DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA or RNA bound to a substrate thereby having fixed positions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
Modified oligonucleotides in which one of the oxygens of the phosphate group is replaced with a sulfur atom.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Complex compounds of high molecular weight occurring in living cells. These are basically of two types, ribonucleic (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic (DNA) acids, both of which consist of nucleotides (nucleoside phosphates linked together by phosphate bridges).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial isolated from Streptomyces ribosifidicus.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.

Efficient synthesis of nucleic acids heavily modified with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups using a mutantT7 RNA polymerase (RNAP). (1/1313)

A T7 RNAP mutant (Y639F) which eliminates discrimination of the chemical character of the NTP ribose 2'-group, facilitates incorporation of non-canonicalsubstrates into nucleic acids. However, transcripts containing a high percentage of non-canonical NMPs are poorly extended due to effects of the 2'-substituents on the transcript:template hybrid conformation. We tested the addition of compounds that stabilize A-type helix geometry to the reaction. High concentrations of polyamines, together with other changes in reaction conditions, greatly increased the synthesis of transcripts heavily substituted with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups. Template structures that facilitate promoter opening increased the efficiency of reactions where non-canonical substrates were incorporated during transcription of +1 to +6.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (2/1313)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

Metabolism of methionine and biosynthesis of caffeine in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.). (3/1313)

1. Caffeine biosynthesis was studied by following the incorporation of 14C into the products of L-[Me-14C]methionine metabolism in tea shoot tips. 2. After administration of a 'pulse' of L-[Me-14C]methionine, almost all of the L-[Me-14C]methionine supplied disappeared within 1 h, and 14C-labelled caffeine synthesis increased throughout the experimental periods, whereas the radioactivities of an unknown compound and theobromine were highest at 3 h after the uptake of L-[Me-14C]methionine, followed by a steady decrease. There was also slight incorporation of the label into 7-methylxanthine, serine, glutamate and aspartate, disappearing by 36 h after the absorption of L-[Me-14C]methionine. 3. The radioactivities of nucleic acids derived from L-[Me-14C]methionine increased rapidly during the first 12 h incubation period and then decreased steadily. Sedimentation analysis of nucleic acids by sucrose-gradient centrifugation showed that methylation of nucleic acids in tea shoot tips occurred mainly in the tRNA fraction. The main product among the methylated bases in tea shoot tips was identified as 1-methyladenine. 4. The results indicated that the purine ring in caffeine is derived from the purine nucleotides in the nucleotide pool rather than in nucleic acids. A metabolic scheme to show the production of caffeine and related methylxanthines from the nucleotides in tea plants is discussed.  (+info)

The role of water structure in conformational changes of nucleic acids in ambient and high-pressure conditions. (4/1313)

This review describes and summarizes data on the structure and properties of water under normal conditions, at high salt concentration and under high pressure. We correlate the observed conformational changes in nucleic acids with changes in water structure and activity, and suggest a mechanism of conformational transitions of nucleic acids which accounts for changes in the water structure. From the biophysical, biochemical and crystallographic data we conclude that the Z-DNA form can be induced only at low water activity produced by high salt concentrations or high pressure, and accompanied by the stabilizing conjugative effect of the cytidine O4' electrons of the CG base pairs.  (+info)

Nucleic acid detection technologies -- labels, strategies, and formats. (5/1313)

Currently, no consensus exists on assay formats, labels, or detection reactions for nucleic acid assays. New labels continue to be developed and tested, and recent candidates include acetate kinase, firefly luciferase, and genes for enzymes. An additional trend is toward nonamplification strategies (e.g., branched chain and dendrimer type assays) as alternatives to the popular PCR and related amplification strategies. The new wave of microanalytical devices (microchips, with nanoliter to microliter internal volumes), massively parallel simultaneous test arrays, and the desire to produce hand-held sensors present new challenges and requirements for nucleic acid detection methods (e.g., analysis of large arrays of micrometer-sized spots of nucleic acid with high resolution). Here I review selected developments and new directions in nucleic acid assays.  (+info)

Identification of a nucleic acid binding domain in eukaryotic initiation factor eIFiso4G from wheat. (6/1313)

Higher plants have two complexes that bind the m7G-cap structure of mRNA and mediate interactions between mRNA and ribosomal subunits, designated eIF4F and eIFiso4F. Both complexes contain a small subunit that binds the 5'-cap structure of mRNA, and a large subunit, eIF4G or eIFiso4G, that binds other translation factors and RNA. Sequence-specific proteases were used to cleave native cap-binding complexes into structural domains, which were purified by affinity chromatography. We show here that eIFiso4G contains a central protease-resistant domain that binds specifically to nucleic acids. This domain spans Gln170 to Glu443 and includes four of the six homology blocks shared by eIFiso4G and eIF4G. A slightly shorter overlapping sequence, from Gly202 to Lys445, had no nucleic acid binding activity, indicating that the N-terminal end of the nucleic acid binding site lies within Gln170 to Arg201. The binding of the central domain and native eIFiso4F to RNA homopolymers and double- and single-stranded DNAs was studied. Both molecules had highest affinity for poly(G) and recognized single- and double-stranded sequences.  (+info)

A combined biochemical and cytogenetic study of thioridazine-induced damage to nucleic acids. (7/1313)

In this work the biochemical effects of thioridazine, a commonly used phenothiazine, have been studied upon native double- and single-stranded DNA and also upon a supercoiled plasmid. The results indicate that thioridazine causes damage and scissions to these nucleic acids but only at concentrations much higher than the one used in our cytogenetic experiments and that the damage seems to depend on the concentrations used. Furthermore, we studied the action of thioridazine alone or in combination with caffeine and/or melphalan upon human lymphocytes in vitro. Thioridazine and caffeine (a well-known inhibitor of cellular repair mechanisms) were shown to act synergistically to potentiate the cytogenetic effect of melphalan on human lymphocytes. It is suggested that thioridazine alone or in combination with caffeine may exert its synergistic effect on melphalan cytotoxicity to cultured human lymphocytes not only indirectly, i.e. as a strong calmodulin inhibitor by facilitating the intracellular retention of melphalan, but also directly by reaction with nucleic acids and by causing scissions in and damage to them. Therefore, thioridazine (as chlorpromazine) has some potential as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human cancer.  (+info)

Direct visualization of a protein nuclear architecture. (8/1313)

Whether the cell nucleus is organized by an underlying architecture analagous to the cytoskeleton has been a highly contentious issue since the original isolation of a nuclease and salt-resistant nuclear matrix. Despite electron microscopy studies that show that a nuclear architecture can be visualized after fractionation, the necessity to elute chromatin to visualize this structure has hindered general acceptance of a karyoskeleton. Using an analytical electron microscopy method capable of quantitative elemental analysis, electron spectroscopic imaging, we show that the majority of the fine structure within interchromatin regions of the cell nucleus in fixed whole cells is not nucleoprotein. Rather, this fine structure is compositionally similar to known protein-based cellular structures of the cytoplasm. This study is the first demonstration of a protein network in unfractionated and uninfected cells and provides a method for the ultrastructural characterization of the interaction of this protein architecture with chromatin and ribonucleoprotein elements of the cell nucleus.  (+info)

CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR VARIANTS - Nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of (a) a nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 1, (b) a nucleic acid molecule which encodes a peptide having an amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 2, (c) a nucleic acid molecule whose complementary strand hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule according to (a) or (b) and which codes for a peptide which binds to ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR), the peptide binding with lower affinity than ciliary neurotrophic factor to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), (d) a nucleic acid molecule whose nucleotide sequence differs from the nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid molecule according to (c) due to the degenerated genetic code, the codon at positions 82-84 of the nucleic acid molecule according to (a) coding for a non-positively charged amino acid, and the peptide at position 28 shown in SEQ ID: NO 2 having a non-positively charged amino acid residue ...
The invention features a method of identifying a nucleic acid molecule capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing by (a) affixing a plurality nucleic acid molecules onto a surface in discrete, defined locations; (b) contacting eukaryotic cells with the affixed nucleic acid molecules under appropriate conditions for entry of the nucleic acid molecules into the cells, whereby said nucleic acid molecules are introduced into the cells in the location in which they were affixed; and (c) determining the ability of the nucleic acid molecules to post-transcriptionally silence expression of a gene in the cells, wherein post-transcriptional gene silencing at a discrete, defined location identifies the nucleic acid molecules affixed at that location as being capable of post-transcriptional gene silencing.
Previously, we have demonstrated that the IFN-I signaling molecules, IRF9 and STAT1, were required for the production of IgG autoantibodies in the pristane model and for the high expression levels of TLR7 and TLR9 following treatment with IFN-I in B cells [32]. Here, we describe the autoantibody profile and TLR-dependent B-cell response in SLE mice genetically deficient in the IFNAR2 chain of the IFNAR. Autoantibody profiling using autoantigen microarrays in combination with conventional techniques to confirm the array results revealed that, similar to the phenotype for IRF9-/- mice, pristane-treated IFNAR2-/- mice specifically lacked IgG autoantibodies directed against all of the major targets in the pristane model. These targets included components of the RNA-associated complexes Sm/RNP and RiboP as well as the DNA-associated autoantigens ssDNA and histones. B cells from IFNAR2-/- mice exhibited defects in the expression of TLR7 as well as in responses to TLR7 agonists in the absence of ...
294547663 - EP 0985148 A1 2000-03-15 - NUCLEIC ACID DIAGNOSTICS BASED ON MASS SPECTROMETRY OR MASS SEPARATION AND BASE SPECIFIC CLEAVAGE - [origin: WO9854571A1] A method of detecting a mutation or a difference of one or more nucleotides between a nucleic acid molecule to be tested and a reference nucleic acid molecule, said method comprising subjecting the test nucleic acid molecule to base specific cleavage to generate oligonucleotide fragments, separating the resulting oligonucleotide fragments based on mass by MALDI-ATOF MS and/or other equivalent procedure to produce a fingerprint of then oligonucleotide fragments comprising one or more peaks wherein a peak represents the mass of each fragment and identifying an altered peak relative to a reference nucleic acid molecule subjected to the same procedure wherein the presence of an altered peak is indicative of a difference of one or more nucleotides in said tested nucleic acid molecule.[origin: WO9854571A1] A method of detecting a mutation or a
0021] Accordingly, the present invention concerns the preparation and use of miRNA arrays or miRNA probe arrays, which are macroarrays or microarrays of nucleic acid molecules (probes) that are fully or nearly complementary or identical to a plurality of miRNA molecules positioned on a support or support material in a spatially separated organization. Macroarrays are typically sheets of nitrocellulose or nylon on which probes have been spotted. Microarrays position the nucleic acid probes more densely such that up to 10,000 nucleic acid molecules can be fit into a region typically 1 to 4 square centimetres. Microarrays can be manufactured by spotting nucleic acid molecules, e.g., genes, oligonucleotides, etc., onto substrates or synthesizing oligonucleotide sequences in situ on a substrate. Spotted or in situ synthesized nucleic acid molecules can be applied in a high density matrix pattern of up to about 30 non-identical nucleic acid molecules per square centimetre or higher, e.g. up to about ...
294629575 - EP 1086212 A2 2001-03-28 - METHOD AND REAGENTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES OR CONDITIONS RELATED TO MOLECULES INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENIC RESPONSES - [origin: WO9950403A2] Nucleic acid molecule which modulate the synthesis, expression and/or stability of an mRNA encoding for angiogenic factors selected from aryl hydrocarbon nuclear transport (ARNT), intergrin subunit beta 3 ( beta 3), integrin subunit alpha 6 ( alpha 6) and tie - 2 RNA. This invention further provides a treatment for indications related to angiogenesis using the nucleic acid molecules.[origin: WO9950403A2] Nucleic acid molecule which modulates the synthesis, expression and/or stability of an mRNA encoding for angiogenic factors selected from aryl hydrocarbon nuclear transport (ARNT), intergrin subunit beta 3 ( beta 3), integrin subunit alpha 6 ( alpha 6) and tie - 2RNA. This invention further provides a treatment for indications related to angiogenesis using the nucleic acid molecules.[origin: WO9950403A2] Nucleic acid molecule
The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different
The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different
The present invention includes polynucleotides encoding an MCP1 (e.g., a mature MCP1 polypeptide), an MCP1 multimer or a fusion thereof (e.g., fused to an in vivo half-life extending moiety (e.g., Ig)) (e.g., any of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 2, 8-12) as well as nucleic acids which hybridize to the polynucleotides. Preferably, the nucleic acids hybridize under low stringency conditions, more preferably under moderate stringency conditions and most preferably under high stringency conditions. A nucleic acid molecule is hybridizable to another nucleic acid molecule, such as a cDNA, genomic DNA, or RNA, when a single stranded form of the nucleic acid molecule can anneal to the other nucleic acid molecule under the appropriate conditions of temperature and solution ionic strength (see Sambrook, et a/., supra). The conditions of temperature and ionic strength determine the stringency of the hybridization. Typical low stringency hybridization conditions are 55°C, 5X SSC, 0.1% SDS, 0.25% milk, and no ...
www.MOLUNA.de Protocols for Nucleic Acid Analysis by Nonradioactive Probes [4221542] - Protocols for Nucleic Acid Analysis by Non-radioactive Probes, Second Edition provides a firm background on the basic preparative protocols required for the analysis of nucleic acids by nonradioactive methods. Presenting the methodologies using amazing new applications, this volume offers guide chapters on nucleic acid extractions, preparation of nucleic acid blots,
The present invention relates, e.g., to a method for detecting a nucleic acid molecule of interest in a sample comprising cell-free nucleic acids, comprising fluorescently labeling the nucleic acid molecule of interest, by specifically binding a fluorescently labeled nanosensor or probe to the nucleic acid of interest, or by enzymatically incorporating a fluorescent probe or dye into the nucleic acid of interest, illuminating the fluorescently labeled nucleic acid molecule, causing it to emit fluorescent light, and measuring the level of fluorescence by single molecule spectroscopy, wherein the detection of a fluorescent signal is indicative of the presence of the nucleic acid of interest in the sample.
The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a caspase-14 polypeptide or functional fragment thereof, a vector that contains the nucleic acid molecule and a host cell that contains the vector. The invention also relates to an isolated gene encoding caspase-14, as well as functional fragments thereof. The gene or nucleic acid molecule can include single or double stranded nucleic acids corresponding to coding or non-coding strands of the caspase-14 nucleotide sequence. Isolated caspase-14 polypeptides or functional fragments thereof are also provided, as are antibodies that specifically bind thereto. In addition, the invention relates to methods of identifying compounds that modulate caspase-14 activity.
Synthetic nucleic acids are produced routinely for a wide variety of applications, including biological and chemical research, and diagnostic or therapeutic applications
The invention relates to methods for the detection of the amount of a nucleic acid in a sample. The described methods exploit the ability to physically pair nucleic acid molecules in a sample that have a reference sequence with nucleic acid molecules in the sample that have a target sequence. The presence of unpaired target or reference sequence following such physical pairing indicates a difference in the amount of the target sequence versus the reference sequence. The methods are broadly applicable for the determination of differences in the amounts of nucleic acids in diagnostic and research applications.
The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.
May 13, 2019 · Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is a common cause of disease in the transplant population. , high cytomegalovirus nucleic acid detection so there is a high seroprevalence. Because it is a member of the Herpesviridae family, , high cytomegalovirus nucleic acid detection molecular detection of CMV nucleic acid in clinical specimens (e.g., using real-time PCR) has become a common approach. In addition to qualitative detection of the , high cytomegalovirus nucleic acid ...
Initially, analytical instrumentation, including a dual-force aggregation platform as well as a microdevice for integrated PCR amplification and HIA detection, were engineered to maximize the utility of bead aggregation assays in terms of throughput, speed, and sensitivity. In subsequent work, the HIA technique was exploited for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms. This was demonstrated for the detection of KRAS mutations in lung and colorectal cancers in order to predict patient sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapies. Additionally, HIA detection was combined with multiplex allele-specific PCR to detect three important mutations [CYP2C9 *2, CYP2C9 *3, and VKORC1 (1173C,T)] that allow appropriate dosing of the common oral anticoagulant, warfarin. Overall, this work represents practical steps forward in the development of nucleic acid analysis technology that is amenable for routine clinical care, in order to ultimately reap the rewards of a personalized ...
Nanogen, Inc., developer of advanced diagnostic products, announced today its subsidiary, Epoch Biosciences, was issued Patent No. 6,951,930, Hybridization-Triggered Fluorescent Detection of Nucleic Acids by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The 930 patent relates to latent fluorophore-minor groove binder oligonucleotide conjugates which fluoresce upon hybridization to a target. The conjugates may be used to detect nucleic acid targets. Source: ...
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA OF MACROMOLECULES: CYCLIC-TETRAPYRROLE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR METAL COMPLEXES, NUCLEIC-ACID BASES AND THEIR METHYLATED SPECIES.
Early stromal edema can often be detected biomicroscopicallv by noticing fine, undulating striae in the deep stroma and Descemets membrane (deep striate keratopathy, auti sm DSK), caused as the cornea expands posteriorly with thickening. Development of Polyion Complex Micelles from Peppcid for the Delivery of Pepcid ac autism Acid-Based Therapeutics An exciting area of research involving micelles is the efforts to deliver nucleic acid-based therapeutics pepcid ac autism. J. For example, suppose the candidateвs apparent proportion of support was 53 rather than 60.
The present invention relates to use of a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control in nucleic acid amplification. The invention relates to a method of nucleic acid amplification comprising having components which amplify target nucleic acid if it is present in a sample and comprising a nucleic acid molecule having intra-molecular base pairing as an internal control. The invention also relates to a kit for use in the method.
6,132,718 Multi-stage cascade boosting vaccine 6,130,364 Production of antibodies using Cre-mediated site-specific recombination 6,130,316 Fusion proteins of novel CTLA4/CD28 ligands and uses therefore 6,127,598 NKX-2.2 and NKX-6.1 transgenic mouse models for diabetes, depression, and obesity 6,121,415 ErbB4 receptor-specific neuregolin related ligands and uses therefor 6,121,030 CSAPK-2 protein and uses therefor 6,118,045 Lysosomal proteins produced in the milk of transgenic animals 6,117,654 Nucleic acid molecules encoding Tango-77-polypeptides 6,117,650 Assay for cardiac hypertrophy 6,114,598 Generation of xenogeneic antibodies 6,114,123 Lipocalin family protein 6,111,092 Nucleic acid molecules encoding DRT111 and uses thereof 6,110,739 Method to produce novel embryonic cell populations 6,110,718 Mammalian putative phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase 6,107,543 Culture of totipotent embryonic inner cells mass cells and production of bovine animals 6,107,472 Receptor-type tyrosine ...
Compositions, recombinant vaccines and live attenuated pathogens comprising one or more isolated nucleic acid molecules that encode an immunogen in combination with an isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes IL-28 or a functional fragment thereof are disclosed. Methods of inducing an immune response in an individual against an immunogen, using such com-positions are disclosed.
An outgoing Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) is required in some instances and recommended in others. For assistance, refer to the Office of Technology Development (OTD) website.
The Lens serves almost all the patents and scholarly work in the world as a free, open and secure digital public good, with user privacy a paramount focus.
Vertical and seasonal variations of bacterioplankton subgroups with different nucleic acid contents: Possible regulation by phosphorus
Protein-nucleic acid interaction is an important process in many biological phenomena. In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based protein-DNA binding assay has been developed
The structural biology of protein-nucleic acid interactions is in some ways a mature field and in others in its infancy. High-resolution structures of protein-DNA complexes have been studied since the mid 1980s and a vast array of such structures has now been determined, but surprising and novel structures still appear quite frequently. High-resolution structures of protein-RNA complexes were relatively rare until the last decade. Propelled by advances in technology as well as the realization of RNAs importance to biology, the number of example structures has ballooned in recent years. New insights are now being gained from comparative studies only recently made possible due to the size of the database, as well as from careful biochemical and biophysical studies. As a result of the explosion of research in this area, it is no longer possible to write a comprehensive review. Instead, current review articles tend to focus on particular subtopics of interest. This makes it difficult for newcomers to the
Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. Among these synthetic vectors are cationic polymers, branched dendrimers, cationic liposomes and cellpenetrating peptides (CPPs). The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisenseoligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. Up to now, numerous sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a variety of different cargos into mammalian cells. In recent years, it has become apparent that
