Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
DNA or RNA bound to a substrate thereby having fixed positions.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).

Tight binding of the 5' exon to domain I of a group II self-splicing intron requires completion of the intron active site. (1/2743)

Group II self-splicing requires the 5' exon to form base pairs with two stretches of intronic sequence (EBS1 and EBS2) which also bind the DNA target during retrotransposition of the intron. We have used dimethyl sulfate modification of bases to obtain footprints of the 5' exon on intron Pl.LSU/2 from the mitochondrion of the alga Pylaiella littoralis, as well as on truncated intron derivatives. Aside from the EBS sites, which are part of the same subdomain (ID) of ribozyme secondary structure, three distant adenines become either less or more sensitive to modification in the presence of the exon. Unexpectedly, one of these adenines in subdomain IC1 is footprinted only in the presence of the distal helix of domain V, which is involved in catalysis. While the loss of that footprint is accompanied by a 100-fold decrease in the affinity for the exon, both protection from modification and efficient binding can be restored by a separate domain V transcript, whose binding results in its own, concise footprint on domains I and III. Possible biological implications of the need for the group II active site to be complete in order to observe high-affinity binding of the 5' exon to domain I are discussed.  (+info)

Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding. (2/2743)

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

Scrotal heat stress induces altered sperm chromatin structure associated with a decrease in protamine disulfide bonding in the stallion. (3/2743)

A variety of testicular insults can induce changes in the structure of spermatozoal chromatin, resulting in spermatozoal DNA that is more susceptible to acid-induced denaturation. The degree of change in the DNA can be measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The SCSA measures the relative amounts of single- and double-stranded DNA after staining with the metachromatic dye, acridine orange. Here we used a stallion model (n = 4) to study the effects of scrotal heat stress on spermatozoal DNA. This model was created by insulating stallion testes for 48 h and collecting sperm daily thereafter for 60 days. Changes in the SCSA were then correlated with protamine disulfide content and protamine types and levels. Results of the SCSA indicated that the susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation was dependent on the spermatogenic cell stage that the ejaculated sperm was in at the time of the heat stress. Spermatozoa with altered DNA had a decrease in the extent of disulfide bonding that was associated with an increase in the susceptibility of DNA to denaturation. However, there were no detectable changes in either the protamine type or level. Thus, in this model, decreased disulfide bonding is associated with an increased susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation in the absence of protamine changes.  (+info)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (4/2743)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (5/2743)

The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization.  (+info)

Low temperature cycled PCR protocol for Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I in the presence of proline. (6/2743)

A method for performing cycled PCR at low temperatures, using the thermolabile Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, is reported. Application of proline as a buffer additive in the range of 3.0-5.5 M remarkably increases the thermal stability of the polymerase and decreases the denaturation temperature of DNAtemplate. This method might be applicable to a broad spectrum of thermolabile DNA polymerases in cycled PCR and other methods of DNA amplification.  (+info)

Conformational state of DNA in chromatin subunits. Circular dichroism, melting, and ethidium bromide binding analysis. (7/2743)

This study compares some physical properties of DNA in native chromatin and mono-, di-, trinucleosomes obtained after mild micrococcal nuclease digestion. Melting curves and derivatives are shown to be very similar from one sample to another although a shift from 79 to 82 degrees C is observed between the mainly monophasic peak of multimers and chromatin. Careful analysis of the positive band of the circular dichroism spectra shows the appearance of a shoulder at 275nm, the intensity of which increases from the mono- to the di- and trinucleosome. This shoulder is maximum for native chromatin. At the same time binding isotherms of ethidium - bromide are characterized by two highly fluorescent binding sites for all the samples but the product KN of the apparent binding constant of the higher affinity binding sites by the apparent number of those sites increases from the mono- to the di- and trinucleosome. There again the valus is maximum for native chromatin. Such results strongly suggest that the native state of chromatin requires something more than the indefinite repeat of an elementary subunit.  (+info)

On the character of the thermodynamic properties distribution in DNA molecules inside the melting interval. (8/2743)

The variances of the distributions of DNA molecules over the degree of helicity and over the number of unwound regions inside the melting interval are calculated. The variance over the degree of helicity is expessed in terms of the values directly available from the experimental data. For the variance over the number of unwound regions a simple interpolation formula based on the machine calculations is proposed. Possible applications of the results obtained to interpolaation of the electron microscopic denaturation maps of DNA are discussed.  (+info)

