilized polyA hairpin. Stable RNA structure was found to interfere with efficient elongation of the RT enzyme, as judged by the appearance of pause cDNA products. A direct relation was measured between the stability of template RNA structure and the extent of RT pausing. However, the position of structure-induced pause sites is rather diverse, with significant stops at a position approximately 6 nt ahead of the basepaired stem of the TAR and polyA hairpins. This suggests that the RT enzyme is stalled when its most forward domain contacts the RNA duplex. Addition of the viral nucleocapsid protein (NC) to the in vitro assay was found to overcome such structure-induced RT stops. These results indicate that the RT polymerase has problems penetrating regions of the template with stable RNA structure. This effect was more pronounced at high Mg2+ concentrations, which is known to stabilize RNA secondary structure. Such a structure-induced defect was not apparent in reverse transcription assays performed in virus-infected cells, which is either caused by the NC protein or other components of the virion particle. Thus, retroviruses can use relatively stable RNA structures to control different steps in the viral life cycle without interfering with the process of reverse transcription.  (+info)

The nucleocapsid protein of murine hepatitis virus type 3 induces transcription of the novel fgl2 prothrombinase gene. (5/841)

Using a set of parental and recombinant murine hepatitis virus strains, we demonstrate that the nucleocapsid protein induces transcription of the novel fgl2 prothrombinase gene and elevated procoagulant activity in those strains that produce fulminant hepatitis. Chinese hamster ovary cells cotransfected with a construct expressing nucleocapsid protein from susceptible strains and with a luciferase reporter construct containing the fgl2 promoter showed a 6-fold increase in luciferase activity compared with nontransfected cells or cells cotransfected with a construct expressing nucleocapsid protein from resistant strains. Two deletions found at coding sites 111-123 and 1143-1145 of structural domains I and III, respectively, of the nucleocapsid gene may account for the differences between pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Preliminary mapping of the fgl2 promoter has defined a region from -372 to -306 upstream from the ATG translation initiation site to be responsive to nucleocapsid protein. Hence, mapping of genetic determinants in parental and recombinant strains demonstrates that the nucleocapsid protein of strains that induce fulminant hepatitis is responsible for transcription of the fgl2 prothrombinase gene. These studies provide new insights into the role of the nucleocapsid gene in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of the hemagglutinin and three internal protein genes of influenza B virus: multiple cocirculating lineages and frequent reassortment of the NP, M, and NS genes. (6/841)

Phylogenetic profiles of the genes coding for the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M) protein, and nonstructural (NS) proteins of influenza B viruses isolated from 1940 to 1998 were analyzed in a parallel manner in order to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of these viruses. Unlike human influenza A (H3N2) viruses, the evolutionary pathways of all four genes of recent influenza B viruses revealed similar patterns of genetic divergence into two major lineages. Although evolutionary rates of the HA, NP, M, and NS genes of influenza B viruses were estimated to be generally lower than those of human influenza A viruses, genes of influenza B viruses demonstrated complex phylogenetic patterns, indicating alternative mechanisms for generation of virus variability. Topologies of the evolutionary trees of each gene were determined to be quite distinct from one another, showing that these genes were evolving in an independent manner. Furthermore, variable topologies were apparently the result of frequent genetic exchange among cocirculating epidemic viruses. Evolutionary analysis done in the present study provided further evidence for cocirculation of multiple lineages as well as sequestering and reemergence of phylogenetic lineages of the internal genes. In addition, comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed a novel amino acid deletion in the HA1 domain of the HA protein of recent isolates from 1998 belonging to the B/Yamagata/16/88-like lineage. It thus became apparent that, despite lower evolutionary rates, influenza B viruses were able to generate genetic diversity among circulating viruses through a combination of evolutionary mechanisms involving cocirculating lineages and genetic reassortment by which new variants with distinct gene constellations emerged.  (+info)

Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. (7/841)

This is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. The nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by PCR and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. Twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a Western blot assay. Ten of the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, one was IgG2a, and one was IgM. All had kappa light chains. By immunohistochemistry four monoclonal antibodies detected bovine coronavirus and elk coronavirus in formalin-fixed intestinal tissues. Antinucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies were found to be better at ruminant coronavirus detection than the anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. Because nucleoprotein is a more abundant antigen than spike protein in infected cells, this was not an unexpected finding.  (+info)

Recognition of an MHC class I-restricted antigenic peptide can be modulated by para-substitution of its buried tyrosine residues in a TCR-specific manner. (8/841)

Conformational dependence of TCR contact residues of the H-2Kb molecule on the two buried tyrosine side chains of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-8 peptide was investigated by systematic substitutions of the tyrosines with phenylalanine, p-fluorophenylalanine (pFF), or p-bromophenylalanine (pBrF). The results of peptide competition CTL assays revealed that all of the peptide variants, except for the pBrF analogues, had near-native binding to the H-2Kb molecule. Epitope-mapped anti-H-2Kb mAbs detected conformational differences among H-2Kb molecules stabilized with these VSV-8 variants on RMA-S cells. Selective recognition of the VSV-8 analogues was displayed by a panel of three H-2Kb-restricted, anti-VSV-8 TCRs. Thus, these substitutions result in an antigenically significant conformational change of the MHC molecular surface structure at both C and D pockets, and the effect of this change on cognate T cell recognition is dependent on the TCR structure. Our results confirm that the structure of buried peptide side chains can determine the surface conformation of the MHC molecule and demonstrate that even a very subtle structural nuance of the buried side chain can be incorporated into the surface conformation of the MHC molecule. The ability of buried residues to modulate this molecular surface augments the number of residues on the MHC-peptide complex that can be recognized as "foreign" by the CD8+ T cell repertoire and allows for a higher level of antigenic discrimination. This may be an important mechanism to expand the total number of TCR specificities that can respond to a single peptide determinant.  (+info)

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

A nucleocapsid is a protein structure that encloses the genetic material (nucleic acid) of certain viruses. It is composed of proteins encoded by the virus itself, which are synthesized inside the host cell and then assemble around the viral genome to form a stable complex.

The nucleocapsid plays an important role in the viral life cycle. It protects the viral genome from degradation by host enzymes and helps to facilitate the packaging of the genome into new virus particles during assembly. Additionally, the nucleocapsid can also play a role in the regulation of viral gene expression and replication.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid is encased within an envelope derived from the host cell membrane, while in others, it exists as a naked capsid. The structure and composition of the nucleocapsid can vary significantly between different virus families.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

A "gag gene product" in the context of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) refers to the proteins produced by the viral gag gene. The gag gene is one of the nine genes found in the HIV genome and it plays a crucial role in the viral replication cycle.

The gag gene encodes for the group-specific antigen (GAG) proteins, which are structural components of the virus. These proteins include matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins, as well as several smaller peptides. Together, these GAG proteins form the viral core, which encapsulates the viral RNA genome and enzymes necessary for replication.

The matrix protein is responsible for forming a layer underneath the viral envelope, while the capsid protein forms the inner shell of the viral core. The nucleocapsid protein binds to the viral RNA genome and protects it from degradation by host cell enzymes. Overall, the gag gene products are essential for the assembly and infectivity of HIV particles.

Hantavirus is an etiologic agent for several clinical syndromes, including hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). It's a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthohantavirus.

These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. The symptoms can range from flu-like illness to severe respiratory distress and renal failure, depending upon the specific hantavirus species. There are no known treatments for HFRS, but early recognition and supportive care can significantly improve outcomes. Ribavirin has been used in some cases of HPS with apparent benefit, although its general efficacy is not well-established

(References: CDC, NIH, WHO)

Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a species of the genus Orthohantavirus, which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. This enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, particularly the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Asia. The virus was initially isolated in 1976 from the Hantaan River area in Korea.

HTNV infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations in HFRS, ranging from mild to severe forms. The symptoms often include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and blurred vision. In severe cases, it can cause acute renal failure, hypotension, and hemorrhagic complications. The incubation period for HTNV infection typically ranges from 7 to 42 days.

Prevention strategies include avoiding contact with rodents, reducing rodent populations in living areas, using personal protective equipment when handling potentially infected materials, and ensuring proper food storage and waste disposal practices. No specific antiviral treatment is available for HFRS caused by HTNV; however, supportive care, such as fluid replacement and hemodialysis, can help manage severe symptoms and improve outcomes.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Hantavirus infections are a group of viral diseases caused by rodent-borne hantaviruses. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings, or saliva from infected rodents, particularly the deer mouse, white-tailed mouse, and rice rat in North America.

There are several different types of hantavirus infections, including Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS). HPS is more common in the Americas, while HFRS is more prevalent in Europe and Asia.

Symptoms of hantavirus infections can vary depending on the specific type of infection but may include fever, muscle aches, headache, fatigue, and coughing. In severe cases, hantavirus infections can lead to respiratory failure, shock, and even death.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents, sealing entry points to prevent their entry into homes or buildings, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when cleaning areas where rodents may have been present. Currently, there is no specific treatment for hantavirus infections, but early recognition and supportive care can improve outcomes.

"Gene products, GAG" refer to the proteins that are produced by the GAG (Group-specific Antigen) gene found in retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). These proteins play a crucial role in the structure and function of the viral particle or virion.

The GAG gene encodes for a polyprotein that is cleaved by a protease into several individual proteins, including matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. These proteins are involved in the formation of the viral core, which encloses the viral RNA genome and associated enzymes required for replication.

The MA protein is responsible for binding to the host cell membrane during viral entry, while the CA protein forms the capsid shell that surrounds the viral RNA and NC protein. The NC protein binds to the viral RNA and helps to package it into the virion during assembly. Overall, GAG gene products are essential for the life cycle of retroviruses and are important targets for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected individuals.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and is thought to be transmitted most readily through close person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The SARS outbreak began in southern China in 2002 and spread to several other countries before it was contained. The illness causes symptoms such as fever, chills, and body aches, which progress to a dry cough and sometimes pneumonia. Some people also report diarrhea. In severe cases, the illness can cause respiratory failure or death.

It's important to note that SARS is not currently a global health concern, as there have been no known cases since 2004. However, it remains a significant example of how quickly and widely a new infectious disease can spread in today's interconnected world.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Zinc fingers are a type of protein structural motif involved in specific DNA binding and, by extension, in the regulation of gene expression. They are so named because of their characteristic "finger-like" shape that is formed when a zinc ion binds to the amino acids within the protein. This structure allows the protein to interact with and recognize specific DNA sequences, thereby playing a crucial role in various biological processes such as transcription, repair, and recombination of genetic material.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

Bunyamwera virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Peribunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus. It was first isolated in 1943 from mosquitoes in the Bunyamwera district of Uganda. The viral genome consists of three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S).

The virus is primarily transmitted to vertebrates, including humans, through the bite of infected mosquitoes. It can cause a mild febrile illness in humans, characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, Bunyamwera virus infection is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild symptoms in humans.

Bunyamwera virus has a wide host range, including mammals, birds, and mosquitoes, and is found in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is an important pathogen in veterinary medicine, causing disease in livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

Research on Bunyamwera virus has contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology and ecology of bunyaviruses, which are a major cause of human and animal diseases worldwide.

Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) is a type of coronavirus that primarily infects laboratory mice. It is not related to the human hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, or E. MHV causes a range of diseases in mice, including hepatitis (liver inflammation), encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord), and enteritis (inflammation of the intestine). The virus is transmitted through fecal-oral route and respiratory droplets. It's widely used in research to understand the pathogenesis, immunity, and molecular biology of coronaviruses.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is a group of clinically similar diseases caused by several distinct but related orthohantaviruses. The viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with excreta of infected rodents.

The clinical presentation of HFRS includes four phases: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric (decreased urine output), and polyuric (increased urine output). The febrile phase is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, and abdominal pain. In the hypotensive phase, patients may experience a sudden drop in blood pressure, shock, and acute kidney injury leading to oliguria. The oliguric phase can last for days to weeks, followed by a polyuric phase where urine output increases significantly.

Additional symptoms of HFRS may include nausea, vomiting, conjunctival injection (redness), photophobia (sensitivity to light), and petechial rash (small red or purple spots on the skin caused by bleeding under the skin). In severe cases, HFRS can lead to acute renal failure, hypovolemic shock, and even death.

The severity of HFRS varies depending on the specific virus causing the infection. The most severe form of HFRS is caused by the Hantaaan virus, which has a mortality rate of up to 15%. Other viruses that can cause HFRS include Dobrava-Belgrade, Seoul, and Puumala viruses, with lower mortality rates ranging from less than 1% to about 5%.

Prevention measures for HFRS include reducing exposure to rodents and their excreta through proper food storage, waste disposal, and rodent control. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent HFRS caused by specific viruses.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Reverse transcription is the enzymatic process by which an RNA molecule is copied into a DNA sequence. This process is performed by the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which synthesizes a complementary DNA (cDNA) strand using the RNA as a template. Reverse transcription occurs naturally in retroviruses, such as HIV, where it allows the viral RNA genome to be integrated into the host cell's DNA. This mechanism is also used in molecular biology techniques like cDNA cloning and gene expression analysis.

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a species of coronavirus that causes respiratory infections in humans. It is one of the several coronaviruses known to cause the common cold. HCoV-OC43 belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus and is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus.

The virus was first identified in 1967 and has since been found to be widely distributed throughout the human population. It is estimated that HCoV-OC43 infections occur annually, with a peak incidence during the winter months in temperate climates. The symptoms of HCoV-OC43 infection are typically mild and include nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, and cough.

HCoV-OC43 is transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. The virus can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. There is no specific treatment for HCoV-OC43 infections, and management is generally supportive, with rest, hydration, and symptomatic relief of fever and cough.

HCoV-OC43 has been identified as one of the coronaviruses that have the potential to cause severe respiratory illness in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. However, most HCoV-OC43 infections are mild and do not require hospitalization.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness characterized by fever, cough, shortness of breath, and sometimes severe pneumonia. It is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

The syndrome is considered severe due to its potential to cause rapid spread in communities and healthcare settings, and for its high case fatality rate. In the global outbreak of 2002-2003, approximately 8,000 people were infected and nearly 800 died. Since then, no large outbreaks have been reported, although there have been isolated cases linked to laboratory accidents or animal exposures.

SARS is transmitted through close contact with an infected person's respiratory droplets, such as when they cough or sneeze. It can also be spread by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Healthcare workers and others in close contact with infected individuals are at higher risk of infection.

Preventive measures include good personal hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, wearing masks and other protective equipment when in close contact with infected individuals, and practicing respiratory etiquette (covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing). Infected individuals should be isolated and receive appropriate medical care to help manage their symptoms and prevent transmission to others.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Gammacoronavirus and family Coronaviridae. It is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB), a highly contagious respiratory disease in birds, particularly in chickens. The virus primarily affects the upper respiratory tract, causing tracheitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. In addition to respiratory issues, IBV can also lead to decreased egg production, poor growth rates, and impaired immune response in infected birds. Several serotypes and variants of IBV exist worldwide, making vaccine development and disease control challenging.

I'm happy to help! Here are the definitions for each of those terms:

1. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): RNA is a nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression. It carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. RNA is made up of a long chain of nucleotides, just like DNA, but with some key differences in its structure and composition.
2. Transfer: In the context of biochemistry, "transfer" refers to the movement or transport of molecules from one location to another within a cell or between cells. This process is often facilitated by specific proteins or other molecular carriers.
3. Lys (Lysine): Lysine is an essential amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It plays important roles in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, enzyme function, hormone production, and energy metabolism. In molecular biology, lysine is often used as a marker for certain types of modifications to proteins or nucleic acids.

Therefore, "RNA, Transfer, Lys" could refer to the transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries a specific amino acid, such as lysine, to the ribosome during protein synthesis. The tRNA molecule recognizes a specific codon on the messenger RNA (mRNA) and brings the corresponding amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain, allowing for the translation of genetic information into a functional protein.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Arterivirus is a type of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Arteriviridae. These viruses are named after their initial discovery in arteries and have since been found to infect a wide range of mammals, including pigs, horses, cats, and primates.

Arteriviruses can cause various diseases, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs, equine arteritis virus (EAV) in horses, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in non-human primates. In humans, Arterivirus infection is rare, but some cases of human infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus have been reported.

Arteriviruses are characterized by their unique viral structure, including a distinctive "coronavirus-like" appearance due to the presence of club-shaped projections on their surface called peplomers. However, they differ from coronaviruses in several ways, such as genome organization and replication strategy.