article{744458, author = {Remaut, Katrien and Sanders, Niek and De Geest, Bruno and Braeckmans, Kevin and Demeester, Jo and De Smedt, Stefaan}, issn = {0927-796X}, journal = {MATERIALS SCIENCE \& ENGINEERING R-REPORTS}, keyword = {SINGLE-PARTICLE TRACKING,FLUORESCENCE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY,CROSS-CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY,advanced light microscopy,nuclear uptake,endocytosis,extracellular matrix,non-viral carriers,gene therapy,GLYCOL-POLYETHYLENIMINE/DNA COMPLEXES,CYSTIC-FIBROSIS SPUTUM,BLOCK-COPOLYMER MICELLES,RESONANCE ENERGY-TRANSFER,CAVEOLAE-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS,INTRAVENOUS GENE DELIVERY,IMAGE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY}, language = {eng}, pages = {117--161}, title = {Nucleic acid delivery: Where material sciences and bio-sciences meet}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2007.06.001}, volume = {58}, year = {2007 ...
Isolation, amplification, and detection of DNA and RNA sequences in molecular diagnostic devices are at the forefront of modern diagnostic medicine. Such technologies offer unprecedented sensitivity and specificity in the detection of infectious disease. Molecular diagnostics are typically very expensive, large, and require a modern laboratory and trained technicians to operate---greatly restricting the use of molecular diagnostic tools in the developing world.. DFA is building paper-based technology to perform molecular diagnostics on an extremely inexpensive, disposable device. DFA is currently developing a nucleic acid amplification-based paper-microfluidic device for early infant diagnosis of HIV under a Saving Lives at Birth grant. Prior test kit development included a DARPA-funded effort to identify E. coli and a DTRA-funded effort with Harvard University focused on Brucella abortus. We believe our approach represents a fundamental shift in the field of nucleic acid detection that can ...
PrimeIAmp™ COVID-19 Lyophilized Fluorescence Nucleic Acid Detection Kit utilizes world-class isothermal amplification technology to detect COVID-19 nucleic acid by quantitative PCR
Surface Enhanced Raman as Tool to study Drug Protein Interactions and Nucleic Acid Detection. Chandrabhas Narayana (BHAS) Chemistry and Physics of Materials Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India [email protected] Slideshow 2716597 by raven
Beijing Wantai Biological item WS-1248 Beijing Wantai Biological WS-1248 Nucleic Acid Detection Kit COVID. Contact Sanbio for more information.
We are looking for global agents [Product Name] Monodon baculo virus disease(MBV)Nucleic acid Detection Kit(Freeze-dried/qPCR Method)V2.0 [Packaging Specification] 24 test/box [Storage condition and term of validity]Stored at room temperature in a...
Nucleic acid detection by pattern recognition receptors. Virus infection delivers nucleic acids into infected cells. (Left) DNA is detected in the cytoplasm by
Read independent reviews on Southern-Light™ and Southern-Star™ Chemiluminescence Nucleic Acid Detection System from Thermo Fisher Scientific on SelectScience
It is required under the NIH Guidelines that the IBC maintains a membership of a minimum of five individuals, with expertise covering knowledge of recombinant DNA and synthetic nucleic acid molecules, a plant expert, an animal expert, and at least two members that are from the community, not affiliated with UWM. Large-scale or BSL-3 research requires the additional membership of a Biological Safety Officer (BSO). At UWM, the biological safety officer always sits on the IBC and currently serves as the IBC coordinator. A current record of membership is reported annually to the NIH Office of Science Policy (OSP) by the biological safety officer.. In addition to evaluation of biological research, the IBC and Biological Safety Program provide guidance and support to the research community of UWM by evaluating best practices and developing guidance documents for research facilities to follow in their own research. The IBC reserves the right to determine the BSL for researchers work and to recommend ...
I certify that the information provided in my protocol submission form is accurate; and any protocol changes, including the DNA being cloned, the vector, the host organism, or any other toxic or infectious agents, will be submitted to the IBC for approval prior to initiation.. I further certify that I have read and will comply with all relevant publications, including but not limited to the NIU Institutional Biosafety Committee Policy, the CDC/NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition and the Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules.. ...
Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a cell surface receptor protein expressed in a variety of solid cancers including lung, colon, breast, brain and liver, therefore opens up opportunities to deliver lysosome sensitive anti-cancer agents, especially synthetic nucleic acid-based therapeutic mole- cules. In this study, we focused on developing novel nucleic acid molecules specific to LDL-R. For this purpose, we performed in vitro selection procedure via SELEX methodologies using mammalian cell- expressed human recombinant LDL-R protein as a target. After ten rounds of selections, we identified a novel DNA oligonucleotide aptamer, RNV-L7, that can bind specifically to LDL-R protein with high affinity and specificity (Kd = 19.6 nM). Furthermore, flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging assays demonstrated efficient binding to LDL-R over-expressed human cancer cells including Huh-7 liver can- cer cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with a binding affinity of ∼200 nM. Furthermore, we ...
Microbial transcription modulator NusG interacts with RNA polymerase and termination factor rho, displaying striking functional homology to eukaryotic Spt5. The protein is also a translational regulator. We have determined crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus NusG showing a modular design: an N-terminal RNP-like domain, a C-terminal element with a KOW sequence motif and a species-specific immunoglobulin-like fold. The structures reveal bona fide nucleic acid binding sites, and nucleic acid binding activities can be detected for NusG from three organisms and for the KOW element alone. A conserved KOW domain is defined as a new class of nucleic acid binding folds. This module is a close structural homolog of tudor protein-protein interaction motifs. Putative protein binding sites for the RNP and KOW domains can be deduced, which differ from the areas implicated in nucleic acid interactions. The results strongly argue that both protein and nucleic acid contacts are important for NusGs functions ...
In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty published an article in which they concluded that genes, or molecules that dictate how organisms develop, are made of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. The article is titled Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types: Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III, hereafter Transformation. The authors isolated, purified, and characterized genes within bacteria and found evidence that those genes were made of DNA and not protein.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications ...
1. The addition of heparin to rat liver, kidney, or brain nuclei has been found to bring about the release of a gel. Chemical analysis and histochemical studies on whole homogenates and isolated nuclei demonstrated that the material released by heparin contained desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein. The action of heparin on nuclei is interpreted as the result of a combination with the basic proteins of the nucleus with a consequent displacement of DNA.. 2. The addition of heparin to a finely divided dilute liver homogenate prepared in a phosphate-sucrose solution at pH 7.1 brings about a marked increase in viscosity which reaches a maximum in 6 to 8 minutes at 23° and then declines.. 3. The concentration threshold for the viscosity effect was 0.1 mg. per 100 mg. fresh rat liver, with further increases in viscosity at higher heparin concentrations. Over a period of several hours a marked decrease in response to heparin was observed in homogenates stored at 0°.. 4. Fractionation of the ...
Synonyms for episomal DNA in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for episomal DNA. 2 synonyms for DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid. What are synonyms for episomal DNA?
Heritable type-specific traits have been induced in meningococcus populations by exposure to desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-containing extracts derived from meningococcus cells of the type desired. The DNA has been shown to be an essential component of
Genetic Science is a new online OPEN-ACCESS journal opened in the frame of Symbiosis (Bloomington, Illinois, USA) to help gather the formidable knowledge provided for studies on genome, gene, desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)….
Endomatrial crabmeatous neoplastic distemper Endometrium is the immanent liner of the mammal womb and actually(prenominal) sensitive ductless gland change, cross to menstrual cycle. endometrial malignant neoplastic un backbreakingness is a belated maturity date crabmeat delimitate as a delineate of which the booths of the endometrial line of womb obligate heighten irrepressible or occupy away malignant as a head of the emasculatenation of jail booths desoxyribonucleic acid. Its the quaternary closely reciprocal malignant neoplastic illness among women e very(prenominal)where every(prenominal) in all, later on rapper pubic lo hand instigateher mixture, lung malignant neoplastic disease, and in running gameine crabmeat.Ca recitations and happen accompanimentors 1. phase angle roughly endometrial crab lo substance ab subroutine occurs to women in mid(prenominal) cardinal and honest-to- substantiallyness. It washcloththor n be ca employ by very a great deal than sepa stoole(a) create from raw stuff ...
This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between nucleic acid oxidation and various iron status markers and especially a close relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and ferritin. This study shows no association between low-grade inflammation and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in a population of elderly Italian people. The results suggest that low-grade inflammation only has a negligible impact on whole body nucleic acid oxidation, whereas ...
Try the new Google Patents, with machine-classified Google Wie Psoriasis qd behandeln results, and Japanese and South Korean patents. Kallikrein gen Conditions kallikrein translated from German DE T2. An isolated protein consisting of an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: An isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 2 with a nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: A vector comprising a nucleic acid molecule according to claim 2 or 3.. A host cell comprising wie Psoriasis qd behandeln nucleic acid molecule of claim 2 or 3. A process for producing a protein according to claim 1, which comprises: Antibodies having specificity Psoriasis Zimt an epitope of a protein of claim wie Psoriasis qd behandeln. The antibody of claim 7 which is wie Psoriasis qd behandeln with a detectable substance and used to detect the polypeptide in biological samples, tissues and cells.. Probe comprising a sequence that encodes a protein of claim 1. A test kit for diagnosing a condition associated wie Psoriasis qd behandeln a ...
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about NUCLEIC-ACID BASES. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
There has been some confusion among the names of dyes. Methyl green and light green are completely different in their uses. It would be possible to go on and on about this, but it would take up at least 4 screenfuls of text. All the information is there in the textbooks. Four points are, however, worth emphasizing. 1. Methyl green (CI 42585) was a lousy dye (always contaminated with crystal violet, which had to be extracted with chloroform) and it is no longer sold. Dyes sold as methyl green are really ethyl green (CI 42590). If the catalogue doesnt say this, dont buy the stuff - they might just be trying to pass off ancient stocks of real methyl green. If you look in a good catalogue (Sigma, Aldrich, and Im sure many others), the real identity of the dye will be clearly stated. Its up to us, the users, to start asking for ethyl green rather than methyl green. 2. Ethyl/methyl green is a cationic dye used for staining nuclei by virtue of their DNA content. Used alone, it also stains other ...
The amount of single stranded nucleic acid molecule reactants present in the aqueous reaction solution can range from an upward extreme in which the second single stranded nucleic acid molecule is present in an initial concentration such that at least a 100 fold increase in acceleration of rate of reaction is observed in the presence of 4M LiCl compared with the rate or reaction observed with 0.18 M NaCl at 60°C, to a lower extreme on the order of 10-9 micrograms. Interestingly, the reaction rate increase for high concentrations of DNA:DNA or DNA:RNA reactions is lower than that for low concentrations of DNA:DNA and RNA:RNA reactions. Thus, the method of the present invention is applicable to both high and low concentrations of reactants. Along these lines, preferred reaction solution volumes will be on the order of a millilitre or less to a fraction of a microlitre. However, it should be emphasized that other reaction solution volumes are contemplated as being within the scope of the present ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 972 041 is based on European patent application No. 98 915 305.1, published as International patent application WO 98/45434 (hereinafter the application as filed), and was granted with 34 claims. Claims 1, 13 and 21 read as follows:. 1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of:. a) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 75% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:3, the cDNA insert of the plasmid deposited with the ATCC as Accession Number 98348, or a complement thereof; .... 13. An isolated polypeptide selected from the group consisting of:. a) a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence which is at least 75% homologous to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID N:2; .... 21. An antibody or antibody fragment that selectively binds to the polypeptide of claims 13, 17, 18 or 19.. Claim 1 contained paragraphs (b) to (g) defining further ...
Recently, nucleic acid secondary structures, G-quadruplexes in particular, have received much attention. G-quadruplexes are non-canonical nucleic acid secondary structures that are formed from G-rich sequences. These sequences consist of four stretches of G residues (each stretch with two or more G residues) interspersed by sequences of variable composition that form the loops. The formation of G-quadruplexes is induced and stabilized by monovalent cations like potassium and sodium. The presence of G-quadruplexes was first reported in telomeres and subsequently in the promoter region of several genes, 5′UTR (untranslated regions) and 3′UTRs [1-6]. G-quadruplexes function as regulatory elements and can influence key biological processes including transcription [3], translation [4] and splicing [7]. Recently, G-quadruplexes were also reported to be enriched at certain positions of eukaryotic retrotransposons, which correspond to regulatory regions of genes and viruses [8, 9]. Genome-wide ...
Metallic nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides are used for a number of nucleic acid detection strategies. However, oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates suffer from a lack of stability when exposed to certain conditions associated with DNA detection assays. In this study, we report the synthesis of thiol and thioctic acid-modified oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle (OGNs) conjugates functionalized with a dye label and varying spacer groups. The thioctic acid-modified conjugates exhibit increased stability when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) compared to the more commonly used thiol modification. When the dye labelled oligonucleotide nanoparticle conjugates are exposed to the same conditions there is a pronounced increase in the stability for both thioctic acid and thiol modified sequences. These results open up the possibility of simply using a dye label to enhance the stability of oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates in DNA detection assays where the enhanced stability of ...
MARKET MONITOR GLOBAL, INC (MMG) has surveyed the Human Mycoplasma Nucleic Acid Detection Kit manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and industry experts on this industry, involving the sales, revenue, demand, price change, product type, recent development and plan, industry trends, drivers, challenges, obstacles, and potential risks ...
