DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A low affinity interleukin-7 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-7.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA or RNA bound to a substrate thereby having fixed positions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
Modified oligonucleotides in which one of the oxygens of the phosphate group is replaced with a sulfur atom.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Complex compounds of high molecular weight occurring in living cells. These are basically of two types, ribonucleic (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic (DNA) acids, both of which consist of nucleotides (nucleoside phosphates linked together by phosphate bridges).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial isolated from Streptomyces ribosifidicus.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.

Efficient synthesis of nucleic acids heavily modified with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups using a mutantT7 RNA polymerase (RNAP). (1/1313)

A T7 RNAP mutant (Y639F) which eliminates discrimination of the chemical character of the NTP ribose 2'-group, facilitates incorporation of non-canonicalsubstrates into nucleic acids. However, transcripts containing a high percentage of non-canonical NMPs are poorly extended due to effects of the 2'-substituents on the transcript:template hybrid conformation. We tested the addition of compounds that stabilize A-type helix geometry to the reaction. High concentrations of polyamines, together with other changes in reaction conditions, greatly increased the synthesis of transcripts heavily substituted with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups. Template structures that facilitate promoter opening increased the efficiency of reactions where non-canonical substrates were incorporated during transcription of +1 to +6.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (2/1313)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

Metabolism of methionine and biosynthesis of caffeine in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.). (3/1313)

1. Caffeine biosynthesis was studied by following the incorporation of 14C into the products of L-[Me-14C]methionine metabolism in tea shoot tips. 2. After administration of a 'pulse' of L-[Me-14C]methionine, almost all of the L-[Me-14C]methionine supplied disappeared within 1 h, and 14C-labelled caffeine synthesis increased throughout the experimental periods, whereas the radioactivities of an unknown compound and theobromine were highest at 3 h after the uptake of L-[Me-14C]methionine, followed by a steady decrease. There was also slight incorporation of the label into 7-methylxanthine, serine, glutamate and aspartate, disappearing by 36 h after the absorption of L-[Me-14C]methionine. 3. The radioactivities of nucleic acids derived from L-[Me-14C]methionine increased rapidly during the first 12 h incubation period and then decreased steadily. Sedimentation analysis of nucleic acids by sucrose-gradient centrifugation showed that methylation of nucleic acids in tea shoot tips occurred mainly in the tRNA fraction. The main product among the methylated bases in tea shoot tips was identified as 1-methyladenine. 4. The results indicated that the purine ring in caffeine is derived from the purine nucleotides in the nucleotide pool rather than in nucleic acids. A metabolic scheme to show the production of caffeine and related methylxanthines from the nucleotides in tea plants is discussed.  (+info)

The role of water structure in conformational changes of nucleic acids in ambient and high-pressure conditions. (4/1313)

This review describes and summarizes data on the structure and properties of water under normal conditions, at high salt concentration and under high pressure. We correlate the observed conformational changes in nucleic acids with changes in water structure and activity, and suggest a mechanism of conformational transitions of nucleic acids which accounts for changes in the water structure. From the biophysical, biochemical and crystallographic data we conclude that the Z-DNA form can be induced only at low water activity produced by high salt concentrations or high pressure, and accompanied by the stabilizing conjugative effect of the cytidine O4' electrons of the CG base pairs.  (+info)

Nucleic acid detection technologies -- labels, strategies, and formats. (5/1313)

Currently, no consensus exists on assay formats, labels, or detection reactions for nucleic acid assays. New labels continue to be developed and tested, and recent candidates include acetate kinase, firefly luciferase, and genes for enzymes. An additional trend is toward nonamplification strategies (e.g., branched chain and dendrimer type assays) as alternatives to the popular PCR and related amplification strategies. The new wave of microanalytical devices (microchips, with nanoliter to microliter internal volumes), massively parallel simultaneous test arrays, and the desire to produce hand-held sensors present new challenges and requirements for nucleic acid detection methods (e.g., analysis of large arrays of micrometer-sized spots of nucleic acid with high resolution). Here I review selected developments and new directions in nucleic acid assays.  (+info)

Identification of a nucleic acid binding domain in eukaryotic initiation factor eIFiso4G from wheat. (6/1313)

Higher plants have two complexes that bind the m7G-cap structure of mRNA and mediate interactions between mRNA and ribosomal subunits, designated eIF4F and eIFiso4F. Both complexes contain a small subunit that binds the 5'-cap structure of mRNA, and a large subunit, eIF4G or eIFiso4G, that binds other translation factors and RNA. Sequence-specific proteases were used to cleave native cap-binding complexes into structural domains, which were purified by affinity chromatography. We show here that eIFiso4G contains a central protease-resistant domain that binds specifically to nucleic acids. This domain spans Gln170 to Glu443 and includes four of the six homology blocks shared by eIFiso4G and eIF4G. A slightly shorter overlapping sequence, from Gly202 to Lys445, had no nucleic acid binding activity, indicating that the N-terminal end of the nucleic acid binding site lies within Gln170 to Arg201. The binding of the central domain and native eIFiso4F to RNA homopolymers and double- and single-stranded DNAs was studied. Both molecules had highest affinity for poly(G) and recognized single- and double-stranded sequences.  (+info)

A combined biochemical and cytogenetic study of thioridazine-induced damage to nucleic acids. (7/1313)

In this work the biochemical effects of thioridazine, a commonly used phenothiazine, have been studied upon native double- and single-stranded DNA and also upon a supercoiled plasmid. The results indicate that thioridazine causes damage and scissions to these nucleic acids but only at concentrations much higher than the one used in our cytogenetic experiments and that the damage seems to depend on the concentrations used. Furthermore, we studied the action of thioridazine alone or in combination with caffeine and/or melphalan upon human lymphocytes in vitro. Thioridazine and caffeine (a well-known inhibitor of cellular repair mechanisms) were shown to act synergistically to potentiate the cytogenetic effect of melphalan on human lymphocytes. It is suggested that thioridazine alone or in combination with caffeine may exert its synergistic effect on melphalan cytotoxicity to cultured human lymphocytes not only indirectly, i.e. as a strong calmodulin inhibitor by facilitating the intracellular retention of melphalan, but also directly by reaction with nucleic acids and by causing scissions in and damage to them. Therefore, thioridazine (as chlorpromazine) has some potential as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human cancer.  (+info)

Direct visualization of a protein nuclear architecture. (8/1313)

Whether the cell nucleus is organized by an underlying architecture analagous to the cytoskeleton has been a highly contentious issue since the original isolation of a nuclease and salt-resistant nuclear matrix. Despite electron microscopy studies that show that a nuclear architecture can be visualized after fractionation, the necessity to elute chromatin to visualize this structure has hindered general acceptance of a karyoskeleton. Using an analytical electron microscopy method capable of quantitative elemental analysis, electron spectroscopic imaging, we show that the majority of the fine structure within interchromatin regions of the cell nucleus in fixed whole cells is not nucleoprotein. Rather, this fine structure is compositionally similar to known protein-based cellular structures of the cytoplasm. This study is the first demonstration of a protein network in unfractionated and uninfected cells and provides a method for the ultrastructural characterization of the interaction of this protein architecture with chromatin and ribonucleoprotein elements of the cell nucleus.  (+info)

CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR VARIANTS - Nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of (a) a nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 1, (b) a nucleic acid molecule which encodes a peptide having an amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 2, (c) a nucleic acid molecule whose complementary strand hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule according to (a) or (b) and which codes for a peptide which binds to ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR), the peptide binding with lower affinity than ciliary neurotrophic factor to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), (d) a nucleic acid molecule whose nucleotide sequence differs from the nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid molecule according to (c) due to the degenerated genetic code, the codon at positions 82-84 of the nucleic acid molecule according to (a) coding for a non-positively charged amino acid, and the peptide at position 28 shown in SEQ ID: NO 2 having a non-positively charged amino acid residue ...
The invention features a method of identifying a nucleic acid molecule capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing by (a) affixing a plurality nucleic acid molecules onto a surface in discrete, defined locations; (b) contacting eukaryotic cells with the affixed nucleic acid molecules under appropriate conditions for entry of the nucleic acid molecules into the cells, whereby said nucleic acid molecules are introduced into the cells in the location in which they were affixed; and (c) determining the ability of the nucleic acid molecules to post-transcriptionally silence expression of a gene in the cells, wherein post-transcriptional gene silencing at a discrete, defined location identifies the nucleic acid molecules affixed at that location as being capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing.
Previously, we have demonstrated that the IFN-I signaling molecules, IRF9 and STAT1, were required for the production of IgG autoantibodies in the pristane model and for the high expression levels of TLR7 and TLR9 following treatment with IFN-I in B cells [32]. Here, we describe the autoantibody profile and TLR-dependent B-cell response in SLE mice genetically deficient in the IFNAR2 chain of the IFNAR. Autoantibody profiling using autoantigen microarrays in combination with conventional techniques to confirm the array results revealed that, similar to the phenotype for IRF9-/- mice, pristane-treated IFNAR2-/- mice specifically lacked IgG autoantibodies directed against all of the major targets in the pristane model. These targets included components of the RNA-associated complexes Sm/RNP and RiboP as well as the DNA-associated autoantigens ssDNA and histones. B cells from IFNAR2-/- mice exhibited defects in the expression of TLR7 as well as in responses to TLR7 agonists in the absence of ...
294547663 - EP 0985148 A1 2000-03-15 - NUCLEIC ACID DIAGNOSTICS BASED ON MASS SPECTROMETRY OR MASS SEPARATION AND BASE SPECIFIC CLEAVAGE - [origin: WO9854571A1] A method of detecting a mutation or a difference of one or more nucleotides between a nucleic acid molecule to be tested and a reference nucleic acid molecule, said method comprising subjecting the test nucleic acid molecule to base specific cleavage to generate oligonucleotide fragments, separating the resulting oligonucleotide fragments based on mass by MALDI-ATOF MS and/or other equivalent procedure to produce a fingerprint of then oligonucleotide fragments comprising one or more peaks wherein a peak represents the mass of each fragment and identifying an altered peak relative to a reference nucleic acid molecule subjected to the same procedure wherein the presence of an altered peak is indicative of a difference of one or more nucleotides in said tested nucleic acid molecule.[origin: WO9854571A1] A method of detecting a mutation or a
0021] Accordingly, the present invention concerns the preparation and use of miRNA arrays or miRNA probe arrays, which are macroarrays or microarrays of nucleic acid molecules (probes) that are fully or nearly complementary or identical to a plurality of miRNA molecules positioned on a support or support material in a spatially separated organization. Macroarrays are typically sheets of nitrocellulose or nylon on which probes have been spotted. Microarrays position the nucleic acid probes more densely such that up to 10,000 nucleic acid molecules can be fit into a region typically 1 to 4 square centimetres. Microarrays can be manufactured by spotting nucleic acid molecules, e.g., genes, oligonucleotides, etc., onto substrates or synthesizing oligonucleotide sequences in situ on a substrate. Spotted or in situ synthesized nucleic acid molecules can be applied in a high density matrix pattern of up to about 30 non-identical nucleic acid molecules per square centimetre or higher, e.g. up to about ...
294629575 - EP 1086212 A2 2001-03-28 - METHOD AND REAGENTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES OR CONDITIONS RELATED TO MOLECULES INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENIC RESPONSES - [origin: WO9950403A2] Nucleic acid molecule which modulate the synthesis, expression and/or stability of an mRNA encoding for angiogenic factors selected from aryl hydrocarbon nuclear transport (ARNT), intergrin subunit beta 3 ( beta 3), integrin subunit alpha 6 ( alpha 6) and tie - 2 RNA. This invention further provides a treatment for indications related to angiogenesis using the nucleic acid molecules.[origin: WO9950403A2] Nucleic acid molecule which modulates the synthesis, expression and/or stability of an mRNA encoding for angiogenic factors selected from aryl hydrocarbon nuclear transport (ARNT), intergrin subunit beta 3 ( beta 3), integrin subunit alpha 6 ( alpha 6) and tie - 2RNA. This invention further provides a treatment for indications related to angiogenesis using the nucleic acid molecules.[origin: WO9950403A2] Nucleic acid molecule
The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different
The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different
The present invention includes polynucleotides encoding an MCP1 (e.g., a mature MCP1 polypeptide), an MCP1 multimer or a fusion thereof (e.g., fused to an in vivo half-life extending moiety (e.g., Ig)) (e.g., any of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 2, 8-12) as well as nucleic acids which hybridize to the polynucleotides. Preferably, the nucleic acids hybridize under low stringency conditions, more preferably under moderate stringency conditions and most preferably under high stringency conditions. A nucleic acid molecule is hybridizable to another nucleic acid molecule, such as a cDNA, genomic DNA, or RNA, when a single stranded form of the nucleic acid molecule can anneal to the other nucleic acid molecule under the appropriate conditions of temperature and solution ionic strength (see Sambrook, et a/., supra). The conditions of temperature and ionic strength determine the stringency of the hybridization. Typical low stringency hybridization conditions are 55°C, 5X SSC, 0.1% SDS, 0.25% milk, and no ...
www.MOLUNA.de Protocols for Nucleic Acid Analysis by Nonradioactive Probes [4221542] - Protocols for Nucleic Acid Analysis by Non-radioactive Probes, Second Edition provides a firm background on the basic preparative protocols required for the analysis of nucleic acids by nonradioactive methods. Presenting the methodologies using amazing new applications, this volume offers guide chapters on nucleic acid extractions, preparation of nucleic acid blots,
The present invention relates, e.g., to a method for detecting a nucleic acid molecule of interest in a sample comprising cell-free nucleic acids, comprising fluorescently labeling the nucleic acid molecule of interest, by specifically binding a fluorescently labeled nanosensor or probe to the nucleic acid of interest, or by enzymatically incorporating a fluorescent probe or dye into the nucleic acid of interest, illuminating the fluorescently labeled nucleic acid molecule, causing it to emit fluorescent light, and measuring the level of fluorescence by single molecule spectroscopy, wherein the detection of a fluorescent signal is indicative of the presence of the nucleic acid of interest in the sample.
The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a caspase-14 polypeptide or functional fragment thereof, a vector that contains the nucleic acid molecule and a host cell that contains the vector. The invention also relates to an isolated gene encoding caspase-14, as well as functional fragments thereof. The gene or nucleic acid molecule can include single or double stranded nucleic acids corresponding to coding or non-coding strands of the caspase-14 nucleotide sequence. Isolated caspase-14 polypeptides or functional fragments thereof are also provided, as are antibodies that specifically bind thereto. In addition, the invention relates to methods of identifying compounds that modulate caspase-14 activity.
Synthetic nucleic acids are produced routinely for a wide variety of applications, including biological and chemical research, and diagnostic or therapeutic applications
The invention relates to methods for the detection of the amount of a nucleic acid in a sample. The described methods exploit the ability to physically pair nucleic acid molecules in a sample that have a reference sequence with nucleic acid molecules in the sample that have a target sequence. The presence of unpaired target or reference sequence following such physical pairing indicates a difference in the amount of the target sequence versus the reference sequence. The methods are broadly applicable for the determination of differences in the amounts of nucleic acids in diagnostic and research applications.
The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.
May 13, 2019 · Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is a common cause of disease in the transplant population. , high cytomegalovirus nucleic acid detection so there is a high seroprevalence. Because it is a member of the Herpesviridae family, , high cytomegalovirus nucleic acid detection molecular detection of CMV nucleic acid in clinical specimens (e.g., using real-time PCR) has become a common approach. In addition to qualitative detection of the , high cytomegalovirus nucleic acid ...
Initially, analytical instrumentation, including a dual-force aggregation platform as well as a microdevice for integrated PCR amplification and HIA detection, were engineered to maximize the utility of bead aggregation assays in terms of throughput, speed, and sensitivity. In subsequent work, the HIA technique was exploited for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms. This was demonstrated for the detection of KRAS mutations in lung and colorectal cancers in order to predict patient sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapies. Additionally, HIA detection was combined with multiplex allele-specific PCR to detect three important mutations [CYP2C9 *2, CYP2C9 *3, and VKORC1 (1173C,T)] that allow appropriate dosing of the common oral anticoagulant, warfarin. Overall, this work represents practical steps forward in the development of nucleic acid analysis technology that is amenable for routine clinical care, in order to ultimately reap the rewards of a personalized ...
Nanogen, Inc., developer of advanced diagnostic products, announced today its subsidiary, Epoch Biosciences, was issued Patent No. 6,951,930, Hybridization-Triggered Fluorescent Detection of Nucleic Acids by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The 930 patent relates to latent fluorophore-minor groove binder oligonucleotide conjugates which fluoresce upon hybridization to a target. The conjugates may be used to detect nucleic acid targets. Source: ...
Early stromal edema can often be detected biomicroscopicallv by noticing fine, undulating striae in the deep stroma and Descemets membrane (deep striate keratopathy, auti sm DSK), caused as the cornea expands posteriorly with thickening. Development of Polyion Complex Micelles from Peppcid for the Delivery of Pepcid ac autism Acid-Based Therapeutics An exciting area of research involving micelles is the efforts to deliver nucleic acid-based therapeutics pepcid ac autism. J. For example, suppose the candidateвs apparent proportion of support was 53 rather than 60.
The present invention relates to use of a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control in nucleic acid amplification. The invention relates to a method of nucleic acid amplification comprising having components which amplify target nucleic acid if it is present in a sample and comprising a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control. The invention also relates to a kit for use in the method.
6,132,718 Multi-stage cascade boosting vaccine 6,130,364 Production of antibodies using Cre-mediated site-specific recombination 6,130,316 Fusion proteins of novel CTLA4/CD28 ligands and uses therefore 6,127,598 NKX-2.2 and NKX-6.1 transgenic mouse models for diabetes, depression, and obesity 6,121,415 ErbB4 receptor-specific neuregolin related ligands and uses therefor 6,121,030 CSAPK-2 protein and uses therefor 6,118,045 Lysosomal proteins produced in the milk of transgenic animals 6,117,654 Nucleic acid molecules encoding Tango-77-polypeptides 6,117,650 Assay for cardiac hypertrophy 6,114,598 Generation of xenogeneic antibodies 6,114,123 Lipocalin family protein 6,111,092 Nucleic acid molecules encoding DRT111 and uses thereof 6,110,739 Method to produce novel embryonic cell populations 6,110,718 Mammalian putative phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase 6,107,543 Culture of totipotent embryonic inner cells mass cells and production of bovine animals 6,107,472 Receptor-type tyrosine ...
Compositions, recombinant vaccines and live attenuated pathogens comprising one or more isolated nucleic acid molecules that encode an immunogen in combination with an isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes IL-28 or a functional fragment thereof are disclosed. Methods of inducing an immune response in an individual against an immunogen, using such com-positions are disclosed.
An outgoing Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) is required in some instances and recommended in others. For assistance, refer to the Office of Technology Development (OTD) website.
The Lens serves almost all the patents and scholarly work in the world as a free, open and secure digital public good, with user privacy a paramount focus.
Vertical and seasonal variations of bacterioplankton subgroups with different nucleic acid contents: Possible regulation by phosphorus
Protein-nucleic acid interaction is an important process in many biological phenomena. In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based protein-DNA binding assay has been developed
The structural biology of protein-nucleic acid interactions is in some ways a mature field and in others in its infancy. High-resolution structures of protein-DNA complexes have been studied since the mid 1980s and a vast array of such structures has now been determined, but surprising and novel structures still appear quite frequently. High-resolution structures of protein-RNA complexes were relatively rare until the last decade. Propelled by advances in technology as well as the realization of RNAs importance to biology, the number of example structures has ballooned in recent years. New insights are now being gained from comparative studies only recently made possible due to the size of the database, as well as from careful biochemical and biophysical studies. As a result of the explosion of research in this area, it is no longer possible to write a comprehensive review. Instead, current review articles tend to focus on particular subtopics of interest. This makes it difficult for newcomers to the
Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. Among these synthetic vectors are cationic polymers, branched dendrimers, cationic liposomes and cellpenetrating peptides (CPPs). The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisenseoligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. Up to now, numerous sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a variety of different cargos into mammalian cells. In recent years, it has become apparent that
article{744458, author = {Remaut, Katrien and Sanders, Niek and De Geest, Bruno and Braeckmans, Kevin and Demeester, Jo and De Smedt, Stefaan}, issn = {0927-796X}, journal = {MATERIALS SCIENCE \& ENGINEERING R-REPORTS}, keyword = {SINGLE-PARTICLE TRACKING,FLUORESCENCE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY,CROSS-CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY,advanced light microscopy,nuclear uptake,endocytosis,extracellular matrix,non-viral carriers,gene therapy,GLYCOL-POLYETHYLENIMINE/DNA COMPLEXES,CYSTIC-FIBROSIS SPUTUM,BLOCK-COPOLYMER MICELLES,RESONANCE ENERGY-TRANSFER,CAVEOLAE-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS,INTRAVENOUS GENE DELIVERY,IMAGE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY}, language = {eng}, pages = {117--161}, title = {Nucleic acid delivery: Where material sciences and bio-sciences meet}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2007.06.001}, volume = {58}, year = {2007 ...
Isolation, amplification, and detection of DNA and RNA sequences in molecular diagnostic devices are at the forefront of modern diagnostic medicine. Such technologies offer unprecedented sensitivity and specificity in the detection of infectious disease. Molecular diagnostics are typically very expensive, large, and require a modern laboratory and trained technicians to operate---greatly restricting the use of molecular diagnostic tools in the developing world.. DFA is building paper-based technology to perform molecular diagnostics on an extremely inexpensive, disposable device. DFA is currently developing a nucleic acid amplification-based paper-microfluidic device for early infant diagnosis of HIV under a Saving Lives at Birth grant. Prior test kit development included a DARPA-funded effort to identify E. coli and a DTRA-funded effort with Harvard University focused on Brucella abortus. We believe our approach represents a fundamental shift in the field of nucleic acid detection that can ...
PrimeIAmp™ COVID-19 Lyophilized Fluorescence Nucleic Acid Detection Kit utilizes world-class isothermal amplification technology to detect COVID-19 nucleic acid by quantitative PCR
Surface Enhanced Raman as Tool to study Drug Protein Interactions and Nucleic Acid Detection. Chandrabhas Narayana (BHAS) Chemistry and Physics of Materials Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India [email protected] Slideshow 2716597 by raven
Beijing Wantai Biological item WS-1248 Beijing Wantai Biological WS-1248 Nucleic Acid Detection Kit COVID. Contact Sanbio for more information.
Nucleic acid detection by pattern recognition receptors. Virus infection delivers nucleic acids into infected cells. (Left) DNA is detected in the cytoplasm by
We are looking for global agents [Product Name] Monodon baculo virus disease(MBV)Nucleic acid Detection Kit(Freeze-dried/qPCR Method)V2.0 [Packaging Specification] 24 test/box [Storage condition and term of validity]Stored at room temperature in a...
Read independent reviews on Southern-Light™ and Southern-Star™ Chemiluminescence Nucleic Acid Detection System from Thermo Fisher Scientific on SelectScience
It is required under the NIH Guidelines that the IBC maintains a membership of a minimum of five individuals, with expertise covering knowledge of recombinant DNA and synthetic nucleic acid molecules, a plant expert, an animal expert, and at least two members that are from the community, not affiliated with UWM. Large-scale or BSL-3 research requires the additional membership of a Biological Safety Officer (BSO). At UWM, the biological safety officer always sits on the IBC and currently serves as the IBC coordinator. A current record of membership is reported annually to the NIH Office of Science Policy (OSP) by the biological safety officer.. In addition to evaluation of biological research, the IBC and Biological Safety Program provide guidance and support to the research community of UWM by evaluating best practices and developing guidance documents for research facilities to follow in their own research. The IBC reserves the right to determine the BSL for researchers work and to recommend ...
I certify that the information provided in my protocol submission form is accurate; and any protocol changes, including the DNA being cloned, the vector, the host organism, or any other toxic or infectious agents, will be submitted to the IBC for approval prior to initiation.. I further certify that I have read and will comply with all relevant publications, including but not limited to the NIU Institutional Biosafety Committee Policy, the CDC/NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition and the Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules.. ...
Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a cell surface receptor protein expressed in a variety of solid cancers including lung, colon, breast, brain and liver, therefore opens up opportunities to deliver lysosome sensitive anti-cancer agents, especially synthetic nucleic acid-based therapeutic mole- cules. In this study, we focused on developing novel nucleic acid molecules specific to LDL-R. For this purpose, we performed in vitro selection procedure via SELEX methodologies using mammalian cell- expressed human recombinant LDL-R protein as a target. After ten rounds of selections, we identified a novel DNA oligonucleotide aptamer, RNV-L7, that can bind specifically to LDL-R protein with high affinity and specificity (Kd = 19.6 nM). Furthermore, flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging assays demonstrated efficient binding to LDL-R over-expressed human cancer cells including Huh-7 liver can- cer cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with a binding affinity of ∼200 nM. Furthermore, we ...
Microbial transcription modulator NusG interacts with RNA polymerase and termination factor rho, displaying striking functional homology to eukaryotic Spt5. The protein is also a translational regulator. We have determined crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus NusG showing a modular design: an N-terminal RNP-like domain, a C-terminal element with a KOW sequence motif and a species-specific immunoglobulin-like fold. The structures reveal bona fide nucleic acid binding sites, and nucleic acid binding activities can be detected for NusG from three organisms and for the KOW element alone. A conserved KOW domain is defined as a new class of nucleic acid binding folds. This module is a close structural homolog of tudor protein-protein interaction motifs. Putative protein binding sites for the RNP and KOW domains can be deduced, which differ from the areas implicated in nucleic acid interactions. The results strongly argue that both protein and nucleic acid contacts are important for NusGs functions ...
In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty published an article in which they concluded that genes, or molecules that dictate how organisms develop, are made of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. The article is titled Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types: Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III, hereafter Transformation. The authors isolated, purified, and characterized genes within bacteria and found evidence that those genes were made of DNA and not protein.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications ...
1. The addition of heparin to rat liver, kidney, or brain nuclei has been found to bring about the release of a gel. Chemical analysis and histochemical studies on whole homogenates and isolated nuclei demonstrated that the material released by heparin contained desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein. The action of heparin on nuclei is interpreted as the result of a combination with the basic proteins of the nucleus with a consequent displacement of DNA.. 2. The addition of heparin to a finely divided dilute liver homogenate prepared in a phosphate-sucrose solution at pH 7.1 brings about a marked increase in viscosity which reaches a maximum in 6 to 8 minutes at 23° and then declines.. 3. The concentration threshold for the viscosity effect was 0.1 mg. per 100 mg. fresh rat liver, with further increases in viscosity at higher heparin concentrations. Over a period of several hours a marked decrease in response to heparin was observed in homogenates stored at 0°.. 4. Fractionation of the ...
Synonyms for episomal DNA in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for episomal DNA. 2 synonyms for DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid. What are synonyms for episomal DNA?
Heritable type-specific traits have been induced in meningococcus populations by exposure to desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-containing extracts derived from meningococcus cells of the type desired. The DNA has been shown to be an essential component of
Genetic Science is a new online OPEN-ACCESS journal opened in the frame of Symbiosis (Bloomington, Illinois, USA) to help gather the formidable knowledge provided for studies on genome, gene, desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)….
Endomatrial crabmeatous neoplastic distemper Endometrium is the immanent liner of the mammal womb and actually(prenominal) sensitive ductless gland change, cross to menstrual cycle. endometrial malignant neoplastic un backbreakingness is a belated maturity date crabmeat delimitate as a delineate of which the booths of the endometrial line of womb obligate heighten irrepressible or occupy away malignant as a head of the emasculatenation of jail booths desoxyribonucleic acid. Its the quaternary closely reciprocal malignant neoplastic illness among women e very(prenominal)where every(prenominal) in all, later on rapper pubic lo hand instigateher mixture, lung malignant neoplastic disease, and in running gameine crabmeat.Ca recitations and happen accompanimentors 1. phase angle roughly endometrial crab lo substance ab subroutine occurs to women in mid(prenominal) cardinal and honest-to- substantiallyness. It washcloththor n be ca employ by very a great deal than sepa stoole(a) create from raw stuff ...
This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between nucleic acid oxidation and various iron status markers and especially a close relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and ferritin. This study shows no association between low-grade inflammation and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in a population of elderly Italian people. The results suggest that low-grade inflammation only has a negligible impact on whole body nucleic acid oxidation, whereas ...
Try the new Google Patents, with machine-classified Google Wie Psoriasis qd behandeln results, and Japanese and South Korean patents. Kallikrein gen Conditions kallikrein translated from German DE T2. An isolated protein consisting of an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: An isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 2 with a nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: A vector comprising a nucleic acid molecule according to claim 2 or 3.. A host cell comprising wie Psoriasis qd behandeln nucleic acid molecule of claim 2 or 3. A process for producing a protein according to claim 1, which comprises: Antibodies having specificity Psoriasis Zimt an epitope of a protein of claim wie Psoriasis qd behandeln. The antibody of claim 7 which is wie Psoriasis qd behandeln with a detectable substance and used to detect the polypeptide in biological samples, tissues and cells.. Probe comprising a sequence that encodes a protein of claim 1. A test kit for diagnosing a condition associated wie Psoriasis qd behandeln a ...
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about NUCLEIC-ACID BASES. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
There has been some confusion among the names of dyes. Methyl green and light green are completely different in their uses. It would be possible to go on and on about this, but it would take up at least 4 screenfuls of text. All the information is there in the textbooks. Four points are, however, worth emphasizing. 1. Methyl green (CI 42585) was a lousy dye (always contaminated with crystal violet, which had to be extracted with chloroform) and it is no longer sold. Dyes sold as methyl green are really ethyl green (CI 42590). If the catalogue doesnt say this, dont buy the stuff - they might just be trying to pass off ancient stocks of real methyl green. If you look in a good catalogue (Sigma, Aldrich, and Im sure many others), the real identity of the dye will be clearly stated. Its up to us, the users, to start asking for ethyl green rather than methyl green. 2. Ethyl/methyl green is a cationic dye used for staining nuclei by virtue of their DNA content. Used alone, it also stains other ...
The amount of single stranded nucleic acid molecule reactants present in the aqueous reaction solution can range from an upward extreme in which the second single stranded nucleic acid molecule is present in an initial concentration such that at least a 100 fold increase in acceleration of rate of reaction is observed in the presence of 4M LiCl compared with the rate or reaction observed with 0.18 M NaCl at 60°C, to a lower extreme on the order of 10-9 micrograms. Interestingly, the reaction rate increase for high concentrations of DNA:DNA or DNA:RNA reactions is lower than that for low concentrations of DNA:DNA and RNA:RNA reactions. Thus, the method of the present invention is applicable to both high and low concentrations of reactants. Along these lines, preferred reaction solution volumes will be on the order of a millilitre or less to a fraction of a microlitre. However, it should be emphasized that other reaction solution volumes are contemplated as being within the scope of the present ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 972 041 is based on European patent application No. 98 915 305.1, published as International patent application WO 98/45434 (hereinafter the application as filed), and was granted with 34 claims. Claims 1, 13 and 21 read as follows:. 1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of:. a) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 75% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:3, the cDNA insert of the plasmid deposited with the ATCC as Accession Number 98348, or a complement thereof; .... 13. An isolated polypeptide selected from the group consisting of:. a) a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence which is at least 75% homologous to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID N:2; .... 21. An antibody or antibody fragment that selectively binds to the polypeptide of claims 13, 17, 18 or 19.. Claim 1 contained paragraphs (b) to (g) defining further ...