Overall, Arterivirus is an important group of viruses that can cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry and pose a potential threat to human health.

Bunyaviridae is a family of enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that includes more than 350 different species. These viruses are named after the type species, Bunyamwera virus, which was first isolated in 1943 from mosquitoes in Uganda.

The genome of Bunyaviridae viruses is divided into three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral genome. The M segment encodes two glycoproteins that form the viral envelope and are involved in attachment and fusion to host cells. The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein, which packages the viral RNA, and a non-structural protein that is involved in modulation of the host immune response.

Bunyaviridae viruses are transmitted to humans and animals through arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. Some members of this family can cause severe disease in humans, including Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever.

Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae viruses include avoiding contact with vectors, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing, and implementing vector control programs. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for most Bunyaviridae infections, although ribavirin has been shown to be effective against some members of the family. Vaccines are available for a few Bunyaviridae viruses, such as Hantavirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, but they are not widely used due to limitations in production and distribution.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Rinderpest virus (RPV) is a species in the genus Morbillivirus and family Paramyxoviridae. It is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that causes the highly contagious and often fatal disease called rinderpest in cattle, buffalo, and other even-toed ungulates (artiodactyls), including sheep, goats, and members of the deer family.

Historically, rinderpest has had devastating effects on livestock populations and has significantly impacted agricultural economies worldwide. The virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions and excretions. It mainly affects the respiratory and digestive systems of the host, causing symptoms such as fever, mouth sores, diarrhea, and severe weight loss.

Rinderpest was declared eradicated by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) in 2011, following a global effort to vaccinate animals and control the spread of the virus. It is one of only two viral diseases (the other being smallpox) that have been successfully eradicated through human intervention.

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Vesiculovirus. It is the causative agent of vesicular stomatitis (VS), a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, but can also infect other species including swine, sheep, goats, and humans.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their saliva, as well as through insect vectors such as black flies and sandflies. The incubation period for VS ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which infected animals develop fever, lethargy, and vesicular lesions in the mouth, nose, and feet. These lesions can be painful and may cause difficulty eating or walking.

In humans, VSIV infection is typically asymptomatic or causes mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and headache. Occasionally, individuals may develop vesicular lesions on their skin or mucous membranes, particularly if they have had contact with infected animals.

Diagnosis of VSIV infection is typically made through virus isolation from lesion exudates or blood, as well as through serological testing. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at relieving symptoms, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for VS. Prevention measures include vaccination of susceptible animals, vector control, and biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of infection between animals.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. It is the causative agent of Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS), also known as "blue ear disease" or "porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome."

The virus primarily affects pigs, causing a wide range of clinical signs including respiratory distress in young animals and reproductive failure in pregnant sows. The infection can lead to late-term abortions, stillbirths, premature deliveries, and weak or mummified fetuses. In growing pigs, PRRSV can cause pneumonia, which is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections.

PRRSV has a tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, and it replicates within these cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of the clinical signs associated with the disease. The virus is highly infectious and can spread rapidly in susceptible pig populations, making it a significant concern for the swine industry worldwide.

It's important to note that PRRSV has two distinct genotypes: Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American). Both types have a high degree of genetic diversity, which can make controlling the virus challenging. Vaccination is available for PRRSV, but it may not provide complete protection against all strains of the virus, and it may not prevent infection or shedding. Therefore, biosecurity measures, such as strict sanitation and animal movement controls, are critical to preventing the spread of this virus in pig populations.

Puumala virus (PUUV) is an RNA virus that belongs to the Hantavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. It is the most common cause of nephropathia epidemica (NE), also known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), in Europe. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodent urine, droppings, or saliva, particularly from the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). The symptoms of NE caused by PUUV include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting, which can progress to acute kidney injury in severe cases. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, as well as ensuring proper ventilation when cleaning areas where rodents may be present.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Nucleoproteins are complexes formed by the association of proteins with nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). These complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as packaging and protecting genetic material, regulating gene expression, and replication and repair of DNA. In these complexes, proteins interact with nucleic acids through electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and other non-covalent interactions, leading to the formation of stable structures that help maintain the integrity and function of the genetic material. Some well-known examples of nucleoproteins include histones, which are involved in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells, and reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in retroviruses that transcribes RNA into DNA.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

Tospovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Tospovirus. It is transmitted by thrips, small insects that feed on plant sap. Tospoviruses are important pathogens of plants and can cause serious diseases in a wide range of crops, including vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants.

Tospoviruses have a tripartite negative-stranded RNA genome, consisting of large (L), medium (M), and small (S) segments, which encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, two glycoproteins, and the nucleocapsid protein, respectively. The M segment also encodes a nonstructural protein called NSm, which is involved in viral movement within the plant.

The most well-known tospovirus is the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which infects over 800 host plants and causes significant economic losses worldwide. Other important tospoviruses include Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV).

Tospovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms in plants, including leaf spots, ring spots, necrosis, stunting, and reduced yield. There are no known cures for tospovirus infections, and control measures typically focus on preventing the spread of the virus through the use of resistant plant varieties, cultural practices, and insecticides to reduce thrips populations.

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as pneumonia. The name "coronavirus" comes from the Latin word "corona," which means crown or halo, reflecting the distinctive appearance of the virus particles under electron microscopy, which have a crown-like structure due to the presence of spike proteins on their surface.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and humans. Some coronaviruses are endemic in certain animal populations and occasionally jump to humans, causing outbreaks of new diseases. This is what happened with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and the most recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2.

Coronavirus infections typically cause respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and fever. In severe cases, they can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death, especially in older adults or people with underlying medical conditions. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, and gastrointestinal issues such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Preventive measures for coronavirus infections include frequent hand washing, wearing face masks, practicing social distancing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. There are currently vaccines available to prevent COVID-19, which have been shown to be highly effective in preventing severe illness, hospitalization, and death from the disease.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Orthobunyavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Peribunyaviridae, order Bunyavirales. These are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses. The genome consists of three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the M segment encodes two glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) and a nonstructural protein (NSm), and the S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N) and a nonstructural protein (NSs).

Orthobunyaviruses are primarily transmitted by arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges, and can cause disease in humans and animals. The diseases caused by orthobunyaviruses range from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. Some of the notable orthobunyaviruses include California encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Oropouche virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

Phlebovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae. These viruses have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome and are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected insects, such as sandflies or ticks. Some examples of diseases caused by Phleboviruses include sandfly fever, Toscana virus infection, and Rift Valley fever.

The term "Phlebovirus" comes from the Greek word "phleps," which means "vein," reflecting the viruses' tendency to cause febrile illnesses characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. The virus was first identified in the 1960s and has since been found in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with warm climates where sandflies and ticks are more common.

Phleboviruses have a complex structure, consisting of three segments of RNA enclosed within a lipid membrane derived from the host cell. The viral membrane contains two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are important for attachment to and entry into host cells. Once inside the cell, the virus uses its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to replicate its genome and produce new virions, which can then infect other cells or be transmitted to a new host through the bite of an infected insect.

Prevention and treatment of Phlebovirus infections are focused on avoiding exposure to infected insects and reducing symptoms through supportive care. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for these infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective therapies. Vaccines are also being developed for some Phleboviruses, such as Rift Valley fever, which can cause severe illness and death in humans and animals.

Rhabdoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several important human and animal pathogens. The name "Rhabdoviridae" comes from the Greek word "rhabdos," meaning rod, which refers to the characteristic bullet shape of these virions.

The family Rhabdoviridae is divided into six genera: Vesiculovirus, Lyssavirus, Ephemerovirus, Novirhabdovirus, Cytorhabdovirus, and Sphericalvirus. The most well-known member of this family is the rabies virus, which belongs to the genus Lyssavirus.

Rhabdoviruses have a simple structure, consisting of an envelope surrounding a helical nucleocapsid that contains the RNA genome. The virions are typically 100-430 nm in length and 45-100 nm in diameter, with a central electron-dense core surrounded by a less dense matrix protein layer.

Rhabdoviruses infect a wide range of hosts, including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and insects. They typically cause acute infections characterized by fever, lethargy, and other nonspecific symptoms. In severe cases, rhabdovirus infections can lead to serious neurological disorders, such as encephalitis or meningitis, and can be fatal if left untreated.

Transmission of rhabdoviruses occurs through various routes, depending on the specific virus and host. For example, rabies virus is typically transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, while other rhabdoviruses may be spread through contact with contaminated bodily fluids or aerosols.

Prevention and control measures for rhabdovirus infections depend on the specific virus and host. For example, rabies vaccination is effective in preventing infection in humans and animals, while other rhabdoviruses may be controlled through quarantine measures, insect control, or antiviral therapy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Marburgviruses are toxiviral hemorrhagic fever-causing agents that belong to the Filoviridae family, which also includes Ebolaviruses. These enveloped, non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses cause a severe and often fatal illness in humans and non-human primates. The Marburg virus was initially discovered in 1967, after simultaneous outbreaks occurred in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany, and in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia).

The virions of Marburgviruses are typically filamentous or U-shaped and measure approximately 80 nm in diameter. The genome consists of a single non-segmented, negative-sense RNA molecule that encodes seven structural proteins: nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase cofactor protein (VP35), matrix protein (VP40), glycoprotein (GP), transcription activator protein (VP30), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L), and a small hydrophobic protein (sVP24 or VP80).

Marburgviruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with the bodily fluids of infected animals, such as bats and non-human primates. Human-to-human transmission can occur via direct contact with infected individuals' blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids, as well as through contaminated surfaces and materials.

The incubation period for Marburg virus disease (MVD) typically ranges from 2 to 21 days. Initial symptoms include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and general malaise. As the disease progresses, patients may develop severe watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and unexplained bleeding or bruising. In fatal cases, MVD can cause multi-organ failure, shock, and death, often within 7 to 14 days after symptom onset.

Currently, there are no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments specifically for Marburg virus infections. However, supportive care, such as fluid replacement, electrolyte management, and treatment of secondary infections, can help improve outcomes for MVD patients. Preventive measures, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and proper infection control practices, are crucial to reducing the risk of transmission during outbreaks.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, the process by which cells create proteins. In protein synthesis, tRNAs serve as adaptors, translating the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids required to build a protein.

tRNAs have a distinct cloverleaf-like secondary structure and a compact L-shaped tertiary structure. Each tRNA molecule contains a specific anticodon triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a complementary codon in the mRNA during translation. At the other end of the tRNA, there is an amino acid attachment site where the corresponding amino acid is covalently attached through the action of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes.

Pro (also known as proline) is a specific amino acid that can be carried by certain tRNAs during protein synthesis. Therefore, in a medical definition context, 'RNA, Transfer, Pro' would refer to the transfer RNA molecule(s) specifically responsible for carrying and delivering proline during protein synthesis. This tRNA is typically denoted as tRNA^Pro^ or tRNA-Pro, with the superscript indicating the specific amino acid it carries.

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. They are named for the crown-like (corona) appearance of their surface proteins. Coronaviruses infect a wide range of animals, including mammals and birds, and can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases. Some coronaviruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), can cause severe and potentially fatal illness in humans. The most recent example is SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

Arenaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several species known to cause disease in humans and animals. The name "Arenaviridae" comes from the Latin word "arena," meaning "sand," due to the sandy appearance of these viruses when viewed under an electron microscope.

The virions (complete virus particles) of Arenaviridae are typically enveloped, spherical or pleomorphic in shape, and measure between 50-300 nanometers in diameter. The genome of Arenaviridae viruses is composed of two single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments called the L (large) segment and the S (small) segment. These segments encode for several viral proteins, including the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L).

Arenaviridae viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Lassa fever virus, Junín virus, Machupo virus, and Guanarito virus, which can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers. Other Arenaviridae viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), can cause milder illnesses in humans, including fever, rash, and meningitis.

Prevention and control of Arenaviridae infections typically involve reducing exposure to infected rodents and their excreta, as well as the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies for specific viruses in this family.

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects cattle and other animals such as yaks, deer, and occasionally humans. It is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae.

BCoV primarily causes respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle, resulting in symptoms such as pneumonia, coughing, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated food, water, or fomites.

In humans, BCoV infection is rare but has been associated with respiratory illnesses in people working closely with cattle, such as farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The symptoms of human BCoV infection are similar to those caused by other coronaviruses, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

Prevention measures for BCoV include good hygiene practices, wearing personal protective equipment when working with cattle, and vaccination of animals against the virus. There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for human BCoV infection.

Morbillivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. It includes several important human and animal pathogens that cause diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. The most well-known member of this genus is Measles virus (MV), which causes measles in humans, a highly contagious disease characterized by fever, rash, cough, and conjunctivitis.

Other important Morbilliviruses include:

* Rinderpest virus (RPV): This virus caused rinderpest, a severe disease in cattle and other cloven-hoofed animals, which was eradicated in 2011 through a global vaccination campaign.
* Canine Distemper Virus (CDV): A pathogen that affects dogs, wild canids, and several other mammalian species, causing a systemic disease with respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms.
* Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) and Porpoise Morbillivirus (PMV): These viruses affect marine mammals, such as seals and porpoises, causing mass mortality events in their populations.

Morbilliviruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses with a genome size of approximately 15-16 kilobases. They have a pleomorphic shape and can vary in diameter from 150 to 750 nanometers. The viral envelope contains two glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (H) protein, which mediates attachment to host cells, and the fusion (F) protein, which facilitates membrane fusion and viral entry.

Transmission of Morbilliviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals or animals. The viruses can cause acute infections with high fatality rates, particularly in naïve populations that lack immunity due to insufficient vaccination coverage or the absence of previous exposure.

In summary, Morbillivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae that includes several important human and animal pathogens causing acute respiratory infections with high fatality rates. Transmission occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact, and vaccination plays a crucial role in preventing outbreaks and controlling disease spread.

Paramyxoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several medically important pathogens. These viruses are characterized by their enveloped particles and helical symmetry. The paramyxoviruses can cause respiratory infections, neurological disorders, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

Some notable members of the Paramyxoviridae family include:

* Human respirovirus (also known as human parainfluenza virus): causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults.
* Human orthopneumovirus (also known as respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV): a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children.
* Measles morbillivirus: causes measles, a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, rash, and cough.
* Mumps virus: causes mumps, an acute infectious disease that primarily affects the salivary glands.
* Hendra virus and Nipah virus: zoonotic paramyxoviruses that can cause severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans and animals.

Effective vaccines are available for some paramyxoviruses, such as measles and mumps, but there are currently no approved vaccines for others, such as RSV and Nipah virus. Antiviral therapies are also limited, with only a few options available for the treatment of severe paramyxovirus infections.

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several genera capable of causing human disease. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks, or through contact with infected rodents or their excreta.

Some of the diseases caused by Bunyaviridae infections include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): This is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease caused by hantaviruses. It is transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings.
2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): This is a serious and often fatal viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the CCHF virus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, but can also be spread through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals.
3. Rift Valley Fever (RVF): This is a viral disease that primarily affects animals, but can also infect humans. It is transmitted to humans through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals, or through the bite of infected mosquitoes.
4. La Crosse Encephalitis: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. It primarily affects children and can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
5. Toscana Virus Infection: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and meningitis.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito and tick bites, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms of a Bunyaviridae infection develop.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus that causes respiratory infections in humans. It is one of the several coronaviruses known to cause the common cold. HCoV-229E was first identified in the 1960s and is named after the number assigned to it in the laboratory where it was discovered.

HCoV-229E infects the human body through the respiratory tract, and it primarily affects the upper respiratory system, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, cough, and fever. In some cases, HCoV-229E can also cause lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

HCoV-229E is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Coronaviridae and the genus Alphacoronavirus. It is transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. The virus can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making it possible to contract the infection by touching contaminated objects.

There is no specific treatment for HCoV-229E infections, and most people recover within a week or two with rest and symptomatic relief. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation. Preventive measures, such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, can help reduce the transmission of HCoV-229E and other respiratory viruses.

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a type of hantavirus that was first identified in 1993 during an outbreak of severe respiratory illness in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. The name "Sin Nombre" means "without name" in Spanish and was given to the virus because it had not been previously identified or named.

SNV is primarily carried by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodent urine, droppings, or saliva, or by inhaling aerosolized particles of the virus. The virus causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe and sometimes fatal respiratory disease characterized by fever, muscle aches, coughing, and shortness of breath.