In contrast to Risk Groups, Biosafety Levels (BSL) prescribe procedures and levels of containment for the particular microorganism or material (including Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules). Similar to Risk Groups, BSL are graded from 1 - 4. Detailed descriptions of containment practices and biosafety levels can be found in the CDC-NIH Guidelines Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.. The majority of work at UVA involves Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) practices. BSL-2 containment and practice is suitable for work with agents that are infectious to humans or animals where exposure may result in limited to moderate disease. The routes of exposure to these agents are typically through cuts and breaks in the skin, ingestion, and splashes to the mucous membranes (eyes, nose, and mouth). These agents or materials include:. ...
Hi, Poly Scientific has a nice methyl green solution ready to use. I dont recall the cat #, sorry. The procedure is quite simple if you remember to keep water and alcohol out. 1 minute in the counterstain then three changes of acetone then three changes of xylene, then coverslip. Check the stain to be sure you dont need to tweak it. Sometimes you need 15- 20 seconds more or less time. piece o cake :-) Amos Brooks Tina Cardamone wrote: , Hello, , , I have a simple question regarding methyl green. , Does anyone have a methyl green counterstain protocol for , immunohistochemistry. , It sounds simple however I cant seem to find a protocol anywhere. , , Thanks in advance. , , Tina Cardamone , University of Melbourne ...
Refractive index increment dn/dc values when you need them? In light Equation displaying K=2 pi^2 n^2/lambda^4 / Since the refractive index is intuitively related to the density / specific volume of Starch, Aqueous Buffer, DNA = desoxyribonucleic acid ; RNA = ribonucleic acid ; SDS = sodium. measuring the refractive index which has the added advantage of requiring as little as 20 μl of sample. There is a simple linear relationship between refractive index and the density. (e.g. sucrose and NaCl). values for iodixanol solutions ) to get an absorbance . SDS-polyacrylamide and agarose gel electrophoresis. A Brix degree is a measure of the density or concentration of sugar solutions. There are two Relationship of Brix Tolerance to Refractive Index Tolerance. ...
Synonyms for Circular DNA in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Circular DNA. 2 synonyms for DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid. What are synonyms for Circular DNA?
Special precautions should be taken when working with pantropic and amphotropic vectors, which are capable of infecting human cells.. Integration and Mutagenesis Potential of Viral Vectors. The DNA of some viruses, such as lentivirus and gammaretrovirus, is able to integrate in the genome of the host cells as a provirus. Integration of the viral genome may disrupt endogenous genes resulting in mutations. This can lead to a wide range of disorders depending on the site of integration. Of special concern are the activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes, which can lead to the development of cancer.. Environmental Stability of Viral Vectors. Viruses may be more or less sensitive to external factors depending on the presence or absence of viral envelopes. Naked or non-enveloped viruses - e.g., adenovirus - exit the host cell by lysis. Enveloped viruses - e.g., retroviruses - exit the host cell by budding through the cell membrane. The envelope is composed of fragments ...
Sofinnova Partners announces DNA Script successful Series A fundraising of €11 M to advance development of its DNA synthesis technology. Paris, September 12th 2017. Sofinnova Partners, a leading European venture capital firm specialized in Life Sciences, today announced that portfolio company DNA Script, an industry leader in the manufacture of de novo synthetic nucleic acids using proprietary enzymatic technology, has raised €11 million. Sofinnova Partners is DNA Scripts historic and leading shareholder. Alongside existing shareholders which seeded the company, Sofinnova Partners, Kurma Partners, and Idinvest Partners, new high profile investors join the company for this Series A financing round: Illumina Ventures, and Merck Ventures BV (known as M Ventures in the United States and Canada), the corporate venture arm of Merck KGaA.. Founded in 2014 in Paris (France), DNA Script is the worlds leading company in the manufacturing of de novo synthetic nucleic acids using an enzymatic ...
Oligonucleotide probes are effective tools for the research of nucleic acids. This project discusses about Oligonucleotide Probes, Multiplex Genetic Analyses, Multiplex nucleic acid analyses, Genetic variation, Different Types of nucleic acid analyses, multiplex oligonucleotide design,
1. Nucleic-acid mediated immunity & Inflammation· Innate immune sensing pathways of foreign RNA/DNA · Innate immune sensing of endogenous retroviruses and inflamm...
Nucleic acid chaperone activity is an essential component of reverse transcription in retroviruses and retrotransposons. Using DNA stretching with optical tweezers, we have developed a method for detailed characterization of nucleic acid chaperone protein
Generic CHLORAMPHENICOL; DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE; FIBRINOLYSIN availability. Has a generic version of CHLORAMPHENICOL; DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE; FIBRINOLYSIN been approved? Find suppliers, manufacturers, and packagers
Twisted intercalating nucleic acid (TINA) is a nucleic acid molecule that, when added to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), stabilize Hoogsteen triplex DNA formation from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and TFOs. Its ability to twist around a triple bond increases ease of intercalation within double stranded DNA in order to form triplex DNA. Certain configurations have been shown to stabilize Watson-Crick antiparallel duplex DNA. TINA-DNA primers have been shown to increase the specificity of binding in PCR. The use of TINA insertions in G-quadruplexes has also been shown to enhance anti-HIV-1 activity. TINA stabilized PT demonstrates improved sensitivity and specificity of DNA based clinical diagnostic assays. Triple helixes are formed when a single-stranded triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) binds to a purine-containing strand of dsDNA through specific major groove interactions. Generally, the third-strand affinity of a TFO is low, due to the requirement for the formation of pH-sensitive ...
Electrostatic forces and potentials are keys in determining the interactions between biomolecules. We have recently imaged the topography and electrostatic surface potential of nucleic acid molecules on silicon surfaces using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Here, we demonstrate KPFM imaging on insulating surfaces like mica, which provides access to configurations of DNA that are projections of its structure in solution. In particular, we apply dual-frequency mode to minimize the tip-sample distance at which the Kelvin probe signal is acquired and use the fundamental resonance of the cantilever to determine surface potential and its first overtone to detect the topography. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3512867 ...
Magnetic separation technology To ease and accelerate nucleic acid isolation based on magnetic particles, and to offer the user a highly flexible and reliable automation, chemagen has developed a unique separation method together with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe . The isolation of nucleic acid molecules is achieved through their capturing by highly specific binding M-PVA Magnetic …. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - 5′-Monopyrene and 5′-Bispyrene 2′-O-methyl RNA Probes for Detection of RNA Mismatches. AU - Novopashina, D. S.. AU - Semikolenova, O. A.. AU - Venyaminova, A. G.. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Progress in synthesis of novel fluorescent oligonucleotides has provided effective instruments for nucleic acid detection. Pyrene conjugated oligonucleotides have demonstrated their effectiveness as fluorescent hybridization probes. Here we describe the synthesis, isolation, and analysis of 5′-monopyrene and 5′-bispyrene conjugates of oligo(2′-O-methylribonucleotides) and their application as probes for fluorescent detection of mismatches in RNA targets.. AB - Progress in synthesis of novel fluorescent oligonucleotides has provided effective instruments for nucleic acid detection. Pyrene conjugated oligonucleotides have demonstrated their effectiveness as fluorescent hybridization probes. Here we describe the synthesis, isolation, and analysis of 5′-monopyrene and ...
In the last decade the use of field-effect-based devices has become a basic structural element in a new generation of biosensors that allow label-free DNA analysis. In particular, ion sensitive field effect transistors (FET) are the basis for the development of radical new approaches for the specific detection and characterization of DNA due to FETs greater signal-to-noise ratio, fast measurement capabilities, and possibility to be included in portable instrumentation. Reliable molecular characterization of DNA and/or RNA is vital for disease diagnostics and to follow up alterations in gene expression profiles. FET biosensors may become a relevant tool for molecular diagnostics and at point-of-care. The development of these devices and strategies should be carefully designed, as biomolecular recognition and detection events must occur within the Debye length. This limitation is sometimes considered to be fundamental for FET devices and considerable efforts have been made to develop better architectures
The advancement of gene-based therapeutics to the clinic is limited by the ability to deliver physiologically relevant doses of nucleic acids to target tissues safely and effectively. Over the last couple of decades, researchers have successfully e
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La terapia génica presenta potenciales aplicaciones terapéuticas para el tratamiento de muchas enfermedades como el cáncer, enfermedades monogénicas, enfermedad vascular, entre otras. Aunque la mayoría de protocolos de terapia génica empleen vectores virales, debido a su alta eficacia de transfección, crecientes preocupaciones debido a su activación de respuesta inmunológica motivan al desarrollo de sistemas de transportes no virales que sean seguros y eficaces. Poli(β-aminoestere)s (pBAEs) son prometedores vectores no virales debido a que su naturaleza de poliéster resulta en un atractivo perfil de biocompatibilidad debido a su alta biodegradabilidad y baja toxicidad. Este trabajo desarrolla una nueva familia de pBAEs, los cuales presentan oligopéptidos terminales, capaces de condensar tanto ADN como siRNA en partículas de tamaño nanométrico. En primer lugar, se realizan experimentos in vitro para evaluar la habilidad de estos nuevos pBAEs para transportar eficazmente tanto DNA ...
None, 11/7/2018, · Furthermore, PPE is often a legal requirement and it is the responsibility of the employer to ensure employees ,wear protective clothing, and observe safety and health regulations. It is also a responsibility, which employees must take seriously. The Employers Responsibility Towards Their …
Although the vast majority of such ligand binding activities or enzymatic activities known are performed by proteins a secondary subset of these fall under the category of Functional nucleic acids (FNAs). FNAs are RNA, ssDNA, or XNA(nucleic acid analogues) that perform an activity such as binding or catalyzing a reaction. FNAs are grouped into three main categories Aptamers, Ribozymes, and Deoxyribozymes that are further classified into either natural or artificial depending on their origin. The exception being Deoxyribozymes as they have yet to be discovered in a living organism. Still, It was only in the 1980s that the 1st ribozyme was discovered that we started to study FNAs and have allowed for the discovery of new methods, such as the SELEX or In vitro selection process that we are expanding their potential both as tools for exploring biology and real world problem solving. Note to self: mention RNA World ...
Functional nucleic acids (FNAs) are RNA, DNA, or XNA(nucleic acid analogues) that perform an activity such as binding or catalyzing a reaction. FNAs are grouped into three main categories Aptamers, Ribozymes, and Deoxyribozymes that are subdivided into either natural or artificial depending on their origin; the exception being Deoxyribozymes as they have yet to be discovered in a living organism. ...
Proper understanding of nucleic acid structure and function is critical as nucleic acids emerge as major targets and therapeutic mediators of physiological changes. Efficient, repeatable, and flexible computational construction methods for nucleic acids are largely unavailable, in part due to the magnitude of such a challenge. In this thesis, a novel suite of programs has been developed for construction, manipulation, and analysis of nucleic acids. This suite contains the following programs: NASDAC (Nucleic Acids: Structure, Dynamics, And Conformations), NASNIC (Nucleic Acid Structural Nomenclature Interpreter for Conformations), NASNOX (Nucleic Acid Structure modification: NitrOXide labels), and a higher-level program called NATCAR (Nucleic Acids: Topology, Conformation, Analysis, Refinement) through which all programs are launched. NASDAC is the primary engine of nucleic acid structure assembly, and NASNIC employs an original nucleic acid nomenclature named NAUTILIS (Nucleic Acids: Universal ...
The last decade has seen rapid development in single molecule manipulation of RNA and DNA. Measuring the response force for a particular manipulation has allowed the free energies of various nucleic acid structures and configurations to be determined. Optical tweezers represent a class of single mol …
Kolbing Frank (kolbing at fmi.ch) wrote: : I am searching for programs able to reveal antigenic sites in a given : protein sequence. I know of two programs that include this: # Name=predict.exe [ 2Nov93, 82kb] Path=9/EMBnet BioInformation Resource EMBL/Software/dos/predict Host=felix.embl-heidelberg.de # Name=sqaid381.exe [ 2Nov93, 208kb] Path=9/EMBnet BioInformation Resource EMBL/Software/dos/sqaid381 Host=felix.embl-heidelberg.de # Both are PD/Shareware and are using the antigenicity calculation proc. of Welling et.al 1985. Predict shows a nice graph on this, but lacks output other than plotter. Seqaid does a lot on nucleic acid analysis, as well as protein analysis. The output is ascii graphics, but also raw data. These can be easily imported in gnuplot or ACE/gr (or other) for high quality graphics output. Hope this helps, Sebastian -- email: [ Sebastian.Bunka at vu-wien.ac.at ] voice: FAX: +43-1-71155260 +43-1-7149110 Location: earth, europe, austria, vienna Inst. of Bacteriology Vet.Univ ...
How do you research viruses that don’t grow |em>in vitro|/em>? You go straight to ATCC synthetic nucleic acids. Now featuring Dengue, Norovirus, and West Nile Virus!
work presented in this thesis concerns studies on the physicochemical nature of interactions between nucleic acids and small ligands. The outcome of such studies can yield insights at a molecular level into the physiological mechanisms of action of biologically active nucleic-acid binding molecules. The thesis work includes investigations of a number of such low molecular weight compounds designed for nucleic acid sequence probing or therapeutic use. The interactions have been characterised by means of various optical spectroscopic techniques - including linear dichroism, circular dichroism and fluorescence - as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. The fluorescent dye 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is known to adopt different DNA binding modes in regions containing consecutive AT base-pairs as compared to those consisting of long sequences of GC base-pairs. In mixed sequence DNA, DAPI exhibits a pronounced preference to bind in the minor groove of AT rich regions. To verify ...
This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA…
Research Summary. Structural DNA Nanotechnology. Synthetic nucleic acid assemblies can now be programmed to self-assemble with high structural fidelity using Watson-Crick base-pairing. This synthetic structural approach offers unprecedented control over the 3D architecture and chemical composition of large-scale macromolecular assemblies that can also be interfaced with natural and synthetic molecules inside and outside of the cell. Here, we are developing computational strategies to enable high-throughput and high fidelity design and synthesis of arbitrary geometries, sizes, and sequences of DNA-based nanostructures for diverse applications in nanobiotechnology. In related work we are exploring use of these scaffolds for organizing toxins, viral coat proteins, chromophores, enzymes, lipids, and RNAs in complex 3D architectures for applications ranging from cellular drug targeting and delivery to biosensing and chemical synthesis. This work is funded by the ONR, NSF, and HFSP.. Programmed ...
