Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 3.1.27.5.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
DNA or RNA bound to a substrate thereby having fixed positions.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).

Tight binding of the 5' exon to domain I of a group II self-splicing intron requires completion of the intron active site. (1/2743)

Group II self-splicing requires the 5' exon to form base pairs with two stretches of intronic sequence (EBS1 and EBS2) which also bind the DNA target during retrotransposition of the intron. We have used dimethyl sulfate modification of bases to obtain footprints of the 5' exon on intron Pl.LSU/2 from the mitochondrion of the alga Pylaiella littoralis, as well as on truncated intron derivatives. Aside from the EBS sites, which are part of the same subdomain (ID) of ribozyme secondary structure, three distant adenines become either less or more sensitive to modification in the presence of the exon. Unexpectedly, one of these adenines in subdomain IC1 is footprinted only in the presence of the distal helix of domain V, which is involved in catalysis. While the loss of that footprint is accompanied by a 100-fold decrease in the affinity for the exon, both protection from modification and efficient binding can be restored by a separate domain V transcript, whose binding results in its own, concise footprint on domains I and III. Possible biological implications of the need for the group II active site to be complete in order to observe high-affinity binding of the 5' exon to domain I are discussed.  (+info)

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (2/2743)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

Scrotal heat stress induces altered sperm chromatin structure associated with a decrease in protamine disulfide bonding in the stallion. (3/2743)

A variety of testicular insults can induce changes in the structure of spermatozoal chromatin, resulting in spermatozoal DNA that is more susceptible to acid-induced denaturation. The degree of change in the DNA can be measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The SCSA measures the relative amounts of single- and double-stranded DNA after staining with the metachromatic dye, acridine orange. Here we used a stallion model (n = 4) to study the effects of scrotal heat stress on spermatozoal DNA. This model was created by insulating stallion testes for 48 h and collecting sperm daily thereafter for 60 days. Changes in the SCSA were then correlated with protamine disulfide content and protamine types and levels. Results of the SCSA indicated that the susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation was dependent on the spermatogenic cell stage that the ejaculated sperm was in at the time of the heat stress. Spermatozoa with altered DNA had a decrease in the extent of disulfide bonding that was associated with an increase in the susceptibility of DNA to denaturation. However, there were no detectable changes in either the protamine type or level. Thus, in this model, decreased disulfide bonding is associated with an increased susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation in the absence of protamine changes.  (+info)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (4/2743)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (5/2743)

The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization.  (+info)

Low temperature cycled PCR protocol for Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I in the presence of proline. (6/2743)

A method for performing cycled PCR at low temperatures, using the thermolabile Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, is reported. Application of proline as a buffer additive in the range of 3.0-5.5 M remarkably increases the thermal stability of the polymerase and decreases the denaturation temperature of DNAtemplate. This method might be applicable to a broad spectrum of thermolabile DNA polymerases in cycled PCR and other methods of DNA amplification.  (+info)

Conformational state of DNA in chromatin subunits. Circular dichroism, melting, and ethidium bromide binding analysis. (7/2743)

This study compares some physical properties of DNA in native chromatin and mono-, di-, trinucleosomes obtained after mild micrococcal nuclease digestion. Melting curves and derivatives are shown to be very similar from one sample to another although a shift from 79 to 82 degrees C is observed between the mainly monophasic peak of multimers and chromatin. Careful analysis of the positive band of the circular dichroism spectra shows the appearance of a shoulder at 275nm, the intensity of which increases from the mono- to the di- and trinucleosome. This shoulder is maximum for native chromatin. At the same time binding isotherms of ethidium - bromide are characterized by two highly fluorescent binding sites for all the samples but the product KN of the apparent binding constant of the higher affinity binding sites by the apparent number of those sites increases from the mono- to the di- and trinucleosome. There again the valus is maximum for native chromatin. Such results strongly suggest that the native state of chromatin requires something more than the indefinite repeat of an elementary subunit.  (+info)

On the character of the thermodynamic properties distribution in DNA molecules inside the melting interval. (8/2743)

The variances of the distributions of DNA molecules over the degree of helicity and over the number of unwound regions inside the melting interval are calculated. The variance over the degree of helicity is expessed in terms of the values directly available from the experimental data. For the variance over the number of unwound regions a simple interpolation formula based on the machine calculations is proposed. Possible applications of the results obtained to interpolaation of the electron microscopic denaturation maps of DNA are discussed.  (+info)

Cyclic PNAs targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA loop have been synthesized following a convenient solid-phase strategy which allows on-resin cyclisation. UV-monitored thermal denaturation studies demonstrate that these cyclic PNAs are able to strongly interact with their TAR RNA target, very likely through the formation of a six-base pair stable complex, involving the TAR RNA loop.
ABSTRACT. We analysed a DNA sample from a father and child who were both heterozygous for a 7 base pair insertion in the MEST gene differentially-methylated promoter region, previously shown by PCR analysis of bisulphite-treated DNA to be on the methylated allele in the unaffected father and the unmethylated allele in the affected child. PCR from genomic DNA was then carried out using a commercial PCR kit with its recommended initial DNA denaturation step of 2 minutes. Subsequent sequence analysis showed that only the non-methylated allele had been amplified, the father appearing to be homozygous normal and the child appearing to have a homozygous 7 b.p. insertion. The PCR protocol was then modified in order to use a longer DNA denaturation stage prior to the addition of the polymerase enzyme. Upon doing so, both the methylated and non-methylated alleles were then identifiable by sequencing with the mutation appearing in its expected heterozygous form. These results highlight the fact that the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of low-melting regions in phage T7 DNA. AU - Lyamichev, V. I.. AU - Panyutin, I. G.. AU - Cherny, D. I.. AU - Lyubchenko, Yu L.. PY - 1983/4/11. Y1 - 1983/4/11. N2 - Specific fragmentation of T7 DNA at glyoxal-fixed denatured regions by the S1 endonuclease followed by restriction analysis made it possible to localize four low-melting regions in phage T7 DNA. These regions have the following coordinates:0.5-1.2;14.8±0.3;46.3±0.5; 98.4±0.3 (in T7 DNA length units). The location of the low-melting regions was refined by means of electron-microscopic denaturation mapping and gel electrophoresis of partially denatured DNA. The obtained localization of the low-melting regions is consistent with the available data on the sequence of T7 DNA. The map of low-melting regions was compared with the genetic map of T7 DNA.. AB - Specific fragmentation of T7 DNA at glyoxal-fixed denatured regions by the S1 endonuclease followed by restriction analysis made it possible to localize ...
Partial denaturation pattern of sex factor deoxyribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli was studied by electron microscopy. Clustering of the adenine-plusthymine-rich regions in one part of the molecule was revealed. The positions of these regions were located on the physical map of F by analyzing the partial denaturation pattern of heteroduplexes between F and F-prime factors with various parts of F sequences deleted. ...
Within the framework of the Peyrard-Bishop model for DNA melting, sharp denaturation temperature profiles can currently be obtained only if anharmonic base-pair stacking interactions are considered. We show that, when solvent interactions are included, a sharp denaturation of the DNA double helix is obtained without the need for anharmonic nearest-neighbor interactions. Using the concept of pseudo-Schrodinger equations we discuss the analogy of these transition to quantum-mechanical tunneling, and in particular we show that the sharp transitions are similar to resonant tunneling.. Full text not available from this repository.. ...
One-dimensional thermodynamic instabilities are phase transitions, not prohibited by Landaus argument because the energy of the domain wall which separates the two phases is infinite. Whether they actually occur in a given system of particles must be demonstrated on a case-by-case basis by examining the properties of the corresponding singular transfer integral (TI) equation. The present work deals with the generic Peyrard-Bishop model of DNA denaturation. In the absence of exact statements about the spectrum of the singular TI equation, I use Gauss-Hermite quadratures to achieve a single-parameter-controlled approach to rounding effects; this allows me to employ finite-size scaling concepts in order to demonstrate that a phase transition occurs and to derive the critical exponents.
Denaturation: Denaturation,, in biology, process modifying the molecular structure of a protein. Denaturation involves the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds (e.g., hydrogen
Shop for Vitacost Natural Cherry Methyl B12 Melts at Bakers. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order online for Delivery or Pickup.
The denaturation of proteins occurs when high temperatures or chemical interactions destroy both their secondary and tertiary structures. Denaturation processes are not actually strong enough to...
A simple snow model with only three parameters (fresh snow albedo, albedo decay rate for melting snow and surface roughness) is used to simulate snow accumulation and melt at four sites in Europe and North America, and the ...
phenylglucosazone: An osazone, C18H22O4N4, made by the action of phenyl-hydrazinehydrochlorid and sodium acetate on glucose or fructose: also formed by warming cane-sugar or dextromannoso with phenylhy-drazine. It forms yellow, needle-like crystals which are nearly insoluble in water and melt at 204-205° C.
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution DNA methylome analysis of primordial germ cells identifies gender-specific reprogramming in mice. AU - Kobayashi, Hisato. AU - Sakurai, Takayuki. AU - Miura, Fumihito. AU - Imai, Misaki. AU - Mochiduki, Kentaro. AU - Yanagisawa, Eikichi. AU - Sakashita, Akihiko. AU - Wakai, Takuya. AU - Suzuki, Yutaka. AU - Ito, Takashi. AU - Matsui, Yasuhisa. AU - Kono, Tomohiro. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during mammalian germ cell development, although the targets of this process, including DNA demethylation and de novo methylation, remain poorly understood. We performed genomewide DNA methylation analysis in male and female mouse primordial germ cells at embryonic days 10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 by whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing. Our high-resolution DNA methylome maps demonstrated gender-specific differences in CpG methylation at genome-wide and gene-specific levels during fetal germline progression. There was extensive intra- ...