Cyclic PNAs targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA loop have been synthesized following a convenient solid-phase strategy which allows on-resin cyclisation. UV-monitored thermal denaturation studies demonstrate that these cyclic PNAs are able to strongly interact with their TAR RNA target, very likely through the formation of a six-base pair stable complex, involving the TAR RNA loop.
ABSTRACT. We analysed a DNA sample from a father and child who were both heterozygous for a 7 base pair insertion in the MEST gene differentially-methylated promoter region, previously shown by PCR analysis of bisulphite-treated DNA to be on the methylated allele in the unaffected father and the unmethylated allele in the affected child. PCR from genomic DNA was then carried out using a commercial PCR kit with its recommended initial DNA denaturation step of 2 minutes. Subsequent sequence analysis showed that only the non-methylated allele had been amplified, the father appearing to be homozygous normal and the child appearing to have a homozygous 7 b.p. insertion. The PCR protocol was then modified in order to use a longer DNA denaturation stage prior to the addition of the polymerase enzyme. Upon doing so, both the methylated and non-methylated alleles were then identifiable by sequencing with the mutation appearing in its expected heterozygous form. These results highlight the fact that the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of low-melting regions in phage T7 DNA. AU - Lyamichev, V. I.. AU - Panyutin, I. G.. AU - Cherny, D. I.. AU - Lyubchenko, Yu L.. PY - 1983/4/11. Y1 - 1983/4/11. N2 - Specific fragmentation of T7 DNA at glyoxal-fixed denatured regions by the S1 endonuclease followed by restriction analysis made it possible to localize four low-melting regions in phage T7 DNA. These regions have the following coordinates:0.5-1.2;14.8±0.3;46.3±0.5; 98.4±0.3 (in T7 DNA length units). The location of the low-melting regions was refined by means of electron-microscopic denaturation mapping and gel electrophoresis of partially denatured DNA. The obtained localization of the low-melting regions is consistent with the available data on the sequence of T7 DNA. The map of low-melting regions was compared with the genetic map of T7 DNA.. AB - Specific fragmentation of T7 DNA at glyoxal-fixed denatured regions by the S1 endonuclease followed by restriction analysis made it possible to localize ...
The stability of DNA is highly dependent on the properties of the surrounding solvent, such as ionic strength, pH, and the presence of denaturants and osmolytes. Addition of pyridine is known to unfold DNA by replacing π-π stacking interactions between bases, stabilizing conformations in which the nucleotides are solvent exposed. We show here experimental and theoretical evidences that pyridine can change its role and in fact stabilize the DNA under acidic conditions. NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations demonstrate that the reversal in the denaturing role of pyridine is specific, and is related to its character as pseudo groove binder. The present study sheds light on the nature of DNA stability and on the relationship between DNA and solvent, with clear biotechnological implications.. ...
Partial denaturation pattern of sex factor deoxyribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli was studied by electron microscopy. Clustering of the adenine-plusthymine-rich regions in one part of the molecule was revealed. The positions of these regions were located on the physical map of F by analyzing the partial denaturation pattern of heteroduplexes between F and F-prime factors with various parts of F sequences deleted. ...
Within the framework of the Peyrard-Bishop model for DNA melting, sharp denaturation temperature profiles can currently be obtained only if anharmonic base-pair stacking interactions are considered. We show that, when solvent interactions are included, a sharp denaturation of the DNA double helix is obtained without the need for anharmonic nearest-neighbor interactions. Using the concept of pseudo-Schrodinger equations we discuss the analogy of these transition to quantum-mechanical tunneling, and in particular we show that the sharp transitions are similar to resonant tunneling.. Full text not available from this repository.. ...
One-dimensional thermodynamic instabilities are phase transitions, not prohibited by Landaus argument because the energy of the domain wall which separates the two phases is infinite. Whether they actually occur in a given system of particles must be demonstrated on a case-by-case basis by examining the properties of the corresponding singular transfer integral (TI) equation. The present work deals with the generic Peyrard-Bishop model of DNA denaturation. In the absence of exact statements about the spectrum of the singular TI equation, I use Gauss-Hermite quadratures to achieve a single-parameter-controlled approach to rounding effects; this allows me to employ finite-size scaling concepts in order to demonstrate that a phase transition occurs and to derive the critical exponents.
Denaturation: Denaturation,, in biology, process modifying the molecular structure of a protein. Denaturation involves the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds (e.g., hydrogen
Shop for Vitacost Natural Cherry Methyl B12 Melts at Bakers. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order online for Delivery or Pickup.
The denaturation of proteins occurs when high temperatures or chemical interactions destroy both their secondary and tertiary structures. Denaturation processes are not actually strong enough to...