SNV is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Hantavirus. It is a select agent, which means that it has the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety, and is therefore subject to strict regulations and controls by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other federal agencies.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Respirovirus is not typically used as a formal medical term in modern taxonomy. However, historically, it was used to refer to a genus of viruses within the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. This genus included several important human and animal pathogens that cause respiratory infections.

Human respiroviruses include:
1. Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) types 1, 2, and 3: These viruses are a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, such as croup, bronchitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children.
2. Sendai virus (also known as murine respirovirus): This virus primarily infects rodents but can occasionally cause mild respiratory illness in humans, especially those who work closely with these animals.

The term "respirovirus" is not officially recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) anymore, and these viruses are now classified under different genera within the subfamily Pneumovirinae: Human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 belong to the genus Orthorubulavirus, while Human parainfluenza virus 2 is placed in the genus Metapneumovirus.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

A coronavirus is a type of virus that causes respiratory illnesses, such as the common cold, and more severe diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. They can also spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching your own mouth, nose, or eyes.

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface. They are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and people. Common signs of infection include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death.

One of the most recently discovered coronaviruses is SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19. This virus was first identified in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and has since spread to become a global pandemic.

Rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects cattle and buffalo, although it can also infect other species such as sheep, goats, and deer. The virus responsible for rinderpest is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, which includes measles in humans and canine distemper in dogs.

The term "Rinderpest" comes from the German word "Rind," meaning cattle, and "Pest," meaning plague or pestilence. Historically, rinderpest has had devastating effects on livestock populations, causing significant economic losses and threatening food security in many parts of the world.

The disease is characterized by fever, oral lesions, diarrhea, and rapid weight loss, often leading to death within a week of infection. Transmission typically occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions, such as nasal discharge, saliva, or feces. The virus can also be spread via contaminated feed, water, and fomites (inanimate objects).

In 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations declared rinderpest eradicated, making it the first viral disease to be eliminated through human efforts. This achievement was largely due to extensive vaccination campaigns, improved surveillance, and strict quarantine measures. However, maintaining vigilance against potential re-emergence remains crucial, as the virus still exists in some laboratory collections.

Epitope mapping is a technique used in immunology to identify the specific portion or regions (called epitopes) on an antigen that are recognized and bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This process helps to understand the molecular basis of immune responses against various pathogens, allergens, or transplanted tissues.

Epitope mapping can be performed using different methods such as:

1. Peptide scanning: In this method, a series of overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the antigen are synthesized and tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. The peptide that shows binding is considered to contain the epitope.
2. Site-directed mutagenesis: In this approach, specific amino acids within the antigen are altered, and the modified antigens are tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This helps in identifying the critical residues within the epitope.
3. X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy: These techniques provide detailed information about the three-dimensional structure of antigen-antibody complexes, allowing for accurate identification of epitopes at an atomic level.

The results from epitope mapping can be useful in various applications, including vaccine design, diagnostic test development, and understanding the basis of autoimmune diseases.

Sigmodontinae is a subfamily of rodents, more specifically within the family Cricetidae. This group is commonly known as the New World rats and mice, and it includes over 300 species that are primarily found in North, Central, and South America. The members of Sigmodontinae vary greatly in size and habits, with some being arboreal while others live on the ground or burrow. Some species have specialized diets, such as eating insects or seeds, while others are more generalist feeders. This subfamily is also notable for its high degree of speciation and diversity, making it an interesting subject for evolutionary biologists and ecologists.

A nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) is a type of large, complex DNA virus that infects insects, particularly members of the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). NPVs are characterized by their ability to produce multiple virions within a single polyhedral occlusion body, which provides protection for the virions in the environment and facilitates their transmission between hosts.

NPVs replicate in the nucleus of infected cells, where they induce the production of large quantities of viral proteins that ultimately lead to the lysis of the host cell. The virions are then released and can infect other cells or be transmitted to other insects. NPVs are important pathogens of many agricultural pests, and some species have been developed as biological control agents for use in integrated pest management programs.

"Gag" is a term that refers to a group of genes found in retroviruses, a type of virus that includes HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). These genes encode proteins that play a crucial role in the replication and packaging of the viral genome into new virus particles.

The "gag" gene encodes a polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral proteases into several individual proteins during the maturation of the virus. The resulting proteins include matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins, as well as smaller peptides that help to facilitate the assembly and release of new virus particles.

The gag gene is an essential component of retroviruses, and its function has been extensively studied in order to better understand the replication cycle of these viruses and to develop potential therapies for retroviral infections.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal inflammatory disease of the brain characterized by seizures, cognitive decline, and motor function loss. It is caused by a persistent infection with the measles virus, even in individuals who had an uncomplicated acute measles infection earlier in life. The infection results in widespread degeneration and scarring (sclerosis) of the brain's gray matter.

The subacute phase of SSPE typically lasts for several months to a couple of years, during which patients experience a decline in cognitive abilities, behavioral changes, myoclonic jerks (involuntary muscle spasms), and visual disturbances. As the disease progresses, it leads to severe neurological impairment, coma, and eventually death.

SSPE is preventable through early childhood measles vaccination, which significantly reduces the risk of developing this fatal condition later in life.

Vesiculovirus is a genus of enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae. They are known to cause vesicular diseases (hence the name) in both animals and humans, characterized by the formation of blisters or vesicles on the skin. The most well-known member of this genus is the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which primarily affects cattle, horses, and pigs, causing oral and foot lesions. However, VSV can also infect humans, resulting in a flu-like illness. Other members of the Vesiculovirus genus include the Isfahan virus, Chandipura virus, and the Piry virus. These viruses are transmitted through insect vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, and can cause significant economic losses in the agricultural industry.

There is no medical definition or specific virus named "Encephalitis Virus, California." However, there are several viruses that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and some of them have been identified in California. Some examples include:

1. West Nile Virus: A mosquito-borne virus that is the most common cause of encephalitis in the United States, including California.
2. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus: Another mosquito-borne virus that is less common but can cause encephalitis, particularly in older adults. It has been identified in California.
3. Californian serogroup viruses (La Crosse, Jamestown Canyon, Snowshoe Hare): These are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and have been known to cause encephalitis, particularly in children. They are named after California because they were first identified there.
4. Tick-borne encephalitis viruses: There are several tick-borne viruses that can cause encephalitis, including Powassan virus and deer tick virus. These have been reported in California but are rare.

It's important to note that any virus that causes an infection in the body has the potential to spread to the brain and cause encephalitis, so there are many other viruses that could potentially be associated with encephalitis in California or any other location.

Arteriviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect a variety of animal hosts, including mammals and birds. The name "Arteriviridae" comes from the fact that some members of this family were initially identified as causes of diseases affecting arteries and the vascular system.

The genome of Arteriviridae viruses is around 12-16 kilobases in length and contains several open reading frames (ORFs) that encode various structural and non-structural proteins. The replication of these viruses occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and they are known to have a complex transcription strategy involving discontinuous transcription and production of subgenomic mRNAs.

Arteriviridae includes several important veterinary pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine arteritis virus (EAV), and lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) of mice. These viruses can cause a range of clinical symptoms in their respective hosts, including respiratory distress, reproductive failure, and immunosuppression.

Human pathogens belonging to Arteriviridae are not yet known, although some members of this family have been found to infect human cells in vitro. Further research is needed to determine the potential impact of Arteriviridae viruses on human health.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Nucleic acids are biological macromolecules composed of linear chains of nucleotides. They play crucial roles in the structure and function of cells, serving as the primary information-carrying molecules in all known forms of life. The two main types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is responsible for storing genetic information in a stable form that can be passed down from generation to generation, while RNA plays a key role in translating the genetic code stored in DNA into functional proteins.

Each nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose, while in RNA it is ribose. The nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA include adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Thymine (T) is found in DNA, but uracil (U) takes its place in RNA. These nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming a long, helical structure with backbones made up of alternating sugar and phosphate groups.

The sequence of these nitrogenous bases along the nucleic acid chain encodes genetic information in the form of codons, which are sets of three consecutive bases that specify particular amino acids or signals for protein synthesis. This information is used to direct the synthesis of proteins through a process called transcription (converting DNA to RNA) and translation (converting RNA to protein).

In summary, nucleic acids are essential biomolecules composed of chains of nucleotides that store, transmit, and express genetic information in cells. They consist of two main types: DNA and RNA, which differ in their sugar type, nitrogenous bases, and functions.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus, a type of virus that is transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. It belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus was first identified in 1930 during an investigation into a large epidemic of cattle deaths near Lake Naivasha in the Rift Valley of Kenya.

RVFV primarily affects animals, particularly sheep, goats, and cattle, causing severe illness and death in newborn animals and abortions in pregnant females. The virus can also infect humans, usually through contact with infected animal tissues or fluids, or through the bite of an infected mosquito. In humans, RVFV typically causes a self-limiting febrile illness, but in some cases, it can lead to more severe complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and retinitis (inflammation of the retina), which can result in permanent vision loss.

RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa, particularly in the Rift Valley region, but it has also been found in other parts of the continent, as well as in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The virus can be transmitted through the movement of infected animals or contaminated animal products, as well as through the spread of infected mosquitoes by wind or travel.

Prevention measures for RVFV include vaccination of livestock, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues, and avoidance of mosquito bites in areas where the virus is known to be present. There is currently no approved vaccine for humans, but several candidates are in development. Treatment for RVFV infection typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

HIV Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that is encoded by the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses. It plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS.

Reverse transcriptase is responsible for transcribing the viral RNA genome into DNA, a process known as reverse transcription. This allows the viral genetic material to integrate into the host cell's DNA and replicate along with it, leading to the production of new virus particles.

The enzyme has three distinct activities: a polymerase activity that synthesizes DNA using RNA as a template, an RNase H activity that degrades the RNA template during reverse transcription, and a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity that synthesizes DNA using a DNA template.

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, thereby preventing the virus from replicating.

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus that primarily affects the pig's intestinal tract, causing severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. The infection is highly contagious and can lead to significant mortality in young piglets. TGEV is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can also be spread by contaminated fomites or aerosols. It primarily infects enterocytes in the small intestine, leading to villous atrophy and malabsorption of nutrients. There are no specific antiviral treatments for TGEV infection, and control measures typically focus on biosecurity, vaccination, and preventing the spread of the virus between herds.

Arenaviruses, New World, are a group of viruses in the Arenaviridae family that primarily infect rodents and can cause disease in humans. They are named after the Latin word "arena" which means "sand" because of the sandy-like appearance of their virions when viewed under an electron microscope.

New World arenaviruses include several different species, such as Junín virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, and Sabia virus, among others. These viruses are endemic to certain regions in the Americas, particularly in South America. They are transmitted to humans through close contact with infected rodents or their excreta, and can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates if left untreated.

Some New World arenaviruses, such as Junín virus and Machupo virus, have been associated with outbreaks of human disease in the past, while others, like Guanarito virus and Sabia virus, have caused sporadic cases of illness. There are currently no vaccines available for most New World arenaviruses, although research is ongoing to develop effective countermeasures against these viruses.

La Crosse virus (LACV) is an orthobunyavirus that belongs to the California serogroup and is the most common cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis in the United States. It is named after La Crosse, Wisconsin, where it was first identified in 1963.

LACV is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus), which serve as the primary vector and amplifying host for the virus. The virus can also be found in other mosquito species, such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus.

The transmission cycle of LACV involves mosquitoes feeding on infected small mammals, particularly chipmunks and squirrels, which serve as the natural reservoirs for the virus. The virus then replicates in the salivary glands of the mosquito, making it possible to transmit the virus through their bite.

LACV infection can cause a range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe neurological complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). Most cases occur in children under the age of 16, with peak transmission during summer months.

Preventive measures for LACV include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, eliminating standing water around homes to reduce mosquito breeding sites, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours (dawn and dusk). There is currently no specific antiviral treatment available for LACV infection, and management typically involves supportive care to address symptoms.

The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a betaretrovirus, that naturally infects certain species of primates. It was first discovered in 1966 and has been studied extensively due to its ability to cause immunodeficiency in its host, similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

MPMV is not a significant threat to humans as it does not infect human cells efficiently. However, it has been used as a model system for studying retroviral replication and pathogenesis, which has contributed significantly to our understanding of HIV and other related viruses.

It's worth noting that MPMV should not be confused with SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus), another primate virus that is more closely related to HIV and can infect humans under certain circumstances, causing a disease known as AIDS.

Dimerization is a process in which two molecules, usually proteins or similar structures, bind together to form a larger complex. This can occur through various mechanisms, such as the formation of disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonding, or other non-covalent interactions. Dimerization can play important roles in cell signaling, enzyme function, and the regulation of gene expression.

In the context of medical research and therapy, dimerization is often studied in relation to specific proteins that are involved in diseases such as cancer. For example, some drugs have been developed to target and inhibit the dimerization of certain proteins, with the goal of disrupting their function and slowing or stopping the progression of the disease.

Hemorrhagic fever, American is a group of viral diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected ticks, mosquitoes or rodents. The most common types of American hemorrhagic fevers include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): It is caused by Sin Nombre virus and is transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings or saliva of infected rodents.
2. Colorado Tick Fever (CTF): It is caused by a Coltivirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick.
3. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE): It is caused by an Alphavirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.
4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE): They are also caused by Alphaviruses and are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.

These diseases are called hemorrhagic fevers because they are characterized by bleeding disorders, high fever, muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to shock, organ failure, and death. There are no specific treatments for these diseases, but early detection and supportive care can improve outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing in areas where the diseases are common.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses. These viruses are spread to people through the aerosolized urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents. The virus cannot be transmitted between humans unless there is direct contact with an infected person's blood or bodily fluids. Early symptoms include fatigue, fever, and muscle aches, followed by coughing and shortness of breath as the lungs fill with fluid leading to severe respiratory distress. It's crucial to seek immediate medical attention if you suspect HPS because it can progress rapidly to serious illness or death within days.

The Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a gammaretrovirus, that is commonly found in mice. It was first discovered and isolated by John Moloney in 1960. Mo-MLV is known to cause various types of cancerous conditions, particularly leukemia, in susceptible mouse strains.

Mo-MLV has a single-stranded RNA genome that is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA upon infection of the host cell. This viral DNA then integrates into the host's genome and utilizes the host's cellular machinery to produce new virus particles. The Mo-MLV genome encodes for several viral proteins, including gag (group-specific antigen), pol (polymerase), and env (envelope) proteins, which are essential for the replication cycle of the virus.

Mo-MLV is widely used in laboratory research as a model retrovirus to study various aspects of viral replication, gene therapy, and oncogenesis. It has also been engineered as a vector for gene delivery applications due to its ability to efficiently integrate into the host genome and deliver large DNA sequences. However, it is important to note that Mo-MLV and other retroviruses have the potential to cause insertional mutagenesis, which can lead to unintended genetic alterations and adverse effects in some cases.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Arenavirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Arenaviridae. These viruses are enveloped and have a single-stranded, bi-segmented RNA genome. They are named after the Latin word "arena" which means "sand" because their virions contain ribosomes which resemble sand granules when viewed under an electron microscope.

Arenaviruses are primarily associated with rodents and can cause chronic infection in their natural hosts. Some arenaviruses can also infect humans and other animals, causing severe hemorrhagic fevers. Examples of human diseases caused by arenaviruses include Lassa fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever.

These viruses are typically transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, but some can also be spread from person to person through close contact with an infected individual's blood or other bodily fluids. There are currently no vaccines available for most arenaviruses, and treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and complications.

"Spodoptera" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the insect family Noctuidae. It includes several species of moths commonly known as armyworms or cutworms due to their habit of consuming leaves and roots of various plants, causing significant damage to crops.

Some well-known species in this genus are Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm), Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm), and Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). These pests can be a concern for medical entomology when they transmit pathogens or cause allergic reactions. For instance, their frass (feces) and shed skins may trigger asthma symptoms in susceptible individuals. However, the insects themselves are not typically considered medical issues unless they directly affect human health.

Junin virus is a type of arenavirus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever, a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Argentina. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with the excreta of infected rodents, particularly the dryland vole (Microtus parvulus).

The Junin virus has a lipid envelope and a single-stranded RNA genome that encodes for four structural proteins and several nonstructural proteins. The viral glycoproteins are responsible for receptor binding, membrane fusion, and host immune response evasion.