Recently, nucleic acid secondary structures, G-quadruplexes in particular, have received much attention. G-quadruplexes are non-canonical nucleic acid secondary structures that are formed from G-rich sequences. These sequences consist of four stretches of G residues (each stretch with two or more G residues) interspersed by sequences of variable composition that form the loops. The formation of G-quadruplexes is induced and stabilized by monovalent cations like potassium and sodium. The presence of G-quadruplexes was first reported in telomeres and subsequently in the promoter region of several genes, 5′UTR (untranslated regions) and 3′UTRs [1-6]. G-quadruplexes function as regulatory elements and can influence key biological processes including transcription [3], translation [4] and splicing [7]. Recently, G-quadruplexes were also reported to be enriched at certain positions of eukaryotic retrotransposons, which correspond to regulatory regions of genes and viruses [8, 9]. Genome-wide ...
Metallic nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides are used for a number of nucleic acid detection strategies. However, oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates suffer from a lack of stability when exposed to certain conditions associated with DNA detection assays. In this study, we report the synthesis of thiol and thioctic acid-modified oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle (OGNs) conjugates functionalized with a dye label and varying spacer groups. The thioctic acid-modified conjugates exhibit increased stability when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) compared to the more commonly used thiol modification. When the dye labelled oligonucleotide nanoparticle conjugates are exposed to the same conditions there is a pronounced increase in the stability for both thioctic acid and thiol modified sequences. These results open up the possibility of simply using a dye label to enhance the stability of oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates in DNA detection assays where the enhanced stability of ...
MARKET MONITOR GLOBAL, INC (MMG) has surveyed the Human Mycoplasma Nucleic Acid Detection Kit manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and industry experts on this industry, involving the sales, revenue, demand, price change, product type, recent development and plan, industry trends, drivers, challenges, obstacles, and potential risks ...
In contrast to Risk Groups, Biosafety Levels (BSL) prescribe procedures and levels of containment for the particular microorganism or material (including Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules). Similar to Risk Groups, BSL are graded from 1 - 4. Detailed descriptions of containment practices and biosafety levels can be found in the CDC-NIH Guidelines Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.. The majority of work at UVA involves Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) practices. BSL-2 containment and practice is suitable for work with agents that are infectious to humans or animals where exposure may result in limited to moderate disease. The routes of exposure to these agents are typically through cuts and breaks in the skin, ingestion, and splashes to the mucous membranes (eyes, nose, and mouth). These agents or materials include:. ...
Hi, Poly Scientific has a nice methyl green solution ready to use. I dont recall the cat #, sorry. The procedure is quite simple if you remember to keep water and alcohol out. 1 minute in the counterstain then three changes of acetone then three changes of xylene, then coverslip. Check the stain to be sure you dont need to tweak it. Sometimes you need 15- 20 seconds more or less time. piece o cake :-) Amos Brooks Tina Cardamone wrote: , Hello, , , I have a simple question regarding methyl green. , Does anyone have a methyl green counterstain protocol for , immunohistochemistry. , It sounds simple however I cant seem to find a protocol anywhere. , , Thanks in advance. , , Tina Cardamone , University of Melbourne ...
Refractive index increment dn/dc values when you need them? In light Equation displaying K=2 pi^2 n^2/lambda^4 / Since the refractive index is intuitively related to the density / specific volume of Starch, Aqueous Buffer, DNA = desoxyribonucleic acid ; RNA = ribonucleic acid ; SDS = sodium. measuring the refractive index which has the added advantage of requiring as little as 20 μl of sample. There is a simple linear relationship between refractive index and the density. (e.g. sucrose and NaCl). values for iodixanol solutions ) to get an absorbance . SDS-polyacrylamide and agarose gel electrophoresis. A Brix degree is a measure of the density or concentration of sugar solutions. There are two Relationship of Brix Tolerance to Refractive Index Tolerance. ...
Synonyms for Circular DNA in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Circular DNA. 2 synonyms for DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid. What are synonyms for Circular DNA?
Special precautions should be taken when working with pantropic and amphotropic vectors, which are capable of infecting human cells.. Integration and Mutagenesis Potential of Viral Vectors. The DNA of some viruses, such as lentivirus and gammaretrovirus, is able to integrate in the genome of the host cells as a provirus. Integration of the viral genome may disrupt endogenous genes resulting in mutations. This can lead to a wide range of disorders depending on the site of integration. Of special concern are the activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes, which can lead to the development of cancer.. Environmental Stability of Viral Vectors. Viruses may be more or less sensitive to external factors depending on the presence or absence of viral envelopes. Naked or non-enveloped viruses - e.g., adenovirus - exit the host cell by lysis. Enveloped viruses - e.g., retroviruses - exit the host cell by budding through the cell membrane. The envelope is composed of fragments ...
Sofinnova Partners announces DNA Script successful Series A fundraising of €11 M to advance development of its DNA synthesis technology. Paris, September 12th 2017. Sofinnova Partners, a leading European venture capital firm specialized in Life Sciences, today announced that portfolio company DNA Script, an industry leader in the manufacture of de novo synthetic nucleic acids using proprietary enzymatic technology, has raised €11 million. Sofinnova Partners is DNA Scripts historic and leading shareholder. Alongside existing shareholders which seeded the company, Sofinnova Partners, Kurma Partners, and Idinvest Partners, new high profile investors join the company for this Series A financing round: Illumina Ventures, and Merck Ventures BV (known as M Ventures in the United States and Canada), the corporate venture arm of Merck KGaA.. Founded in 2014 in Paris (France), DNA Script is the worlds leading company in the manufacturing of de novo synthetic nucleic acids using an enzymatic ...
Oligonucleotide probes are effective tools for the research of nucleic acids. This project discusses about Oligonucleotide Probes, Multiplex Genetic Analyses, Multiplex nucleic acid analyses, Genetic variation, Different Types of nucleic acid analyses, multiplex oligonucleotide design,
1. Nucleic-acid mediated immunity & Inflammation· Innate immune sensing pathways of foreign RNA/DNA · Innate immune sensing of endogenous retroviruses and inflamm...
Nucleic acid chaperone activity is an essential component of reverse transcription in retroviruses and retrotransposons. Using DNA stretching with optical tweezers, we have developed a method for detailed characterization of nucleic acid chaperone protein
Generic CHLORAMPHENICOL; DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE; FIBRINOLYSIN availability. Has a generic version of CHLORAMPHENICOL; DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE; FIBRINOLYSIN been approved? Find suppliers, manufacturers, and packagers
Twisted intercalating nucleic acid (TINA) is a nucleic acid molecule that, when added to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), stabilize Hoogsteen triplex DNA formation from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and TFOs. Its ability to twist around a triple bond increases ease of intercalation within double stranded DNA in order to form triplex DNA. Certain configurations have been shown to stabilize Watson-Crick antiparallel duplex DNA. TINA-DNA primers have been shown to increase the specificity of binding in PCR. The use of TINA insertions in G-quadruplexes has also been shown to enhance anti-HIV-1 activity. TINA stabilized PT demonstrates improved sensitivity and specificity of DNA based clinical diagnostic assays. Triple helixes are formed when a single-stranded triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) binds to a purine-containing strand of dsDNA through specific major groove interactions. Generally, the third-strand affinity of a TFO is low, due to the requirement for the formation of pH-sensitive ...
Electrostatic forces and potentials are keys in determining the interactions between biomolecules. We have recently imaged the topography and electrostatic surface potential of nucleic acid molecules on silicon surfaces using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Here, we demonstrate KPFM imaging on insulating surfaces like mica, which provides access to configurations of DNA that are projections of its structure in solution. In particular, we apply dual-frequency mode to minimize the tip-sample distance at which the Kelvin probe signal is acquired and use the fundamental resonance of the cantilever to determine surface potential and its first overtone to detect the topography. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3512867 ...
Magnetic separation technology To ease and accelerate nucleic acid isolation based on magnetic particles, and to offer the user a highly flexible and reliable automation, chemagen has developed a unique separation method together with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe . The isolation of nucleic acid molecules is achieved through their capturing by highly specific binding M-PVA Magnetic …. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - 5′-Monopyrene and 5′-Bispyrene 2′-O-methyl RNA Probes for Detection of RNA Mismatches. AU - Novopashina, D. S.. AU - Semikolenova, O. A.. AU - Venyaminova, A. G.. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Progress in synthesis of novel fluorescent oligonucleotides has provided effective instruments for nucleic acid detection. Pyrene conjugated oligonucleotides have demonstrated their effectiveness as fluorescent hybridization probes. Here we describe the synthesis, isolation, and analysis of 5′-monopyrene and 5′-bispyrene conjugates of oligo(2′-O-methylribonucleotides) and their application as probes for fluorescent detection of mismatches in RNA targets.. AB - Progress in synthesis of novel fluorescent oligonucleotides has provided effective instruments for nucleic acid detection. Pyrene conjugated oligonucleotides have demonstrated their effectiveness as fluorescent hybridization probes. Here we describe the synthesis, isolation, and analysis of 5′-monopyrene and ...
In the last decade the use of field-effect-based devices has become a basic structural element in a new generation of biosensors that allow label-free DNA analysis. In particular, ion sensitive field effect transistors (FET) are the basis for the development of radical new approaches for the specific detection and characterization of DNA due to FETs greater signal-to-noise ratio, fast measurement capabilities, and possibility to be included in portable instrumentation. Reliable molecular characterization of DNA and/or RNA is vital for disease diagnostics and to follow up alterations in gene expression profiles. FET biosensors may become a relevant tool for molecular diagnostics and at point-of-care. The development of these devices and strategies should be carefully designed, as biomolecular recognition and detection events must occur within the Debye length. This limitation is sometimes considered to be fundamental for FET devices and considerable efforts have been made to develop better architectures
The advancement of gene-based therapeutics to the clinic is limited by the ability to deliver physiologically relevant doses of nucleic acids to target tissues safely and effectively. Over the last couple of decades, researchers have successfully e
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La terapia génica presenta potenciales aplicaciones terapéuticas para el tratamiento de muchas enfermedades como el cáncer, enfermedades monogénicas, enfermedad vascular, entre otras. Aunque la mayoría de protocolos de terapia génica empleen vectores virales, debido a su alta eficacia de transfección, crecientes preocupaciones debido a su activación de respuesta inmunológica motivan al desarrollo de sistemas de transportes no virales que sean seguros y eficaces. Poli(β-aminoestere)s (pBAEs) son prometedores vectores no virales debido a que su naturaleza de poliéster resulta en un atractivo perfil de biocompatibilidad debido a su alta biodegradabilidad y baja toxicidad. Este trabajo desarrolla una nueva familia de pBAEs, los cuales presentan oligopéptidos terminales, capaces de condensar tanto ADN como siRNA en partículas de tamaño nanométrico. En primer lugar, se realizan experimentos in vitro para evaluar la habilidad de estos nuevos pBAEs para transportar eficazmente tanto DNA ...
None, 11/7/2018, · Furthermore, PPE is often a legal requirement and it is the responsibility of the employer to ensure employees ,wear protective clothing, and observe safety and health regulations. It is also a responsibility, which employees must take seriously. The Employers Responsibility Towards Their …
Although the vast majority of such ligand binding activities or enzymatic activities known are performed by proteins a secondary subset of these fall under the category of Functional nucleic acids (FNAs). FNAs are RNA, ssDNA, or XNA(nucleic acid analogues) that perform an activity such as binding or catalyzing a reaction. FNAs are grouped into three main categories Aptamers, Ribozymes, and Deoxyribozymes that are further classified into either natural or artificial depending on their origin. The exception being Deoxyribozymes as they have yet to be discovered in a living organism. Still, It was only in the 1980s that the 1st ribozyme was discovered that we started to study FNAs and have allowed for the discovery of new methods, such as the SELEX or In vitro selection process that we are expanding their potential both as tools for exploring biology and real world problem solving. Note to self: mention RNA World ...
Functional nucleic acids (FNAs) are RNA, DNA, or XNA(nucleic acid analogues) that perform an activity such as binding or catalyzing a reaction. FNAs are grouped into three main categories Aptamers, Ribozymes, and Deoxyribozymes that are subdivided into either natural or artificial depending on their origin; the exception being Deoxyribozymes as they have yet to be discovered in a living organism. ...
Proper understanding of nucleic acid structure and function is critical as nucleic acids emerge as major targets and therapeutic mediators of physiological changes. Efficient, repeatable, and flexible computational construction methods for nucleic acids are largely unavailable, in part due to the magnitude of such a challenge. In this thesis, a novel suite of programs has been developed for construction, manipulation, and analysis of nucleic acids. This suite contains the following programs: NASDAC (Nucleic Acids: Structure, Dynamics, And Conformations), NASNIC (Nucleic Acid Structural Nomenclature Interpreter for Conformations), NASNOX (Nucleic Acid Structure modification: NitrOXide labels), and a higher-level program called NATCAR (Nucleic Acids: Topology, Conformation, Analysis, Refinement) through which all programs are launched. NASDAC is the primary engine of nucleic acid structure assembly, and NASNIC employs an original nucleic acid nomenclature named NAUTILIS (Nucleic Acids: Universal ...