A simple snow model with only three parameters (fresh snow albedo, albedo decay rate for melting snow and surface roughness) is used to simulate snow accumulation and melt at four sites in Europe and North America, and the ...
phenylglucosazone: An osazone, C18H22O4N4, made by the action of phenyl-hydrazinehydrochlorid and sodium acetate on glucose or fructose: also formed by warming cane-sugar or dextromannoso with phenylhy-drazine. It forms yellow, needle-like crystals which are nearly insoluble in water and melt at 204-205° C.
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution DNA methylome analysis of primordial germ cells identifies gender-specific reprogramming in mice. AU - Kobayashi, Hisato. AU - Sakurai, Takayuki. AU - Miura, Fumihito. AU - Imai, Misaki. AU - Mochiduki, Kentaro. AU - Yanagisawa, Eikichi. AU - Sakashita, Akihiko. AU - Wakai, Takuya. AU - Suzuki, Yutaka. AU - Ito, Takashi. AU - Matsui, Yasuhisa. AU - Kono, Tomohiro. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during mammalian germ cell development, although the targets of this process, including DNA demethylation and de novo methylation, remain poorly understood. We performed genomewide DNA methylation analysis in male and female mouse primordial germ cells at embryonic days 10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 by whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing. Our high-resolution DNA methylome maps demonstrated gender-specific differences in CpG methylation at genome-wide and gene-specific levels during fetal germline progression. There was extensive intra- ...
OMAHA, Neb., March 14, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Transgenomic, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: TBIO) today announced the completion of an expanded license with the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, for the COLD-PCR (CO-amplification at Lower Denaturing temperature PCR) technology. Previously, Transgenomic had licensed exclusive rights to COLD-PCR for Sanger Sequencing and mitochondrial DNA analysis. The new license expands the technology covered to include Ice COLD-PCR, a technique that further extends the sensitivity of mutation detection provided by this key technology and also extends the Companys licensed exclusivity to include analysis of COLD-PCR products by Pyrosequencing.. COLD-PCR is a genetic testing approach that selectively amplifies mutant DNA by recognizing that mutant DNA strands denature at lower temperatures in a PCR reaction than normal DNA. Using this proprietary technique, COLD-PCR amplifies mutated DNA with minimal amplification of the normal DNA. The resultant PCR-amplified ...
Get Safe Step Sodium Chloride 25 Ice Melt On Sale today at ACE Hardware! Compare Shopping Misc. prices & check availability for Safe Step Sodium Chloride 25 Ice Melt. Get it right now at your nearest store in Bellingham.
DNA denaturation is possibly one of the earliest problems in biophysics that grabbed the attention of statistical physicists. The nature of the folding/melting transition has been subject to debate since 60s until a breakthrough in the past decade mostly settled the question. We recently readdressed the problem for circular DNA (which has a topologically imposed, fixed linking number due to helicity) and found that the melting behavior is qualitatively different from that of the unconstrained DNA with freely dangling ends. In particular we argue, by generalizing the predominant theoretical model in this field, that the transition rigorously follows an inverted BEC scenario where a macroscopic loop appears at Tc and grows steadily with increasing temperature. ...
High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis; is a powerful technology for SNP genotyping, mutation scanning and sequence scanning in DNA samples. Learn how HRM technology works, how HRM primers are designed, advantages and applications of HRM
A word of explanation here for those new to working glass. Glass can be opaque (you cant see through it) or transparent - transmits light - not necessarily clear, and sometimes, so dark you cant see through it at all except with a really strong light behind it - but its still a transparent. That distinction is important to you as you develop your glass working skills - as opaques are softer, they melt faster, stay moving longer, melt at lower temperatures - while transparents are stiffer, need more heat to melt, and stiffen faster. Transparent dots on an opaque bead tend to sink into the opaque base when melted in. The difference becomes especially important if you get into making sculptural beads, as some things are much easier to do with a stiff transparent than a soft opaque, and vice versa ...
The vinamould melts at 140-150°C and is poured over the item to be reproduced. To melt the vinamould cut it into small pieces and use either a melting pot or a double skinned pot with an air gap rather than a water jacket which would be too cool. | eBay!
Made in the USA; 100% biodegradable non-plastic (PLA) from renewable plants BPA & plastic free; non-toxic; FDA approved ink Cold liquids only, will melt at temperatures above 100F
In Ford 4R100 and E4OD units, the OE plastic front lube/drainback valve assembly can melt at elevated fluid temperature. Once the plastic ball seat or ball s
Hey, I have been working on extruding nylon. It is readily available as both fishing line and weed trimmer line. The cost is much lower than ABS, around $3 a pound here: [www.amazon.com] Nylon melts at around the same temperature of ABS, so no changes of the extruder would be necessary. Nylon is a
Formal Name: 1-[5-O-(4,4-Dimethoxytrityl)-β-D-2-deoxyribofuranosyl]-9-(2-trifluoroacetamidoethoxy)-1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine,3-[(2-cyanoethyl)-(N,N-diisopropyl)]phosphoramidite. ...