Argentine hemorrhagic fever caused by Junin virus is characterized by fever, muscle pain, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms, which can progress to severe bleeding, shock, and multi-organ failure in severe cases. The virus has a high case fatality rate if left untreated, but antiviral therapy with ribavirin and immune plasma from convalescent patients has significantly improved survival rates.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using personal protective equipment during high-risk activities, and implementing rodent control programs in endemic areas. Vaccination with the Candid #1 vaccine has also been shown to be effective in preventing Argentine hemorrhagic fever caused by Junin virus.

Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus (it is transmitted from animals to humans) that causes severe illness in both humans and animals. It was first identified during an outbreak of disease in pigs and people in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999.

The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus. Transmission to humans may occur through direct contact with infected bats or consumption of date palm sap contaminated by excretions or secretions from infected bats. Human-to-human transmission is also possible through close contact with people's secretions and excretions.

Infection with NiV can lead to a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory illness and severe encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). The case fatality rate is estimated to be about 40-75% in humans. There is no vaccine available for either humans or animals. Prevention strategies include avoiding consumption of raw date palm sap, wearing protective clothing while handling infected animals or their contaminated materials, and practicing good hygiene.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

White Spot Syndrome Virus 1 (WSSV-1) is not typically recognized as a human or mammalian pathogen. It is primarily known to affect crustaceans, particularly penaeid shrimps. WSSV-1 is a large double-stranded DNA virus from the family Nimaviridae and genus Whispovirus. The virus is highly virulent and can cause rapid death in infected animals, resulting in significant economic losses in aquaculture industries.

The name "White Spot Syndrome Virus" refers to the characteristic white spots that appear on the exoskeleton of infected shrimps before their death. It's essential to clarify that WSSV-1 is not a human health concern, and its medical definition is primarily relevant in the context of veterinary medicine and aquaculture.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), bovine refers to a species-specific strain of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus that primarily infects cattle. It is a member of the Pneumoviridae family and Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is closely related to human RSV, and it can cause respiratory infections in young calves, leading to symptoms such as nasal discharge, coughing, difficulty breathing, and pneumonia.

Bovine RSV shares many similarities with its human counterpart, including the ability to form syncytia (multinucleated giant cells) in infected tissues. However, bovine RSV is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans. It is primarily studied as a model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of RSV infections in general.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Molecular chaperones are a group of proteins that assist in the proper folding and assembly of other protein molecules, helping them achieve their native conformation. They play a crucial role in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, which can lead to the formation of toxic species associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones are also involved in protein transport across membranes, degradation of misfolded proteins, and protection of cells under stress conditions. Their function is generally non-catalytic and ATP-dependent, and they often interact with their client proteins in a transient manner.

A spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a type of protein that extends from the surface of the virus and gives it its characteristic crown-like appearance (hence the name "corona," which is Latin for "crown"). This protein plays a crucial role in the infection process of the virus. It allows the virus to attach to and enter specific cells in the host organism, typically through binding to a receptor on the cell surface. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, the spike protein binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor found on cells in various tissues, including the lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract.

The spike protein is composed of two subunits: S1 and S2. The S1 subunit contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which recognizes and binds to the host cell receptor. After binding, the S2 subunit mediates the fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate infection.

The spike protein is also a primary target for neutralizing antibodies generated by the host immune system during infection or following vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies bind to specific regions of the spike protein, preventing it from interacting with host cell receptors and thus inhibiting viral entry into cells.

In summary, a spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a crucial structural and functional component that facilitates viral attachment, fusion, and entry into host cells. Its importance in the infection process makes it an essential target for vaccine development and therapeutic interventions.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and causes a contagious and serious disease in dogs and other animals. The virus primarily affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems of infected animals.

The symptoms of canine distemper can vary widely depending on the age and immune status of the animal, as well as the strain of the virus. Initial signs may include fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and discharge from the eyes and nose. As the disease progresses, affected animals may develop vomiting, diarrhea, pneumonia, and neurological symptoms such as seizures, muscle twitching, and paralysis.

Canine distemper is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected animals or their respiratory secretions. The virus can also be transmitted through contaminated objects such as food bowls, water dishes, and bedding.

Prevention of canine distemper is achieved through vaccination, which is recommended for all dogs as a core vaccine. It is important to keep dogs up-to-date on their vaccinations and to avoid contact with unfamiliar or unvaccinated animals. There is no specific treatment for canine distemper, and therapy is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications.

Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR) virus is a negative-stranded, enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR), also known as sheep and goat plague, which is a highly contagious disease affecting small ruminants such as sheep and goats. The virus is closely related to the rinderpest virus, which was declared eradicated in 2011.

The PPR virus primarily targets the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems of infected animals, causing symptoms such as fever, nasal discharge, coughing, diarrhea, and mouth ulcers. The disease can be severe and often results in high mortality rates, particularly in young animals.

PPR is a significant threat to food security and the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa and Asia. Vaccination programs have been implemented to control the spread of the virus and reduce its impact on susceptible populations.

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is a protein found in the core of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is present during active replication of the virus and plays a crucial role in the formation of the viral capsid or core. The antibodies produced against HBcAg (anti-HBc) can be detected in the blood, which serves as a marker for current or past HBV infection. It is important to note that HBcAg itself is not detectable in the blood because it is confined within the viral particle. However, during the serological testing of hepatitis B, the detection of anti-HBc IgM indicates a recent acute infection, while the presence of anti-HBc IgG suggests either a past resolved infection or an ongoing chronic infection.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that affects pigs, causing reproductive failure in breeding herds and respiratory illness in young pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus, which belongs to the family Arteriviridae.

In pregnant sows, PRRS can cause abortions, stillbirths, mummified fetuses, and weak or infertile offspring. In growing pigs, it can lead to pneumonia, reduced growth rates, and increased susceptibility to other infections. The virus is highly contagious and can spread rapidly within a herd through direct contact with infected pigs, aerosols, or contaminated fomites.

PRRS is a significant disease of global importance, causing substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Control measures include biosecurity practices, vaccination, and testing to detect and eliminate the virus from affected herds. However, there is no specific treatment for PRRS, and eradication of the virus from the pig population is unlikely due to its widespread distribution and ability to persist in infected animals and the environment.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification to become active. These modifications typically include cleavage of the precursor protein by specific enzymes, resulting in the release of the active protein. This process allows for the regulation and control of protein activity within the body. Protein precursors can be found in various biological processes, including the endocrine system where they serve as inactive hormones that can be converted into their active forms when needed.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Ebolavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. It is named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), where the virus was first identified in 1976. There are six species of Ebolavirus, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, and Tai Forest ebolavirus (formerly Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus). The fifth species, Reston ebolavirus, is known to cause disease in non-human primates and pigs, but not in humans. The sixth and most recently identified species, Bombali ebolavirus, has not been associated with any human or animal diseases.

Ebolaviruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of Ebolavirus.

The symptoms of Ebolavirus disease (EVD) typically include fever, severe headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. The case fatality rate of EVD is variable but has been historically high, ranging from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks depending on the species and the quality of medical care. There are no licensed specific treatments or vaccines available for EVD, although several promising candidates are currently under development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. "Arteritis Virus, Equine" is not a recognized medical term or virus in humans or animals. There is a condition called "Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)," which is a viral disease that affects horses and other equine species. However, it does not affect humans.

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is caused by the Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). This virus primarily affects the respiratory system and can cause symptoms such as fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and a runny nose in infected horses. In some cases, it may also lead to inflammation of the lining of blood vessels (vasculitis), which can result in abortion in pregnant mares or infertility in stallions.

It's essential to maintain proper biosecurity measures when dealing with horses, especially those that have been exposed to EVA, to prevent its spread and protect the health of other equine populations.

Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) is an alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, which is primarily transmitted to vertebrates through mosquito vectors. The virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest of Uganda and has since been found in various parts of Africa and Asia. SFV infection in humans can cause a mild febrile illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, it is more commonly known for causing severe disease in animals, particularly non-human primates and cattle, where it can lead to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. SFV has also been used as a model organism in laboratory studies of virus replication and pathogenesis.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A sequence deletion in a genetic context refers to the removal or absence of one or more nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) from a specific region in a DNA or RNA molecule. This type of mutation can lead to the loss of genetic information, potentially resulting in changes in the function or expression of a gene. If the deletion involves a critical portion of the gene, it can cause diseases, depending on the role of that gene in the body. The size of the deleted sequence can vary, ranging from a single nucleotide to a large segment of DNA.

Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human (HPIV-3) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and immunocompromised individuals.

HPIV-3 primarily infects the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild to severe respiratory illnesses. The incubation period for HPIV-3 infection is typically 3-7 days. In infants and young children, HPIV-3 can cause croup (laryngotracheobronchitis), bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, while in adults, it usually results in mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected respiratory secretions or contaminated surfaces, and infection can occur throughout the year but tends to peak during fall and winter months. Currently, there are no approved vaccines for HPIV-3; treatment is primarily supportive and focuses on managing symptoms and complications.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, a highly contagious and often fatal viral infection affecting birds and poultry worldwide. The virus can cause various clinical signs, including respiratory distress, neurological disorders, and decreased egg production, depending on the strain's virulence. NDV has zoonotic potential, but human infections are rare and typically result in mild, flu-like symptoms.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the nervous system of mammals, including humans. It's caused by the rabies virus (RV), which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. The virus has a bullet-shaped appearance under an electron microscope and is encased in a lipid envelope.

The rabies virus primarily spreads through the saliva of infected animals, usually via bites. Once inside the body, it travels along nerve fibers to the brain, where it multiplies rapidly and causes inflammation (encephalitis). The infection can lead to symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, paralysis, coma, and ultimately death if left untreated.

Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but prompt post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes vaccination and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin, can prevent the disease from developing when administered after an exposure to a potentially rabid animal. Pre-exposure vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians and travelers visiting rabies-endemic areas.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral disease transmitted to humans through tick bites or contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughter. The virus belongs to the Nairovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The disease was first identified in Crimea in 1944 and later in the Congo in 1956, hence the name Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

The CCHF virus causes severe illness with a case fatality rate of up to 40% in hospitalized patients. The symptoms include sudden onset of fever, muscle pain, headache, dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, back pain, sore eyes, and sensitivity to light. After a few days, patients may develop nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, gums, and private parts.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for CCHF, but early supportive care with oral or intravenous fluids, analgesics, and antipyretics can significantly reduce mortality. Ribavirin has been used in the treatment of severe cases, but its efficacy is not fully proven. Preventive measures include avoiding tick bites, using protective clothing and gloves while handling animals or their tissues, and practicing good hygiene and food safety.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Baculoviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect arthropods, particularly insects. The virions (virus particles) are enclosed in a rod-shaped or occlusion body called a polyhedron, which provides protection and stability in the environment. Baculoviruses have a wide host range within the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants), and Diptera (flies). They are important pathogens in agriculture and forestry, causing significant damage to insect pests.

The Baculoviridae family is divided into four genera: Alphabaculovirus, Betabaculovirus, Gammabaculovirus, and Deltabaculovirus. The two most well-studied and economically important genera are Alphabaculovirus (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses or NPVs) and Betabaculovirus (granulosis viruses or GVs).

Baculoviruses have a biphasic replication cycle, consisting of a budded phase and an occluded phase. During the budded phase, the virus infects host cells and produces enveloped virions that can spread to other cells within the insect. In the occluded phase, large numbers of non-enveloped virions are produced and encapsidated in a protein matrix called a polyhedron. These polyhedra accumulate in the infected insect's tissues, providing protection from environmental degradation and facilitating transmission to new hosts through oral ingestion or other means.

Baculoviruses have been extensively studied as models for understanding viral replication, gene expression, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology and pest control, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy vectors, and environmentally friendly insecticides.

The HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) is a regulatory region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome that contains important sequences necessary for the transcription and replication of the virus. The LTR is divided into several functional regions, including the U3, R, and U5 regions.

The U3 region contains various transcription factor binding sites that regulate the initiation of viral transcription. The R region contains a promoter element that helps to recruit the enzyme RNA polymerase II for the transcription process. The U5 region contains signals required for the proper processing and termination of viral RNA transcription.

The LTR plays a crucial role in the life cycle of HIV, as it is involved in the integration of the viral genome into the host cell's DNA, allowing the virus to persist and replicate within the infected cell. Understanding the function and regulation of the HIV LTR has been an important area of research in the development of HIV therapies and potential vaccines.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These small mammals are characterized by their short legs, rounded bodies, and short tails. They are primarily found in the northern hemisphere, with the majority of species living in North America and Eurasia.

Arvicolines are known for their high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, tundra, and wetlands. They have a unique set of teeth called hypsodont teeth, which continue to grow throughout their lives. This adaptation allows them to wear down their teeth as they gnaw on tough plant material.

Many arvicoline species are important prey animals for larger predators, such as hawks, owls, and foxes. Some species, like the muskrat, are also hunted by humans for their fur or meat. In recent years, some arvicoline populations have experienced dramatic fluctuations in size due to changes in their habitats and food supplies, leading to concerns about their conservation status.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Lassa virus is an arenavirus that causes Lassa fever, a type of hemorrhagic fever. It is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings. The virus can also be spread through person-to-person transmission via direct contact with the blood, urine, feces, or other bodily fluids of an infected person.

The virus was first discovered in 1969 in the town of Lassa in Nigeria, hence its name. It is endemic to West Africa and is a significant public health concern in countries such as Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. The symptoms of Lassa fever can range from mild to severe and may include fever, sore throat, muscle pain, chest pain, and vomiting. In severe cases, the virus can cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures for Lassa fever include avoiding contact with rodents, storing food in rodent-proof containers, and practicing good hygiene. There is no vaccine available to prevent Lassa fever, but ribavirin, an antiviral drug, has been shown to be effective in treating the disease if administered early in the course of illness.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or through airborne droplets released during coughing and sneezing.

The classic symptoms of measles include:

1. Fever: A high fever (often greater than 104°F or 40°C) usually appears before the onset of the rash, lasting for about 4-7 days.
2. Cough: A persistent cough is common and may become severe.
3. Runny nose: A runny or blocked nose is often present during the early stages of the illness.
4. Red eyes (conjunctivitis): Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye, can cause redness and irritation.
5. Koplik's spots: These are small, irregular, bluish-white spots with a red base that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks, usually 1-2 days before the rash appears. They are considered pathognomonic for measles, meaning their presence confirms the diagnosis.
6. Rash: The characteristic measles rash typically starts on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, and legs. It consists of flat red spots that may merge together, forming irregular patches. The rash usually lasts for 5-7 days before fading.

Complications from measles can be severe and include pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and ear infections. In rare cases, measles can lead to serious long-term complications or even death, particularly in young children, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent measles. The measles vaccine is typically administered as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, which provides immunity against all three diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Penaeidae" is not a medical term. It is actually the scientific name of a family of crustaceans, specifically marine decapods, commonly known as prawns or shrimps. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those instead.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that selectively interact with RNA molecules to form ribonucleoprotein complexes. These proteins play crucial roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, transport, localization, and translation. RBPs recognize specific RNA sequences or structures through their modular RNA-binding domains, which can be highly degenerate and allow for the recognition of a wide range of RNA targets. The interaction between RBPs and RNA is often dynamic and can be regulated by various post-translational modifications of the proteins or by environmental stimuli, allowing for fine-tuning of gene expression in response to changing cellular needs. Dysregulation of RBP function has been implicated in various human diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Respiratory Syncytial Viruses (RSV) are a common type of virus that cause respiratory infections, particularly in young children and older adults. They are responsible for inflammation and narrowing of the small airways in the lungs, leading to breathing difficulties and other symptoms associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

The term "syncytial" refers to the ability of these viruses to cause infected cells to merge and form large multinucleated cells called syncytia, which is a characteristic feature of RSV infections. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and it can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making transmission easy.

RSV infections are most common during the winter months and can cause mild to severe symptoms depending on factors such as age, overall health, and underlying medical conditions. While RSV is typically associated with respiratory illnesses in children, it can also cause significant disease in older adults and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no vaccine available for RSV, but antiviral medications and supportive care are used to manage severe infections.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

RNA-directed DNA polymerase is a type of enzyme that can synthesize DNA using an RNA molecule as a template. This process is called reverse transcription, and it is the mechanism by which retroviruses, such as HIV, replicate their genetic material. The enzyme responsible for this reaction in retroviruses is called reverse transcriptase.