OMAHA, Neb., March 14, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Transgenomic, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: TBIO) today announced the completion of an expanded license with the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, for the COLD-PCR (CO-amplification at Lower Denaturing temperature PCR) technology. Previously, Transgenomic had licensed exclusive rights to COLD-PCR for Sanger Sequencing and mitochondrial DNA analysis. The new license expands the technology covered to include Ice COLD-PCR, a technique that further extends the sensitivity of mutation detection provided by this key technology and also extends the Companys licensed exclusivity to include analysis of COLD-PCR products by Pyrosequencing.. COLD-PCR is a genetic testing approach that selectively amplifies mutant DNA by recognizing that mutant DNA strands denature at lower temperatures in a PCR reaction than normal DNA. Using this proprietary technique, COLD-PCR amplifies mutated DNA with minimal amplification of the normal DNA. The resultant PCR-amplified ...
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DNA denaturation is possibly one of the earliest problems in biophysics that grabbed the attention of statistical physicists. The nature of the folding/melting transition has been subject to debate since 60s until a breakthrough in the past decade mostly settled the question. We recently readdressed the problem for circular DNA (which has a topologically imposed, fixed linking number due to helicity) and found that the melting behavior is qualitatively different from that of the unconstrained DNA with freely dangling ends. In particular we argue, by generalizing the predominant theoretical model in this field, that the transition rigorously follows an inverted BEC scenario where a macroscopic loop appears at Tc and grows steadily with increasing temperature. ...
High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis; is a powerful technology for SNP genotyping, mutation scanning and sequence scanning in DNA samples. Learn how HRM technology works, how HRM primers are designed, advantages and applications of HRM
The vinamould melts at 140-150°C and is poured over the item to be reproduced. To melt the vinamould cut it into small pieces and use either a melting pot or a double skinned pot with an air gap rather than a water jacket which would be too cool. | eBay!
Hey, I have been working on extruding nylon. It is readily available as both fishing line and weed trimmer line. The cost is much lower than ABS, around $3 a pound here: [www.amazon.com] Nylon melts at around the same temperature of ABS, so no changes of the extruder would be necessary. Nylon is a
Objective This study introduces a novel method, referred to as SeqFF, for estimating the fetal DNA fraction in the plasma of pregnant women and to infer the ...
Ok, Ill readily admit, that despite owning a new HRM for over a year now, I have not really used it, either properly, nor to its full potential. I...
Silvestri, L. G. (Università Statale, Milan, Italy), and L. R. Hill. Agreement between deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and taxometric classification of gram-positive cocci. J. Bacteriol. 90:136-140. 1965.-It had been previously proposed, from taxometric analyses, that gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci be divided into two subgroups. Thirteen strains, representative of both subgroups, were examined for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition, determined from melting temperatures. Per cent GC (guanine + cytosine/total bases) values fell into two groups: 30.8 to 36.5% GC and 69 to 75% GC. Strains with low per cent GC values belonged to the Staphylococcus aureus-S. saprophyticus-S. lactis taxometric subgroups, and those with high per cent GC values belonged to the S. roseus-S. afermentans subgroup. The hypothetical nature of any classification is emphasized, and, in the present work, the hypothesis derived from taxometric analyses of division into two subgroups is confirmed by the ...
Vegetable oil has fatty acids with carbon chains from 12 to 18 carbons long. Animal fat can have fatty acids with more than 18 carbons long. Generally a longer chain fatty acid melts at a higher temperature. The methyl ester of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid) has 16 carbons in the fatty acid chain and melts at 28-34 degrees celcius. Methyl stearate (octadecanoic acid methyl ester) has 18 carbons in the fatty acid chain of carbon atoms and melts at 39.1 degrees celcius. Eicosanoic acid methyl ester (eicosanoic acid) has 20 carbon atoms in a straight chain and the methyl ester melts at 54.5 degrees centigrade. Since like dissolves like, part of the eicosanoic acid methyl ester will be in solution below the melting point temperature. When I made biodiesel out of swine lard, pig fat and beef grease when the liquid was at a cool room temperature some of the higher melting methyl esters crystallized out and precipitated out as white crystals. Animal fat and grease has drawbacks for use as cool or ...
Stability and molecular size of the DNA double helical structure were studied on an aqueous solution of DNA after exposure to high power doses of continuous wave ultrasound at frequency of 20kHz. Thermal transition spectrophotometry (UV-melting), constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric properties measurements were used to evaluate the ultrasound-induced changes in the DNA double helical structure. The thermal transition spectrophotometry (UV-melting) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that ultrasound power caused loss of DNA double helical structure and the DNA double strands melting temperature decreased as the ultrasound power increased, indicating a decrease in the stability of the double helical structure of DNA. The constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) results showed that the molecular size of the DNA fragments decreased as the ultrasound power increased. The dielectric data in the frequency range from ...
In the formation and growth of a primary tumor, cells can released into the bloodstream. There are many researches for these circulating tumor cells(CTC) And recently circulating cell-free tumor DNA(ctDNA) released from apoptotic or necrotic tumor cells has developed. At one report which checked ctDNA level after operation of colon cancer patients, they suggested that ctDNA could show recurrence of cancer several months earlier than the conventional follow up imaging. And several reports suggested that ctDNA can invade host cell and change host cell biology, which can evoke cancer metastasis.. So in this study, the investigator will collect ctDNA of pancreatic cancer patients, benign pancreatic disease patients, and healthy population. And the investigator will evaluate whether peripheral ctDNA can help early screening of cancer recurrence. And we will study about genomic signature of ctDNA to evaluate relationship between ctDNA and clinical outcome of cancer patients. ...
It should be emphasized that the array of structures listed in Table 1 are but a point of departure. The competition dialysis method is completely general, and arrays of structures of particular interest can be designed as desired. The only limitations are that the structures be large enough to be retained by the dialysis tubing chosen for use, and that they are verified to be stable under the ionic conditions of the experiment. Essential quality control experiments to characterize nucleic acid samples were described in detail [41, 42] and include UV absorbance and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation studies. Fig. 1 Schematic of the competition dialysis experiment. A schematic representation of the structures used is shown on the left. The center shows the simple experimental setup, a beaker containing the test ligand solution and the holder for the dialysis units. A schematic of the microdialysis unit is shown on the right Structural Selectivity of Drug-Nucleic Acid ...
A novel method for detecting and isolating DNA sequences commonly held by different DNA preparations or repeated or amplified within a complex genome has been provided. The DNA preparations of interest are digested with the same restriction enzyme and a portion of at least one preparation is labeled with 32 P. The labeled and unlabeled DNA preparations are combined and electrophoresed in an agarose gel. Following electrophoresis, the DNA is denatured in situ and allowed to reanneal within the gel so that homologous DNA sequences present within restriction fragments of the same size can reanneal. After reannealing, unhybridized single-stranded DNA is digested in situ followed by detection of the reannealed DNA by autoradiography. When labeled and unlabeled DNAs are derived from different DNA preparations, only the restriction fragments commonly held by these two preparations are detected. When a restriction digest of total eukaryotic DNA is reassociated in the gel by this procedure, repeated restriction
Almost four months after losing it in the snow at Big White, a man has been reunited with his wedding ring. In January, Greg Hedges stopped under the Snow Ghost Express chair to take a photo of a friend.
simultaneously following the distribution of main sausage ingredients, i.e., proteins, fats, and starch. A more homogeneous distribution of the main ingredients was observed with higher concentration of added salts, while it was most pronounced for the MgSO4 recipe. Furthermore, FTIR imaging was used in order to follow the distribution of protein secondary structure motifs throughout the sausage matrix. It was confirmed that KCl inhibited the partial denaturation of proteins, unlike that observed ...
We report the hybridization properties of a novel artificial nucleic acid: acyclicl-threoninol nucleic acid (l-aTNA). l-aTNA formed a more stable duplex with DNA and RNA than either d-aTNA or serinol nucleic acid (SNA) as the rigidity of the l-form was more optimal for interaction with natural nucleic acids.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
The process opposite to supercooling, the melting of a solid above the freezing point, is much more difficult, and a solid will almost always melt at the same temperature for a given pressure. For this reason, it is the melting point which is usually identified, using melting point apparatus; even when the subject of a paper is freezing-point determination, the actual methodology is the principle of observing the disappearance rather than the formation of ice. It is, however, possible, at a given pressure to superheat a liquid above its boiling point without it becoming gaseous. ...
Denaturation Protein molecules carry out many important tasks in living systems. Most important, the majority of proteins are quite specific about which task they perform.
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From setting up an HRM experiment to HRM data interpretation and analysis — get the answers you need. Simply click on the links below and obtain answers to some of the most frequently asked questions at every stage of your HRM experiment. In addition, discover the applications of this technology. |br />
The correct answer is Watson and Crick. DNA It is deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other org
Transmembrane α-helical proteins are unusually stable judging from thermal denaturation studies, because they do not unfold completely within the membranes (the complete unfolding would require breaking down too many α-helical H-bonds in the nonpolar media). On the other hand, these proteins easily misfold, due to non-native aggregation in membranes, transition to the molten globule states, formation of non-native disulfide bonds, or unfolding of peripheral regions and nonregular loops that are locally less stable. It is also important to properly define the unfolded state. The unfolded state of membrane proteins in detergent micelles is different from that in the thermal denaturation experiments. This state represents a combination of folded hydrophobic α-helices and partially unfolded segments covered by the detergent. For example, the unfolded bacteriorhodopsin in SDS micelles has four transmembrane α-helices folded, while the rest of the protein is situated at the micelle-water ...
М.Б. Агранат, С.И. Анисимов, С.И. Ашитков, В.В. Жаховский, Н.А. Иногамов, П.С. Комаров, А.В. Овчинников, В.Е. Фортов, В.А. Хохлов, В.В. Шепелев, Прочностные свойства расплава алюминия в условиях экстремально высоких темпов растяжения при воздействии фемтосекундных лазерных импульсов, Письма в ЖЭТФ, 91 (9), 517-523 (2010) [M. B. Agranat, S.I. Anisimov, S.I. Ashitkov, V.V. Zhakhovskii, N.A. Inogamov, P.S. Komarov, A.V. Ovchinnikov, V.E. Fortov, V.A. Khokhlov, V.V. Shepelev, Strength properties of an aluminum melt at extremely high tension rates under the action of femtosecond laser pulses, JETP Lett. 91 (9), 471-477 (2010)], Scopus: 2-s2.0-77954431071. ...