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Analysis of nucleic acids structures[edit]. Psoralens can reversibly crosslink nucleic acids double helices, and therefore have ... Cimino GD, Gamper HB, Isaacs ST, Hearst JE (1985). "Psoralens as Photoactive Probes of Nucleic Acid Structure and Function: ... such as ring opening by alkali to give a coumarinic acid or coumaric acid derivative. Potassium permanganate causes oxidation ... of the furan ring, while other methods of oxidation produce furan-2,3-carboxylic acid. ...
Most CPP-nucleic acid complexes that have been proposed so far are formed through covalent bonding. A range of CPP-nucleic acid ... CPP mediated delivery of nucleic acids[edit]. Nucleic acid-based macromolecules such as siRNA, antisense oligonucleotide, decoy ... 2.1 CPP mediated delivery of nucleic acids *2.1.1 Formation of CPP-nucleic acid complexes ... Two types of neutral ON analogues, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO or Morpholino) ...
... (GNA) is a polymer similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its "backbone". GNA is not ... Zhang L, Peritz A, Meggers E (March 2005). "A simple glycol nucleic acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (12): ... It is possibly the simplest of the nucleic acids, making it a hypothetical precursor to RNA. ... Ueda N, Kawabata T, Takemoto K (October 1971). "Synthesis of N‐(2, 3‐dihydroxypropyl) derivatives of nucleic bases". Journal of ...
Nucleic acid sequence - succession of nucleotides in a nucleic acid. *Pangenesis - former theory that inheritance was based on ... In addition to RNA and DNA, many artificial nucleic acid analogues have been created to study the properties of nucleic acids, ... At the time, "yeast nucleic acid" (RNA) was thought to occur only in plants, while "thymus nucleic acid" (DNA) only in animals ... Further information: Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, Molecular models of DNA, ...
"Nucleic acid NMR" is the use of NMR spectroscopy to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of polynucleic acids, ... Nucleic acids[edit]. Main article: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of nucleic acids ... Nucleic acid and protein NMR spectroscopy are similar but differences exist. Nucleic acids have a smaller percentage of ... Nucleic acids: Structures, Properties, and Functions. Sausalito, California: University Science Books. ISBN 978-0-935702-49-1. ...
Nucleic acid. Examples Caudovirales Myoviridae. Nonenveloped, contractile tail. Linear dsDNA. T4 phage, Mu, PBSX, P1Puna-like, ... Synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid[edit]. Within minutes, bacterial ribosomes start translating viral mRNA into protein. ... Phages are classified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) according to morphology and nucleic acid. ... The host's normal synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids is disrupted, and it is forced to manufacture viral products instead ...
The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).[48] The phosphate group and the sugar ... of a nucleic acid will form hydrogen bonds with certain other nitrogenous bases in a complementary strand of nucleic acid ( ... keto acid. Enzymes called transaminases can easily transfer the amino group from one amino acid (making it an α-keto acid) to ... Nucleic acids, so called because of their prevalence in cellular nuclei, is the generic name of the family of biopolymers. They ...
Nucleic acids[edit]. The convention for a nucleic acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as they occur from the 5' end to the ... Nucleic acid sequence can be determined using gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis. Lastly, mechanical properties ... The amino acid residues are always joined by peptide bonds. Protein, though used colloquially to refer to any polypeptide, ... The convention for a polypeptide is to list its constituent amino acid residues as they occur from the amino terminus to the ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (20): e159. doi:10.1093/nar/gks709. PMC 3488212. PMID 22844100.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3868-74. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3868. PMC 146972 . PMID 9380510.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (1): 169-78. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg925. PMC 373258 . PMID 14704354.. ... Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 4: e270. doi:10.1038/mtna.2015.47. PMID 26670277.. ... In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 9 (19): 5145-58. doi:10.1093/nar/9.19.5145. PMC 327505. PMID 6171774.. ... Four hydrogen bonds form between polar side chains on TBP amino acid (Asn27, Asn117, Thr82, Thr173)( and bases in the minor ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (9): 2653-62. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl338. PMC 1464108. PMID 16714444.. ... The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 43 (Database issue): D789-98. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1205. PMC 4383985 . PMID 25428349.. ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501 . PMID 16381901. Hartley JL, Temple GF ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (16): 10618-31. doi:10.1093/nar/gku734. PMC 4176335. PMID 25120263.. ... Sweat, desquamation, flushing,[2] organic acids[2] Gastrointestinal tract. Peristalsis, gastric acid, bile acids, digestive ... such as salicylic acid or jasmonic acid. Some of these travel through the plant and signal other cells to produce defensive ... The jasmonic acid response, is stimulated in leaves damaged by insects, and involves the production of methyl jasmonate.[33] ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 13 (17): 6361-73. doi:10.1093/nar/13.17.6361. PMC 321958. PMID 2995927.. ... TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers.[24][25] From ... The common house mouse TNFα and human TNF are structurally different.[28] The 17-kilodalton (kDa) TNF protomers (185-amino acid ... cellular response to amino acid stimulus. • negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (90001): D449-D451. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh086. PMC 308820 . PMID 14681454.. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (Web Server issue): W141-W146. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp353. PMC 2703945. PMID 19429696.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (Web Server issue): W16-W19. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh453. PMC 441591. PMID 15215341.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (Database issue): D58-D65. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1063. PMC 3013671. PMID 21062818.. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (20): 8368. doi:10.1093/nar/17.20.8368. PMC 334974. PMID 2510130.. ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ... AKR1B1 consists of 316 amino acid residues and weighs 35853Da. It does not possess the traditional dinucleotide binding fold. ... 2nvc: Human Aldose Reductase complexed with novel naphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole acetic acid derivative (3) ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (11): 2291-8. PMC 148793 . PMID 10325416. doi:10.1093/nar/27.11.2291.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (22): 11450-62. PMC 3526280 . PMID 23034806. doi:10.1093/nar/gks891.. ... Histone proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (3): 1059-1068. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw1182. PMC 5388404. PMID 28180287.. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Feb 17;45(3):1059-1068. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw1182. ... This expands the genetic code, beyond the twenty canonical amino acids found in nature, to include an unnatural amino acid as ... the cavity that holds the amino acid can be mutated and modified to carry unnatural amino acids synthesized in the lab, and to ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (4): 1733-43. doi:10.1093/nar/17.4.1733. PMC 331831. PMID 2522186.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (23): 4577-84. doi:10.1093/nar/27.23.4577. PMC 148745. PMID 10556313.. ... Although individual snRNPs are believed to recognize specific nucleic acid sequences through RNA-RNA base pairing, the specific ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (14): 8845-60. doi:10.1093/nar/gku555. PMC 4132710. PMID 25053837.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (17): e136. doi:10.1093/nar/gks454. PMC 3458524. PMID 22649061.. ... In addition, due to the picogram level of the amount of nucleic acids used,[4] heavy amplification is often needed during ... nucleic acid extraction and amplification, sequencing library preparation, sequencing and bioinformatic data analysis. It is ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (20): 6895-905. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq604. PMC 2978373 . PMID 20624818. Almeida MI, Reis RM, Calin GA (2010 ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 33 (19): 6445-58. doi:10.1093/nar/gki954. PMC 1278947. PMID 16275786.. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (12): 7694-707. doi:10.1093/nar/gku503. PMC 4081101. PMID 24914052.. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 10 (9): 2971-2996. doi:10.1093/nar/10.9.2971. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 320669 . PMID 7048258.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 12 (2): 857-872. doi:10.1093/nar/12.2.857. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 318541 . PMID 6694911.. ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D603-10. January 2009. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn810. PMC 2686599. PMID 18953024.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (Database issue): D781-6. January 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp934. PMC 2808899. PMID 19897546.. ...
In its lifetime, NCp7 facilitates the unwinding of tRNA, acts as a primer for reverse transcription, chaperones nucleic acids ... Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (2): 472-484. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj442. PMC 1351370 . PMID 16434700. Musah, Rabi Ann (2004). "The HIV- ... These motifs contain two peptide units of Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys (CCHC), where the X represents a substituted amino acid, ... NCp7 is a 55-amino acid protein that is highly basic and consists of two gag-knuckle motifs. ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 23 (7): 1184-91. doi:10.1093/nar/23.7.1184. PMC 306829 . PMID 7739897.. ... Dintilhac A, Bernués J (2002). "HMGB1 interacts with many apparently unrelated proteins by recognizing short amino acid ...
detecting the presence of a paternally inherited nucleic acid of fetal origin in the sample.. ... 1. A method for detecting a paternally inherited nucleic acid of fetal origin performed on a maternal serum or plasma sample ... amplifying a paternally inherited nucleic acid from the serum or plasma sample and. ...
Satellite Nucleic Acids (Satelliten-Nukleinsäuren). Prionen[Bearbeiten , Quelltext bearbeiten]. *Vertebrate Prions (Wirbeltier- ... Nucleic Acids Research. . 40, Nr. 12, Juli 2012, S. 5523-34. doi:10.1093/nar/gks215. PMID 22396526. PMC 3384331 (freier ...
Nucleic Acids Res. November 2002, 30 (21): 4634-42. PMC 135794. PMID 12409453. doi:10.1093/nar/gkf587.. ... a 50-amino acid deletion in prelamin A (amino acids 607-656) removes the site for the second endoproteolytic cleavage. ...
Mga Nucleic acid. *Photosynthesis. *Mga protina. Glosaryo. *Terminong botanikal. *Terminong ekolohikal. *Terminong morpolohikal ...
2012). "ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery". Nucleic Acids Res 40 (Database issue): D1100-7. PMID ...
... es and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 39 (Database issue): D1035-41. PMC 3013709. PMID 21059682. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1126. ... "Nucleic acids research 36 (Database issue): D901-6. PMC 2238889. PMID 18048412. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm958. ... 2012). "ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery". Nucleic Acids Res 40 (Database issue): D1100-7. PMID ...
Friedrich Miescher Swiss biochemist, noted for discovery of nucleic acids in cell nucleus (1844-1895) ...
positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart development. • actin cytoskeleton organization. • muscle ...
... nucleic acid constituents, carbohydrates and ionophore complexes.[218]. Lithium naturally only occurs in traces in biological ... Sodium salts of fatty acids are used as soap.[197] Pure sodium metal also has many applications, including use in sodium-vapour ... Indeed, transferring of protons between chemicals is the basis of acid-base chemistry.[10]:43 Also unique is hydrogen's ability ... Pure alkali metals are dangerously reactive with air and water and must be kept away from heat, fire, oxidising agents, acids, ...
2012). "ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery". Nucleic Acids Res 40 (Database issue): D1100-7. PMID ... Oleic acid, Chemical Laboratory Information Profile, American Chemical Society *↑ 3,0 3,1 Alfred Thomas (2002). "Fats and Fatty ... "Fatty acid composition of human adipose tissue from two anatomical sites in a biracial community". American Journal of ... "The inheritance of high oleic acid in peanut". http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/80/3/252. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (Database issue): D36-D42. doi:10.1093/nar/gks1195. PMC 3531190. PMID 23193287.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 39 (Database issue): D32-37. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1079. PMC 3013681. PMID 21071399.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (Database): D25-D30. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm929. PMC 2238942. PMID 18073190.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (Database): D26-D31. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn723. PMC 2686462. PMID 18940867.. ...
Ribavirin is a prodrug which appears to interfere with viral replication by inhibiting RNA-dependent nucleic acid synthesis, ...
... is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of a nucleic acid sequence with ... The hybridization signals for each probe when a nucleic abnormality is detected.[9] Each probe for the detection of mRNA and ...
... s are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, o nucleic acids lik DNA an RNA. ...
"Nucleic Acids Research 22 (17).. *↑ Un bo recurso de introdución a EMBnet é a páxina What is EMBnet? Arquivado 07 de setembro ... "Nucleic Acids Research 4 (11). Páxs. 4037-4051.. *↑ 33,0 33,1 Sanger, F.; et al. (1978). "The nucleotide sequence of ... "Nucleic Acids Research 22 (22). Páxs. 4673-80.. *↑ Altschul, S. F.; et al. (1997). "Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new ... "Nucleic Acids Research 25 (17). Págs. 3389-402.. *↑ Notredame, C. (2000). "T-Coffee: A novel method for fast and accurate ...
Grummt I. (1999). "Regulation of mammalian ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I.". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. ... Transfer RNA (tRNA)-transfers specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chains at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D274-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn862. PMC 2686586. PMID 19022853.. ... Homology modeling can be used to construct an atomic-resolution model of the "target" integral protein from its amino acid ... is embedded in the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer are alpha helical and composed of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids. ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (Database issue): D557-62. January 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp972. PMC 2808936. PMID 19906699. http://www. ... "Nucleic Acids Res 39 (Database issue): D800-D806. November 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1064. PMC 3013672. PMID 21045057. http:// ...
Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (23): 4658-70. doi:10.1093/nar/27.23.4658. PMC 148756 . PMID 10556324.. ... acetic acid or formic acid are used as alternative electron acceptors by methanogens. These reactions are common in gut- ... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102]. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ...
Nucleic acid NMR uses techniques similar to those of protein NMR, but has several differences. Nucleic acids have a smaller ... Because nucleic acids have a relatively large number of protons which are solvent-exchangeable, nucleic acid NMR is generally ... deoxyadenosine are incorporated into the nucleic acid strand, as natural nucleic acids do not contain any fluorine atoms.[2][4] ... The types of NMR usually done with nucleic acids are 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR, and 31P NMR. 19F NMR is also useful if ...
A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 39 (Database issue): D1035-41. PMC 3013709 . PMID 21059682. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1126.. ... "Nucleic acids research. 36 (Database issue): D901-6. PMC 2238889 . PMID 18048412. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm958.. ...