Reverse transcriptase is an important target for antiretroviral therapy used to treat HIV infection and AIDS. In addition to its role in viral replication, RNA-directed DNA polymerase also has applications in molecular biology research, such as in the production of complementary DNA (cDNA) copies of RNA molecules for use in downstream applications like cloning and sequencing.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape. This method involves the use of a centrifuge and a density gradient medium, such as sucrose or cesium chloride, to create a stable density gradient within a column or tube.

The sample is carefully layered onto the top of the gradient and then subjected to high-speed centrifugation. During centrifugation, the particles in the sample move through the gradient based on their size, density, and shape, with heavier particles migrating faster and further than lighter ones. This results in the separation of different components of the mixture into distinct bands or zones within the gradient.

This technique is commonly used to purify and concentrate various types of biological materials, such as viruses, organelles, ribosomes, and subcellular fractions, from complex mixtures. It allows for the isolation of pure and intact particles, which can then be collected and analyzed for further study or use in downstream applications.

In summary, Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape using a centrifuge and a density gradient medium.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

A genetic template refers to the sequence of DNA or RNA that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism or any of its components. These templates provide the code for the synthesis of proteins and other functional molecules, and determine many of the inherited traits and characteristics of an individual. In this sense, genetic templates serve as the blueprint for life and are passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

In molecular biology, the term "template" is used to describe the strand of DNA or RNA that serves as a guide or pattern for the synthesis of a complementary strand during processes such as transcription and replication. During transcription, the template strand of DNA is transcribed into a complementary RNA molecule, while during replication, each parental DNA strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand.

In genetic engineering and synthetic biology, genetic templates can be manipulated and modified to introduce new functions or alter existing ones in organisms. This is achieved through techniques such as gene editing, where specific sequences in the genetic template are targeted and altered using tools like CRISPR-Cas9. Overall, genetic templates play a crucial role in shaping the structure, function, and evolution of all living organisms.

A two-hybrid system technique is a type of genetic screening method used in molecular biology to identify protein-protein interactions within an organism, most commonly baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Escherichia coli. The name "two-hybrid" refers to the fact that two separate proteins are being examined for their ability to interact with each other.

The technique is based on the modular nature of transcription factors, which typically consist of two distinct domains: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an activation domain (AD). In a two-hybrid system, one protein of interest is fused to the DBD, while the second protein of interest is fused to the AD. If the two proteins interact, the DBD and AD are brought in close proximity, allowing for transcriptional activation of a reporter gene that is linked to a specific promoter sequence recognized by the DBD.

The main components of a two-hybrid system include:

1. Bait protein (fused to the DNA-binding domain)
2. Prey protein (fused to the activation domain)
3. Reporter gene (transcribed upon interaction between bait and prey proteins)
4. Promoter sequence (recognized by the DBD when brought in proximity due to interaction)

The two-hybrid system technique has several advantages, including:

1. Ability to screen large libraries of potential interacting partners
2. High sensitivity for detecting weak or transient interactions
3. Applicability to various organisms and protein types
4. Potential for high-throughput analysis

However, there are also limitations to the technique, such as false positives (interactions that do not occur in vivo) and false negatives (lack of detection of true interactions). Additionally, the fusion proteins may not always fold or localize correctly, leading to potential artifacts. Despite these limitations, two-hybrid system techniques remain a valuable tool for studying protein-protein interactions and have contributed significantly to our understanding of various cellular processes.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

2-Aminopurine is a fluorescent purine analog, which means it is a compound that is similar in structure to the naturally occurring molecule called purines, which are building blocks of DNA and RNA. 2-Aminopurine is used in research to study the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) due to its fluorescent properties. It can be incorporated into oligonucleotides (short stretches of nucleic acids) to allow for the monitoring of interactions between nucleic acids, such as during DNA replication or transcription. The fluorescence of 2-Aminopurine changes upon excitation with light and can be used to detect structural changes in nucleic acids or to measure the distance between two fluorophores.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

Nucleic acid denaturation is the process of separating the two strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule, or unwinding the helical structure of an RNA molecule, by disrupting the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands together. This process is typically caused by exposure to high temperatures, changes in pH, or the presence of chemicals called denaturants.

Denaturation can also cause changes in the shape and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can disrupt the secondary and tertiary structures of RNA molecules, which can affect their ability to bind to other molecules and carry out their functions within the cell.

In molecular biology, nucleic acid denaturation is often used as a tool for studying the structure and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can be used to separate the two strands of a DNA molecule for sequencing or amplification, or to study the interactions between nucleic acids and other molecules.

It's important to note that denaturation is a reversible process, and under the right conditions, the double-stranded structure of DNA can be restored through a process called renaturation or annealing.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a highly contagious virus that causes infections in the respiratory system. In humans, it primarily affects the nose, throat, lungs, and bronchioles (the airways leading to the lungs). It is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections and bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) in young children, but can also infect older children and adults.

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) belongs to the family Pneumoviridae and is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. The viral envelope contains two glycoproteins: the G protein, which facilitates attachment to host cells, and the F protein, which mediates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Infection with hRSV typically occurs through direct contact with respiratory droplets from an infected person or contaminated surfaces. The incubation period ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which symptoms such as runny nose, cough, sneezing, fever, and wheezing may appear. In severe cases, particularly in infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems, hRSV can cause pneumonia or bronchiolitis, leading to hospitalization and, in rare cases, death.

Currently, there is no approved vaccine for hRSV; however, passive immunization with palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody, is available for high-risk infants to prevent severe lower respiratory tract disease caused by hRSV. Supportive care and prevention of complications are the mainstays of treatment for hRSV infections.

Osteitis deformans, also known as Paget's disease of bone, is a chronic disorder of the bone characterized by abnormal turnover and remodeling of the bone. In this condition, the bone becomes enlarged, thickened, and deformed due to excessive and disorganized bone formation and resorption.

The process begins when the bone-remodeling cycle is disrupted, leading to an imbalance between the activity of osteoclasts (cells that break down bone) and osteoblasts (cells that form new bone). In Paget's disease, osteoclasts become overactive and increase bone resorption, followed by an overzealous response from osteoblasts, which attempt to repair the damage but do so in a disorganized manner.

The affected bones can become weakened, prone to fractures, and may cause pain, deformities, or other complications such as arthritis, hearing loss, or neurological symptoms if the skull or spine is involved. The exact cause of Paget's disease remains unknown, but it is believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications associated with osteitis deformans. Treatment options include medications to slow down bone turnover, pain management, and orthopedic interventions when necessary.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are complexes composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression, RNA processing, transport, stability, and degradation. Different types of RNPs exist, such as ribosomes, spliceosomes, and signal recognition particles, each having specific functions in the cell.

Ribosomes are large RNP complexes responsible for protein synthesis, where messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into proteins. They consist of two subunits: a smaller subunit containing ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins that recognize the start codon on mRNA, and a larger subunit with rRNA and proteins that facilitate peptide bond formation during translation.

Spliceosomes are dynamic RNP complexes involved in pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed, and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNA. Spliceosomes consist of five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), each containing a specific small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and several proteins, as well as numerous additional proteins.

Other RNP complexes include signal recognition particles (SRPs), which are responsible for targeting secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum during translation, and telomerase, an enzyme that maintains the length of telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes) by adding repetitive DNA sequences using its built-in RNA component.

In summary, ribonucleoproteins are essential complexes in the cell that participate in various aspects of RNA metabolism and protein synthesis.

Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the virus named Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). It is a severe and often fatal illness. The disease is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, muscle pain, severe headache, soreness in the eyes, fatigue, and dizziness. After two to four days, there may be evidence of hemorrhage (bleeding) from the mouth, gums, nose, or other sites. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks that feed on domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughtering. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons. Healthcare workers are at risk if they are not wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. There is no specific treatment for CHF yet, but early supportive care and symptomatic treatment improve survival rates.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Avian sarcoma viruses (ASVs) are a group of retroviruses that primarily infect birds and cause various types of tumors, particularly sarcomas. These viruses contain an oncogene, which is a gene that has the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous ones. The oncogene in ASVs is often derived from cellular genes called proto-oncogenes, which are normally involved in regulating cell growth and division.

ASVs can be divided into two main types: non-defective and defective. Non-defective ASVs contain a complete set of viral genes that allow them to replicate independently, while defective ASVs lack some of the necessary viral genes and require assistance from other viruses to replicate.

One well-known example of an avian sarcoma virus is the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which was first discovered in chickens by Peyton Rous in 1910. RSV causes a highly malignant form of sarcoma in chickens and has been extensively studied as a model system for cancer research. The oncogene in RSV is called v-src, which is derived from the normal cellular gene c-src.

Avian sarcoma viruses have contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and have provided valuable insights into the role of oncogenes in tumorigenesis.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

HIV Protease is a crucial enzyme that plays a significant role in the replication cycle of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is responsible for cleaving or cutting specific long protein chains, produced during the translation of viral RNA, into smaller functional proteins. These proteins are essential for the formation of new virus particles.

The HIV Protease enzyme functions like a pair of molecular scissors, recognizing and cutting particular amino acid sequences in these polyprotein chains. By inhibiting this enzyme's activity with antiretroviral drugs known as protease inhibitors, the production of mature, infectious viral particles can be effectively prevented, which is a crucial component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for managing HIV infection and reducing the risk of transmitting the virus to others.

'Virus release' in a medical context typically refers to the point at which a virus that has infected a host cell causes that cell to rupture or disintegrate, releasing new viruses into the surrounding tissue or bodily fluids. This is a key step in the replication cycle of many viruses and can lead to the spread of infection throughout the body.

The process of virus release often follows a phase of viral replication inside the host cell, where the virus uses the cell's machinery to produce multiple copies of its genetic material and proteins. Once enough new viruses have been produced, they can cause the host cell membrane to break down, allowing the viruses to exit and infect other cells.

It is important to note that not all viruses follow this pattern of replication, and some may use alternative mechanisms such as budding or exocytosis to release new viruses from infected cells.

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a specialized type of electron microscopy that combines the principles of immunochemistry and electron microscopy to detect and localize specific antigens within cells or tissues at the ultrastructural level. This technique allows for the visualization and identification of specific proteins, viruses, or other antigenic structures with a high degree of resolution and specificity.

In IEM, samples are first fixed, embedded, and sectioned to prepare them for electron microscopy. The sections are then treated with specific antibodies that have been labeled with electron-dense markers, such as gold particles or ferritin. These labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens in the sample, allowing for their visualization under an electron microscope.

There are several different methods of IEM, including pre-embedding and post-embedding techniques. Pre-embedding involves labeling the antigens before embedding the sample in resin, while post-embedding involves labeling the antigens after embedding. Post-embedding techniques are generally more commonly used because they allow for better preservation of ultrastructure and higher resolution.

IEM is a valuable tool in many areas of research, including virology, bacteriology, immunology, and cell biology. It can be used to study the structure and function of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as the distribution and localization of specific proteins and antigens within cells and tissues.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Histidine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H9N3O2. Histidine plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: As an essential amino acid, histidine is required for the production of proteins, which are vital components of various tissues and organs in the body.

2. Hemoglobin synthesis: Histidine is a key component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. The imidazole side chain of histidine acts as a proton acceptor/donor, facilitating the release and uptake of oxygen by hemoglobin.

3. Acid-base balance: Histidine is involved in maintaining acid-base homeostasis through its role in the biosynthesis of histamine, which is a critical mediator of inflammatory responses and allergies. The decarboxylation of histidine results in the formation of histamine, which can increase vascular permeability and modulate immune responses.

4. Metal ion binding: Histidine has a high affinity for metal ions such as zinc, copper, and iron. This property allows histidine to participate in various enzymatic reactions and maintain the structural integrity of proteins.

5. Antioxidant defense: Histidine-containing dipeptides, like carnosine and anserine, have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chelating metal ions. These compounds may contribute to the protection of proteins and DNA from oxidative damage.

Dietary sources of histidine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, and wheat germ. Histidine deficiency is rare but can lead to growth retardation, anemia, and impaired immune function.

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is a form of DNA that consists of a single polynucleotide chain. In contrast, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) consists of two complementary polynucleotide chains that are held together by hydrogen bonds.

In the double-helix structure of dsDNA, each nucleotide base on one strand pairs with a specific base on the other strand through hydrogen bonding: adenine (A) with thymine (T), and guanine (G) with cytosine (C). This base pairing provides stability to the double-stranded structure.

Single-stranded DNA, on the other hand, lacks this complementary base pairing and is therefore less stable than dsDNA. However, ssDNA can still form secondary structures through intrastrand base pairing, such as hairpin loops or cruciform structures.

Single-stranded DNA is found in various biological contexts, including viral genomes, transcription bubbles during gene expression, and in certain types of genetic recombination. It also plays a critical role in some laboratory techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Magnesium Chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgCl2. It is a white, deliquescent solid that is highly soluble in water. Medically, magnesium chloride is used as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many biochemical reactions in the human body.

It can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically to treat or prevent magnesium deficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and preterm labor. Topical application is also used as a mineral supplement and for skin care purposes due to its moisturizing properties. However, high doses of magnesium chloride can have side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness, and should be used under medical supervision.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily infects birds, particularly chickens. It is named after the disease it causes, avian myeloblastosis, which is a malignant condition affecting the bone marrow and blood cells of infected birds.

AMV is classified as an alpharetrovirus and has a single-stranded RNA genome. When the virus infects a host cell, its RNA genome is reverse transcribed into DNA, which then integrates into the host's chromosomal DNA. This integrated viral DNA, known as a provirus, can then direct the production of new virus particles.

AMV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviruses and has contributed significantly to our understanding of their replication and pathogenesis. The virus is also used in laboratory research as a tool for generating genetically modified animals and for studying the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not known to infect or cause disease in humans or other mammals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "HN protein" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. HN is an abbreviation commonly used in virology to refer to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein found on the surface of certain viruses, such as the paramyxoviridae family which includes viruses like parainfluenza and Hendra virus.

The HN protein plays a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect host cells. It helps the virus attach to and enter the host cell, and also assists in the release of new virus particles from infected cells. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide a more precise definition of "HN protein." If you have more details about the context in which this term was used, I'd be happy to try to provide a more specific answer.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

COS cells are a type of cell line that are commonly used in molecular biology and genetic research. The name "COS" is an acronym for "CV-1 in Origin," as these cells were originally derived from the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-1. COS cells have been modified through genetic engineering to express high levels of a protein called SV40 large T antigen, which allows them to efficiently take up and replicate exogenous DNA.

There are several different types of COS cells that are commonly used in research, including COS-1, COS-3, and COS-7 cells. These cells are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, as well as for studies of gene expression, protein localization, and signal transduction.

It is important to note that while COS cells have been a valuable tool in scientific research, they are not without their limitations. For example, because they are derived from monkey kidney cells, there may be differences in the way that human genes are expressed or regulated in these cells compared to human cells. Additionally, because COS cells express SV40 large T antigen, they may have altered cell cycle regulation and other phenotypic changes that could affect experimental results. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the choice of cell line when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is an enzyme that specifically degrades the RNA portion of an RNA-DNA hybrid. It cleaves the phosphodiester bond between the ribose sugar and the phosphate group in the RNA strand, leaving the DNA strand intact. This enzyme plays a crucial role in several cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription.

There are two main types of RNase H: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 RNase H is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, while type 2 RNase H is primarily found in eukaryotes. The primary function of RNase H is to remove RNA primers that are synthesized during DNA replication. These RNA primers are replaced with DNA nucleotides by another enzyme called polymerase δ, leaving behind a gap in the DNA strand. RNase H then cleaves the RNA-DNA hybrid, allowing for the repair of the gap and the completion of DNA replication.

RNase H has also been implicated in the regulation of gene expression, as it can degrade RNA-DNA hybrids formed during transcription. This process, known as transcription-coupled RNA decay, helps to prevent the accumulation of aberrant RNA molecules and ensures proper gene expression.

In addition to its cellular functions, RNase H has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, inhibitors of RNase H have been shown to have antiviral activity against HIV-1, as they prevent the degradation of viral RNA during reverse transcription. On the other hand, activators of RNase H have been explored as a means to enhance the efficiency of RNA interference (RNAi) therapies by promoting the degradation of target RNA molecules.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of an mRNA molecule that do not contain information for protein synthesis. There are two types of UTRs: 5' UTR, which is located at the 5' end of the mRNA molecule, and 3' UTR, which is located at the 3' end.