A new method has been developed for determining the stability parameters of proteins from their heat-induced transition curves followed by observation of changes in the far-UV circular dichroism (CD). This method of analysis of the thermal denaturation curve of a protein gave values of stability par …
A new method has been developed for determining the stability parameters of proteins from their heat-induced transition curves followed by observation of changes in the far-UV circular dichroism (CD). This method of analysis of the thermal denaturation curve of a protein gave values of stability par …
Dna Double Helix software free downloads. Dna Double Helix shareware, freeware, demos: OnScreen DNA By-the-Day by OnScreen Science Inc, OnScreen DNA Model by OnScreen Science Inc, RC-AirSim by Fabricated Reality etc...
gb HRM PCR Master Mix falls into a group of Dye-Based Real-time PCR Master Mixes. The product is intended for amplification of DNA with subsequent High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis. HRM analysis is an efficient melt curve analysis method for genotyping, mutation scanning prior to sequencing analysis, DNA mapping, species identification or DNA methylation analysis etc. ...
Traditionally, determining the composition of alloys has been the domain of differential scanning calorimeters or differential thermal analyzers. This application note describes two high temperature melting systems using the STA 8000 Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer, demonstrating that the STA 8000 is also capable of this type of demanding analysis.
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I ask because Ive used protocols for ds sequencing with go ,sucess until recently. Lately, I had alot trouble with my ds templates. I ,remember reading that Sequenase 2.0 prefers ss templates. Is it worth it to ,switch? Antone have good protocols? Thanks in advance. , ,Picard cooperj at nhlbi.nih.gov (John Cooper) asks: ,Does any one know if single stranded sequencing is really superior to ds ,sequencing? I think that you get the best consistency with single-strand templates. DS templates exhibit more variability. Its probably to have highly purified DNA. Although CsCl-prepped DNA is obviously the best, for preparing multiple templates, we DNA prepared with the normal alkaline-lysis miniprep procedure and PEG precipitate (as described, for example, in the Molecular Cloning manual). This purified DNA is then denatured according to the latest guidelines in USBs Sequenase manuals which suggest alkaline denaturation _at 37oC_. ,Antone have good protocols? Ive used the following alternative, ...
The first synthesis of the new C-branched spermine derivative 17, as well as its ability to stabilise DNA duplexes and triplexes, are reported. The C-branched spermine block 17 was converted into the corresponding O-(2-cyanoethyl)-(N,N-diisopropyl)phospho. ...
Glad youre doing OK.. Its been several years, but I need to commiserate.. October 1997. After a period of unemployment in San Francisco, I acquired a new job. The evening of the first day, I celebrated by going around the corner and eating a nice, greasy patty melt at Mels Diner.. At this point I had spent most of my adulthood having occasional debilitating stomach-aches, but nothing I didnt recover from after some Pepto and a few hours rest. But the morning after the patty melt, I woke up at 4am in excruciating pain, and it wasnt going away this time. I woke up my roommate (who had also just become my co-worker, as he had helped me get the job) and asked him to take me to the hospital. I managed to stumble out to the car, but by the time we got to Kaiser Permenante I needed a wheelchair. I went into the emergency room, got admitted, got an X-ray… Then they found out I didnt have any insurance.. So it was off to the San Francisco County Hospital with lowly ol me. I arrived there at ...
A liquid diet consists of fluids or any food product that melts at room temperature and becomes a liquid. However, there are different types of liquid diets, such as clear and full liquid diets. A...
Appears very solid, with several hairline cracks across the surface of the mixture. There are two little darker circles on the middle with semi-translucent edges and centers. It is rock hard to the touch-I cant press through it at all or even make a dent. It is apparent the mixture did not solidify uniformly when I rub my finger across the surface; the darker semi-translucent areas have a bit of creamy slip, while the opaque white areas are skiddy and very hard. I can scrape up some of the mixture with the back of a fingernail and massage that into the back of my hand-it feels quite waxy and sticky. I can spread it out on the skin and it does seem to massage in, but it doesnt seem to melt at all. It leaves the skin feeling very sticky.. ...
Looking for phenate? Find out information about phenate. C6H5OH, a colorless, crystalline solid that melts at about 41°C;, boils at 182°C;, and is soluble in ethanol and ether and somewhat soluble in water.... Explanation of phenate
Looking for Agent Blue? Find out information about Agent Blue. 2 AsOOH Colorless crystals that melt at 200°C; soluble in alcohol and water; used as a herbicide Explanation of Agent Blue
Abstract. Bismuth-Tin 58-42 is a bismuth-base eutectic alloy that melts at 281 F (138 C). It has the highest melting point of the bismuth-base alloys commonly u
Definition of Nucleic acid heteroduplexes with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
DNA - A double helix DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid.It is a nucleic which is used for storing information for long term in all living beings and some viruses. Base composition in DNA varies from one species to other but in all the cases the amount of adenine is equal to thymine and the amount
Calf strain or tear is caused by overstretching or tearing of either of the 2 calf muscles. It usually starts with sudden pain in the back of the leg.
Buying or selling a duplex in Italy? Discover the best duplexes for sale in Italy. Owners and agents list your duplex and get it sold.
Biophysical and biochemical study of interactions of p53 proteins and its homologues with guanine quadruplexes and cytosine i-motifs - ongoing study ...
Jsme výrobní a distribuční společnost s více než 25letou historií a významným postavením na trhu s chladicí technikou v České republice.
... strands of the DNA double helix are physically separated at a high temperature in a process called nucleic acid denaturation. ... Sarkar G, Kapelner S, Sommer SS (December 1990). "Formamide can dramatically improve the specificity of PCR". Nucleic Acids ... The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)". Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (7): 2503-16. doi:10.1093/nar/17.7.2503. PMC ... Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (7): 1717-23. doi:10.1093/nar/20.7.1717. PMC 312262. PMID 1579465. Kellogg DE, Rybalkin I, Chen S, ...
... nucleic acid denaturation and chemical reactions that destroy the viral capsid are increased at higher temperatures, thus ...
disclosed the use of a helicase as a means for denaturation of double stranded DNA thereby including isothermal nucleic acid ... The advantages of HDA is that it provides a rapid method of nucleic acid amplification of a specific target at an isothermic ... easy to adapt nucleic acid test for the detection of Clostridium difficile". Other applications include the rapid detection of ... This process involves the separation of the double-stranded DNA in high heat into single strands (the denaturation step, ...
Acetic acid HCl Nitric Acid Basic nucleic acid denaturants include: NaOH Other nucleic acid denaturants include: DMSO Formamide ... which promotes denaturation of nucleic acids in order to eliminate the influence of nucleic acid shape on their electrophoretic ... Acetic acid Trichloroacetic acid 12% in water Sulfosalicylic acid Bases work similarly to acids in denaturation. They include: ... Other than denaturation by heat, nucleic acids can undergo the denaturation process through various chemical agents such as ...
Most commonly, the pairs of nucleic bases A=T and G≡C are formed, of which the latter is more stable. DNA denaturation, also ... Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). ... occurs when half of the double-stranded nucleic acid has dissociated. If no additional nucleic acids are present, then [A], [B ... elegantly describe the thermodynamic parameters for forming double-stranded nucleic acid AB from single-stranded nucleic acids ...
No evidence of nucleic acid has been found in any prion particle studied. Treatments that destroy protein, like denaturation, ... Once it was discovered that prions were the real cause of TSEs and that prions contained no nucleic acid, the term virions was ... but treatments that destroy nucleic acids, like UV radiation, do not destroy prion infectivity. The prion protein is known as ... The infectious form of PrP has the same amino acid sequence and the same post-translational modifications as the normal form, ...
For nucleic acids, urea is the most commonly used denaturant. For proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an anionic ... This denaturation, which is referred to as reconstructive denaturation, is not accomplished by the total linearization of the ... Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a popular nucleic acid stain. EtBr allows one to easily visualize DNA or RNA on a gel as EtBr ... Urea breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs of the nucleic acid, causing the constituent strands to anneal. Heating ...
denaturation A process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary, tertiary, and secondary structure which is ... nucleic acid The biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life . nucleic acid sequence A succession ... ribonucleic acid (RNA) A nucleic acid polymer composed of a series of ribonucleotides which incorporate a set of four ... deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A nucleic acid polymer that serves as the fundamental hereditary material in all living organisms. ...
Nucleic acid denaturationEdit. Main article: Nucleic acid thermodynamics. Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide ... which promotes denaturation of nucleic acids in order to eliminate the influence of nucleic acid shape on their electrophoretic ... Other than denaturation by heat, nucleic acids can undergo the denaturation process through various chemical agents such as ... of formamide denatured nucleic acids are similar to those of heat-denatured nucleic acids.[22][24][25] Therefore, depending on ...
Nucleic acid denaturationEdit. Main article: Nucleic acid thermodynamics. Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide ... 3 Nucleic acid denaturation *3.1 Biologically-induced denaturation. *3.2 Denaturation due to chemical agents *3.2.1 Chemical ... which promotes denaturation of nucleic acids in order to eliminate the influence of nucleic acid shape on their electrophoretic ... Other than denaturation by heat, nucleic acids can undergo the denaturation process through various chemical agents such as ...
... and interference with biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleic acids, and lipids. Another type of stressor could be the ... These chemicals inflict extensive cellular damage to different systems such as the bacterial membrane, denaturation of proteins ... A cell can also shift from production of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids to decrease the fluidity of the ... Responses of Gram-Negative Bacteria to Hypochlorous Acid". Microorganisms. 8 (8): 1220. doi:10.3390/microorganisms8081220. PMID ...
... may refer to; Protein denaturation, the process of disrupting the structure of proteins or nucleic acids Drug ...