The last decade has seen rapid development in single molecule manipulation of RNA and DNA. Measuring the response force for a particular manipulation has allowed the free energies of various nucleic acid structures and configurations to be determined. Optical tweezers represent a class of single mol …
Kolbing Frank (kolbing at fmi.ch) wrote: : I am searching for programs able to reveal antigenic sites in a given : protein sequence. I know of two programs that include this: # Name=predict.exe [ 2Nov93, 82kb] Path=9/EMBnet BioInformation Resource EMBL/Software/dos/predict Host=felix.embl-heidelberg.de # Name=sqaid381.exe [ 2Nov93, 208kb] Path=9/EMBnet BioInformation Resource EMBL/Software/dos/sqaid381 Host=felix.embl-heidelberg.de # Both are PD/Shareware and are using the antigenicity calculation proc. of Welling et.al 1985. Predict shows a nice graph on this, but lacks output other than plotter. Seqaid does a lot on nucleic acid analysis, as well as protein analysis. The output is ascii graphics, but also raw data. These can be easily imported in gnuplot or ACE/gr (or other) for high quality graphics output. Hope this helps, Sebastian -- email: [ Sebastian.Bunka at vu-wien.ac.at ] voice: FAX: +43-1-71155260 +43-1-7149110 Location: earth, europe, austria, vienna Inst. of Bacteriology Vet.Univ ...
How do you research viruses that don’t grow |em>in vitro|/em>? You go straight to ATCC synthetic nucleic acids. Now featuring Dengue, Norovirus, and West Nile Virus!
work presented in this thesis concerns studies on the physicochemical nature of interactions between nucleic acids and small ligands. The outcome of such studies can yield insights at a molecular level into the physiological mechanisms of action of biologically active nucleic-acid binding molecules. The thesis work includes investigations of a number of such low molecular weight compounds designed for nucleic acid sequence probing or therapeutic use. The interactions have been characterised by means of various optical spectroscopic techniques - including linear dichroism, circular dichroism and fluorescence - as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. The fluorescent dye 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is known to adopt different DNA binding modes in regions containing consecutive AT base-pairs as compared to those consisting of long sequences of GC base-pairs. In mixed sequence DNA, DAPI exhibits a pronounced preference to bind in the minor groove of AT rich regions. To verify ...
This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA…
Research Summary. Structural DNA Nanotechnology. Synthetic nucleic acid assemblies can now be programmed to self-assemble with high structural fidelity using Watson-Crick base-pairing. This synthetic structural approach offers unprecedented control over the 3D architecture and chemical composition of large-scale macromolecular assemblies that can also be interfaced with natural and synthetic molecules inside and outside of the cell. Here, we are developing computational strategies to enable high-throughput and high fidelity design and synthesis of arbitrary geometries, sizes, and sequences of DNA-based nanostructures for diverse applications in nanobiotechnology. In related work we are exploring use of these scaffolds for organizing toxins, viral coat proteins, chromophores, enzymes, lipids, and RNAs in complex 3D architectures for applications ranging from cellular drug targeting and delivery to biosensing and chemical synthesis. This work is funded by the ONR, NSF, and HFSP.. Programmed ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Nucleic acid synthesis at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Nucleic acid synthesis easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
... is an open-access peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1974 by the Oxford University Press. ... "Nucleic Acids Research". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. Official website ... The journal covers research on nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, and related work. According to the Journal Citation Reports ...
... is a monthly academic journal published by Taylor & Francis since 2000, continuing the ...
Once the nucleic acid is properly prepared, the samples of the nucleic acid solution are placed in the wells of the gel and a ... Voltage is, however, not the sole factor in determining electrophoresis of nucleic acids. The nucleic acid to be separated can ... Nucleic acid electrophoresis is an analytical technique used to separate DNA or RNA fragments by size and reactivity. Nucleic ... Although the stained nucleic acid fluoresces reddish-orange, images are usually shown in black and white (see figures). UV ...
... and include peptide nucleic acid, morpholino- and locked nucleic acid, glycol nucleic acid, and threose nucleic acid. Each of ... Nucleic Acids Research journal Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids) Portal: ... Process Nucleic acid structure - Biomolecular structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA Nucleic acid thermodynamics - ... This gives nucleic acids directionality, and the ends of nucleic acid molecules are referred to as 5'-end and 3'-end. The ...
... is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). ... occurs when half of the double-stranded nucleic acid has dissociated. If no additional nucleic acids are present, then [A], [B ... elegantly describe the thermodynamic parameters for forming double-stranded nucleic acid AB from single-stranded nucleic acids ... In general, the free energy of forming a nucleic acid duplex is Δ G 37 ∘ ( t o t a l ) = Δ G 37 ∘ ( i n i t i a t i o n s ...
DNA supercoil Gene structure Non-helical models of DNA structure Nucleic acid design Nucleic acid double helix Nucleic acid ... Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very ... Nucleic acid structure prediction (computational) Nucleic acid thermodynamics Protein structure Satellite DNA Triple-stranded ... A nucleic acid sequence is the order of nucleotides within a DNA (GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule that is determined by a series ...
"Nucleic Acid Hybridizations". DNA - Basics of Structure and Analysis. Retrieved 26 May 2017. Beckman, Mary. "Hybridization". ... Felsenfeld, G; Miles, HT (1967). "The physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 36: ... In molecular biology, hybridization (or hybridisation) is a phenomenon in which single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ... ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules anneal to complementary DNA or RNA. Though a double-stranded DNA sequence is generally stable ...
Threose nucleic acid (TNA) Glycol nucleic acid (GNA) Locked nucleic acid (Locked nucleic acid) Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) FANA ... Xeno nucleic acids (XNA) are synthetic nucleic acid analogues that have a different sugar backbone than the natural nucleic ... XNA may also act as highly specific molecular probes for detection of nucleic acid target sequence. Nucleic acid analogue ... Types of synthetic XNA created so far include: 1,5-anhydrohexitol nucleic acid (HNA) Cyclohexene nucleic acid (CeNA) ...
One example of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation is AmbiScript, a rationally designed nucleic acid notations that combined ... "Nomenclature for Incompletely Specified Bases in Nucleic Acid Sequences". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (9): 3021-3030. doi: ... "The practical and pedagogical advantages of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 25 ... "Nomenclature for incompletely specified bases in nucleic acid sequences: recommendations 1984". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (9 ...
... (GNA), sometimes also referred to as glycerol nucleic acid, is a nucleic acid similar to DNA or RNA but ... Abiogenesis Locked nucleic acid Oligonucleotide synthesis Peptide nucleic acid Threose nucleic acid Zhang L, Peritz A, Meggers ... Schlegel MK, Essen LO, Meggers E (July 2008). "Duplex structure of a minimal nucleic acid". Journal of the American Chemical ... Zhang L, Peritz A, Meggers E (March 2005). "A simple glycol nucleic acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (12): ...
A nucleic acid test (NAT) is a technique used to detect a particular nucleic acid sequence and thus usually to detect and ... Nucleic acid tests use a "probe" which is a long strand with a short strand stuck to it. The long primer strand has a ... The probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM to 47 mM, and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 M. ... Nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) strands with corresponding sequences stick together in pairwise chains, zipping up like Velcro ...
Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Vol. Chapter 4. pp. 4.12.1-4.12.16. ... C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acids (ENA) with nuclease-resistance and high affinity for RNA". Nucleic Acids Research. Supplement ... A bridged nucleic acid (BNA) is a modified RNA nucleotide. They are sometimes also referred to as constrained or inaccessible ... Obika, Satoshi; Hari, Yoshiyuki; Sekiguchi, Mitsuaki; Imanishi, Takeshi (2001). "A 2′,4′-Bridged Nucleic Acid Containing 2- ...
Morpholino and locked nucleic acid (LNA), as well as glycol nucleic acid (GNA), threose nucleic acid (TNA) and hexitol nucleic ... locked nucleic acid (LNA) or bridged nucleic acid (BNA), morpholino, and peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Although these ... RNA may be too complex to be the first nucleic acid, so before the RNA world several simpler nucleic acids that differ in the ... Wang Q, Chen L, Long Y, Tian H, Wu J (2013). "Molecular beacons of xeno-nucleic acid for detecting nucleic acid". Theranostics ...
Abiogenesis Glycol nucleic acid Oligonucleotide synthesis Peptide nucleic acid Synthetic biology Xeno nucleic acid Xenobiology ... Nucleic Acids Res., (2019). Orgel, L. E. A simpler nucleic acid. Science 290, 1306-1307, (2000). Liu, L. S. et al. alpha-l- ... A Simpler Nucleic Acid, Leslie Orgel (Nucleic acids, Polymers). ... Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is an artificial genetic polymer in ... Nucleic Acids Res. 46, 8057-8068, (2018). Pinheiro, V. B. et al. Synthetic genetic polymers capable of heredity and evolution. ...
... is the process of generating a set of nucleic acid base sequences that will associate into a desired ... Thus, in nucleic acids the sequence determines the pattern of binding and thus the overall structure. Nucleic acid design is ... Nucleic acid design encompasses all levels of nucleic acid structure: Primary structure-the raw sequence of nucleobases of each ... Nucleic acid design can be considered the inverse of nucleic acid structure prediction. In structure prediction, the structure ...
... are the techniques used to study nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. DNA extraction Phenol-chloroform extraction ... Protocols for Recombinant DNA Isolation, Cloning, and Sequencing (Genetics techniques, Molecular biology, Nucleic acids). ... spectroscopic nucleic acid quantitation Absolute abundance in number: real-time polymerase chain reaction (quantitative PCR) ... "A universal molecular translator for non-nucleic acid targets that enables dynamic DNA assemblies and logic operations". Chem. ...
... (PNA) is an artificially synthesized polymer similar to DNA or RNA. Synthetic peptide nucleic acid ... Clicked peptide polymer Glycol nucleic acid Oligonucleotide synthesis Peptide synthesis Threose nucleic acid Nielsen PE, Egholm ... Zhao XL, Chen BC, Han JC, Wei L, Pan XB (November 2015). "Delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-peptide nucleic acid conjugates ... Wittung P, Nielsen PE, Buchardt O, Egholm M, Nordén B (April 1994). "DNA-like double helix formed by peptide nucleic acid". ...
... is the process by which nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are the ... Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids) Interactive overview of nucleic acid ... Destruction of nucleic acid is a catabolic reaction. Additionally, parts of the nucleotides or nucleobases can be salvaged to ... Carbohydrate metabolism DNA Nucleic acid Protein metabolism RNA Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith; Pratt, Charlotte (2008). ...
The "A260 unit" is used as a quantity measure for nucleic acids. One A260 unit is the amount of nucleic acid contained in 1 mL ... 280 ratio in a nucleic acid solution. 260:280 ratio has high sensitivity for nucleic acid contamination in protein: 260:280 ... units to nucleic acid concentration conversion factors are used to convert OD to concentration of unknown nucleic acid samples ... Reactions that use nucleic acids often require particular amounts and purity for optimum performance. To date, there are two ...
The sequence of nucleobases on a nucleic acid strand is translated by cell machinery into a sequence of amino acids making up a ... Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of an organism. Nucleic acids also have ... A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of bases signified by a series of a set of five different letters that indicate the ... Once a nucleic acid sequence has been obtained from an organism, it is stored in silico in digital format. Digital genetic ...
A nucleic acid inhibitor is a type of antibacterial that acts by inhibiting the production of nucleic acids. There are two ... Antifolates act primarily as inhibitors of both RNA and DNA, and are often grouped with nucleic acid inhibitors in textbooks. ... Nucleic acid inhibitor antibiotics, All stub articles, Antibiotic stubs). ... because tetrahydrofolate is also involved in the synthesis of amino acids serine and methionine), so they are sometimes ...
The SNA structure typically consists of two components: a nanoparticle core and a nucleic acid shell. The nucleic acid shell is ... it acts as a scaffold for the assembly and orientation of the nucleic acids. The nucleic acid shell imparts chemical and ... are desirable for the delivery of immunomodulatory nucleic acids. In particular, SNAs have been used deliver nucleic acids that ... Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) are nanostructures that consist of a densely packed, highly oriented arrangement of linear ...
A locked nucleic acid (LNA), also known as bridged nucleic acid (BNA), and often referred to as inaccessible RNA, is a modified ... Kurreck, J. (2002-05-01). "Design of antisense oligonucleotides stabilized by locked nucleic acids". Nucleic Acids Research. 30 ... C-Ethylene-bridged nucleic acids (ENA) with nuclease-resistance and high affnity for RNA". Nucleic Acids Symposium Series. 1 (1 ... A locked nucleic acid phosphorothioate antisense molecule, termed SPC2996, has been developed to target the mRNA coding for Bcl ...
Nucleic acid NMR uses techniques similar to those of protein NMR, but has several differences. Nucleic acids have a smaller ... Because nucleic acids have a relatively large number of protons which are solvent-exchangeable, nucleic acid NMR is generally ... Nucleic Acids. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508467-5. (Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nucleic acids, ... deoxyadenosine are incorporated into the nucleic acid strand, as natural nucleic acids do not contain any fluorine atoms. 1H ...
"Enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of G-quadruplexes comprising locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids". Nucleic Acids ... Twisted intercalating nucleic acid (TINA) is a nucleic acid molecule that, when added to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs ... Géci, Imrich; Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Pedersen, Erik B (2006). "Synthesis of Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids Possessing ... "Purine twisted-intercalating nucleic acids: A new class of anti-gene molecules resistant to potassium-induced aggregation". ...
"Modeling Unusual Nucleic Acid Structures". Modeling unusual nucleic acid structures. In Molecular Modeling of Nucleic Acids. ... Nucleic acid structure prediction is a computational method to determine secondary and tertiary nucleic acid structure from its ... Zuker M (2003). "Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (13): 3406 ... Nucleic Acids Research, 32(Web Server issue), W142-145. Touzet H (2007). Comparative analysis of RNA genes: the caRNAc software ...
... refers to the interactions between separate nucleic acid molecules, or between nucleic acid ... In the case of nucleic acids, quaternary structure refers to interactions between multiple nucleic acid molecules or between ... nucleic acids and proteins. Nucleic acid quaternary structure is important for understanding DNA, RNA, and gene expression ... The nucleic acid associations demonstrate the kissing loop motif. The three-dimensional folding motif known as the kissing loop ...
... is the three-dimensional shape of a nucleic acid polymer. RNA and DNA molecules are capable of ... Watson JD, Crick FH (April 1953). "Molecular structure of nucleic acids; a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid" (PDF). ... Watson JD, Crick FH (April 1953). "Molecular structure of nucleic acids; a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid" (PDF). ... The resurgence of RNA structural biology in the mid-1990s has caused a veritable explosion in the field of nucleic acid ...
... is the basepairing interactions within a single nucleic acid polymer or between two polymers. ... In a non-biological context, secondary structure is a vital consideration in the nucleic acid design of nucleic acid structures ... "Paradigms for computational nucleic acid design". Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (4): 1392-1403. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh291. PMC 390280 ... The nucleic acid double helix is a spiral polymer, usually right-handed, containing two nucleotide strands which base pair ...
... (NATC), or DNA-templated chemistry, is a tool used in the controlled synthesis of chemical ... Pianowski Z, Gorska K, Oswald L, Merten CA, Winssinger N (May 2009). "Imaging of mRNA in live cells using nucleic acid- ... Gorska K, Huang KT, Chaloin O, Winssinger N (April 2009). "DNA-templated homo- and heterodimerization of peptide nucleic acid ... Franzini RM, Kool ET (November 2009). "Efficient nucleic acid detection by templated reductive quencher release". J Am Chem Soc ...
... inherited nucleic acid from the serum or plasma sample and detecting the presence of a paternally inherited nucleic acid of ... Claim 1 is illustrative: 1. A method for detecting a paternally inherited nucleic acid of fetal origin performed on a maternal ...
Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic acids. Class 2 systems use a single large Cas ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 38 (20): 7308-7319. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq595. PMC 2978367. PMID 20631005. (Articles without InChI source ...
Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. Vol. 53. pp. 1-78. doi:10.1016/s0079-6603(08)60142-7. ISBN ... Traut TW, Jones ME (1996). Uracil metabolism--UMP synthesis from orotic acid or uridine and conversion of uracil to beta- ... In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, two of the most promising inhibitors are 2,6-dihydroxipyridine-4-carboxylic acid and 3- ... 2010) performed reactions on 2-ethoxiethanselenic acid using electron-rich aromatic substrates to produce (2-ethoxiethyl)seleno ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (21): e145. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl772. PMC 1693883. PMID 17088290. Lunder M, Bratkovic T, Urleb U, Kreft S, ... Nucleic Acids Res. 40 (Database issue): D271-7. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr922. PMC 3245166. PMID 22053087. Negi SS, Braun W (2009). " ... Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (25): 5761-2. doi:10.1093/nar/22.25.5761. PMC 310144. PMID 7838733. Fuh G, Sidhu SS (September 2000). " ... PelB (an amino acid signal sequence that targets the protein to the periplasm where a signal peptidase then cleaves off PelB) ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (19): 3825-3833. doi:10.1093/nar/22.19.3825. PMC 308376. PMID 7937100. Sumner C, Shinohara T, Durham L, ... Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (19): 3895-3903. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3895. PMC 146989. PMID 9380514. Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The ... Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (19): 3895-3903. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3895. PMC 146989. PMID 9380514. Harris, Lachlan; Zalucki, Oressia ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (Suppl_1): D75-80. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp902. PMC 2808995. PMID 19880380. data v t e (Articles needing ...
Pingoud A, Jeltsch A (September 2001). "Structure and function of type II restriction endonucleases". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (18 ... Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (7): 1805-12. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg274. PMC 152790. PMID 12654995. Jeremy MB, John LT, Lubert S (2002). "3 ...
On March 27, the song "First Snap Up Groceries, Then Do Nucleic Acid" (Chinese: 先抢菜,再做核酸) was published on the WeChat Public ... In every building with a positive COVID-19 case, all residents were required to undertake "nucleic acid" COVID testing ... case needs to both be positive on a nucleic acid test and satisfy the clinical presentations for a "suspected" case, which ...
Durbin, Richard (23 April 1998). Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge ... Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (2): 544-548. doi:10.1093/nar/26.2.544. PMC 147303. PMID 9421513. "Glimmer: Microbial Gene-Finding ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (17): 3389-3402. doi:10.1093/nar/25.17.3389. PMC 146917. PMID 9254694. "Coudriet, D.L., A.N. Kishaba ...
Some of these are believed to affect the shape of nucleic acids (see for example RNA self-splicing), but this is only sometimes ... "Noncoding" sequences are not translated into proteins, and nucleic acids with such motifs need not deviate from the typical ... Biology portal Biomolecular structure Mammalian Motif Finder MochiView Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation Nucleic acid sequence ... Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (Web Server issue): W369-73. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl198. PMC 1538909. PMID 16845028. Weirauch MT, Cote A ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (21): 13134-49. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1051. PMC 4245941. PMID 25378325. Ishida T, Akimitsu N, Kashioka ... Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (19): 9262-9275. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv804. PMC 4627069. PMID 26253742. (Wikipedia articles needing ...
Kozlowski, LP (26 October 2016). "Proteome-pI: proteome isoelectric point database". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112- ... Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able ... Vreeland, H; Rosenzweig, W D; Lowenstein, T; Satterfield, C; Ventosa, A (December 2006). "Fatty acid and DNA analyses of ... to metabolize other amino acids, as well. H. salinarum have been reported to be unable to grow on sugars, and therefore need to ...
Nucleic acid molecules have a phosphoryl (5') end and a hydroxyl (3') end. This notation follows from organic chemistry ... The nucleic acid sequences are complementary and parallel, but they go in opposite directions, hence the antiparallel ... G-quadruplexes, also known as G4 DNA are secondary structures found in nucleic acids that are rich in guanine. These structures ... Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (19): 5402-15. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl655. PMC 1636468. PMID 17012276. Benson G. "Anti-Parallel Strands ...
... the sugar component of nucleic acids.[citation needed] Fats are catabolized by hydrolysis to free fatty acids and glycerol. The ... The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... Nucleic acids are critical for the storage and use of genetic information, and its interpretation through the processes of ...
2006). "The LIFEdb database in 2006". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501. PMID ...
2007). "VectorBase: a home for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens". Nucleic Acids Research. 35 (Database issue): D503-5. ... 2009). "VectorBase: a data resource for invertebrate vector genomics". Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (Database issue): D583-7. doi ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 33 (9): 2781-91. doi:10.1093/nar/gki574. PMC 1126904. PMID 15894796. Montegut-Felkner, Ann E.; Triemer ...
Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D435-42. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq972. PMC 3013806. PMID 20972210. "Brix overview". ...
"Different Restriction Enzyme-generated Sticky DNA Ends Can Be Joined in Vitro." Nucleic Acids Research 12.4 (1984): 1863-874. ... "ATP-Dependent Restriction Enzymes." Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology 64 (2000): 1-63. Print. Rao, ... "ATP-Dependent Restriction Enzymes." Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology 64 (2000): 1-63. Print. Lodish, ... "Detection of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fragmentation in Human Sperm: Correlation with Fertilization in Vitro." Biology of ...
... dihydrofolate reductase is targeted by various drugs to prevent nucleic acid synthesis. Click on genes, proteins and ... Dihydrofolic acid (conjugate base dihydrofolate) (DHF) is a folic acid (vitamin B9) derivative which is converted to ... "Dissociation constants for dihydrofolic acid and dihydrobiopterin and implications for mechanistic models for dihydrofolate ... tetrahydrofolic acid by dihydrofolate reductase. Since tetrahydrofolate is needed to make both purines and pyrimidines, which ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (Database issue): D852-7. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn732. PMC 2686605. PMID 18996892. Xu GP, Zhang ZL, Xiao ... especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL ... amino acid analysis and amino terminal amino acid sequence". Science. 207 (4430): 525-6. Bibcode:1980Sci...207..525K. doi: ... Bruce Merrifield, using solid phase peptide synthesis, one amino acid at a time. He later won the Nobel Prize in chemistry. ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 35 (8): 2564-72. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm082. PMC 1885644. PMID 17412707. Yang CT, Hindes AE, Hultman KA, Johnson ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 47 (9): 4442-4448. doi:10.1093/nar/gkz246. PMC 6511854. PMID 31081040. "GTDB release 05-RS95". Genome ... The tetraethers help Sulfolobus species survive extreme acid as well as high temperature. S. solfataricus has been found in ... tricarboxylic/Krebs/citric acid) cycle. This indicates that Sulfolobus has a TCA cycle system similar to that found in ...
2006). "miRBase: microRNA sequences, targets and gene nomenclature". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (90001): D140-4. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
Methods for multi-resolution analysis of cell-free nucleic acids, (2017). Eltoukhy was named to Time Magazine's inaugural 50 ... "Methods for multi-resolution analysis of cell-free nucleic acids", published 2017-12-26, assigned to Guardant Health Inc. "40 ...
Chardin P, Madaule P, Tavitian A (March 1988). "Coding sequence of human rho cDNAs clone 6 and clone 9". Nucleic Acids Research ... Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (6): 2717. doi:10.1093/nar/16.6.2717. PMC 336400. PMID 3283705. Wennerberg K, Der CJ (March 2004). " ...
... molecular biophysicist and structural biologist known for foundational work in three-dimensional protein and nucleic acid ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (Database issue): D536-44. doi:10.1093/nar/gks1080. PMC 3531119. PMID 23161684. Stein, L. (2001). " ...
Synthetic Biology Nucleic Acid Purification Nucleic Acid Purification Products Nucleic Acid Purification Products. Product ... Nucleic Acid Purification. Close Monarch® DNA Cleanup Binding Buffer Close Monarch® DNA Cleanup Columns (5 μg) Close Monarch® ... enables high throughput workflows for real-time detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using hydrolysis probes. For simple, ... SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Colorimetric LAMP Assay Kit includes a color-changing pH indicator for detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid ...
... For isolation of free-circulating DNA and RNA from ... The QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit purifies and concentrates nucleic acids from the following sample types:. *Human plasma ... The QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit enables efficient purification of these circulating nucleic acids from human plasma or ... providing nucleic acids in less than 2 hours per 24 samples. If the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit is used for isolation ...
A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, or NAAT, is a type of viral diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. ... NAATs detect genetic material (nucleic acids). NAATs for SARS-CoV-2 specifically identify the RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequences ... A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, or NAAT, is a type of viral diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. ... Amplifying those nucleic acids enables NAATs to detect very small amounts of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a specimen, making these tests ...
Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other methods for amplifying DNA and RNA, ... Notices to Readers Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Tuberculosis Traditional methods for laboratory diagnosis of ... Diagnosis of tuberculosis by nucleic acid amplification methods applied to clinical specimens. MMWR 1993;42:35. ... The test is approved for use in conjunction with culture for respiratory specimens that are positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB ...
DNA Repair & Nucleic Acid Enzymology Group. The DNA Repair and Nucleic Acid Enzymology Group conducts several research studies ...
Overview of Nucleic Acid Isolation resources in the GPSR ... Nucleic Acid Isolation * Contact Us * Sample Preparation and ... Nucleic acid isolation and processing services. *DNA (fresh, frozen, FFPE) *GPSR low throughput DNA isolation service (1-24 ... Processing for nucleic acid cleanup and/or concentration *To dilute and plate DNA samples for internal processing or shipment, ... The GPSR provides nucleic acid extraction services for a large variety of sample types, including saliva, blood, FFPE specimens ...