The 5' UTR typically contains regulatory elements that control the translation of the mRNA into protein. These elements can affect the efficiency and timing of translation, as well as the stability of the mRNA molecule. The 5' UTR may also contain upstream open reading frames (uORFs), which are short sequences that can be translated into small peptides and potentially regulate the translation of the main coding sequence.

The length and sequence composition of the 5' UTR can have significant impacts on gene expression, and variations in these regions have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of 5' UTRs is an important area of research in molecular biology and genetics.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses that primarily use RNA as their genetic material. The name "retrovirus" comes from the fact that these viruses reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which then becomes integrated into the host cell's genome. This is a unique characteristic of retroviruses, as most other viruses use DNA as their genetic material.

Retroviruses can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including cancer, neurological disorders, and immunodeficiency syndromes like AIDS. They have a lipid membrane envelope that contains glycoprotein spikes, which allow them to attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is then integrated into the host genome by the enzyme integrase.

Retroviruses can remain dormant in the host genome for extended periods of time, and may be reactivated under certain conditions to produce new viral particles. This ability to integrate into the host genome has also made retroviruses useful tools in molecular biology, where they are used as vectors for gene therapy and other genetic manipulations.

The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a protein that packages the positive-sense RNA genome of coronaviruses to form ... SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is arginine methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1)at residues R95 and ... Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3' end of the genome. N protein is ... In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ...
The nucleocapsid consisting of a protein shell and viral nucleic acids has a helical symmetry. Nucleocapsids have a diameter of ... M1 - Matrix protein. Facilitates nucleocapsid and envelope interactions. M2-1 - Matrix protein. Intragenic and intergenic ... N - Nucleocapsid protein. Essential for viral replication and transcription. Plays a major role in forming a capsid around the ... Then, through the action of the fusion protein, the virus fuses to the host plasma membrane and the nucleocapsid is released. ...
Gag encodes a polyprotein with a capsid and a nucleocapsid domain. Gag proteins form virus-like particles in the cytoplasm ... Sandmeyer, Suzanne B; Clemens, Kristina A (2010). "Function of a retrotransposon nucleocapsid protein". RNA Biology. 7 (6): 642 ... Based on structure, presence/absence of specific protein domains, and conserved protein sequence motifs, they can be subdivided ... Occasional ribosomal frameshifting allows the production of both proteins, while ensuring that much more Gag protein is ...
Another important structural protein is the phosphoprotein nucleocapsid protein (N), which is responsible for the helical ... proteins. The spike protein makes up the large surface projections (sometimes known as peplomers), while the membrane protein ... McBride R, van Zyl M, Fielding BC (August 2014). "The coronavirus nucleocapsid is a multifunctional protein". Viruses. 6 (8): ... The fourth and smallest viral structural protein is known as the envelope protein (E), thought to be involved in viral budding ...
Nevertheless, viral particles have been found to have a nucleocapsid. The source of the nucleocapsid protein remains unknown. ... proteins. GB-C virus does not appear to encode a C (core or nucleocapsid) protein like, for instance, hepatitis C virus. ... About 2% of healthy US blood donors are viraemic with GBV-C, and up to 13% of blood donors have antibodies to E2 protein, ... This beneficial effect may be related to action of several GBV-C viral proteins, including NS5A phosphoprotein and E2 envelope ...
Inside the envelope, there is the nucleocapsid, which is formed from multiple copies of the nucleocapsid (N) protein, which are ... There, the M proteins direct most protein-protein interactions required for assembly of viruses following its binding to the ... and nucleocapsid (N). The later ORFs also encode for eight unique proteins (orf3a to orf9b), known as the accessory proteins, ... Chang CK, Hou MH, Chang CF, Hsiao CD, Huang TH (March 2014). "The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein--forms and functions". ...
ORF6 encodes the membrane protein. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is encoded by ORF7. The N protein is composed of 123 amino ... At the end of replication, the nucleocapsid proteins surround the newly made genome. The new nucleocapsid complex buds from the ... When researchers knocked out DHX36, the activation of NF-κB signaling by PRSSV and nucleocapsid (N) protein was inhibited. ... ORF2a, 3, 4, 5, encode glycoprotein 2,2a, 3, 4, and 5. ORF2b encodes the envelope protein. There is a newly discovered protein ...
FDV is not enveloped but has a nucleocapsid. The capsid has two layers and is icosahedral. The two known cell surface proteins ... There are at least six structural proteins coded for in the genome. Replication occurs in the host cell cytoplasm or ...
... nucleosomes and viral nucleocapsid proteins. Nucleoproteins tend to be positively charged, facilitating interaction with the ... DNA-binding protein RNA-binding protein Nucleoproteins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ... Bank, RCSB Protein Data. "RCSB Protein Data Bank - RCSB PDB". Archived from the original on 2015-04-18. Retrieved 2018-04-14 ... Currently, over 2000 RNPs can be found in the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB). Furthermore, the Protein-RNA Interface Data Base ( ...
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein 7 (NCp7) is the protein targeted by zinc ejectors. NCp7 is initially formed as part of the gag ... HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger Proteins ... Musah, Rabi Ann (2004). "The HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Zinc Finger Protein as a Target of Antiretroviral Therapy" (PDF). Current ... the compounds interact with an 18-residue polypeptide on the N terminal zinc knuckle region of the HIV nucleocapsid protein ...
They also share similar capsid and nucleocapsid proteins/domains. Caulimoviruses also share some features with belpaoviruses, ... Their polymerase proteins are similar in structure and include aspartic protease (retroviral aspartyl protease) and an ... Their reverse transcriptase proteins share a common origin. Moreover, belpaoviruses, metaviruses, pseudoviruses, and ... "Homologous Capsid Proteins Testify to the Common Ancestry of Retroviruses, Caulimoviruses, Pseudoviruses, and Metaviruses". ...
L protein), the M RNA segment encodes two surface glycoproteins (Gc and Gn), and the S RNA segment encodes a nucleocapsid ... The N protein is the most abundant viral protein in Bunyaviridae virus particles and infected cells and, therefore, the main ... "The crystal structure of the Hazara virus nucleocapsid protein". BMC Structural Biology. 15: 24. doi:10.1186/s12900-015-0051-3 ... protein (N). The three genomic RNA segments are encapsidated by copies of the N protein in the form of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) ...
The structural proteins include capsid (C), premembrane/membrane (prM), and envelope (E). The non-structural proteins include ... A nucleocapsid is formed and takes up viral glycoproteins. However, very little is understood about the assembly process of ... of 3425 amino acid polyprotein that encodes three structural proteins and eight non-structural proteins. ... Protein 2K is not found in many other flaviviruses. NS3 functions as a protease and helicase. NS5 functions as the RNA- ...
The proteins making up the capsid are called capsid proteins or viral coat proteins (VCP). The capsid and inner genome is ... called the nucleocapsid. Capsids are broadly classified according to their structure. The majority of the viruses have capsids ... The bacteriophage encoded gp31 protein appears to be functionally homologous to E. coli chaperone protein GroES and able to ... The recruitment of cellular proteins appears to have occurred at different stages of evolution so that some cellular proteins ...
The nucleocapsid contains around 2000 copies of the capsid protein. The symmetry of the nucleocapsid is helical with a pitch of ... protein 1 protease (P1-Pro), helper component protease (HC-Pro), protein 3 (P3), cylindrical inclusion (CI), viral protein ... It is a highly disordered protein and its flexibility has been suggested to allow it to interact with many other viral proteins ... Certain atypical potyviruses code for additional proteins or protein domains, such as P1-PISPO, Alkylation B (AlkB), and ...
The major coat proteins of both lipothrixviruses and rudiviruses have an unusual four-helix bundle topology. The genome is non- ... The virons are filamentous with a helical nucleocapsid. At either end are attached either fibers or more complex structures ... In both groups of viruses, the major capsid proteins form a claw-like dimer (homodimer in rudiviruses and heterodimer in ... Furthermore, whereas the capsid of rudiviruses is constructed from a single major capsid protein, that of lipothrixviruses is ...
The virus is made up of four ssRNA segments, seven open reading frames, a nucleocapsid protein, and an RNA polymerase protein. ... RNA 3: Encodes for gene silencing suppressor proteins and nucleocapsid proteins. This table from KnowledgeBank.irri.org ... RNA 1 is negative sense and encodes a protein that is part of the RNA polymerase. RNA 2 and RNA 4: These strands are ambisense ... Xiong, Ruyi; Jianxiang Wu; Yijun Zhou; Xueping Zhou (2008). "Identification of a Movement Protein of the Tenuvirus Rice Stripe ...
FMV vcRNA3 (1490 nt) encodes a 35 kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. FMV vcRNA4 (1472 nt) encodes a 40.5 kDa protein with function ... The protein encoded by the fourth segment on the viral genome, RNA4, still has an unknown function. Additionally, the exact ... Like all plant viruses, FMV encodes a movement protein (MP) to enable it to move between cells, usually by increasing the size ... FMV vcRNA 1 codes for RNA dependent RNA polymerase protein (RdRp), which has endonuclease function at its N terminus and is ...
These structures interact with amino acids located in the nucleocapsid, or NC domain, of the Gag protein. Once the ... Qualley DF, Sokolove VL, Ross JL (March 2015). "Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid ... "Retrovirus-specific differences in matrix and nucleocapsid protein-nucleic acid interactions: implications for genomic RNA ... If the encapsidation (packaging) signal is not essential for this particle assembly, then the protein interactions among Gag ...
... segments which generally encode the nucleocapsid, envelope protein and the polymerase protein, respectively. The size of the S ... It has been demonstrated in previous studies that in mammalian cells, the NSs protein will induce a shut-off of host protein ... The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) and the non-structural (NSs) proteins. The M segment encodes the virion surface ... "Bunyamwera virus possesses a distinct nucleocapsid protein to facilitate genome encapsidation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110 ( ...
Levin JG, Mitra M, Mascarenhas A, Musier-Forsyth K. Role of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein in HIV-1 reverse transcription. RNA Biol ... Levin, Judith G; Mitra, Mithun; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Musier-Forsyth, Karin (2010). "Role of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein in HIV-1 ... Berkhout B, Mouland AJ, Musier-Forsyth K. Retroviral nucleocapsid protein and assembly. Foreword. Virus Res. 2014;193:1. ... biophysical and cell-based approaches to understand the interactions of proteins and RNAs involved in protein synthesis and ...
The major capsid protein VP39 together with some minor proteins forms the nucleocapsid (21 nm x 260 nm) that encloses the DNA ... The nucleocapsid assembly is not dependent on the ac83 protein product. During periods of evolution, the baculoviral envelope ... This protein forms structures called peplomers on one end of the budded virus particle, but is not found on ODVs (although ... The protein matrix dissolves in the alkaline environment of the host midgut (stomach), releasing ODVs that then fuse to the ...
The virions contain a thin, dense central nucleocapsid that encases the DNA-protein core. The nucleocapsid core is surrounded ... The nucleocapsids exit the nucleus into the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex, after which they associate with the ... protein composition, morphogenesis and cytopathology of Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus". Journal of ... outer surface of the virions is studded with helical polymeric structure composed of virally-encoded and host-derived protein ...
The nucleocapsid consists of a core of nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat. Although they are categorized as negative-sense ... The S-segment RNA is approximately 3.5 kb, and encodes the viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein (GPC). The L- ... Loureiro ME, D'Antuono A, Levingston Macleod JM, López N (September 2012). "Uncovering viral protein-protein interactions and ... and a small RING-domain containing protein (Z). The Z protein forms homo oligomers and a structural component of the virions. ...
"NMR structure of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein bound to stem-loop SL2 of the psi-RNA packaging signal. Implications for genome ... "Determination of the structure of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by 1H NMR". EMBO J ... "First glimpses at structure-function relationships of the nucleocapsid protein of retroviruses". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... Warui, DM; Baranger, AM (May 10, 2012). "Identification of small molecule inhibitors of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid-stem-loop 3 RNA ...
... haphazardly placed and usually involve scaffolding proteins in their formation around the nucleocapsid. Non-essential proteins ... is a cluster of proteins that lines the space between the envelope and nucleocapsid of all herpesviruses. The tegument ... "Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein V1 Elucidation and Formation Around the Nucleocapsid". Journal of Virology. American ... These proteins are usually[citation needed] formed within the late phase of the viral infectious cycle, after viral genes have ...
However, other coronavirus proteins are also being investigated for vaccine development, like the nucleocapsid, because they ... Most of the platforms of vaccine candidates in clinical trials are focused on the coronavirus spike protein (S protein) and its ... "The Nucleocapsid Protein of SARS-CoV-2: a Target for Vaccine Development". Journal of Virology. 94 (13). doi:10.1128/JVI.00647- ... Examples include a vaccine candidate that uses a modified avian virus as a vector to target SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and an ...
... that is coded by the nucleocapsid protein, and the L polymerase function together to create a replication of the viral genome. ... "Diagnosis of Oropouche Virus Infection Using a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme Immunoassay". Journal of Clinical ... Through phylogenetic analysis of nucleocapsid genes in different oropouche virus strains, it has been revealed that there are ... These segments function to encode nucleocapsids, glycoproteins and the RNA polymerase in that sequential order. ...
... is located downstream of the N gene, which encodes coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. It is the annotated open reading ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Protein pages needing a picture, Coronavirus proteins). ... the ORF10 protein has been reported to interact with ZYG11B and its cullin-RING ligase protein complex. However, this ... It encodes a 38-amino acid hypothetical protein. It is unlikely that ORF10 is translated under natural conditions, since ...
... and a nonstructural protein (NSm), while the S RNA segment encodes a nucleocapsid protein (N) and, in an alternative ... The N protein is the most abundant protein in virus particles and infected cells and, therefore, the main target in many ... "Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA ... The genomic RNA segments are encapsidated by copies of the N protein in the form of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. ...
The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a protein that packages the positive-sense RNA genome of coronaviruses to form ... SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is arginine methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1)at residues R95 and ... Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3 end of the genome. N protein is ... In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ...
Crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein N-terminal RNA binding domain ... Currently, there is no specific viral protein-targeted therapeutics. Viral nucleocapsid protein is a potential antiviral drug ... Currently, there is no specific viral protein-targeted therapeutics. Viral nucleocapsid protein is a potential antiviral drug ... Herein, we have determined the 2.7 Å crystal structure of the N-terminal RNA binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein ...
Crystallographic analysis of the N-terminal domain of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein ... The N-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV NP-NTD) contains ... Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; nucleocapsid protein; N-terminal domain; RNA binding. ... Crystallographic analysis of the N-terminal domain of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. ...
Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1947-1949. doi:10.3201/ ... Che, X., Hao, W., Wang, Y., Di, B., Yin, K., Xu, Y....Woo, P. (2004). Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS ... The N protein could be detected as early as day 1 and until day 18. In the 146 serum samples positive for N protein, the ... Serum N protein was never detected beyond day 21. Using the same panel of the patient serum samples, we measured the N protein- ...
... protein may play an important role in host adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and in manipulating innate immunity at the early ... Webinar presenting data which indicates that cell surface Nucleocapsid (N) ... Alberto Lopez-Munoz will show how he finds that Nucleocapsid (N) protein is expressed on the cell surface of live cells in high ... Cell Surface SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein Modulates Innate and Adaptive Host Immunity Webinar. Authors: Dr. Alberto Lopez- ...
Detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Targeting Nucleocapsid or Spike Protein by Four High Throughput Immunoassays Authorized for ... Detection of SARS CoV 2 IgG Targeting Nucleocapsid or Spike Detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Targeting Nucleocapsid or Spike Protein ... Detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Targeting Nucleocapsid or Spike Protein by Four High Throughput Immunoassays Authorized for ...
The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is an abundant RNA binding protein critical for viral genome packaging, yet the ... The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is dynamic, disordered, and phase separates with RNA. Jasmine Cubuk, Jhullian J. Alston, J ... The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is dynamic, disordered, and phase separates with RNA ... The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is dynamic, disordered, and phase separates with RNA ...
The single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Buzura suppressaria encodes a P10 protein. 1998. van Oers, M.M.; Hu, Z.; Arif, ...
Nucleocapsid protein, His tag validated in WB, ELISA, Lateral Flow, Sandwich ELISA, and available in 100 μg package(s). Cited ... nucleocapsid protein, His tag protein (GTX135592-pro) using SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [GT113] (GTX635808) as ... nucleocapsid protein, His tag protein (GTX135592-pro) using SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL5410] (GTX635685) as ... nucleocapsid protein, His tag protein (GTX135592-pro) using SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL5410] (GTX635685) as ...