Nucleic Acids Research, 1974. *0. EKWUEME ja A. P. M. FORREST, Release of an Immunologically Active Humoral Factor from the ... Hsueh Jei Li, Benijamixi Brand ja Arnold Rotter, Thermal denaturation of calf thymus DNA: existence of a GC-richer fraction, 1 ... 1975 Nucleic Acids Research, 1975. *Senelar R, Escola MJ, Escola R, Serrou B, Serre A., Relationship between Hassall's ... Mulder GB, Manley N, Maggio-Price L., Retinoic acid-induced thymic abnormalities in the mouse are associated with altered ...
For nucleic acids, urea is the most commonly used denaturant. For proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an anionic ... This denaturation, which is referred to as reconstructive denaturation, is not accomplished by the total linearization of the ... Ethidium bromide binds nucleic acid chains through the process of Intercalation. While Ethidium bromide is a popular stain it ... Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a popular nucleic acid stain. EtBr allows one to easily visualize DNA or RNA on a gel as EtBr ...
However, extraction and analysis of nucleic acids and proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is possible using ... Formalin fixation leads to degradation of mRNA, miRNA, and DNA as well as denaturation and modification of proteins in tissues ... or sites to which radiolabeled nucleic acid probes bind in in situ hybridization. For autoradiography on a microscopic level, ... During the 19th century many fixation techniques were developed by Adolph Hannover (solutions of chromates and chromic acid), ...
... also sometimes called renaturization The conversion of denatured protein or nucleic acid to its native configuration is called ... Renaturation can mean: the inverse process of denaturation ecological restoration, ...
He was also a pioneer of ideas in the area of nucleic acid compaction. In 1961, he showed that ribonuclease could be refolded ... after denaturation while preserving enzyme activity, thereby suggesting that all the information required by protein to adopt ... especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation (see Anfinsen's ... its final conformation is encoded in its amino-acid sequence. He belonged to the National Academy of Sciences (USA), the Royal ...
At ULB, Thomas attended lectures by Jean Brachet, who pioneered the field of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and their role in ... Under Brachet's supervision, Thomas prepared and defended a PhD thesis on the denaturation of DNA in 1952. After two years of ... Melting this secondary structure was coined DNA denaturation, by analogy with the similar process long known for proteins. Once ... DNA denaturation could be understood as the unwinding of the double helix. It became fundamental in all processes that use DNA ...
... basic and dimeric nucleic acid-binding proteins. Furthermore, it is conserved in most sequenced archeal genomes. The ... The stabilisation of the double helix against denaturation, in the Archaea, is due to the presence of a particular specific ... They stabilize the double helix, preventing denaturation at high temperature thus promoting annealing above the melting point. ... amino acids and aromatic compounds like phenol. It uses a modified Entner-Doudroff pathway for glucose oxidation and the ...
He also had a strong interest in the NMR and ESR of nucleic acids and other biological macromolecules. To further his ... Origins of contact-shifted resonances and denaturation by dimethyl sulfoxide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1973 ... Nucleic acids; a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study. Science (Washington, DC, United States) (1964), 144(3623), 1234-7. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of thymine nearest neighbor base requency ratios in deoxyribonucleic acid. Journal of ...
Frontiers in Nucleic Acids. ACS Symposium Series. 1082. p. 111. doi:10.1021/bk-2011-1082.ch007. ISBN 978-0-8412-2623-4. Wartell ... R. M.; Benight, A. S. (1985). "Thermal denaturation of DNA molecules: A comparison of theory with experiment". Physics Reports ... Nucleic Acids Research. 30 (17): 3662-3671. doi:10.1093/nar/gkf508. PMC 137430. PMID 12202750. "Roger Wartell". Archived from ...
Nucleic Acids Research, 39 (8): e52-e52, doi:10.1093/nar/gkr035, PMC 3082908, PMID 21297115. Ririe, KM; Rasmussen, RP; Wittwer ... "High-resolution thermal denaturation of DNA. I. Theoretical and practical considerations for the resolution of thermal ... the conformation and the modifications of DNA and RNA Nucleic acid thermodynamics Ansevin, A.T.; Vizard, D.L.; Brown, B.W.; ...
Infectious particles possessing nucleic acid are dependent upon it to direct their continued replication. Prions, however, are ... Sterilizing prions, therefore, requires the denaturation of the protein to a state in which the molecule is no longer able to ... Alper T, Cramp WA, Haig DA, Clarke MC (May 1967). "Does the agent of scrapie replicate without nucleic acid?". Nature. 214 ( ... all of which contain nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, or both). Prion isoforms of the prion protein (PrP), whose specific function is ...
Nucleic acid molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through a matrix of ... For full denaturation of proteins, it is also necessary to reduce the covalent disulfide bonds that stabilize their tertiary ... When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases), the preferred matrix is purified agarose. In both ... Nucleic acids are often denatured by including urea in the buffer, while proteins are denatured using sodium dodecyl sulfate, ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (21): 6292-303. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh970. PMC 535678. PMID 15576355. Neves C, da Costa MS, Santos H ( ... In the procedure of heat denaturation, one can subject a mixture of proteins to high temperatures, which will result in the ... proteins and nucleic acids) which form the three-dimensional structures essential to their enzymatic activity. Above the native ... Perl D, Mueller U, Heinemann U, Schmid FX (May 2000). "Two exposed amino acid residues confer thermostability on a cold shock ...
1], "Reversible chemical modification of nucleic acids and improved method for nucleic acid hybridization", issued 2002-10-03 ... Once the temperature rises over 70 °C, during the denaturation step in the first cycle, the wax bead melts, allowing the Taq ... Another chemical modification of nucleic acid is through the heat-reversible covalent modification which acts to impede the ... Highly specific oligonucleotides: Oligonucleotides are short polymers of nucleic acid which easily bind. Highly specific ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (Database issue): D141-5. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1138. PMC 4383946. PMID 25392422.. ... "Use of thermal denaturation studies to investigate the base sequence of yeast serine sRNA". Proceedings of the National ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 10 (18): 5393-406. doi:10.1093/nar/10.18.5393. PMC 320884. PMID 6924209.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (13): 6729-38. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt321. PMC 3711452. PMID 23649835.. ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (15): 7351-67. doi:10.1093/nar/16.15.7351. PMC 338413. PMID 3045756. Biology portal. ... After mixing and denaturation, the strands are allowed to anneal to produce three different combinations as detailed in the ...
... nucleic acids) by weakening the hydrophobic effect. For example, a chaotropic agent reduces the amount of order in the ... and may cause its denaturation. Conversely, an antichaotropic agent (kosmotropic) is a molecule in an aqueous solution that ... macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (e.g. DNA and RNA). Chaotropic solutes increase the entropy of the system by ... Tertiary protein folding is dependent on hydrophobic forces from amino acids throughout the sequence of the protein. Chaotropic ...
If some of the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb, then prior to blotting, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute ... The denaturation in an alkaline environment may improve binding of the negatively charged thymine residues of DNA to a ... Gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids. *Restriction fragment. *Genetic fingerprint. *Northern blot. *Western blot ... Southern blotting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (1): 304-05. doi:10.1093/nar/28.1.304. PMC 102465. PMID 10592255. Archived from the original (PDF) ... Ingested proteins are then broken down into amino acids through digestion, which typically involves denaturation of the protein ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112-D1116. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw978. PMC 5210655. PMID 27789699.. ... Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 10 (8): 2709-21. doi:10.1093/nar/10.8.2709. PMC 320645 . PMID 7079182.. ... "DNA sequencing by denaturation: experimental proof of concept with an integrated fluidic device". Lab on a Chip. 10 (9): 1153- ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 1 (3): 331-53. doi:10.1093/nar/1.3.331. PMC 344020 . PMID 10793670.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 6 (7): 2601-10. doi:10.1093/nar/6.7.2601. PMC 327874 . PMID 461197.. ...
"Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 608-19. doi:10.1080/15257770802138558. PMC 2895915 . PMID 18600514.. ... denaturation and protein degradation.[60] ... Lipoic acid Water 0.1-0.7[78] 4-5 (rat)[79] Uric acid Water 200 ... Uric acid[edit]. Uric acid is by far the highest concentration antioxidant in human blood. Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant ... Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as ...
Nucleic Acids Research, 1974. *0. EKWUEME ja A. P. M. FORREST, Release of an Immunologically Active Humoral Factor from the ... Hsueh Jei Li, Benijamixi Brand ja Arnold Rotter, Thermal denaturation of calf thymus DNA: existence of a GC-richer fraction, 1 ... 1975 Nucleic Acids Research, 1975. *Senelar R, Escola MJ, Escola R, Serrou B, Serre A., Relationship between Hassall's ... Mulder GB, Manley N, Maggio-Price L., Retinoic acid-induced thymic abnormalities in the mouse are associated with altered ...
Most CPP-nucleic acid complexes that have been proposed so far are formed through covalent bonding. A range of CPP-nucleic acid ... and denaturation of proteins before delivery. In one study, a short amphipathic peptide carrier, Pep-1, and protein complexes ... CPP mediated delivery of nucleic acids[edit]. Nucleic acid-based macromolecules such as siRNA, antisense oligonucleotide, decoy ... 2.1 CPP mediated delivery of nucleic acids *2.1.1 Formation of CPP-nucleic acid complexes ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (13): 6729-6738. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt321. PMC 3711452 . PMID 23649835. Retrieved 23 November 2014.. ... "Use of thermal denaturation studies to investigate the base sequence of yeast serine sRNA". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 51 (5): ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (21): 6137-6146. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl725. PMC 1693877 . PMID 17088292. Retrieved 23 November 2014.. ... Nucleic Acids Research. 10 (18): 5393-5406. doi:10.1093/nar/10.18.5393. PMC 320884 . PMID 6924209. Retrieved 23 November 2014. ...