WHO prequalification: sample product dossier for a qualitative nucleic acid-based testing technology for HIV-1 and HIV-2  ... WHO prequalification: sample product dossier for a quantitative nucleic acid-based testing technology to measure HIV-1 RNA  ...
... similar to tiny little balls of nucleic acids. ... Spherical nucleic acids are structures that are made by taking ... What are spherical nucleic acids (SNAs)? What do they consist of and how do they differ from linear nucleic acids?. Spherical ... They have also been shown to recognize and bind to spherical nucleic acids much more tightly than linear nucleic acids, and so ... the properties of spherical nucleic acids are very different from linear nucleic acids. For example, SNAs bind complementary ...
This NGS Standard comprises an even mixture of nucleic acids prepared from fully sequenced, characterized, and authenticated ... To download a certificate of origin for Virome Nucleic Acid Mix (MSA-1008), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your ... Virome Nucleic Acid Mix MSA-1008™ NGS Standards are mock microbial communities that mimic mixed metagenomic samples. This ... To download a certificate of analysis for Virome Nucleic Acid Mix (MSA-1008), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on ...
Nucleic Acid Backbone Torsions. CSV Format. Model ID. Chain ID. Residue Number. Residue Name. O3-P-O5-C5. P-O5-C5-C4. O5-C5-C4- ... A Portal for Three-dimensional Structural Information about Nucleic Acids. As of 23-Nov-2022 number of released structures: ... [email protected] ©1995-2022 The Nucleic Acid Database Project , Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ...
Revised and updated Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and Biology 3rd Edition discusses in detail, both the chemistry and biology of ... A brief history of the discovery of nucleic acids is followed by a molecularly based introduction to the structure and ... function and reactions of nucleic acids are central to molecular biology and are crucial for the understanding of complex ... oligonucleotides and their analogues and to analytical techniques applied to nucleic acids. The text is supported by an ...
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Known as: Inhibitors, Nucleic Acid Synthesis, Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor ... Attenuation of the morphine withdrawal syndrome by the combination treatment of morphine and protein/nucleic acid synthesis… ... Inhibitors of DNA synthesis (hydroxyurea and cytosine arabinoside), protein synthesis (cycloheximide and emetine), and nucleic ...
... called nucleic acids.. The nucleic acids are very large molecules that have two main parts. The backbone of a nucleic acid is ... Though only four different nucleotide bases can occur in a nucleic acid, each nucleic acid contains millions of bases bonded to ... The order in which these nucleotide bases appear in the nucleic acid is the coding for the information carried in the molecule ... Anthony Carpi, Ph.D. "Nucleic Acids" Visionlearning Vol. BIO-1 (1), 2003. ...
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View a collection of selected publications featuring the Agilent Fragment Analyzer systems for various applications in nucleic ... Nucleic Acid Therapeutics. * Oligonucleotide API Manufacturing Vacuum Product & Leak Detector Services. * Advance Exchange ... Versatile Sample Analysis for Nucleic Acid Research. Versatile Sample Analysis for Nucleic Acid Research ...
The global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology market size was valued at USD 3.78 billion in 2021 and is ... Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology Market Report,2030 GVR Report cover Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification ... How big is the isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology market? b. The global isothermal nucleic acid amplification ... What is the isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology market growth? b. The global isothermal nucleic acid amplification ...
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T 1866/12 (Detection multiple nucleic acid sequences/QIAGEN) of 16.4.2018. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2018: ... 1. Method for simultaneously amplifying and detecting nucleic acid sequences in a reaction comprising the following steps:. (i ...
... and auxiliary nucleic-acid assemblies acting as artificial transcription factors (TFs). By relying on nucleic-acid ... Cell-free transcriptional regulation via nucleic-acid-based transcription factors. Leo Y.T. Chou, William M. Shih ... Cell-free transcriptional regulation via nucleic-acid-based transcription factors Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... We illustrate the use of nucleic-acid TFs to implement transcriptional logic, cascading, feedback, and multiplexing. This ...
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Nucleic Acid Therapeutics news articles. The latest Nucleic Acid Therapeutics stories, articles, research, discoveries, current ... Current Nucleic Acid Therapeutics News and Events. Current Nucleic Acid Therapeutics News and Events, Nucleic Acid Therapeutics ... This case series analyzes brains from autopsies of patients who died of COVID-19 as confirmed by nucleic acid test and with ... The report was published in the journal Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids on January 20, 2021. (2021-01-26 ...
These nucleic acid nanostructures can be fabricated for various applications in live cell imaging and used to explore the ... Investigating DNA and RNA binding proteins, molecular scaffolds and nucleic acid-protein interactions in real-time at the ...
NIDDK releases method for the detection of nucleic acid-containing moieties ... nucleic acid-containing macromolecular entities (U.S. Patent Number 5,077,192). A method for the detection of nucleic acid- ... Method of detecting antigenic, nucleic acid-containing macromolecular entities (U.S. Patent Number 5,077,192) ... is described which combines affinity capture of the moiety with detection and identification of the moietys nucleic acid. ...
Nucleic acids. Contents. *23.4. Nucleic acids (pp. 766-799) , html , pdf , chapter contents , R. E. Dickerson ...
Workshop on the future of nucleic acid metrology. Thursday, 23 June 2022, 09:30 to 16:30 CEST at METAS, the National Metrology ... Rapid, reliable nucleic acid analyses are increasingly important for largescale medical decisions, as is illustrated by the ... What are future needs for reference measurement procedures and reference materials for reliable nucleic acid analyses? ... Agenda Workshop TraceLabMed on Nucleic Acid Metrology.pdf (upload: 2022-06-10) ...
Nonlinear protein - nucleic acid cro .... Nonlinear protein - nucleic acid crosslinking induced by femtosecond UV laser pulses ...
Incorporate locked nucleic acid monomers to increase PCR probe Tm, heighten target specificity, impart nuclease resistance, ... What are locked nucleic acids?. Locked nucleic acids are modified RNA monomers. The "locked" part of their name comes from a ... As with locked nucleic acid qPCR probes, hybridization Tm can be manipulated by the number of locked nucleic acid bases ... Manage sequence Tm using locked nucleic acid bases. Because of the afforded increase in Tm, locked nucleic acid qPCR probes can ...
The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are found in all living ... Nucleic acids may be single-stranded or double-stranded. A double-stranded nucleic acid consists of two single-stranded nucleic ... Hydrophobic interaction of nucleic acids is poorly understood. Nucleic acids are insoluble in ethanol and insoluble in TCA. ... Template:Nucleic acidsbg:Нуклеинова киселина ca: cid nucleic de:Nukleins ure es: cido nucleico eo:Nuklea acido fr:Acide nucl ...
  • A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, or NAAT, is a type of viral diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • This study emphasizes the issues related to the diagnosis of C. difficile infection, with the focus on newer nucleic amplification tests (NAAT)," said Colleen Kraft, MD, MSc, Emory University School of Medicine, who is the lead author on the study. (asm.org)
  • The team concluded that the nucleic-acid amplification tests (NAAT) is the recommended practice for detecting the toxin gene. (asm.org)
  • [ 32 ] A voided urine sample, whether midstream or first-void, effectively captures the chlamydial organism for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). (medscape.com)
  • Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT, e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • The "gold standard" for COVID-19 detection is nucleic acid amplification for use of Ag-RDT testing (NAAT) where viral genomes are detected indicating the presence of the virus in an individual. (who.int)
  • Laboratory will confirm monkey pox infection on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), using real-time or conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (who.int)
  • Our latest RUO kit, the Luna ® SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR Multiplex Assay Kit , enables high throughput workflows for real-time detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using hydrolysis probes. (neb.com)
  • Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other methods for amplifying DNA and RNA, may facilitate rapid detection of microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
  • This means that in the context of detection and the use of SNAs as diagnostic probes, you can use a lower concentration of a nucleic acid target, for example, associated with a given disease. (news-medical.net)
  • A method for the detection of nucleic acid-containing moieties is described which combines affinity capture of the moiety with detection and identification of the moiety's nucleic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Such diagnostic tools, which contain genetically encoded circuits for the detection of pathogen nucleic acids, have conventionally been used to detect pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 in traditional formats in point-of-care settings. (natureasia.com)
  • Currently, there are three basic types of tests to determine if an individual has been infected with SARS-CoV-2: viral nucleic acid (RNA) detection, viral antigen detection, and detection of antibodies to the virus. (medscape.com)
  • Viral tests (nucleic acid or antigen detection tests) are used to assess acute infection, whereas antibody tests provide evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2. (medscape.com)
  • Wooden shafts or calcium alginate swabs may contain substances that inhibit some viruses and nucleic acid detection reactions. (medscape.com)
  • Tianlong's Monkeypox Virus Nucleic Acid Detection Kit uses real-time fluorescent PCR method and 3-in-1 single-tube design,which can detect the specific sequences of the viral DNA for the early and rapid diagnosis of suspected cases. (medicaex.com)
  • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Nucleic Acid Detection Kit (PCR F. (medicaex.com)
  • Policy statement: automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system. (who.int)
  • FIND) has partnered with Cepheid, Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ, Newark, NY) to develop a TB-specific automated, cartridge-based nucleic amplification assay (Xpert MTB/RIF) based on the GeneXpert multi-disease platform, currently unique in its simplification of molecular testing with fully integrated and automated sample preparation, amplification and detection required for real-time polymerase chain reaction. (who.int)
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a real time polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) assay for the detection of the JAK2 V617F mutation that could be used in diagnostic laboratories .Sanger sequencing and a newly developed locked nucleic- acid , real-time PCR assay were used to detect the JAK2V617F mutation . (bvsalud.org)
  • PDBsum more: new summaries and analyses of the known 3D structures of proteins and nucleic acids. (vldb.org)
  • Mobility and function in proteins and nucleic acids. (who.int)
  • NAATs for SARS-CoV-2 specifically identify the RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequences that comprise the genetic material of the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Even though the sequences can be identical, the properties of spherical nucleic acids are very different from linear nucleic acids. (news-medical.net)
  • This is followed by a detailed treatment of the chemistry of the processes by which the information encoded in DNA is expressed in terms of the amino acid sequences of proteins. (mexmat.ru)
  • Nucleic acid sequences can be considered patentable subject matter only if they are new, involve an inventive step and there is a specific use for the sequences. (mirandah.com)
  • DIALIGN is a program for aligning multiple protein or nucleic acid sequences. (programmableweb.com)
  • Direct sequencing of the pan-flavavirus PCR amplicons showed Usutu virus nucleic acid sequences in each sample. (cdc.gov)
  • The Usutu virus positive blackbird sample, which exhibited numerous nucleotide and amino acid changes compared with the other sequences, had been found outside of the Usutu virus endemic area. (cdc.gov)
  • The QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit is intended for molecular biology applications. (qiagen.com)
  • The QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit greatly simplifies concentration and purification of free-circulating DNA and RNA from plasma or serum. (qiagen.com)
  • The QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit enables efficient purification of these circulating nucleic acids from human plasma or serum and other cell-free body fluids. (qiagen.com)
  • Methylated DNA can be efficiently purified using the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit. (qiagen.com)
  • K2EDTA anticoagulated whole peripheral venous blood plasma specimens are processed using the QIAamp DSP Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit for manual sample preparation. (fda.gov)
  • By relying on nucleic-acid hybridization, de novo regulatory assemblies can be computationally designed to emulate features of protein-based TFs, such as cooperativity and combinatorial binding, while offering unique advantages such as programmability, chemical stability, and scalability. (biorxiv.org)
  • Investigating DNA and RNA binding proteins, molecular scaffolds and nucleic acid-protein interactions in real-time at the subcellular level requires state-of-the-art bioimaging capabilities. (bruker.com)
  • The conformation of the DNA and the interactions of the nucleic acid with the protein in a complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) and 19-mer/18-mer double-stranded DNA template-primer (dsDNA) are described. (nih.gov)
  • The interactions between the dsDNA and protein primarily involve the sugar-phosphate backbone of the nucleic acid and structural elements of the palm, thumb, and RNase H of p66, and are not sequence specific. (nih.gov)
  • RNA is important for several functions that have to do with the linking of another class of biomolecules, amino acids , into a structure called a protein . (umn.edu)