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۲۹] ... "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[۲۹] ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid- ...
Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic acids. Class 2 systems use a single large Cas ...
... are a family of macromolecules that includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) and multiple forms of ribonucleic acid (RNA ). DNA, ... Nucleic acid. Two nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) , are found in living things which ... Nucleic Acid Environmental Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. Nucleic acid. Nucleic acids are macromolecules ... Nucleic acid. A nucleic acid is a complex organic compound found in all living organisms. Nucleic acids were discovered in 1869 ...
Glycol nucleic acid (GNA) is a polymer similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its "backbone". GNA is not ... Zhang L, Peritz A, Meggers E (March 2005). "A simple glycol nucleic acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (12): ... It is possibly the simplest of the nucleic acids, making it a hypothetical precursor to RNA. ... Ueda N, Kawabata T, Takemoto K (October 1971). "Synthesis of N‐(2, 3‐dihydroxypropyl) derivatives of nucleic bases". Journal of ...
Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are ... Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids) ... Synthesis of nucleic acids[edit]. Nucleotides can be separated into purines and pyrimidines. They are both primarily produced ... Destruction of nucleic acid is a catabolic reaction. Additionally, parts of the nucleotides or nucleobases can be salvaged to ...
Rational vaccinology with spherical nucleic acids. Shuya Wang, Lei Qin, Gokay Yamankurt, Kacper Skakuj, Ziyin Huang, Peng-Cheng ... Rational vaccinology with spherical nucleic acids. Shuya Wang, Lei Qin, Gokay Yamankurt, Kacper Skakuj, Ziyin Huang, Peng-Cheng ... Rational vaccinology with spherical nucleic acids. Shuya Wang, Lei Qin, Gokay Yamankurt, Kacper Skakuj, View ORCID ProfileZiyin ... 2013) Spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugates as an RNAi-based therapy for glioblastoma. Sci Transl Med 5:209ra152. ...
These tests analyze variations in the sequence, structure, or expression of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid ( ... This is a list of nucleic acid-based tests that have been cleared or approved by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health ... Verigene F5 Nucleic Acid Test. Verigene F2 Nucleic Acid Test. Verigene MTHFR Nucleic Acid Test. Nanosphere, Inc.. K070597. ... Verigene C. Difficile Nucleic acid Test. Nanosphere, Inc.. K123197. Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay. Great Basin ...
Cationic Liposome-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery and Silencing: Pathways and Mechanisms for Plasmid DNA and siRNA ... Cationic Liposome-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery and Silencing: Pathways and Mechanisms for Plasmid DNA and siRNA, by ... Carbohydrate Polymers for Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery Antons Sizovs, Patrick M. McLendon, Sathya Srinivasachari, Theresa M. ... Carbohydrate Polymers for Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery, by Antons Sizovs, Patrick M. McLendon, Sathya Srinivasachari, ...
A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, or NAAT, is a type of viral diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. ... NAATs detect genetic material (nucleic acids). NAATs for SARS-CoV-2 specifically identify the RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequences ... A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, or NAAT, is a type of viral diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. ... Amplifying those nucleic acids enables NAATs to detect very small amounts of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a specimen, making these tests ...
Focuses on cutting-edge research and applications to find and examine new approaches using nucleic acids in therapeutics ... The Journal examines many new approaches for using nucleic acids as therapeutic agents or in modifying nucleic acids for ... Nucleic Acid Therapeutics. • formerly Oligonucleotides. Co-Editors-in-Chief: Bruce A. Sullenger, PhD and Annemieke Aartsma-Rus ... Nucleic Acid Therapeutics is under the editorial leadership of Co-Editors-in-Chief Bruce A. Sullenger, PhD, Duke Translational ...
The Uses of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for the Diagnosis of TBplus icon *General Considerations ... Report of an Expert Consultation on the Uses of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis. ...
Introduces the reader to gas phase nucleic acid investigations: from the transfer to the gas phase, over spectroscopy to ... Nucleic Acids in the Gas Phase. Editors. * Valérie Gabelica Series Title. Physical Chemistry in Action. Copyright. 2014. ... Nucleic Acids in the Gas Phase, edited by Valerie Gabelica, takes on the task of telling the story of how mass spectrometry ... The first part of the book introduces the techniques, from the transfer of nucleic acids to the gas-phase, to their detailed ...
... Mechanisms of DNA Synthesis. Samuel H. Wilson, M.D. Principal Investigator Tel 984- ... The DNA Repair & Nucleic Acid Enzymology Group has made a number of contributions over the years to the understanding of ... Samuel H. Wilson heads the DNA Repair and Nucleic Acid Enzymology Group and holds a secondary appointment in the NIEHS ... The group and collaborators have conducted kinetic studies of enzyme-nucleic acid interactions. The information from this work ...
Nucleic acid, naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid, sugars, and ... Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell, and, by directing the process of protein ... metabolism: Nucleic acids and proteins. As with the synthesis of polysaccharides and lipids, the formation of the nucleic acids ... The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is the master blueprint ...
The ability to maximize the use of available nucleic acid sequence space would have been crucial during the presumed RNA world ... functional nucleic acids encoded by both strands of a duplex has implications for the evolution of catalytic nucleic acids and ... Compton, J 1991Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.Nature3509192PubMedGoogle Scholar ... One way to access sequence space at a higher density would be to make use of both strands of a duplex nucleic acid for the ...
Successful translation of nucleic acid therapies into the clinic hinges on efficient delivery into the desired sub-cellular ... in order to overcome biological barriers resulting in high efficacies of nucleic acid treatments in vitro and in vivo. ...
Search for nucleic acid at other dictionaries: OneLook, Oxford, American Heritage, Merriam-Webster, Wikipedia. Help Advanced ... Definitions of nucleic acid: *noun: (biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital ...
Nucleic acid nanoparticles found to have varying immune responses An extensive experiment testing the immune effects of a broad ... Researchers show how specialized nucleic acid-based nanostructures could help target cancer cells More than 100 years ago, ... "Abnormal Scar Identification with Spherical Nucleic Acid Technology" - www.nature.com/articles/s41551-018-0218-x) share more ... group of lab-designed nucleic acid nanoparticles did not find a strong, uniform immune response, as had been predicted. ...
High Throughput Nucleic Acid Purification Simplified Labs are demanding purity and flexibility for high throughput nucleic acid ... nucleic acid-based diagnostic platform that can rapidly deliver accurate and inexpensive results for a vast range of needs in ... an overview of the chemagic Prime Junior Instrument and gives his inside tips for scientists working with nucleic acids. ...
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA ... Nucleic Acids. Save time and money with nucleic acids prepared from authenticated ATCC Genuine Cultures®. ... Cant find the nucleic acids you need? Ask ATCC to make it for you! ...
You go straight to ATCC synthetic nucleic acids. Now featuring Dengue, Norovirus, and West Nile Virus! ... Synthetic Nucleic Acids * Quantitative Synthetic Murine Norovirus DNA (ATCC® VR-3255SD™) ATCC® Number: VR-3255SD™ Product ...
Since the discovery of peptide nucleic acids, many interesting new derivatives and analogues in ... the second edition of Peptide Nucleic Acids: Methods and Protocols serves as a vital complement to the first edition of the ... Since the discovery of peptide nucleic acids, many interesting new derivatives and analogues in terms of nucleic acid ... Peptide Nucleic Acids: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition serves as a source of useful specific methods and protocols as ...
Purchase Structural Studies on Nucleic acids and Other Biopolymers - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780122229022, ... Infrared Studies of Nucleic Acid Structure. III. Raman Spectroscopy and Nucleic Acid Structure. References. 11. Infrared and ... Physico-chemical Properties of Nucleic Acids, Volume II basically deals with the structural studies on nucleic acids and other ... Structural Studies on Nucleic acids and Other Biopolymers 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
Using scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopes, the three-dimensional image of the surface of nucleic acids can be seen ... Visualization and Identification of Viral Nucleic Acids, F. Puvion-Dutilleul. Ultrastructural Detection of Nucleic Acid in the ... Detection of Nucleic Acid Sequences on Whole Cells with or without Genomic Amplification, G. Lizard, Y. Chardonnet, and D. ... In cells, nucleic acids are localized and quantified by dyes; electron microscopy is used with cytochemical, immunocytological ...
Method for analyzing nucleic acids by means of a substrate having a microchannel structure containing immobilized nucleic acid ... Method for analyzing nucleic acids by means of a substrate having a microchannel structure containing immobilized nucleic acid ... nucleic acid; nucleic acids; tumor cells; replication error; mismatch repair; method employing; human msh2; germ line; dna ... A method and apparatus for analyzing nucleic acids includes immobilizing nucleic probes at specific sites within a microchannel ...
... reagents and kits for enriching nucleic acid sequences. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods, reagents ... The terms "nucleic acid", "nucleic acid sequence", "nucleic acid fragment", "nucleic acid segment", "nucleic acid probe", " ... b) cleaving the nucleic acids in the mixture to provide a nucleic acid fragment comprising the preselected nucleic acid, and ... b) cleaving the nucleic acids in the mixture to provide a nucleic acid fragment comprising the preselected nucleic acid, ...
Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other methods for amplifying DNA and RNA, ... Notices to Readers Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Tuberculosis Traditional methods for laboratory diagnosis of ... Diagnosis of tuberculosis by nucleic acid amplification methods applied to clinical specimens. MMWR 1993;42:35. ... The test is approved for use in conjunction with culture for respiratory specimens that are positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB ...
From the themed collection: Metal Interactions with Nucleic Acids The article was first published on 09 Feb 2015. Dalton Trans. ... From the themed collection: Metal Interactions with Nucleic Acids The article was first published on 31 Oct 2014. Dalton Trans. ... From the themed collection: Metal Interactions with Nucleic Acids The article was first published on 22 Oct 2014. Dalton Trans. ... From the themed collection: Metal Interactions with Nucleic Acids The article was first published on 28 Nov 2014. Dalton Trans. ...
NUCLEIC ACIDS. History:. Who 1st isolated "Nuclein" from Pus, then Salmon Sperm? When?. What are the two forms of nucleic acids ... Chapter 17: Nucleic Acids You can go back to the Fall,Spring or Summer schedules, to information on the lab , to the extra ... How many bases are found in NAs? Which nucleic acid bases are purines, and which pyrimidines? Which are found in DNA and which ... Give the acronyms and full names of the two kinds of nucleic acid. What does the name tell you about the structure? How do they ...
Nucleic acid molecules in a stabilized solution such as single stranded DNA and RNA were able to disperse high concentration of ... Nucleic Acid Molecules. Nucleic acid molecules of the invention may be of any type and from any suitable source and include but ... A nucleic acid molecule is "hybridizable" to another nucleic acid molecule, such as a cDNA, genomic DNA, or RNA, when a single ... Nucleic Acid Stabilization. Once the nucleic acid molecule has been prepared it may be stabilized in a suitable solution. It is ...
If the proportion of nucleic acid is higher, or if the nucleic acid is resistant to nucleases because of an inert envelope, ... Viral nucleic acids have been found to be infectious for tissues and animals, yet are nonantigenic and resistant to antibodies ... The release from infected tissues of even a small proportion of total virus as free nucleic acid could, in an otherwise immune ... Ebert and Wilts excellent article indicates the impact of the newer knowledge of viral nucleic acids on the ideas developing ...
The present invention provides methods for the amplification of nucleic acid molecules. Methods for amplifying target ... Nucleic acid amplification is potentially useful for both qualitative analysis, such as the detection of nucleic acids present ... Accordingly, a preferred polymerase is one that is capable of extending a nucleic acid primer along a nucleic acid template ... Nucleic Acids Research, 20:5205-5214 (1992); Agarwal et at, Nucleic Acids Research, 18:5419-5423 (1990); or the like. The ...
  • All nucleic acids are linear, nonbranching polymers of nucleotides, and are therefore polynucleotides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nucleic acids are condensation polymers of nucleotides. (rsc.org)
  • Composition of nucleotides, which make up nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their phosphates, sugars, and bases show the same bonding patterns to form nucleotides and their nucleotides bind to form nucleic acids in the same way. (sparknotes.com)
  • Whether generating proteins from amino acids or creating sugar for cells to feed on, nucleotides and nucleic acids are everywhere in nature. (ehow.com)
  • the group demonstrated that alteration of key amino acid side chains cripples Pol β so that it no longer catalyzes DNA synthesis efficiently and does not discriminate between correct and incorrect incoming nucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleic acids are polynucleotides-that is, long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides . (britannica.com)
  • These nucleic acids range from oligonucleotides consisting of less than 20 nucleotides to artificial constructs thousands or millions of basepairs in length, typically containing a heterogeneous collection of genes from pathogenic bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites belonging to practically every kingdom of living organisms. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Chemically synthesized molecules such as primers, modified analogs of nucleotides (e.g., morpholinos), and siRNA are examples of synthetic nucleic acids. (uvm.edu)
  • 7. The method of claim 2 , wherein said 3′ terminal nucleic acid sequence and said 5′ terminal nucleic acid sequence each range in length from about 4 to about 30 nucleotides. (google.com.au)
  • A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each codon consists of three nucleotides , usually representing a single amino acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids consist of a chain of linked units called nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • 19 F NMR is also useful if nonnatural nucleotides such as 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine are incorporated into the nucleic acid strand, as natural nucleic acids do not contain any fluorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7. The method of claim 6, wherein the second nucleic acid is 5-1000 nucleotides longer than the first nucleic acid. (google.es)
  • when nucleotides are strung together in long chains, the nucleic acids contain messages corresponding to words and sentences. (jrank.org)
  • Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids is a monthly academic journal published by Taylor & Francis since 2000, continuing the earlier Nucleosides and Nucleotides in series. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process may continue, building up nucleic acid molecules. (rsc.org)
  • Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell , and, by directing the process of protein synthesis , they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing. (britannica.com)
  • One way to access sequence space at a higher density would be to make use of both strands of a duplex nucleic acid for the production of functional molecules. (springer.com)
  • Nucleic acid molecules in a stabilized solution such as single stranded DNA and RNA were able to disperse high concentration of bundled carbon nanotubes into aqueous solution. (google.com)
  • 8. A method according to claim 7 wherein the single stranded nucleic acid molecules are synthetic. (google.com)
  • 10. A method according to claim 1 wherein the single stranded nucleic acid molecules are from about 10 bases to about 1000 bases in length. (google.com)
  • More specifically nucleic acid molecules have been found to disperse bundled carbon nanotubes. (google.com)
  • The present invention provides methods for the amplification of nucleic acid molecules. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Subsequently, both enzymatic and chemical methods are used to label nucleic acids and incorporate diverse molecules, such as fluorophores, enzymes, and radioactive elements. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (known as the NIH Guidelines ) is to specify the practices for constructing and handling: (i) recombinant nucleic acid molecules, (ii) synthetic nucleic acid molecules, including those that are chemically or otherwise modified but can base pair with naturally occurring nucleic acid molecules, and (iii) cells, organisms, and viruses containing such molecules. (uvm.edu)
  • In this section, we will summarize some key concepts related to the safe use of recombinant and synthetic nucleic acid molecules, as well as viral vectors, in research. (uvm.edu)
  • Molecules that result from the replication of recombinant or synthetic nucleic acids. (uvm.edu)
  • Most of the research with recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules at UVM requires only IBC approval or is exempt. (uvm.edu)
  • Nucleic acid molecules that are not in organisms, cells, or viruses and have not been modified or manipulated (e.g., encapsulated into synthetic or natural vehicles) to render them capable of penetrating cellular membranes. (uvm.edu)
  • 13. The method of claim 1 , wherein the probes are complementary to unknown nucleic acid molecules predicted to be present in a nucleic acid sample or a subsequence thereof, and wherein said multiplicity of probes does not include every possible probe having the same length as said probes. (google.com.au)
  • Fats are broken down in the digestive tract to form individual fatty acids and cholesterol molecules. (livestrong.com)
  • Nucleic acids consist of three different types of molecules joined together: a sugar, a phosphate molecule and another molecule that contains nitrogen, called a nitrogenous base. (livestrong.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method for determining the sequence of nucleic acid molecules. (google.es)
  • Nucleic acid NMR is the use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of nucleic acid molecules, such as DNA or RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • NMR has advantages over X-ray crystallography , which is the other method for high-resolution nucleic acid structure determination , in that the molecules are being observed in their natural solution state rather than in a crystal lattice that may affect the molecule's structural properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of RNA in one of the strands then displaced a portion of nucleic acid, separating the molecules and allowing generation of a signal that created an "on" mode. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cellular activity is normally controlled by the production of proteins, so the nucleic acid switches will have to be given the ability to produce enough signaling molecules to induce a change. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Journal examines many new approaches for using nucleic acids as therapeutic agents or in modifying nucleic acids for therapeutic purposes including: oligonucleotides, gene modification, aptamers, RNA nanoparticles, and ribozymes. (liebertpub.com)
  • The range of labeling and detection methods for nucleic acids, PCR products, and oligonucleotides vary widely. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • New Rochelle, NY, April 4, 2019--Researchers have proposed new guidelines to overcome current problems facing scientists developing synthetic nucleic acids - such as antisense oligonucleotides and double-stranded RNAs - as drugs and research tools. (eurekalert.org)
  • A method and apparatus for analyzing nucleic acids includes immobilizing nucleic probes at specific sites within a microchannel structure and moving target nucleic acids into proximity to the probes in order to allow hybridization and fluorescence detection of specific target sequences. (osti.gov)
  • The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. (google.es)
  • The reagents and methods that are often used to label and detect nucleic acids are determined by several factors, including the type of molecule that will be labeled and the downstream application. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Even after 15 years and the increasing availability of many different competitor products and quantitative PCR-based technologies, the DIG System remains THE nonradioactive technology of choice to label and detect nucleic acids for multiple applications such as filter hybridization or in situ hybridization. (bio-medicine.org)
  • NAATs for SARS-CoV-2 specifically identify the RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequences that comprise the genetic material of the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • This invention relates to methods, reagents and kits for enriching nucleic acid sequences. (google.com)
  • Due to the specificity of labeled probes, hybridization of the nucleic acid and the probe provides researchers with the ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences in complex mixtures of nucleic acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 2 , wherein said 3′ nucleic acid sequence and said 5′ nucleic acid sequence are synthesized using phosphotriester chemistry while non-identical sequences are synthesized using light-directed polymer synthesis. (google.com.au)
  • In many cases, such a detection method requires the amplification of nucleic acid sequences in order to generate a sufficient sensitivity in the assay procedure used. (google.es)
  • An interactive system for computer analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequences has been developed for the Los Alamos DNA Sequence Database. (nih.gov)
  • Further, the comprehensive analysis package on a large-scale database can be used for comparative studies on sequence and structural homologies in order to find unnoted information stored in nucleic acid sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleic acid probes are particularly useful for hybridization assays, such as the detection of RNA in northern blot or DNA in a Southern blot. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One or both of the probes can detect all of 23 phylogenetically diverse eubacterial nucleic acids against which they were tested by dot blot hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • 4. The set of nucleic acids as claimed in claim 3, wherein the sequence C1 and the sequence C2 do not hybridize to the target nucleic acid A under hybridization conditions wherein the nucleic acid B hybridizes with the target nucleic acid A. (google.es)
  • Nucleic Acid Testing for Human Disease describes various techniques including target and signal amplification-based NAT procedures, microarrays, bead-based multiplex assays, in situ hybridization, and SNP techniques. (routledge.com)
  • The NIH Guidelines apply to all recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid research conducted at, or sponsored by, an institution that receives support from the NIH for such purposes. (uvm.edu)
  • A requirement for prior NIH approval or any or all recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecule projects at UVM. (uvm.edu)
  • NOTE: Deliberate transfer of synthetic nucleic acids into one or more human research participants may not be exempt. (uvm.edu)
  • The authors provide practical advice for performing experiments with synthetic nucleic acids, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) and present minimum standards for published research. (eurekalert.org)
  • Subject matter of the invention is a method for the particularly sensitive detection of nucleic acids by hybridizing a probe nucleic acid with a target nucleic acid, digesting the hybridized part of the probe nucleic acid and detecting the cleavage product as well as a set of reagent suitable for this purpose. (google.es)
  • Bentham Science's seventh volume of Applications of NMR Spectroscopy, published by Bentham Science Publishers covers NMR methods in proteomics and metabolomics, and nucleic acid biochemistry. (news-medical.net)
  • Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other methods for amplifying DNA and RNA, may facilitate rapid detection of microorganisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Background and protocols describing the various methods used by molecular biologists to detect samples of protein or nucleic acids bound to membranes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Methods and compounds for the preparation of nucleic acid samples. (google.ca)
  • The present invention relates to methods and compounds for the preparation of nucleic acid samples. (google.ca)
  • As with protein structure prediction methods, nucleic acid structure prediction attempts to determine the native, in vivo structure of a given nucleic acid sequence . (bioinformatics.org)
  • Two-dimensional NMR methods are almost always used with nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigators developed both methods for the amplification of a target sequence and methods for the amplification of a target sequence independent nucleic acid sequence. (google.es)
  • The invention relates to methods for isolating and/or identifying nucleic acids. (google.ca)
  • Roche Applied Science provides a wide variety of kits and individual reagents for the labeling and detection of nucleic acid s by different methods. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Methods are provided for preparing nucleic acid arrays on a support. (google.co.uk)
  • In these methods a plurality of nucleic acids are synthesized on the support and the synthesis steps are followed by drying steps in which the array is exposed to a dry atmosphere following the synthesis steps. (google.co.uk)
  • We offer a growing portfolio of Biomek-automated nucleic acid sample prep methods utilizing our own Agencourt reagent kits and other leading technology vendors. (beckman.com)
  • Interactions between proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are central to all aspects of maintaining and accessing genetic information. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In fact, all meats are high in protein and contain a number of different types of nucleic acids (from DNA to RNA and TRNA). (ehow.com)
  • Advances in Nanomedicine for the Delivery of Therapeutic Nucleic Acids addresses several issues related to safe and effective delivery of nucleic acids (NAs) using nanoparticles. (elsevier.com)
  • Focused on developing platform technologies for the delivery of nucleic acids inside cells. (umass.edu)
  • This volume introduces techniques used to investigate the properties of nucleic acids in the absence of solvent. (springer.com)
  • Physico-chemical Properties of Nucleic Acids, Volume II basically deals with the structural studies on nucleic acids and other biopolymers. (elsevier.com)
  • Nanopore analysis of nucleic acids is a novel technique to study the physical properties of nucleic acids at the single-molecule level. (washington.edu)
  • QIAcube Connect is designed to perform fully automated purification of nucleic acids and proteins in molecular biology applications. (qiagen.com)
  • Sequence-Specific Electrical Purification of Nucleic Acids with Nanoporous Gold Electrodes. (nih.gov)
  • Compton, J 1991 Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. (springer.com)
  • Three major processes involved in NAT are sample pooling and nucleic acid (NA) extraction, target NA amplification and target amplicon NA detection.Major NAT technologies include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), strand displacement amplification (SDA), ligase chain reaction (LCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) and nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA). (pitchengine.com)
  • SARA (Structure Alignment of Ribonucleic Acids), is a fully automated method for aligning two RNA structures. (rutgers.edu)
  • Nucleic acids come in two main forms: deoxyribonucleic acids, also known as DNA, and ribonucleic acids, also known as RNA. (livestrong.com)
  • Relative to deoxyribonucleic acids ( DNA 's), ribonucleic acids ( RNA 's) are short, and the single strand can fold back upon itself, forming the characteristic stem-loop secondary structure (e.g., loops, bulges and junctions). (bioinformatics.org)
  • Nucleic acid purification is an essential step in many molecular biology workflows, including enzyme digests, transformation, electrophoresis, RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and library preparation. (neb.com)
  • Taken together, this multifunctional platform is expected to enable seamless integration of detection and purification of nucleic acid biomarkers of pathogens and diseases in miniaturized diagnostic devices. (nih.gov)
  • POCKIT™ Micro Series Nucleic Acid Analyzer is the newest generation of the iiPCR detection system, which is light-weighted and hand-held with built-in rechargeable battery. (environmental-expert.com)
  • POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer is a powerful point-of-need PCR detection tool that combines advanced insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) technology. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Notably, the system will be capable of detection/identification of agents on the basis of protein and/or nucleic acid recognition. (sbir.gov)
  • The table helps identify the stains, which can be used for various nucleic acid applications, and their detection limits by gel electrophoresis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • synthesis of PNAs (peptide or protein nucleic acids). (bio.net)
  • Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids ( DNA and RNA ) are synthesized and degraded. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a discussion of the genetic code , see heredity , and for a discussion of the role played by nucleic acids in protein synthesis, see metabolism . (britannica.com)
  • Helicases and nucleic-acid based machines are involved in all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. (biochemistry.org)
  • This book gives physical chemists a broader view of potential biological applications of their techniques for the study of nucleic acids in the gas phase. (springer.com)
  • As such, this session seeks to explore topics associated with (but not limited to) fundamental studies on key extracellular/intracellular pathways, trafficking of delivery vehicles, and design and development of novel carriers, in order to overcome biological barriers resulting in high efficacies of nucleic acid treatments in vitro and in vivo. (aiche.org)
  • Light induced charge and energy transport in nucleic acids and proteins is the basis of fundamental biological processes such as photosynthesis, vision, DNA-photostability, DNA-photodamage and photosensing. (rsc.org)
  • There is also abundant evidence that the extraneous nucleic acids taken up can have significant and harmful biological effects including cancers in mammals. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Polymerase inhibitors are treated so as to allow for amplification of nucleic acid from biological sources, including whole blood. (google.ca)
  • Due to their novel chemical, biological, and physical properties, nucleic-acid based nanoconstructs can be used to gain access to privileged intracellular environments, discover new aspects of cancer biology, and exploit nanostructure-biomolecular interactions to create effective treatment options. (cancer.gov)
  • however, these devices often require purified nucleic acids for analysis since the constituents of complex biological fluids adversely affect sensor performance. (nih.gov)
  • Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be desirable to isolate nucleic acids from a biological sample. (google.ca)
  • In short, living organisms use the nucleic acid DNA to preserve their biological information and the nucleic acid RNA to access it. (jrank.org)