"Chemistry for Biologists: Nucleic acids". www.rsc.org. Retrieved 2019-02-20.. ... Proteins can be broken down by enzymes known as peptidases or can break down as a result of denaturation. Proteins can denature ... Amino Acid SynthesisEdit. Pathways that form each amino acid[4]. Amino Acid R-group‡ Pathway* ... Aspartic Acid -OOC-CH2- Oxaloacetate → Aspartic Acid (aminotransferase) Glutamic Acid -OOC-(CH2)2- α-ketoglutarate → Glutamic ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (21): 6409-6412. doi:10.1093/nar/18.21.6409. PMC 332522. PMID 2243783.. ... Denaturation: This step is the first regular cycling event and consists of heating the reaction chamber to 94-98 °C (201-208 °F ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (7): 2503-2516. doi:10.1093/nar/17.7.2503. PMC 317639. PMID 2785681.. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (7): 1717-1723. doi:10.1093/nar/20.7.1717. PMC 312262. PMID 1579465.. ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (1): 304-5. doi:10.1093/nar/28.1.304. PMC 102465 . PMID 10592255. Archived from the original (PDF) ... Ingested proteins are then broken down into amino acids through digestion, which typically involves denaturation of the protein ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D1112-D1116. doi:10.1093/nar/gkw978. PMC 5210655 . PMID 27789699.. ... Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and ...
... nucleic acids, and drug molecules - many of which featuring α-helices, such as subtilisin, human growth hormone, and ... This helix-coil transition was once thought to be analogous to protein denaturation. The statistical mechanics of this ... What is most important is that the N-H group of an amino acid forms a hydrogen bond with the C=O group of the amino acid four ... The amino acids in an α-helix are arranged in a right-handed helical structure where each amino acid residue corresponds to a ...
Höss, M; Pääbo, S (1993-08-11). "DNA extraction from Pleistocene bones by a silica-based purification method". Nucleic Acids ... It has three main steps: denaturation, annealing, and extension. Denaturation splits the DNA into two single strands at high ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (19): 5491-7. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl706. PMC 1636486. PMID 17020921.. ... Slipped strand mispairing - Denaturation of the new strand from the template during replication, followed by renaturation in a ... Amino acid substitution (e.g., D111E) - The first letter is the one letter code of the wild-type amino acid, the number is the ... Amino acid deletion (e.g., ΔF508) - The Greek letter Δ (delta) indicates a deletion. The letter refers to the amino acid ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 1987, 15 (13): 5069-5083. PMC 305948. PMID 3601667. doi:10.1093/nar/15.13.5069.. ... 核酸熱力學是指溫度影響雙鏈DNA(dsDNA)的核酸結構。DNA变性(DNA denaturation)又稱DNA融化(DNA melting)是DNA雙螺旋解開成為兩條單股長鏈的過程。在過程中,使兩股長鏈上的鹼基相連的氫鍵會斷裂。 DNA的變性可以是溫 ... Nucleic Acids Res. 1990, 18 (21): 6409-6412. PMC
However, there seems to be no indication that Tobramycin binds to natural RNAs or other nucleic acids. ... Thermal Denaturation, and Fluorescence Studies". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 49 (18): 5478-5490. doi:10.1021/jm060288o. ... "Carbon Sources Tune Antibiotic Susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Control". Cell Chemical ...
"Nucleic Acids Research. 29 (15): E73-3. doi:10.1093/nar/29.15.e73. PMC 55838. PMID 11470888.. ... An aqueous environment is essential at all stages of array manufacture and operation to prevent protein denaturation. Therefore ... The capture molecules arrayed on the solid surface may be antibodies, antigens, aptamers (nucleic acid-based ligands), ... Examples of in situ techniques are PISA (protein in situ array), NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) and DAPA (DNA ...
Nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ... denaturation (biochemistry) - dendrite - dendritic cell - dendritic spine - deoxyribonucleoprotein - deoxyribose - desmopressin ... amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - AMPA ... It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (7): 3109. doi:10.1093/nar/16.7.3109. PMC 336462. PMID 3368322. MacLeod AR, Houlker C, Reinach FC, ... "Beta beta homodimers exist in native rabbit skeletal muscle tropomyosin and increase after denaturation-renaturation". Protein ... β-tropomyosin is roughly 32 kDa in molecular weight (284 amino acids), but multiple splice variants exist. Tropomysin is a ... which is one amino acid away from the C-terminus. β-tropomyosin also has a Serine residue at position 283, thus, it is likely ...
The guideline consists of the following elements: 1) experimental design, 2) sample, 3) nucleic acid extraction, 4) reverse ... This includes: denaturation, annealing, and elongation. The products of RT-PCR can be analyzed with gel electrophoresis. ... This genetic disease is caused by a malfunction in the HPRT1 gene, which clinically leads to the fatal uric acid urinary stone ... The second cycle is the initial denaturation wherein reverse transcriptase is inactivated. The remaining 40-50 cycles are the ...
US Patent 5,641,658 Method for performing amplification of nucleic acid with two primers bound to a single solid support. ... Repeated denaturation and extension results in localized amplification of DNA fragments in millions of separate locations ... patent US6485944B1, George M. Church, Rob Mitra, "Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays", published 2002-11-26 Mitra R, ... "Method of nucleic acid sequencing", published 1998-10-08 Karl V. Voelkerding; Shale A. Dames & Jacob D. Durtschi (2009). "Next- ...
PCR is practiced isothermally by periodic application of voltage to produce denaturation. Electrochemical cells and kits for ... Double stranded nucleic acid is denatured by subjecting a solution thereof to a voltage applied between electrodes spaced by no ... more than 1.5 mm in a time not previously achievable in electrochemical denaturation. ... at least one specific nucleic acid sequence contained in a nucleic acid or a mixture of nucleic acids wherein each nucleic acid ...
Denaturation is the major change in protein or nucleic acid structure by application of some external stress for example, ... Nucleic acid denaturation The denaturation of nucleic acids such as DNA due to high temperatures, is the separation of a double ... Denaturation is the major change in protein or nucleic acid structure by application of some external stress for example, ... How denaturation occurs at levels of protein structure See also: Protein structure * In quaternary structure denaturation, ...
"Nucleic Acid Denaturation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nucleic Acid Denaturation" was a major or minor ... "Nucleic Acid Denaturation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Nucleic Acid Denaturation*Nucleic Acid Denaturation. *Acid Denaturation, Nucleic. *Denaturation, Nucleic Acid ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Nucleic Acid Denaturation" by people in Profiles. ...
Denaturation,, in biology, process modifying the molecular structure of a protein. Denaturation involves the breaking of many ... nucleic acid: Denaturation. The strands of the DNA double helix are held together by hydrogen bonding interactions between the ... Denaturation can be brought about in various ways-e.g., by heating, by treatment with alkali, acid, urea, or detergents, and by ... The denaturation of the proteins of egg white by heat-as when boiling an egg-is an example of irreversible denaturation. The… ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation * Temperature Substances * DNA, Bacterial ... A fluorimetric method for the estimation of G+C mol% content in microorganisms by thermal denaturation temperature Environ ...
Capacitive denaturation of nucleic acid. US5993750. Apr 11, 1997. Nov 30, 1999. Eastman Kodak Company. Integrated ceramic micro ... Automated nucleic acid isolation. US5866345. Mar 5, 1997. Feb 2, 1999. The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania. ... Nucleic acid material amplification and detection without washing. US5427946. Jan 21, 1994. Jun 27, 1995. Trustees Of The ... Integrated nucleic acid diagnostic device. US5927547. Jun 12, 1998. Jul 27, 1999. Packard Instrument Company. System for ...
Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. Under … ... Nucleic Acid Denaturation * Ribonucleases / pharmacology Substances * DNA, Neoplasm * Ribonucleases * Ethidium ... Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. Under these conditions ...
Denaturation of the nucleic acid. For hybridization to occur, both the target nucleic acid and the oligonucleotide probe have ... Loss of detection of segments of nucleic acids can be related to fixation time and the length of the target nucleic acid ... 1) a nucleic acid template (DNA or RNA) within the tissue to be tested (target nucleic acid); ... relies on the detection of complementary sequences of nucleic acids present in the tissue using labeled nucleic acid sequences ...
Electrochemical denaturation of double-stranded nucleic acid. US5532129. 27 May 1994. 2 Jul 1996. Enterprise Partners Ii, L.P. ... Nucleic acid hybridization analysis generally involves the detection of a very small number of specific target nucleic acids ( ... Edman, et al., "Electric Field Directed Nucleic Acid Hybridization on Microchips", Nucleic Acids Research, 1977, 25, 24, 4907- ... of nucleic acid targets. DNA complexity is overcome to some degree by amplification of target nucleic acid sequences using ...
Electrochemical denaturation of double-stranded nucleic acid. WO1993022678A2. 23 Apr 1993. 11 Nov 1993. Massachusetts Institute ... Nucleic acid hybridization analysis generally involves the detection of a very small number of specific target nucleic acids ( ... of nucleic acid targets. DNA complexity is overcome to some degree by amplification of target nucleic acid sequences using ... Integrated nucleic acid diagnostic device. EP0228075A2. 23 Dec 1986. 8 Jul 1987. Molecular Diagnostics, Inc.. Eucaryotic ...
Nucleic acid denaturationEdit. Main article: Nucleic acid thermodynamics. Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide ... which promotes denaturation of nucleic acids in order to eliminate the influence of nucleic acid shape on their electrophoretic ... Other than denaturation by heat, nucleic acids can undergo the denaturation process through various chemical agents such as ... of formamide denatured nucleic acids are similar to those of heat-denatured nucleic acids.[22][24][25] Therefore, depending on ...
Nucleic acid denaturationEdit. Main article: Nucleic acid thermodynamics. Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide ... 3 Nucleic acid denaturation *3.1 Biologically-induced denaturation. *3.2 Denaturation due to chemical agents *3.2.1 Chemical ... which promotes denaturation of nucleic acids in order to eliminate the influence of nucleic acid shape on their electrophoretic ... Other than denaturation by heat, nucleic acids can undergo the denaturation process through various chemical agents such as ...