  • During protein synthesis, whether in the cytoplasm or in mitochondria, molecules called transfer RNAs (tRNAs) help assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into the chains that form proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Through a similar mechanism, the HSD10 protein also processes a group of fats called branched-chain fatty acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Almost all of the mutations change single amino acids in the HSD10 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One mutation, which has been found in multiple unrelated individuals, replaces the amino acid arginine with the amino acid cysteine at position 130 in the protein (written as Arg130Cys or R130C). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Comprehensive characterization of amino acid positions in protein structures reveals molecular effect of missense variants. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The DNA Repair and Nucleic Acid Enzymology Group conducts several research studies within the Genome Integrity and Structural Biology Laboratory. (nih.gov)
  • This product comprises an even mixture of nucleic acids prepared from fully sequenced, characterized, and authenticated viral strains selected on the basis of genomic size, DNA/RNA genome, envelope/non-envelope, and other special features. (atcc.org)
  • The GPSR provides nucleic acid extraction services for a large variety of sample types, including saliva, blood, FFPE specimens, fresh/frozen tissue and cultured cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • BioChain's xTractPure™ Blood Nucleic Acid Extraction kit allows for fast and efficient genomic DNA extraction from whole blood samples. (biochain.com)
  • Organic extraction is a method used to separate nucleic acid and other cellular components based on their differential solubility. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ). (academickids.com)
  • HCV RNA Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • RNA Ribonucleic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Amino acid residues from the polymerase active site region, including amino acid residues of the conserved Tyr-Met-Asp-Asp (YMDD) motif and the "primer grip," interact with 3'-terminal nucleotides of the primer strand and are involved in positioning the primer terminal nucleotide and its 3'-OH group at the polymerase active site. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid residues of the "template grip" have close contacts with the template strand and aid in positioning the template strand near the polymerase active site. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid residues of beta 1', alpha A', alpha B', and the loop containing His539 of the RNase H domain interact with the primer strand of the dsDNA. (nih.gov)
  • It helps break down the amino acid isoleucine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A number of actin-binding proteins, including spectrin, alpha-actinin and fimbrin, contain a 250 amino acid stretch called the actin binding domain (ABD). (embl.de)
  • Genomic analysis revealed several unique amino acid substitutions among the polyprotein gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Our approach involves engineering nucleic-acid hybridization interactions between a T7 RNAP site-specifically functionalized with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), templates displaying cis-regulatory ssDNA domains, and auxiliary nucleic-acid assemblies acting as artificial transcription factors (TFs). (biorxiv.org)
  • When incorporated into an oligonucleotide probe, locked nucleic acid monomers impart heightened structural stability, resulting in increased hybridization melting temperature (T m ), both in vitro and in vivo (Figure 2). (idtdna.com)
  • As with locked nucleic acid qPCR probes, hybridization T m can be manipulated by the number of locked nucleic acid bases incorporated. (idtdna.com)
  • These probes are used in nucleic acid hybridization, in situ hybridization and other molecular biology procedures. (jrank.org)
  • To investigate the mechanism, clinical outcome and therapeutic efficacy with favipiravir of Corona Virus Disease 2019 patients whose nucleic acids changed from negative to positive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In clinical institutions that enroll corona virus disease 2019 patients whose nucleic acids changed from negative to positive, two arms, multi-center, randomized and controlled methods are adopted. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The structure, function and reactions of nucleic acids are central to molecular biology and are crucial for the understanding of complex biological processes involved. (rsc.org)
  • The quantification of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) is a central step in molecular biology as downstream experiments rely on the use of adequate amounts. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Spherical nucleic acids are structures that are made by taking a nanoparticle template and using chemistry to arrange short strands of DNA or RNA on the surface of those particles. (news-medical.net)
  • Nucleic Acids describes the way in which the fundamentally important biological activities of these molecules can be understood in terms of their chemical structures. (mexmat.ru)
  • Beginning with a concise review of the biological roles of nucleic acids, the text then discusses the components from which they are made, and works up through nucleosides and nucleotides to the covalent structures of the nucleic acids themselves. (mexmat.ru)
  • Dual - beam optical tweezers experiments subject single molecules of DNA to high forces (∼ 300 pN) with 0.1 pN accuracy, probing the energy and specificity of nucleic acid - ligand structures. (elsevier.com)
  • Nucleic acid biosensors embedded in textiles can detect bacterial or viral pathogens-including SARS-CoV-2-according to a paper published in Nature Biotechnology this week. (natureasia.com)
  • Le VRS demeure un agent étiologique viral important au Maroc, responsable de syndromes de type grippal et d'infections respiratoires aiguës sévères, en particulier chez les nourrissons. (who.int)
  • Because of the afforded increase in T m , locked nucleic acid qPCR probes can be designed with shorter lengths than standard probes. (idtdna.com)
  • IDT provides 2 types of locked nucleic acid products: Custom Affinity Plus DNA & RNA Oligonucleotides, and Affinity Plus qPCR Probes. (idtdna.com)
  • Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • The global isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology market size was valued at USD 3.78 billion in 2021 and is anticipated to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.3% by 2030. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • As a result, demand for rapid, user-friendly, and disease-specific testing options is expected to boost the adoption of isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology (INAAT) offerings. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Key chapters are devoted to the chemical synthesis of nucleosides and nucleotides, oligonucleotides and their analogues and to analytical techniques applied to nucleic acids. (rsc.org)
  • Locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides are useful in template switching oligo designs and for strengthening target oligo binding in challenges sequence regions, such as AT-rich areas. (idtdna.com)
  • DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains 2- deoxyriboses ). (academickids.com)
  • The book focuses on the chemistry of the deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). (mexmat.ru)
  • DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, we have worked with a wide variety of nanotherapeutics from lipidic nanoparticles to polymeric and from virosomes to exosomes for the delivery of diagnostics, small molecules, biopharmaceuticals, biopolymers and nucleic acids. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • The goals of this study are to establish the role of circulating nucleic acid based biomarkers in early diagnosis, prognosis or treatment response in human diseases. (mayo.edu)
  • Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses. (academickids.com)
  • Nucleic acids and microorganisms which are isolated from natural sources (inclusive of genetically engineered bacteria and viruses) are deemed 'man-made living microorganisms' and are patentable subject matter as the Act allows them to be patented in Malaysia as long as they result from human effort. (mirandah.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) of the lung is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , which is an aerobic, acid-fast, Gram-positive bacillus. (journaldmims.com)
  • This report summarizes potential uses of nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests such as the Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) for TB diagnosis and provides interim guidelines for the use of such tests. (cdc.gov)
  • Using synthetic biology approaches, nucleic acid biosensors that detect pathogens can be designed with high sensitivity and accuracy. (natureasia.com)
  • Editorial: Advances in Nucleic Acid-Based Biosensors and Imaging. (bvsalud.org)
  • Revised and updated Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and Biology 3rd Edition discusses in detail, both the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids and brings RNA into parity with DNA. (rsc.org)
  • Written by leading experts, with extensive teaching experience, this new edition provides some updated and expanded coverage of nucleic acid chemistry, reactions and interactions with proteins and drugs. (rsc.org)
  • However, because nucleic acid chemistry cannot be fully understood without some knowledge of the underlying biology, a substantial amount of the background biology is also included. (mexmat.ru)
  • Although targeted specifically at undergraduate chemistry students, Nucleic Acids will also be of interest to undergraduates studying biochemistry. (mexmat.ru)
  • Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) [India], September 22 (ANI): Kashmir's first Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT-PCR) facility at the Government Medical College (GMC) here is an addition to the long list of development initiatives in the Union Territory by the Central government. (aninews.in)
  • Deliver nucleic acid therapeutics to solid tumors? (fredhutch.org)
  • 1. A nucleic acid regulatory element for enhancing muscle-specific gene expression comprising at least two diaphragm-specific regulatory elements selected from a diaphragm-specific regulatory element consisting of the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:2 (e.g. (sumobrain.com)
  • Nous avons réalisé une étude prospective en recourant à la surveillance de la grippe basée sur des sites sentinelles dans le but de dépister le VRS grâce à la PCR en temps réel chez des patients souffrant d'infections respiratoires aiguës recrutés au cours de deux saisons (2014-2015 et 2015-2016). (who.int)
  • The order in which these nucleotide bases appear in the nucleic acid is the coding for the information carried in the molecule . (visionlearning.com)
  • In DNA there are four bases: guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). DNA exists as a double-stranded molecule, with two of these strands of nucleic acid paired together by interactions between the bases. (umn.edu)
  • When locked nucleic acid modified bases are incorporated into a DNA sequence (such as a qPCR probe), its duplex melting characteristics are changed, resulting in increased T m . (idtdna.com)
  • When used as a control for nucleic acid tests, the same protocols as those used to amplify extracted clinical specimens should be employed. (zeptometrix.com)
  • Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. (academickids.com)
  • Nucleic acids may be single-stranded or double-stranded. (academickids.com)
  • A double-stranded nucleic acid consists of two single-stranded nucleic acids hydrogen- bonded together. (academickids.com)
  • Retinoic acids are known to inhibit EBV replication in vitro and induce epithelial cell differentiation. (medscape.com)
  • Amplifying those nucleic acids enables NAATs to detect very small amounts of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a specimen, making these tests highly sensitive for diagnosing COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • As of 0.00am, October 7, the CHP was investigating 3 983 additional locally acquired cases that tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, comprising 1 046 cases that tested positive by nucleic acid tests (524 confirmed cases, 447 asymptomatic cases and 75 cases with pending status) and 2 937 cases that tested positive by rapid antigen tests (RATs) in the past 24 hours. (gov.hk)
  • Separately, 386 additional imported cases were reported, including 352 cases that tested positive by nucleic acid tests (56 confirmed cases, 288 asymptomatic cases and eight cases with pending status) and 34 cases that tested positive by RATs. (gov.hk)
  • Hong Kong has recorded a total of 959 183 and 832 841 cases that have tested positive by nucleic acid tests and RATs respectively for the SARS-CoV-2 virus so far. (gov.hk)
  • Furthermore, among the earlier cases by nucleic acid tests reported, there were cases (including pending cases) changed to confirmed, asymptomatic or re-positive cases. (gov.hk)
  • After multiple negative induced-sputum smear tests, we conducted this study to observe whether cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) provides an additional and early diagnostic yield for undiagnosed cases of pulmonary TB. (journaldmims.com)
  • It highlights benefits as well as limitations of metrological traceability in the context of the multitude of measurement challenges as e.g. emerging from the use of nucleic acids as diagnostic markers. (euramet.org)
  • Helicases and nucleic-acid based machines are involved in all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. (biochemistry.org)
  • The test is approved for use in conjunction with culture for respiratory specimens that are positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) on microscopy and were obtained from untreated patients. (cdc.gov)
  • however, research suggests that less than 1% of injected nucleic acid doses reach target cells in an active form. (miragenews.com)
  • The freely-available database made its online debut in late 2006, and in 2007, Wishart and colleagues announced its arrival with this month's Hot Paper, published in Nucleic Acids Research , inviting researchers to utilize the database's initial collection of over 2180 metabolite entries. (the-scientist.com)
  • Incorporation of locked nucleic acid bases increases sequence melting temperature. (idtdna.com)
  • Tube extenders and vacuum processing on the QIAvac 24 Plus enable starting sample volumes of up to 5 ml, and flexible elution volumes between 20 μl and 150 μl allow concentration of nucleic acid species that are present in low concentrations. (qiagen.com)
  • We illustrate the use of nucleic-acid TFs to implement transcriptional logic, cascading, feedback, and multiplexing. (biorxiv.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Nucleic acids in disease prognosis. (who.int)
  • These studies will determine whether alterations in circulating nucleic acids can distinguish between healthy and cancer tissue. (mayo.edu)
  • 2. The nucleic acid regulatory element according to claim 1 comprising at least: a) the diaphragm-specific regulatory consisting of the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:4 (e.g. (sumobrain.com)
  • What are future needs for reference measurement procedures and reference materials for reliable nucleic acid analyses? (euramet.org)