Nucleocapsid protein, His Tag - E.coli , NUN-C51H9 , Acro Biosystems , SARS-CoV-2 Proteins ... SARS-CoV-2 Protein Mutants Synonym Nucleocapsid protein, NP, Protein N Source SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein (S197L),... ... SARS-CoV-2 Proteins Synonym S1 protein NTD, Spike protein S1 NTD, BetaCoV S1-NTD Source SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein NTD, His... ... SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid protein, His Tag - E.coli , NUN-C51H9. (No reviews yet) Write a Review Write a Review. ...
Comparison of T-cell immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein using an in-house flow-cytometric ... Comparison of T-cell immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein using an in-house flow-cytometric ... Comparison of T-cell immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein using an in-house flow-cytometric ...
Locate proteins, assay kits, reagents, custom services. Get complete supplier details here. ... Nucleocapsid Protein (His Tag) (HPLC-verified) for research? Find and compare commercial and governmental sources for ... Search, find, compare suppliers for SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Nucleocapsid Protein (His Tag) (HPLC-verified) products. ... SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Nucleocapsid Protein (His Tag) (HPLC-verified) from SINO BIOLOGICAL, INC.. ...
Additionally, the assay eliminates interferences due to protein-protein interactions including those caused by anti-virus ... an automated matrix-independent assay for mass spectrometric detection and measurement of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in ... an automated matrix-independent assay for mass spectrometric detection and measurement of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in ... an automated matrix-independent assay for mass spectrometric detection and measurement of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in ...
The Nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone responsible for essential steps of the HIV-1 life cycle and an ... Mechanisms of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Inhibition by Lysyl-Peptidyl-Anthraquinone Conjugates. ... their ability to target TAR RNA substrate leading to a direct competition with the protein for the same binding sites on TAR, ... and, finally, their effective binding to the NC protein. Our results suggest that these molecules may represent the stepping- ...
Purity: ,85% pure intact form of SCoV2-rN protein as determined by SDS-PAGE. Most other protein bands represent minor partial ... Reactivity of SCoV2-rN protein (product 20-S2N-ScA-F) with specific IgG in ELISA using Covid-19 positive and negative sera: ... It has been shown that, due to high similarity of these proteins, SARS-CoV nucleoprotein may also be used for the detection of ... SARS coronavirus recombinant protein (SARS-rN) was produced by Baltymas for comparison with homologue SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein ...
Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein, Q227L. Protein Purification. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein, Met1-Ala419, with ... The nucleocapsid (N) protein is the structural component of the viral structure and it primarily functions to bind coronavirus ... Be the first to review "Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein, Q227L" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. ... The N protein is the most abundant protein in coronavirus. It is normally very conserved and is highly immunogenic ...
The Nucleocapsid Protein Antibody recognizes both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid proteins through detection by ELISA, ... The SARS Nucleocapsid Protein Antibody recognizes and binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid proteins. ... The SARS-CoV genome encodes several structural proteins including the nucleocapsid protein (Nucleoprotein; Protein N), which ... Home Product Products Antibodies DUB and Ubiquitin Like Isopeptidase Antibodies CV4001: SARS Nucleocapsid Protein Antibody. ...
Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2) was used at 1 µg/ml on recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein (Cat#21-1003). ... Western Blot analysis of Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2): Anti- ... The nucleocapsid protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 also forms dimer in the cell by self-association with the help of ... The structural nucleocapsid (N) protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is a predicted 46 kDa phosphoprotein having 419 amino acid ...
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid His Biotin Protein, CF (BT10474) is manufactured by R&D Systems. ... Spike protein (S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane protein (M), and Nucleocapsid protein (N) (1). While the S, E and M proteins ... Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a ... Nucleocapsid Protein Entrez Gene IDs. 918763 (HCoV-229E); 3200423 (HCoV-HKU1); 2943504 (HCoV-NL63); 39105221 (HCoV-OC43); ...
b) Densitometry and (c) SEM detection using the same dilution series of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein samples as in (a). * p ... b) Densitometry and (c) SEM detection using the same dilution series of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein samples as in (a). * p ... At the TL, the immune complex reacts with anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP), whereas at the CL, it reacts with anti- ... At the TL, the immune complex reacts with anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP), whereas at the CL, it reacts with anti- ...
Nucleocapsid Protein (NP) Monoclonal Antibody Purified rabbit monoclonal antibody binding Nucleocapsid Protein (NP) from SARS- ... Specificity: 2019-nCoV/CoV Nucleocapsid protein. Clonality: Monoclonal. Isotype: IgG. Purification: Protein A. Conjugation: ... Specificity: 2019-nCoV CoV Nucleocapsid. Has cross-reactivity in ELISA and WB with SARS-CoV Nucleoprotein / NP Protein.. Form ... SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Protein (NP) Monoclonal Antibody [Clone 019]. £468.00. ...
Major Outer Capsid Protein P8Major inner protein P1Packaging Enzyme P4 ... 6HY0: Atomic models of P1, P4 C-terminal fragment and P8 fitted in the bacteriophage phi6 nucleocapsid reconstructed with ...
The nucleocapsid consisting of a protein shell and viral nucleic acids has a helical symmetry. Nucleocapsids have a diameter of ... M1 - Matrix protein. Facilitates nucleocapsid and envelope interactions. M2-1 - Matrix protein. Intragenic and intergenic ... N - Nucleocapsid protein. Essential for viral replication and transcription. Plays a major role in forming a capsid around the ... Then, through the action of the fusion protein, the virus fuses to the host plasma membrane and the nucleocapsid is released. ...
Nucleocapsid; major virion envelope protein (usually glycosolated); nonglycosolated virion envelope protein (24).The complete ... Percentage wt, of Virion Protein. Lipid. Carbohydrate. Virion Polypeptides: Number. 3 Details. ...
Abbreviations: del = deletion; E = envelope protein; N = nucleocapsid protein; ORF = open reading frame; S = spike protein. ... This variant has 13 other B.1.1.7 lineage-defining mutations (Table), several of which are in the S protein, including a ... Characteristic mutations (protein: mutation). No. of current sequence-confirmed cases. No. of countries with sequences. ... Early in the pandemic, variants of SARS-CoV-2 containing the D614G mutation in the spike (S) protein that increases receptor ...
SARS-COV-2 N protein composed of 419 aa, is a 45.6 kDa positively charged unstable hydrophobic protein. It has 91 and 49% ... At last, our analysis of SARS-COV-2 N protein predicted a total number of 12 phosphorylated sites and 9 potential protein ... The 12 phosphorylated sites and 9 potential protein kinase sites in SARS-COV-2 N protein may serve as promising targets for ... In the present study, we conducted an in depth analysis of the SARS-COV-2 nucleocapsid to identify potential targets that may ...
Crystal Structure of An Empty Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Complex ... Protein crystallography data. The structure of Crystal Structure of An Empty Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleocapsid Protein ... Uranium binding site 1 out of 15 in the Crystal Structure of An Empty Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Complex. ... Uranium binding site 2 out of 15 in the Crystal Structure of An Empty Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Complex. ...
2. SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid.... 3. Nucleocapsid protein.... 4. Nucleocapsid protein.... 5. Regulation of host.... 6. Conclusions ... SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein. The nucleocapsid (N) protein plays three important roles in SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. The primary ... The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is approximately 90% identical with the SARS-CoV N protein [20]. N protein is a key ... The viral genome comprises 14 ORFs, encoding 16 Nsps, 9 ORF proteins and 4 structural proteins. Nucleocapsid (N) protein binds ...
Abbreviations: del = deletion; E = envelope protein; N = nucleocapsid protein; ORF = open reading frame; S = spike protein. ... This variant has 13 other B.1.1.7 lineage-defining mutations (Table), several of which are in the S protein, including a ... Characteristic mutations (protein: mutation). No. of current sequence-confirmed cases. No. of countries with sequences. ... Early in the pandemic, variants of SARS-CoV-2 containing the D614G mutation in the spike (S) protein that increases receptor ...
The nucleocapsid (N)protein of Nipah virus (NiV) is a major constituent of the viral proteins which play a role in ... Purification and Characterization of Nipah Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Produced in Insect Cells.pdf Download (85kB) , Preview ... Purification and Characterization of Nipah Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Produced in Insect Cells. Journal of Clinical ... Purification and Characterization of Nipah Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Produced in Insect Cells ...
  • The profile of N protein detection in blood and antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from onset of symptoms to the convalescent phase. (cdc.gov)
  • Sandwich ELISA detection of recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid protein, His tag protein (GTX135592-pro) using SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL5410] (GTX635685) as capture antibody at concentration of 5 μg/mL and HRP-conjugated SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL455] (GTX635688) as detection antibody at concentration of 1 μg/mL. (genetex.com)
  • The coated protein is detected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody (GTX135361) at 1 μg/mL. (genetex.com)
  • Coated protein was probed with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL5511] (GTX635689) (1 μg/mL). (genetex.com)
  • These findings can be applied in the design of new antibody/antigen interaction-based analytical systems dedicated for the determination of anti-SCoV2-N antibodies and for the development of new anti-SARS-CoV-2 medications based on proteins that are blocking viral SCoV2-N proteins. (baltymas.lt)
  • The SARS Nucleocapsid Protein Antibody recognizes and binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid proteins. (lifesensors.com)
  • Figure 1: ELISA analysis of Nucleocapsid antibody (SARS-CoV-2) 11-2004Biotin was used as detection antibody. (abeomics.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Nucleocapsid (Ser2-Ala419) with His-tag in N-terminal was used as the immunogen for this antibody. (abeomics.com)
  • In addition, the N protein is an abundant protein during coronavirus infection and displays high immunogenic activity (5, 6), so it has been used to develop serological diagnostic kit for Covid-19 IgM and IgG antibody tests (7). (bio-techne.com)
  • Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result showed that the recombinant N protein exhibited the antigenic sites and conformation necessary for specific antigen-antibody recognition. (upm.edu.my)
  • However, immunofluorescence antibody staining demonstrated that cells expressing HTNV N protein and a green fluorescent protein-p65 fusion had limited p65 nuclear translocation. (mssm.edu)
  • Sino Biological, Inc. (SZSE: 301047) has recently deposited reagents for the Omicron variant, including recombinant proteins to Spike and Nucleocapsid, and antibody products to BEI Resources, a central repository for reagents to support infectious disease research. (the-scientist.com)
  • Indirect ELISA analysis was performed by coating plate with 50 μL of recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid protein (GTX135592-pro) at concentrations ranging from 0.0625 μg/mL to 4 μg/mL. (genetex.com)
  • Indirect ELISA analysis performed by coating plate with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein (D63G, R203M, D377Y, R385K), His Tag (delta variant) and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid protein, His tag (wild type) (GTX135592-pro) (21.91-0.34 nM). (genetex.com)
  • We have developed an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV ( 7 ), a predominant antigen produced in the infected cell-culture filtrate. (cdc.gov)
  • The N protein-capture ELISA was performed ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The results for the 420 serum specimens tested by the N protein-capture ELISA are shown in Figure 1 . (cdc.gov)
  • Sandwich ELISA detection of recombinant nucleocapsid protein(s) derived from different strains of SARS-CoV-2 virus (ie. (genetex.com)
  • Reactivity of SCoV2-rN protein (product 20-S2N-ScA-F) with specific IgG in ELISA using Covid-19 positive and negative sera: this product has been compared both with other commercial SARS-CoV-2 recombinant proteins (produced by other producers) in ELISA and S1 antigen-based CE-approved commercial IVD tests using the same set of human sera. (baltymas.lt)
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (bio-techne.com)
  • Has cross-reactivity in ELISA and WB with SARS-CoV Nucleoprotein / NP Protein. (bioservuk.com)
  • The N protein is the most highly expressed of the four major coronavirus structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N protein is the most highly expressed in host cells of the four major structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3' end of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • N is physically colocalized with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase early in the replication cycle and forms interactions with non-structural protein 3, a component of the replicase-transcriptase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the structural information of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein remains unclear. (rcsb.org)
  • The virion envelope surrounding the nucleocapsid contains the following structural proteins: S (spike), M (matrix), E (envelope) and N (nucleocapsid). (iucr.org)
  • The nucleocapsid (N) protein is the structural component of the viral structure and it primarily functions to bind coronavirus RNA genome. (exonbio.com)
  • The structural nucleocapsid (N) protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is a predicted 46 kDa phosphoprotein having 419 amino acid residues. (abeomics.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2, which causes the global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), belongs to a family of viruses known as coronaviruses that are commonly comprised of four structural proteins: Spike protein (S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane protein (M), and Nucleocapsid protein (N) (1). (bio-techne.com)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 N protein is a ~45 kDa protein composed of two independent structural domains connected by a linker region. (bio-techne.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 genome consists of 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs), including two regions (ORF1a and ORF1b) for 16 non-structural proteins (Nsp1-Nsp16), nine regions for nine putative accessory proteins, and other regions for four structural proteins, spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins [ 5 - 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • After being entry, the viral and host membranes can fuse together and then release the positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 that directly translates into the structural and nonstructural proteins [ 9 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • To investigate the use of a fusion system to aid the purification of the recombinant N protein for structural studies and potential use a diagnostic reagent, the NiV n gene was cloned into the pFastBacHT vector and and his tagged fusion protian was expressed in Sf9 insect cells by recombinant baculovirus. (upm.edu.my)
  • The primary structural proteins of HIV-1 are portrayed being a 55 kDa one polyprotein Gag which is vital for retroviral replication virion set up and genome product packaging. (techuniq.com)
  • During or soon after trojan budding in the contaminated cell the PR is normally activated and leads to the cleavage of Gag to the average person mature structural protein. (techuniq.com)
  • The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a major structural component of virions, which appears to be a multifunctional protein involved in viral RNA replication and translation. (academicjournals.org)
  • COV00701 The SARS-CoV-2 membrane protein (M Protein) is the most abundantly expressed Coronavirus structural protein in host cells, and mediates viral assembly via interactions with other viral proteins. (topsan.org)
  • COV00601 The SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein (E Protein) is the smallest of the four main structural proteins and is abundantly expressed in host cells during the viral replication phase. (topsan.org)
  • The single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Buzura suppressaria encodes a P10 protein. (gc.ca)
  • It is about 15 kbp in size, and encodes eleven proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A unique feature of the genome is the M2 gene, which encodes proteins M2-1 and M2-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondrial genome encodes 13 proteins necessary for energy production, two rRNAs and all of the 22 tRNAs required for the synthesis of these proteins (1Attardi G. Int. Rev. Cytol. (ncsu.edu)
  • The small fragment encodes the viral nucleocapsid protein. (medscape.com)
  • The N protein is highly immunogenic and antibodies to N are found in patients recovered from SARS and COVID-19. (wikipedia.org)
  • We attempt to demonstrate the temporal profile of the N protein and antibodies in serum samples from a large cohort of patients with SARS during the acute and convalescent phases of the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Briefly, 100 μL of serum was added to the wells of a microtiter plate coated with a mixture of three anti-N protein monoclonal antibodies, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 60 min. (cdc.gov)
  • MATERIALS and METHODS We used Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA) technology to enrich and quantify proteotypic peptides of the N protein from trypsin-digested samples from COVID-19 patients. (medrxiv.org)
  • It has been shown that, due to high similarity of these proteins, SARS-CoV nucleoprotein may also be used for the detection of specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. (baltymas.lt)
  • Western blot analysis of the recombinant fusion protein with anti-Niv antibodies produced a band of approximately 62 kDa. (upm.edu.my)
  • One way to find out is by testing your blood for the presence of antibodies against the viral nucleocapsid protein, which can only be encountered during natural infection. (virology.ws)
  • The N-terminal domain - sometimes known as the RNA-binding domain, though other parts of the protein also interact with RNA - has also been crystallized and has been studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the presence of RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N protein binds to RNA to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures for packaging the genome into the viral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this webinar, distinguished speaker Dr. Alberto Lopez-Munoz will show how he finds that Nucleocapsid (N) protein is expressed on the cell surface of live cells in high copy numbers and that it binds to infected and non-infected neighboring cells by electrostatically associating with glycosaminoglycans. (sartorius.com)
  • Of them, SARS-CoV-2 S protein binds to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) [ 8 , 9 ], to enter the cells. (ijbs.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein binds to importin α proteins and inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (mssm.edu)