Theoretical Aspects of Thermal Denaturation of Nucleic Acids Michael Etscheid, Detlev Riesner ... Isolation of Nucleic Acids Using Silica-Gel Based Membranes: Methods Based on the Use of QIAamp Spin Columns ... Isolation of Nucleic Acids Using Anion-Exchange Chromatography: QIAGEN-tip Based Methods ...
Method and apparatus for detecting denaturation of nucleic acid. US5861256. Sep 8, 1997. Jan 19, 1999. Gull Laboratories. ... Device for treating nucleic acids from a sample. US5779977. Mar 26, 1997. Jul 14, 1998. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation. Nucleic ... Automated enrichment for nucleic acid sequencing. US8962308 *. Jan 23, 2013. Feb 24, 2015. Beckman Coulter, Inc.. System and ... Nucleic acid analyzer, automatic analyzer, and analysis method. US8594944. Feb 6, 2008. Nov 26, 2013. Vysis, Inc.. Method and/ ...
Electrochemical denaturation of double-stranded nucleic acid. US5534132. 4 May 1995. 9 Jul 1996. Vreeke; Mark. Electrode and ... dot-blot and reverse dot-blot hybridizations were carried out using nucleic acid probes crudely blotted onto a nucleic acid- ... By placing a plurality of nucleic acid probes on a surface, and exposing the surface to a sample containing target nucleic ... Methods for immobilizing nucleic acids on a gel substrate. US6015666. 7 Jun 1995. 18 Jan 2000. Bayer Aktiengesellschaft. Rapid ...
7) The Thermal Denaturation of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. *8) A Model for Ion Binding and Exchange in Polyelectrolyte Solutions ... 1) The Properties of Sonic Fragments of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. *2) Configurations and Interactions of Macromolecules in ... 5) A further Examination of the Molecular Weight and Size of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acid ... 3) Does a Supported Monolayer Induce Structure in the Supporting Liquid: A synchrotron X-ray Study of Stearic Acid on Mercury ...
Nucleic Acid Conformation. Nucleic Acid Denaturation. Thermodynamics. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: P30 CA23168/CA/NCI NIH ... nucleic acids Volume: 22 ISSN: 1525-7770 ISO Abbreviation: Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids Publication Date: 2003 May-Aug ... Nlm Unique ID: 100892832 Medline TA: Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids Country: United States ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation. Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes. Pedigree. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Chemical. ... 0/Acrylic Resins; 0/Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes; 0/polyacrylamide gels; 9007-49-2/DNA ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation. Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. ... A secondary structure of proteins where the amino (N-H) groups of a polypeptide backbone, three to ten amino acids in length, ... The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible. ... Using an all-atom energy function, CPD tries to identify amino acid sequences th... ...
Method and apparatus for detecting denaturation of nucleic acid. US5911952 *. 24 Apr 1998. 15 Jun 1999. Hamamatsu Photonics K.K ... Multiplex nucleic acid reactions. US20030215821 *. 4 Oct 2002. 20 Nov 2003. Kevin Gunderson. Detection of nucleic acid ... Apparatus and method for sequencing a nucleic acid. US20030104434 *. 9 Aug 2002. 5 Jun 2003. Jian-Bing Fan. Nucleic acid ... Method of sequencing a nucleic acid. US20040259105 *. 3 Oct 2003. 23 Dec 2004. Jian-Bing Fan. Multiplex nucleic acid analysis ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation. *Nucleic Acid Hybridization. *Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... and nucleic acid-protein interactions at single nucleotide resolution. ...
Keywords: Agriculture, Cell culture, Centrifugation, Culture media, Filtration, Nucleic acid denaturation. Protocols. Cell ...
Nucleic Acids Research 10, 5552-3.. *S. N. Sinha, R. J. Hellwig, D. P. Allison, and S. K. Niyogi, (1982). "Conversion of Simian ... M. E. LaMarca, D. P. Allison, C. A. Chambers, and D. M. Skinner, (1981). "Denaturation Mapping of a Complex Satellite DNA by UV ... Nucleic Acids Research 22(20), 4224-8.. *T. Thundat, R. J. Warmack, G. Y. Chen, and D. P. Allison, (1994). "Thermal and Ambient ... Nucleic Acids Research 2, 143-8.. *B. Sedgwick, J. K. Setlow, M. E. Boling, and D. P. Allison, (1975). "Minicell Production and ...
Keywords: Agriculture, Cell culture, Centrifugation, Culture media, Degradations, Filtration, Nucleic acid denaturation ...
... emphasis on the thermodynamics and kinetics of biochemical reactions including the denaturation of proteins and nucleic acids. ...
Nucleic acid denaturation was achieved by incubation in formamide (100%) at 105°C for 5 min. Hybridization was performed at 37° ... To search for potential viral etiologic agents, we performed an unbiased metagenomic analysis (12). Viral nucleic acids were ... Reverse transcription nested PCR was used to detect BoAstV-NeuroS1 in nucleic acid extracts from formalin-fixed, paraffin- ... Histology was reviewed, and nucleic acids were extracted from selected sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded affected ...
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first ... The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first ... Godet J, Kenfack C, Przybilla F, Richert L, Duportail G, Mély Y - Nucleic Acids Res. (2013) ... Godet J, Kenfack C, Przybilla F, Richert L, Duportail G, Mély Y - Nucleic Acids Res. (2013) ...
Sequence composition of the Alba proteins.The amino-acid sequences of Alba1 (APE1832.1-APA1) and Alba2 (APE1823-APA2) from A. ... Nucleic Acid Denaturation. *Peptide Fragments/metabolism. *Protein Binding. *Protein Structure, Secondary. *Transition ... Interactions of archaeal chromatin proteins Alba1 and Alba2 with nucleic acids. Črnigoj M, Podlesek Z, Zorko M, Jerala R, ... Interactions of archaeal chromatin proteins Alba1 and Alba2 with nucleic acids. Črnigoj M, Podlesek Z, Zorko M, Jerala R, ...
... can be used to detect and analyze sequence differences between nucleic acids. The thermal denaturation curve for nucleic acids ... a nucleic acid, a single-stranded nucleic acid, a double-stranded nucleic acid, a ligand, a peptide nucleic acid, a cofactor, a ... "Binding" includes not only, e.g., receptor-ligand interactions, but also, e.g., nucleic acid-nucleic acid hybridization ... a nucleic acid, a ligand, a peptide nucleic acid, a cofactor, a receptor, a substrate, an antibody, an antigen, and a ...
5. Rice, S. A. and Doty, P. (1957) The thermal denaturation of deoxyribose nucleic acid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 3937 - 3947. ... of carefully prepared DNA and shocked the Protein/Nucleic Acid Gordon Conference of 1950 by reporting that these nucleic acid ... And with nucleic acids, he investigated the effects of pH and especially temperature on the native properties of DNA, ... 3. Doty, P. and Bunce, B. H. (1952) The molecular weight and shape of desoxypentose nucleic acid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 5029 - ...
  • M. Joyeux and S. Buyukdagli, "Dynamical Model Based on Finite Stacking Enthalpies for Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous DNA Thermal Denaturation," Physical Review E, Vol. 72, No. 5, 2005, Article ID: 051902. (scirp.org)
  • A system is described for measuring thermal denaturation of nucleic acid fractions directly in polyacrylamide gels. (naver.com)
  • Subfraction I differed from Subfractions II and III and whole chromatin with respect to thermal denaturation of the DNA and histone composition (as determined by gel electrophoresis). (elsevier.com)
  • In situ hybridization (ISH) relies on the detection of complementary sequences of nucleic acids present in the tissue using labeled nucleic acid sequences (probes) specific for the infectious organism. (aasv.org)
  • Hybridization occurs between complementary purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids. (aasv.org)
  • The hybridization of segments of nucleic acids is revealed by an enzymatic reaction or the color emission of a fluorochrome. (aasv.org)
  • These techniques include nucleic acid hybridization analysis, restriction enzyme analysis, genetic sequence analysis, and the separation and purification of nucleic acids and proteins (See, e.g. (google.ca)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to devices containing active electrodes especially adapted for electrophoretic transport of nucleic acids, their hybridization and analysis. (google.co.uk)
  • By placing a plurality of nucleic acid probes on a surface, and exposing the surface to a sample containing target nucleic acids, many hybridization reactions may be carried out on a sample at the same time, simultaneously generating hybridization data for several target nucleic acids (the reverse dot-blot technique). (google.com.au)
  • In order to detect, identify, or quantify nucleic acids, antibodies, antigens and the like, use has been made of their bioaffinity properties, i.e., their ability to specifically pair with their complements, in accordance with genetic hybridization or immunological coupling mechanisms. (google.com)
  • 1.1.6 Denaturation and hybridization. (nhbs.com)
  • In DNA hybridization, the target gene sequence is identified by a DNA probe that can form a double-stranded hybrid with its complementary nucleic acid with high efficiency and extremely high nucleic acid with high efficiency and extremely high specificity in the presence of a mixture of many different, non-complementary nucleic acids. (mdpi.com)
  • DNA probes (sometimes called nucleic acid probes or gene probes) are single-stranded oligonucleotides labeled with either radioactive or non-radioactive materials to provide detectable signals for DNA hybridization [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Circular dichroism studies of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide containing a hairpin loop made of a hexaethylene glyco chain: conformation and stability, Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • Proteins are very long strands of amino acids linked together in specific sequences. (bionity.com)
  • Using an all-atom energy function, CPD tries to identify amino acid sequences th. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sequence composition of the Alba proteins.The amino-acid sequences of Alba1 (APE1832.1-APA1) and Alba2 (APE1823-APA2) from A. pernix was aligned with those of the homologous proteins from Sulfolobus shibitae Alba1 (P60849- SSA1) and S. solfataricus Alba2 (Q97ZF4-SSA2). (nih.gov)
  • Similar methods with similar drawbacks have also been used in the detection of nucleic sequences. (google.com)
  • Improvements to the in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a process of in vitro enzymatic amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences within the cells where they originate, can be achieved by changing the way that the enzymatic reaction is started. (google.es)
  • The present disclosure provides novel primers and method for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences. (patents.com)
  • To test the potential of single-strand RNA denaturation as a new alternative to detect specific nucleic acid variations, sequences from viruses of the Totiviridae family were compared using a new in silico melting curve approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phylogenetic tree based on RdRp amino acid sequences was constructed, and eight monophyletic groups were defined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nucleic acid sequences and methods for detecting HIV-1 nucleic acid (LTR and pol sequences) in biological samples by detecting amplified nucleic acids are disclosed. (google.es)
  • detecting the amplified product of LTR sequences using a labeled detection probe that hybridizes specifically with LTR sequence in the amplified product, thereby indicating presence of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in the biological sample. (google.es)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the contacting step uses a capture oligomer that hybridizes specifically to a target region in LTR sequences of HIV-1 nucleic acid complementary to SEQ ID NO:1 or complementary to LTR-specific sequence contained in SEQ ID NO:2. (google.es)