  • The general consensus prior to the mid-1940s was that proteins (which contain twenty different amino acids) were the most logical candidate for the genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The only exception to this is the case of RNA viruses, such as the AIDS virus, in which RNA is the only nucleic acid present in the virus and the genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These tests analyze variations in the sequence, structure, or expression of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in order to diagnose disease or medical conditions, infection with an identifiable pathogen, or determine genetic carrier status. (fda.gov)
  • NAATs detect genetic material (nucleic acids). (cdc.gov)
  • This article covers the chemistry of nucleic acids, describing the structures and properties that allow them to serve as the transmitters of genetic information. (britannica.com)
  • The ability to generate functional nucleic acids encoded by both strands of a duplex has implications for the evolution of catalytic nucleic acids and the prospects for realizing maximum functionality from a given genetic sequence. (springer.com)
  • Recent investigations associated with gene therapy and vaccines leave little doubt that naked and free nucleic acids are readily taken up by the cells of all species including human beings, and may become integrated into the cell s genetic material. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Naked nucleic acids are DNA/RNA produced in the laboratory and intended for use in, or as the result of genetic engineering (1). (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The constructs typically contain antibiotic resistance marker genes plus a heterogeneous array of genes from pathogenic bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites belonging to practically every kingdom of living organisms on earth (2).Most of the naked nucleic acids and constructs have either never existed in nature, or if they have, not in such large amounts. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The design and development of nucleic acid-based therapeutics for the treatment of diseases arising from genetic abnormalities has made significant progress over the past few years. (elsevier.com)
  • The Northwestern CCNE will explore these vast possibilities by applying a novel class of nanostructure genetic constructs - the spherical nucleic acid (SNA) and variants of it - for the study and treatment of brain and prostate cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • After investigation had shown that the use of the specific information contained in nucleic acids could have enormous advantages in the recognition of infectious disease parameters and genetic conditions, investigators attempted to make nucleic acids the subject matter of assays. (google.es)
  • Two nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) , are found in living things which serve to store, translate, and pass on the genetic information of an organism to the next generation. (jrank.org)
  • In fact, beans have the ability to purify the enzymes involved in creating nucleic acids, making them more potent and concentrated. (ehow.com)
  • As a demonstration of this possibility, two pairs of nucleic acid enzymes were engineered to be perfect complements, each with the capacity to adopt a distinct structure and catalyze a particular chemical transformation. (springer.com)
  • One class of constituents known to inhibit nucleic acid associated enzymes are the "hemes" which include hemin and hematin. (google.ca)
  • The chapters deal with mechanisms of RNA and DNA cleavage by chemical agents and natural enzymes, development of new nucleic acid-cleaving agents, applications of artificial nucleases, and design of oligonucleotide conjugates with RNA- and DNA-cleaving agents. (abebooks.com)
  • Nucleic acids can be labeled throughout the molecule or at the 5' and 3' ends. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers , specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing. (google.es)
  • In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. (google.es)
  • A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. (google.es)
  • and detecting the signal as each nucleotide is incorporated into the synthesized nucleic acid molecule. (google.es)
  • A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. (google.es)
  • The test strip includes a dual-chamber reaction vessel pre-loaded with nucleic acid amplification reaction reagents, and a plurality of wells for processing a reaction occurring in the. (google.de)
  • A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, or NAAT, is a type of viral diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • The main potential applications for pathological studies are shown with particular aspects such as viral nucleic acids and in situ PCR. (routledge.com)
  • Viral nucleic acids have been found to be infectious for tissues and animals, yet are nonantigenic and resistant to antibodies against whole virus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ebert and Wilt's excellent article indicates the impact of the newer knowledge of viral nucleic acids on the ideas developing in the field of embryology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some examples of recombinant nucleic acids frequently used in research include plasmids, viral vectors, and shRNAs. (uvm.edu)
  • Nucleic acid technology has made possible the manipulation, amplification, selection and characterization of a potentially very large number of eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral genes. (google.ca)
  • Nucleic acid tests are performed in order to detect the presence of viral DNAs or RNAs in blood samples of patients. (pitchengine.com)
  • More than just chock full of nucleic acids, eggs have just the kind of amino and nucleic acids needed by humans. (ehow.com)
  • While mostly in the form of DNA, mushrooms also have a number of nucleic and amino acids which create protein. (ehow.com)
  • The body uses the information stored in DNA to create proteins, which are made up of subunits called amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able to metabolize other amino acids, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated a set of spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) in which the adjuvant, antigen, and overall architecture of the nanostructure are conserved but are differentiated in a key feature: the position and conjugation chemistry of the peptide antigen. (pnas.org)
  • The book is designed to grow and change with the field of nucleic acid chemistry. (wiley.com)
  • How do the structures of nucleic acids show these properties? (oneonta.edu)
  • The sequential walking methodology is not possible for non-double helical nucleic acid structures, nor for the Z-DNA form, making assignment of resonances more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculation of Hydrodynamic Properties for G-Quadruplex Nucleic Acid Structures from in silico Bead Models, by Huy T. Le, Robert Buscaglia, William L. Dean, Jonathan B. Chaires and John O. Trent. (springer.com)
  • MolProbity is a general-purpose web server offering quality validation for 3D structures of proteins, nucleic acids and complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Title: International Meeting on Nucleic Acid Vaccines for The Prevention of Infectious Diseases Location: Natcher Conference Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Dates: 5 - 7 February 1996 Subject: A review of scientific advances in immunology, vaccinology, work on primates, vaccine safety assessment, and other areas relevant to the development of nucleic acid vaccines. (bio.net)
  • The second part of the book is devoted to applying the gas-phase approaches to solve specific questions related to the biophysics, biochemistry or pharmacology of nucleic acids. (springer.com)
  • The release from infected tissues of even a small proportion of total virus as free nucleic acid could, in an otherwise immune individual, lead to a low level of infection which would, perhaps, explain permanent immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • A huge variety of naked/free nucleic acids are being produced in the laboratory and released unregulated into the environment. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The need to establish regulatory oversight of naked/free nucleic acids at both national and international levels is long overdue. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Free nucleic acids refer to the laboratory-produced nucleic acids transfected into cells or organisms, whether incorporated as transgenic DNA or not, and subsequently released into the environment by secretion, excretion, waste disposal, death, industrial processing, or carried by liquid streams, or in airborne dust and pollen. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • As a biochemist and pharmacologist for what is now GlaxoSmithKline, Gertrude and Dr. George Hitchings created many different types of drugs by synthesizing natural nucleic compounds in order to bait pathogens and kill them. (hackaday.com)
  • In a new SLAS Technology auto-commentary, two authors of an article recently published in Nature Biomedical Engineering ("Abnormal Scar Identification with Spherical Nucleic Acid Technology" - www.nature.com/articles/s41551-018-0218-x) share more insight into their unique method for skin disease diagnosis using NanoFlare nanotechnology. (news-medical.net)
  • NASSAM , Nucleic Acid Search for Substructures and Motifs. (rutgers.edu)
  • This list includes nucleic acid-based companion diagnostic tests. (fda.gov)
  • The group and collaborators have conducted kinetic studies of enzyme-nucleic acid interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Welcome to the Dalton Transactions 'metal interactions with nucleic acids' themed issue. (rsc.org)
  • End-labeling is particularly useful for assays investigating nucleic acid-protein interactions to avoid steric hindrance. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Several cellular mechanisms that rely on protein-nucleic acid interactions are studied at the Rudolf Virchow Center using a combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical techniques. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Analysis of these pathways will help us understand how intricate interactions between individual proteins or multi-protein complexes and nucleic acids lead to the formation of higher order complexes required to maintain the genomic integrity and carry out genomic programs in the cell. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The main substances found in every cell are a combination of lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • The DNA Repair & Nucleic Acid Enzymology Group has made a number of contributions over the years to the understanding of mechanisms of DNA synthesis and, in particular, synthesis by the repair enzyme DNA polymerase β (Pol β). (nih.gov)
  • Using strands of nucleic acid, scientists have demonstrated basic computing operations inside a living mammalian cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Two "on" modes on adjacent nucleic acid strands created an "AND" gate. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers used ligands designed to bind to specific portions of the nucleic acid strands, which can be created as desired and produced by commercial suppliers. (eurekalert.org)
  • The vast majority of nucleic acid assays, whether involving manipulation, amplification, selection or characterization, are performed using nucleic acid that has been isolated or separated from its source (e.g. isolated from cells, separated from proteins, etc. (google.ca)
  • Problems in nucleic acid assays from non-nucleic acid components of the nucleic acid source are well-known. (google.ca)
  • Any one of these constituents may create difficulties with nucleic acid assays. (google.ca)
  • An extensive experiment testing the immune effects of a broad group of lab-designed nucleic acid nanoparticles did not find a strong, uniform immune response, as had been predicted. (news-medical.net)
  • Those that consist solely of the exact nucleic acid sequence from a single source that exists contemporaneously in nature. (uvm.edu)
  • Those that consist entirely of nucleic acids from a prokaryotic host, including its indigenous plasmids or viruses when propagated in that host - or a closely related strain of the same species - or when transferred to another host by well-established physiological means. (uvm.edu)
  • Volume II begins with Chapter 10 as continuation of Volume I and discusses the infrared and Raman spectroscopy of nucleic acids and polynucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • Oligonucleotide Drug Producers Coauthor Report on Drug Impurities in Nucleic Acid Therapeutics. (liebertpub.com)
  • More Potent, Inexpensive Gene Silencing Agents Described in Nucleic Acid Therapeutics. (liebertpub.com)
  • Nucleic Acid Therapeutics is the leading journal in its field focusing on cutting-edge basic research, therapeutic applications, and drug development using nucleic acids or related compounds to alter gene expression. (liebertpub.com)
  • Nucleic Acid Therapeutics is a rapid-publication Journal, with peer review averaging 25 days from submission to first decision, and online publication of the article within four weeks of acceptance. (liebertpub.com)
  • The guidelines, which promote a common set of standards for judging experiments and more efficient use of resources, are published in Nucleic Acid Therapeutics , a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Click here to read the full-text, open access article for free on the Nucleic Acid Therapeutics website. (eurekalert.org)
  • This thoughtful set of guidelines has now been endorsed by both the board of the Oligonucleotide Therapeutic Society and the editorial board of Nucleic Acid Therapeutics . (eurekalert.org)
  • Nucleic Acid Therapeutics is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published bimonthly in print and online that focuses on cutting-edge basic research, therapeutic applications, and drug development using nucleic acids or related compounds to alter gene expression. (eurekalert.org)
  • Complete tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed on the Nucleic Acid Therapeutics website. (eurekalert.org)
  • Harvard University has granted a worldwide exclusive license to Sherlock Biosciences, Inc. to develop and commercialize technology from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering to create a highly sensitive, nucleic acid-based diagnostic platform that can rapidly deliver accurate and inexpensive results for a vast range of needs in virtually any setting. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent applications of zinc( II ) complexes as fluorescent probes for nucleic acids are described highlighting their potential as diagnostic tools. (rsc.org)
  • Nucleic acid diagnostic technology. (routledge.com)
  • General outline of nucleic acid degradation for purines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acid , naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid , sugars, and a mixture of organic bases (purines and pyrimidines). (britannica.com)
  • Which nucleic acid bases are purines , and which pyrimidines ? (oneonta.edu)
  • Nucleic acid labeling compounds are disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • The labeling compounds are suitable for enzymatic attachment to a nucleic acid, either terminally or internally, to provide a mechanism. (google.com.au)
  • The primary structure of a nucleic acid refers to its sequence of base pairs. (sparknotes.com)
  • this information advances our understanding and appreciation of nucleic acid structure and function. (springer.com)
  • What were Rosalind Franklin's and Watson and Crick's contributions to nucleic acid structure? (oneonta.edu)
  • M is a connecting group comprising a structure that does not interfere with the nucleic acid labeling compound's function. (google.com.au)
  • Interactive image of nucleic acid structure (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary) using DNA helices and examples from the VS ribozyme and telomerase and nucleosome . (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid was an article published by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in the scientific journal Nature in its 171th volume on page 737-738 (dated April 25, 1953). (bionity.com)
  • The title Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid may suggest that Watson and Crick's discovery is not relevant every day human experience. (bionity.com)
  • For the determinants of nucleic acid structure, we do not see the importance of a buried hydrophobic core. (bioinformatics.org)
  • Nucleic acids have a special physical structure that lets them be the information chemicals of living things. (jrank.org)
  • The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined. (google.es)