  • SARS coronavirus recombinant protein (SARS-rN) was produced by Baltymas for comparison with homologue SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein. (baltymas.lt)
  • Facilitates nucleocapsid and envelope interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • nonglycosolated virion envelope protein (24).The complete nucleotide sequence for the RNA genome of yellow fever virus has been determined (24). (cdc.gov)
  • The nucleocapsid is a highly conserved and immunogenic viral protein thus representing a valuable tool for diagnostic and vaccine production purposes. (lifesensors.com)
  • In this respect, pharmacological inhibition of the highly conserved and multifunctional nucleocapsid protein (NC) of HIV-1 is considered a promising alternative to current drugs, particularly to overcome DR. Here, using a multidisciplinary approach combining in silico screening, fluorescence-based molecular assays, and cellular antiviral assays, we identified nordihydroguaiaretic acid (6), as a novel natural product inhibitor of NC. (irbm.com)
  • In particular, the insertions in the spike protein are predicted, from protein structure analysis, to facilitate the recognition of the coronavirus receptors on human cells and the subsequent penetration of the virus into those cells. (nih.gov)
  • SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Nucleocapsid Protein (His Tag) (HPLC-verified) from SINO BIOLOGICAL, INC. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • Search, find, compare suppliers for SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Nucleocapsid Protein (His Tag) (HPLC-verified) products. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a protein that packages the positive-sense RNA genome of coronaviruses to form ribonucleoprotein structures enclosed within the viral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is an abundant RNA binding protein critical for viral genome packaging, yet the molecular details that underlie this process are poorly understood. (biorxiv.org)
  • Protein N), which plays a role in virion assembly through its interaction with the viral genome and the membrane protein. (lifesensors.com)
  • The protein has multifaceted activities including packing of the nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 viral genome into a helical ribonucleocapsid (RNP) and playing an important role in viral self-assembly causing nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. (abeomics.com)
  • While the S, E and M proteins build up the viral envelop, the N protein is involved transcription, replication and packaging of the viral RNA genome into a helical ribonucleocapsid (RNP) (2, 3). (bio-techne.com)
  • Once sufficient P, N, L, and M2 proteins are available to create a capsid around the newly replicated genome, the virus undergoes replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • N protein can also undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) with viral genome RNA and inhibit stress granules to facilitate viral replication and assembly. (ijbs.com)
  • The nucleocapsid (N)protein of Nipah virus (NiV) is a major constituent of the viral proteins which play a role in encapsidation, regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. (upm.edu.my)
  • The capsid (from the Latin capsa for box) is the protein shell surrounding the nucleic acid genome. (virology.ws)
  • TWiV reviews the six known coronaviruses that infect pigs and what can be learned about human infections, and how the giant Mimivirus DNA genome is organized into a nucleocapsid. (virology.ws)
  • Brianne returns to the TWiV Gang to discuss the distribution of proteins on the influenza viral genome, and the evolution of myxoma virus that was released in Australia to control the rabbit population. (virology.ws)
  • Using integrated comparative genomics and machine learning techniques, the researchers compared the genome of the SARS-CoV-2 virus against the genomes of other members of the coronavirus family and identified protein features that are unique to SARS-CoV-2 and two other coronavirus strains with high fatality rates, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during the process of viral assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, through the action of the fusion protein, the virus fuses to the host plasma membrane and the nucleocapsid is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates viral receptor binding and membrane fusion, both of which are essential for viral infection of host cells. (nature.com)
  • The Nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone responsible for essential steps of the HIV-1 life cycle and an attractive candidate for drug development. (pasteur.fr)
  • Their efficient inhibition of TAR/cTAR annealing mediated by NC originates from the combination of at least three different mechanisms, namely, their stabilizing effects on nucleic acids dynamics by threading intercalation, their ability to target TAR RNA substrate leading to a direct competition with the protein for the same binding sites on TAR, and, finally, their effective binding to the NC protein. (pasteur.fr)
  • The nucleocapsid consisting of a protein shell and viral nucleic acids has a helical symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optical density spectra of the purified recombinant fusion protein reavealed a high A 260 / A 280 ratio, indicating the presence of nucleic acids. (upm.edu.my)
  • HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins (NCps) facilitate remodeling of nucleic acids to fold thermodynamically steady conformations and thus called nucleic acid chaperones. (techuniq.com)
  • These two terms describe two different ways that viral nucleic acids and proteins are arranged in virus particles. (virology.ws)
  • N protein contains three dynamic disordered regions that house putative transiently-helical binding motifs. (biorxiv.org)
  • This key protein packages the positive strand viral RNA into a helical ribonucleocapsid. (lifesensors.com)
  • Nucleocapsids have a diameter of 13.5 nm and a helical pitch of 6.5 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In SARS-CoV, the causative agent of SARS, the N protein is 422 amino acid residues long and in SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, it is 419 residues long. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is arginine methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1)at residues R95 and R177. (wikipedia.org)
  • With unclear functional significance, the SARS-CoV N protein has been observed to be SUMOylated and the N proteins of several coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 have been observed to be proteolytically cleaved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein, we have determined the 2.7 Å crystal structure of the N-terminal RNA binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. (rcsb.org)
  • Complemented by in vitro binding studies, our data provide several atomic resolution features of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein N-terminal domain, guiding the design of novel antiviral agents specific targeting to SARS-CoV-2. (rcsb.org)
  • Serum samples from 317 patients with patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were tested for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-associated coronavirus, with sensitivities of 94% and 78% for the first 5 days and 6-10 days after onset, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • N protein can be used as an early diagnostic maker for SARS. (cdc.gov)
  • High levels of circulating N protein can be detected in the serum samples of patients with SARS. (cdc.gov)
  • Our findings suggest that detecting N protein in serum can be used as an early diagnostic marker for SARS. (cdc.gov)
  • N protein detection in 420 serum samples from 317 patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). (cdc.gov)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein, His Tag (NUN-C51H9) is expressed from E.coli cells. (proteomecommons.org)
  • Elabscience.Synonym: N/A Activity: Testing in progress Protein Construction: A DNA sequence encoding the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV). (proteomecommons.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Proteins Synonym Spike, S protein RBD, Spike glycoprotein Receptor-binding domain, S. (proteomecommons.org)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (YP_009724397.2, with mutations P13L, ERS31-33 deletion, R203K, G204R) (Met1-Ala419) was expressed with a polyhistidine tag at the N-terminus. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • Here we build on a previous Cov-MS effort that used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and describe a method that allows accurate, high throughput measurement of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. (medrxiv.org)
  • A short Serine rich stretch and a recognized nuclear localization signal are the unique features of the nucleocapsid protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, which seems to have a little homology with the proteins of other members of this large corona virus family. (abeomics.com)
  • These features also suggest the involvement of nucleocapsid protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 in different stages of viral lifecycle. (abeomics.com)
  • The nucleocapsid protein of nCoV/SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 also forms dimer in the cell by self-association with the help of interactive C terminal domain. (abeomics.com)
  • 2 μg/lane of Biotinylated Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid His-tag Protein (Catalog # BT10474) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 49-59 kDa. (bio-techne.com)
  • The SARS-CoV2 N protein shares 91% and 47% amino acid sequence identity with SARS-CoV-1 and MERS N protein, respectively. (bio-techne.com)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 N protein displays VSR (viral suppressor of RNA interference) activity in mammalian cells (4). (bio-techne.com)
  • Early in the pandemic, variants of SARS-CoV-2 containing the D614G mutation in the spike (S) protein that increases receptor binding avidity rapidly became dominant in many geographic regions ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (N) protein plays a critical role in multiple steps of the viral life cycle and participates in viral replication, transcription, and assembly. (ijbs.com)
  • In this review article, we are focusing on the signaling mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 N protein in viral replication, cell death and inflammation. (ijbs.com)
  • To identify cellular proteins that interact with the N protein and to elucidate the possible involvement of N protein in SARS-Cov replication and translation, a human lung cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid system assay. (academicjournals.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that SARS-N protein interacts with the MIF within host cells, which enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of SARS replication. (academicjournals.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, nucleocapsid protein, macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein, yeast two-hybrid. (academicjournals.org)
  • In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone 4 , we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters for BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared with early SARS-CoV-2 strains. (nature.com)
  • COV00501 The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N Protein) is abundantly expressed in host cells during infection and mediates viral RNA replication, as well as viral particle assembly and release. (topsan.org)
  • COV00401 The SARS-CoV-2 transmembrane spike glycoprotein (S Protein) forms homotrimers that protrude from the Coronavirus surface and mediates the entry of Coronavirus into host cells. (topsan.org)
  • Missense mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus may cause changes in the structure of proteins. (elis.sk)
  • The main purpose of this study is to detect missense mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 N protein and to reveal the effects of these mutations on protein structure by using in silico approaches. (elis.sk)
  • 161 missense mutations of the N protein were determined in 2286 SARS-CoV-2 genomes derived from the GISAID EpiCoV database in the Turkish population. (elis.sk)
  • Identified 161 missense mutations were analyzed by using sequence and structure-based methods to predict effects of mutation on function and structure of SARS-CoV-2 N protein. (elis.sk)
  • Researchers at the Rio de Janeiro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance are taking part in the international consortium COVID19-NMR, based in Frankfurt, Germany, aimed at unveiling the structure of the proteins of the novel coronavirus (Sars-CoV-2) in order to use it to test drugs for the treatment of the disease. (ebc.com.br)
  • Right now, he added, their interest focuses on the protein of Sars-CoV2. (ebc.com.br)
  • The Sofia 2 SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) uses advanced immunofluorescence-based lateral flow technology in a sandwich design for qualitative detection of nucleocapsid protein from SARS-CoV-2. (who.int)
  • The detection rate of N protein decreased to 27% on days 11-20 after onset of symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Importantly, peptide enrichment allowed detection of N protein in a pooled sample containing a single PCR positive sample mixed with 31 PCR negative samples, without loss in sensitivity. (medrxiv.org)
  • Here we combine single-molecule spectroscopy with all-atom simulations to uncover the molecular details that contribute to N protein function. (biorxiv.org)
  • Moreover, cGAS is an important molecule for regulating basal expression levels of cell-intrinsic immune genes in cells and is, therefore, a central protein in immune responses to virus infection 10 . (nature.com)
  • Moreover we statement here the 1st real-time and direct analysis on protein-induced G-quadruplex formation on the single-molecule level. (techuniq.com)
  • Furthermore, we were able to detect an interaction between HTNV N protein and importin α, a nuclear import molecule responsible for shuttling NF-κB to the nucleus. (mssm.edu)
  • The N-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV NP-NTD) contains many positively charged residues and has been identified to be responsible for RNA binding during ribonucleocapsid formation by the virus. (iucr.org)
  • Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. (bio-techne.com)
  • In the cleavage response NCp15 (123 proteins) - a proteolytic intermediate of nucleocapsid proteins (NCp) was initially produced which is normally eventually cleaved to NCp9 (71 proteins) and further into the mature NCp7 (55 amino acids) through the consecutive removal of p6 and p1 (Number 1c). (techuniq.com)
  • In innate immune system, N protein inhibits IFN-β production and RNAi pathway for virus survival. (ijbs.com)
  • Formation of RNPs is thought to involve allosteric interactions between RNA and multiple RNA-binding regions of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the host serine protease TMPRSS2 is important for priming of the S protein for receptor interactions and entry [ 9 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Gag alone is enough for the forming of LY2784544 virus-like contaminants within a mammalian cell.21 It really is made up of a matrix (MAp17) capsid (Cover24) spacer peptide (p2) nucleocapsid (NCp7) spacer peptide (p1) and p6 from N- to C-terminal (Amount 1a). (techuniq.com)
  • NCp7 is definitely a basic protein with two zinc finger domains that are CCHC motifs which are separated by proline-rich linker as display in Number 1b. (techuniq.com)
  • In the 146 serum samples positive for N protein, the optical density (OD) value was highly variable from one sample to another on the same day. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunization with vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid protein induces autoantibodies to the 60 kD Ro ribonucleoprotein particle. (ouhsc.edu)
  • In a second step, chemical oxidation of 6 induces a potent chemical inactivation of the protein. (irbm.com)
  • Product 20-S2N-ScA-F contains only yeast expressed proteins that are not infectious or hazard. (baltymas.lt)
  • If researchers are able to obtain the structure of protein N, they may prevent the replication of the virus, which means it becomes no longer infectious. (ebc.com.br)
  • Prior to undergoing replication, mRNA is transcribed and viral proteins are translated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary roles of N protein are to assemble with genomic RNA into the viral RNA-protein (vRNP) complex and to localize to the replication transcription complexes (RTCs) to enhance viral replication and transcription. (ijbs.com)
  • In this study, we have investigated whether alpha/beta IFN produced by NS20Y/MS cells activates cellular protein tyrosine kinases which will induce tyrosine phosphorylating activity specific to virus-infected cells. (bgu.ac.il)
  • We present data to show augmented protein tyrosine kinase activity in the persistently infected cells. (bgu.ac.il)
  • We demonstrate that the MV N protein is phosphorylated on tyrosine in addition to serine and threonine in the persistent state but not in NS20Y cells acutely infected with MV. (bgu.ac.il)
  • The protein sample was dialyzed against 2 volumes of 500 ml of dialysis buffer (50 mm Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 50 mm KCl, 2.5 mm MgCl2, 0.1 mm EDTA, 10% glycerol and 7 mm ;ME) for 1 h.Cells carrying a plasmid encoding the His6-tagged human mitochondrial MetRS were grown as described (23Spencer A.C. Heck A.H. Takeuchi N. Watanabe K. Spremulli L.L. Biochemistry. (ncsu.edu)
  • Surprisingly, there was no defect in the degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein, nor was there any alteration in the level of p65 expression in HTNV N-expressing cells. (mssm.edu)
  • In addition, we show that the HAZV nucleocapsid (N) protein was abundantly cleaved by caspase 3 in these mammalian cells at a conserved DQVD motif exposed at the tip of its arm domain, and that cleaved HAZV-N was subsequently packaged into nascent virions. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • N also serves as a chaperone protein for the formation of RNA structure in the genomic RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of genomic RNA appears to involve participation by the N protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accuracy and efficiency with which tRNA decodes genomic information into proteins require posttranscriptional modifications in or adjacent to the anticodon. (ncsu.edu)
  • 101: 15070-15075Crossref PubMed Scopus (205) Google Scholar).Normally, protein biosynthetic systems have two tRNAMet species. (ncsu.edu)
  • Nucleocapsid proteins from species of the CORONAVIRIDAE virus family. (bvsalud.org)
  • Like additional retroviral NCps HIV-1 NCp is definitely a multifunctional protein. (techuniq.com)
  • The pneumovirus M2-1 protein is distinctive, and no homologue has been found in any other virus families. (wikipedia.org)
  • These variants carry a constellation of genetic mutations, including in the S protein receptor-binding domain, which is essential for binding to the host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to facilitate virus entry. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein N participates in the process of transcribing the virus like a regulatory key in spreading the coronavirus throughout the patient's body. (ebc.com.br)
  • These features include insertions of specific stretches of amino acids into two virus proteins, the nucleocapsid and the spike. (nih.gov)
  • L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé a invité des experts en santé publique et scientifiques à une réunion urgente en janvier 2013, étant donné les connaissances limitées disponibles sur l'évolution épidémiologique et naturelle de l'infection par ce nouveau virus. (who.int)
  • Pendant la réunion, les données disponibles ont été examinées et des lacunes critiques dans les connaissances ont été identifiées en vue d'améliorer la compréhension du risque pour la santé publique associé à ce virus, d'intensifier la préparation et de préserver et de protéger la santé mondiale. (who.int)
  • The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself. (biocheminfo.org)
  • These analyzes revealed that some mutations showed deleterious effects and change of stability and flexibility of nucleocapsid protein. (elis.sk)
  • The N protein is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation at sites located in the IDR, particularly in the SR-rich region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional recognition of the modified human tRNA(UUU)(Lys3) anticodon domain by HIV's nucleocapsid protein and a peptide mimic. (ncsu.edu)
  • MyBiosourceProduct Short Name: [68 kDa Neurofilament]Product Name Synonyme: [Neurofilament 68 kDa protein]Other Names: N/AProduct Gene Name: N/AProduct. (biocheminfo.org)