  • The stable dried reaction mixtures are useful in many recombinant DNA techniques, especially nucleic acid amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (patents.com)
  • Despite the emergence of new techniques to nucleic acids investigation such as next generation sequence and array chips, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its variations still prevail in clinical laboratories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein denaturation is also a consequence of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • they mediate damage to cell structures, lipid peroxidation, protein denaturation, nucleic acid and DNA damage. (scirp.org)
  • Examples of such applications may include the study of the thermodynamics of metabolism, biological redox reactions, double strand formation in nucleic acids, equilibrium and energetics of protein denaturation, membrane potential, potassium ion channels, ligand binding, buffers, and osmosis and dialysis. (ursinus.edu)
  • The NUCLEIC-CARD matrix is chemically treated to enable cell lysis and protein denaturation, immobilizing and preserving nucleic acids for long-term storage at room temperature. (thermofisher.com)
  • The NUCLEIC-CARD Collection Device system incorporates a redesigned DNA collection swab and collection chamber with the established chemically-treated NUCLEIC-CARD matrix for cell lysis and protein denaturation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Bioline Agarose is ideally suited for routine analysis of nucleic acids by gel electrophoresis and blotting. (thomassci.com)
  • The fractionation of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( PAGE ) is a technique widely used in biochemistry , forensic chemistry , genetics , molecular biology and biotechnology to separate biological macromolecules , usually proteins or nucleic acids , according to their electrophoretic mobility . (wikipedia.org)
  • At the pH at which gel electrophoresis is carried out the SDS molecules are negatively charged and bind to proteins in a set ratio, approximately one molecule of SDS for every 2 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids can be separated according to size by gel electrophoresis, most commonly performed using a horizontal gel ( Figure 7a ). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Process of partial or total alteration of the native secondary, and/or tertiary, and/or quaternary structures of proteins or nucleic acids resulting in a loss of bioactivity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure , tertiary structure , and secondary structure which is present in their native state , by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base , a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform ), radiation or heat . (wikipedia.org)
  • Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure by. (writework.com)
  • Samples may be any material containing proteins or nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physico-chemical Properties of Nucleic Acids, Volume II basically deals with the structural studies on nucleic acids and other biopolymers. (elsevier.com)
  • Educate the students in basics or molecular biology, particularly in properties of nucleic acids and proteins. (vutbr.cz)
  • At the same time, he undertook light-scattering investigations of carefully prepared DNA and shocked the Protein/Nucleic Acid Gordon Conference of 1950 by reporting that these nucleic acid molecules had molecular weights of many million and a stiffness sufficiently great that they could not possibly be single chains but rather had to be multistranded (3). (asbmb.org)
  • And with nucleic acids, he investigated the effects of pH and especially temperature on the native properties of DNA, initiating the technique of thermal melting analysis of nucleic acid molecules and thereby contributing to an understanding of their thermodynamics and the conformational differences between duplex DNA and single-stranded RNA (5, 6). (asbmb.org)
  • The present invention provides methods for the amplification of nucleic acid molecules. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Until now, studies that attempt to develop molecular tools based on melting curves are restricted to denaturation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nucleic acids are intrinsically highly flexible molecules. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Middle - the fraction of folded and functional enzyme decreases above its denaturation temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denaturation can occur when proteins and nucleic acids are subjected to elevated temperature or to extremes of pH, or to nonphysiological concentrations of salt, organic solvents, urea, or other chemical agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention relates to continuous flow systems, in particular thermocyclers for the automated and continuous cycling of fluid between a plurality of temperature zones in the amplification of nucleic acids. (patentgenius.com)
  • The low melting temperature allows for the recovery of undamaged nucleic acids below the denaturation temperature. (thomassci.com)
  • In the first step of PCR, the two strands of the DNA double helix are physically separated at a high temperature in a process called nucleic acid denaturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of detection of segments of nucleic acids can be related to fixation time and the length of the target nucleic acid sequence. (aasv.org)
  • f) subjecting said fixed cells and said first and said second subsets of PCR reagents in a moist environment to thermal cycling sufficient to amplify said target nucleic acid. (google.es)
  • g) detecting said amplified nucleic acid in a manner which locates it in the individual cells originally containing said target nucleic acid sequence. (google.es)
  • Each nucleic acid strand is a linear (or, in a few cases, circular), unbranched polymer consisting of a sugar-phosphate backbone with a nucleotide base (purine or pyrimidine) linked to each sugar residue. (aasv.org)
  • The genomic sequencing procedures are applicable to the analysis of genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation at deoxycytidines, and nucleic acid-protein interactions at single nucleotide resolution. (harvard.edu)
  • 1. A dry reaction mixture composition comprising at least one nucleic acid amplification-related enzyme, nucleotide triphosphates, and a saccharide, wherein the composition is non-lyophilized. (patents.com)
  • 11. A method of preparing a dry reaction mixture composition, the method comprising drying a reaction mixture in aqueous form in the absence of lyophilization, wherein the reaction mixture in aqueous form comprises at least one nucleic acid amplification-related enzyme, nucleotide triphosphates, and a saccharide. (patents.com)
  • Here we report the design and synthesis of a 1,669-nucleotide, single-stranded DNA molecule that is readily amplified by polymerases and that, in the presence of five 40-mer synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, folds into an octahedron structure by a simple denaturation-renaturation procedure. (springernature.com)
  • For nucleic acids, urea is the most commonly used denaturant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection by Electron Microscopy of Photo-Induced Denaturation in DNA," Nucleic Acids Research 2 , 143-8. (ornl.gov)
  • The present invention generally relates to the detection of products, and preferably of biological products (known as "affins"), especially those with a high molecular weight, such as nucleic acids and biopolymers of a proteic nature, e.g. proteins, peptides and the like. (google.com)
  • In particularly preferred aspects, the methods and apparatuses of the invention are used in the detection of nucleic acids, e.g. (google.com)
  • and detection of pathogens in nucleic acid tests for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Let's now turn to nucleotides and nucleic acids. (utah.edu)
  • Nucleotides polymerize to yield nucleic acids. (utah.edu)
  • Nucleic acid folding patterns are dominated by base pairing, which results from the formation of hydrogen bonds between pairs of nucleotides. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • To prevent denaturation of biopolymers, we developed a method to trap a polynucleotide on a substrate by hydrogen bonding using silica particles with surfaces modified by aminoalkyl chains ([A-AM silane]/SiO 2 ). (mdpi.com)
  • For example, enzymes lose their catalytic activity, because the substrates can no longer bind to the active site, and because amino acid residues involved in stabilizing substrates' transition states are no longer positioned to be able to do so. (bionity.com)
  • Typically nucleic acid concentration is high in cell cultures and simple tissue samples while the biological medium is low in potential inhibitory substances, such that end-point dilution or use of specially formulated enzymes maximizes efficacy of downstream applications without the need for multiple wash steps. (bioline.com)
  • Nucleic acids-processing enzymes. (vutbr.cz)
  • Inactivation of the enzymes that hydrolyze nucleic acids 3. (issuu.com)
  • For one, some of the enzymes used in molecular biology, like [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_polymerase DNA polymerases], have derived from investigating heat-stable enzymes. (kenyon.edu)
  • A protein is created by ribosomes that "read" mRNA that is encoded by codons in the gene and assemble the requisite amino acid combination from the genetic instruction, in a process known as translation . (bionity.com)
  • Van der Waals (induced dipole) interactions between nonpolar amino acid side chains. (bionity.com)
  • Changes in pH affect the chemistry of amino acid residues and can lead to denaturation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Protonation of the amino acid residues (when an acidic proton H + attaches to a lone pair of electrons on a nitrogen) changes whether or not they participate in hydrogen bonding, so a change in the pH can denature a protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The primary structure is the amino acid sequence. (writework.com)
  • Interactions of archaeal chromatin proteins Alba1 and Alba2 with nucleic acids. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in the fluorescence intensity of these complexes originating from interactions between the single-stranded nucleic acid and aromatic compounds were also evaluated. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemical properties, structure and interactions of nucleic acids and proteins. (vutbr.cz)
  • Chemical reactivity of nucleic acids, non-covalent interactions. (vutbr.cz)
  • Electrochemistry of nucleic acids, interactions with electrically charged surfaces. (vutbr.cz)
  • Nucleic acids-protein interactions. (vutbr.cz)
  • The formation of nucleic acid structures is driven by base pairing and stacking interactions between the hydrophobic bases. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Chemical and/or physical methods are used for the initial disruption to homogenize sample matrix and break open cell walls, releasing nucleic acids along with other cellular components. (bioline.com)
  • Commercial nucleic acid extraction techniques largely forego the often time-consuming precipitation methods in favor of solid-phase extraction commonly in the form of spin-columns. (bioline.com)
  • Demidov & Frank-Kamenetskii (PNA Openers and Their Applications, in Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 208: Peptide Nucleic Acids: Methods and Protocols, 2002, pgs. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Methods and systems for detecting allelic imbalance using nucleic acid sequencing are provided. (patents.com)
  • To date, many different ways have been developed to extract nucleic acid, such as column-based and solution-based methods. (springer.com)
  • Zimmermann A, Lüthy J, Pauli U. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of nine different extraction methods for nucleic acids on soya bean food samples. (springer.com)
  • Zimmermann A, Luthy J, Pauli U. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of nine different extraction methods for nucleic acids on soya bean food samples. (springer.com)
  • Methods of the nucleic acids studies. (vutbr.cz)
  • As with protein structure prediction methods, nucleic acid structure prediction attempts to determine the native, in vivo structure of a given nucleic acid sequence . (bioinformatics.org)
  • 3 Both strands of nucleic acid are linked by hydrogen bonds. (aasv.org)
  • 1.1.7 Orientation of nucleic acid strands. (nhbs.com)
  • Molecular biology comprises a wide variety of techniques for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein. (google.ca)
  • Most molecular biology techniques rely on high-quality nucleic acid starting material that is free from biological and environmental contaminants. (bioline.com)
  • Extraction of nucleic acid targets (DNA and RNA) is a basic method that is used in molecular biology. (springer.com)
  • More particularly, the molecular biological type analyses include various nucleic acid hybridizations reactions and associated biopolymer synthesis. (google.ca)
  • The FVU specimen was assayed with an immune based Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) and various nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to establish C trachomatis infection. (bmj.com)
  • In quaternary structure denaturation, protein sub-units are dissociated and/or the spatial arrangement of protein subunits is disrupted. (bionity.com)
  • Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Bioline offers a suite of specially formulated nucleic acid purification reagents to provide streamlined, sensitive and robust options for this routine, yet highly important step of your workflow. (bioline.com)
  • Isolation and purification of nucleic acids Disrupture of cell membrane 2. (issuu.com)
  • Primary structure , such as the sequence of amino acids held together by covalent peptide bonds , is not disrupted by denaturation. (bionity.com)
  • Afterwards, each DNA or RNA sequence was denatured in silico using the softwares MELTSIM and RNAheat that generate melting curves considering the denaturation of a double stranded DNA and single stranded RNA, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Double stranded nucleic acid is denatured by subjecting a solution thereof to a voltage applied between electrodes spaced by no more than 1.5 mm in a time not previously achievable in electrochemical denaturation. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to processes for the treatment of nucleic acid material in order to effect a complete or partial change from double-stranded form to single-stranded form and to processes of amplifying or detecting nucleic acids involving such denaturation processes. (google.com)
  • The single-stranded nucleic acids were trapped on the surface of the [A-AM silane]/SiO 2 by hydrogen bonding to form conjugated materials. (mdpi.com)
  • This suggests that the single-stranded nucleic acids conjugated with aminoalkyl chains on the surfaces of SiO 2 particles and the change in fluorescence intensity reflected the molecular interaction between AO and the nucleic-acid base in a polynucleotide. (mdpi.com)
  • Until now, the secondary structure of single-stranded nucleic acids has not been exploited to develop identification systems based on PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Grade: Biotechnology A standard melting/gelling agarose, suitable for routine nucleic acid analytical/preparative applications. (thomassci.com)
  • In recent years, nucleic acid analysis has become an important analytical tool in many fields, demanding high-quality DNA or RNA. (springer.com)
  • Denaturation involves the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds ( e.g., hydrogen bonds), within a protein molecule that are responsible for the highly ordered structure of the protein in its natural (native) state. (britannica.com)
  • In nucleic acids, as in proteins, the highly directional nature of this hydrogen bonding is the key to secondary structure. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Tolerance for mutations and chemical modifications in a siRNA, Nucleic Acids Research, (2003), 31(2):589-595. (patentgenius.com)
  • The rate of protein, nucleic acid denaturation and chemical reactions that destroy the viral capsid are increased at higher temperatures, thus viruses will survive best at low temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • A preliminary examination of the dissociation of the complex was made and its physico-chemical behaviour was investigated in relation to that of its nueleic acid component. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The chemical properties of nucleic acid components are primary determinants in structure formation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In many cases, nucleic acid structures are examined in vitro , under non-physiological conditions, such as after denaturation or chemical synthesis. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of single- and double-stranded nucleic acids on polyacrylamide and agarose gels by using glyoxal and acridine orange. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An isothermal process for amplifying a nucleic acid target molecule that relies on an upstream primer, a downstream primer, a strand invasion system and an oligonucleotide, wherein the upstream and downstream primers are not substrates for the strand invasion system during the amplification process and do not amplify the target molecule independently of the strand invasion system, wherein the oligonucleotide is a substrate for the strand invasion system. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an anionic detergent applied to protein samples to coat proteins in order to impart two negative charges (from every SDS molecule) to every two amino acids of the denatured protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary structure formed by a particular nucleic acid molecule influences their DNA melting profile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dissociation and denaturation of proteins (histone) 4. (issuu.com)
  • The nucleoprotein was highly aggregated in solution at low ionic strength, but at high ionic strength a weight-average molecular weight lower than that of nucleic acid itself provided additional evidence for the dissociation of the nucleoprotein. (bham.ac.uk)
  • A strong acid is an acid that ionizes completely in an aqueous solution by losing one proton, according to the equationFor sulfuric acid which is diprotic, the "strong acid" designation refers only to dissociation of the first protonMore precisely, the acid must be stronger in aqueous solution than. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • A common consequence of denaturation is loss of biological activity ( e.g., loss of the catalytic ability of an enzyme). (britannica.com)
  • 7. The reaction mixture of claim 1, wherein said at least one nucleic acid amplification-related enzyme is a thermostable polymerase selected from the group consisting of Thermus aquaticus Taq DNA polymerase, Thermus sp. (patents.com)
  • Kits comprising nucleic acid oligomers for amplifying HIV-1 nucleic acid present in a biological sample and detecting the amplified nucleic. (google.es)
  • Agarwal, R.K. and Perl, A. (1993) PCR amplification of highly GC-rich DNA template after denaturation by NaOH. (upstate.edu)
  • When a protein is denatured, the secondary and tertiary structures are altered but the peptide bonds between the amino acids are left intact. (bionity.com)
  • Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) comprise the genomic material of living structures. (aasv.org)
  • Having outlined the general principles of nucleic acid structures, we will now focus on how these principles influence the formation of specific structures found in DNA. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In studying nucleic acid structures, many different experimental approaches can be adopted. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Nucleic acids within a cell are formed under very specific conditions and the structures that they adopt are influenced not only by the nature of their synthesis (by DNA or RNA polymerases), but by ancillary proteins that influence their folding. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Increased emphasis on the thermodynamics and kinetics of biochemical reactions including the denaturation of proteins and nucleic acids. (wiley.com)
  • Although denaturation can be irreversible, an example of reversible denaturing in proteins is the modern permanent wave technique for curling or straightening hair. (bionity.com)
  • The denaturation of many proteins, such as egg white, is irreversible. (britannica.com)
  • In secondary structure denaturation, proteins lose all regular repeating patterns such as alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets , and adopt a random coil configuration. (bionity.com)
  • Relative to deoxyribonucleic acids ( DNA 's), ribonucleic acids ( RNA 's) are short, and the single strand can fold back upon itself, forming the characteristic stem-loop secondary structure (e.g., loops, bulges and junctions). (bioinformatics.org)
  • Nucleic acid targets can be extracted from various materials for subsequent processes, for example, PCR test. (springer.com)
  • Structural variations and stabilising modifications of synthetic siRNAs in mammalian cells, Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • The principle of these new molecular tools is based on the comparison of melting profiles, after denaturation of a DNA double strand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • English: see Nucleic acid tertiary structure for d. (writework.com)
  • Nanotechnology in nucleic acids analysis. (vutbr.cz)
  • G. Slade, N. Ribeiro, E. Filho and J. Ruggiero, "Analysis of Lattice Size, Energy Density and Denaturation for a One-Dimensional DNA Model," World Journal of Mechanics , Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 84-89. (scirp.org)
  • Denaturation is the major change in protein or nucleic acid structure by application of some external stress for example, treatment of proteins with strong acids or bases, high concentrations of inorganic salts or organic solvents (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), heat, which results in improper functioning of cell activity. (bionity.com)
  • Denaturation , in biology, process modifying the molecular structure of a protein . (britannica.com)
  • 1 Nucleic Acid Structure and Function. (nhbs.com)
  • 1.1 Structure of nucleic acids. (nhbs.com)
  • When this specific three-dimensional structure is disrupted, the protein loses its functionality and is said to have undergone denaturation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • G. B. Watson and F. H. Crick, "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids-A Structure for Deoxiribose Nucleic Acid," Nature, Vol. 171, 1953, pp. 737-738. (scirp.org)
  • Nucleoprotein solutions exhibited the features of nucleic acid devolving from its unique helical structure, indicating that this structure is retained by the nucleic acid within the complex. (bham.ac.uk)
  • We will conclude this section of the course with a consideration of denaturation and renaturation -- the forces involved in loss of a macromolecule's native structure (that is, its normal 3-dimensional structure), and how that structure, once lost, can be regained. (utah.edu)
  • For the determinants of nucleic acid structure, we do not see the importance of a buried hydrophobic core. (bioinformatics.org)
  • The present invention also provides a preservative method for synthetic polymer hydrogel permeation layers having copolymerized attachment sites for biomolecules of interest, such as nucleic acid probes. (google.com.au)
  • 9. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein said first subset of PCR reagents consists of all PCR reagents except a nucleic acid polymerase. (google.es)
  • If the polymerase used was heat-susceptible, it would denature under the high temperatures of the denaturation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • A familiar example of heat-caused denaturation are the changes observed in the albumin protein of egg whites when they are cooked. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Spectrophotometric studies showed that the nucleoprotein was denatured by heat and by alkali in a similar manner to nucleic acid, although denaturation by heat was slightly retarded. (bham.ac.uk)