Objective This study introduces a novel method, referred to as SeqFF, for estimating the fetal DNA fraction in the plasma of pregnant women and to infer the ...
Ok, Ill readily admit, that despite owning a new HRM for over a year now, I have not really used it, either properly, nor to its full potential. I...
Silvestri, L. G. (Università Statale, Milan, Italy), and L. R. Hill. Agreement between deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and taxometric classification of gram-positive cocci. J. Bacteriol. 90:136-140. 1965.-It had been previously proposed, from taxometric analyses, that gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci be divided into two subgroups. Thirteen strains, representative of both subgroups, were examined for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition, determined from melting temperatures. Per cent GC (guanine + cytosine/total bases) values fell into two groups: 30.8 to 36.5% GC and 69 to 75% GC. Strains with low per cent GC values belonged to the Staphylococcus aureus-S. saprophyticus-S. lactis taxometric subgroups, and those with high per cent GC values belonged to the S. roseus-S. afermentans subgroup. The hypothetical nature of any classification is emphasized, and, in the present work, the hypothesis derived from taxometric analyses of division into two subgroups is confirmed by the ...
Vegetable oil has fatty acids with carbon chains from 12 to 18 carbons long. Animal fat can have fatty acids with more than 18 carbons long. Generally a longer chain fatty acid melts at a higher temperature. The methyl ester of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid) has 16 carbons in the fatty acid chain and melts at 28-34 degrees celcius. Methyl stearate (octadecanoic acid methyl ester) has 18 carbons in the fatty acid chain of carbon atoms and melts at 39.1 degrees celcius. Eicosanoic acid methyl ester (eicosanoic acid) has 20 carbon atoms in a straight chain and the methyl ester melts at 54.5 degrees centigrade. Since like dissolves like, part of the eicosanoic acid methyl ester will be in solution below the melting point temperature. When I made biodiesel out of swine lard, pig fat and beef grease when the liquid was at a cool room temperature some of the higher melting methyl esters crystallized out and precipitated out as white crystals. Animal fat and grease has drawbacks for use as cool or ...
Stability and molecular size of the DNA double helical structure were studied on an aqueous solution of DNA after exposure to high power doses of continuous wave ultrasound at frequency of 20kHz. Thermal transition spectrophotometry (UV-melting), constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric properties measurements were used to evaluate the ultrasound-induced changes in the DNA double helical structure. The thermal transition spectrophotometry (UV-melting) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that ultrasound power caused loss of DNA double helical structure and the DNA double strands melting temperature decreased as the ultrasound power increased, indicating a decrease in the stability of the double helical structure of DNA. The constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) results showed that the molecular size of the DNA fragments decreased as the ultrasound power increased. The dielectric data in the frequency range from ...
In the formation and growth of a primary tumor, cells can released into the bloodstream. There are many researches for these circulating tumor cells(CTC) And recently circulating cell-free tumor DNA(ctDNA) released from apoptotic or necrotic tumor cells has developed. At one report which checked ctDNA level after operation of colon cancer patients, they suggested that ctDNA could show recurrence of cancer several months earlier than the conventional follow up imaging. And several reports suggested that ctDNA can invade host cell and change host cell biology, which can evoke cancer metastasis.. So in this study, the investigator will collect ctDNA of pancreatic cancer patients, benign pancreatic disease patients, and healthy population. And the investigator will evaluate whether peripheral ctDNA can help early screening of cancer recurrence. And we will study about genomic signature of ctDNA to evaluate relationship between ctDNA and clinical outcome of cancer patients. ...
It should be emphasized that the array of structures listed in Table 1 are but a point of departure. The competition dialysis method is completely general, and arrays of structures of particular interest can be designed as desired. The only limitations are that the structures be large enough to be retained by the dialysis tubing chosen for use, and that they are verified to be stable under the ionic conditions of the experiment. Essential quality control experiments to characterize nucleic acid samples were described in detail [41, 42] and include UV absorbance and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation studies. Fig. 1 Schematic of the competition dialysis experiment. A schematic representation of the structures used is shown on the left. The center shows the simple experimental setup, a beaker containing the test ligand solution and the holder for the dialysis units. A schematic of the microdialysis unit is shown on the right Structural Selectivity of Drug-Nucleic Acid ...
A novel method for detecting and isolating DNA sequences commonly held by different DNA preparations or repeated or amplified within a complex genome has been provided. The DNA preparations of interest are digested with the same restriction enzyme and a portion of at least one preparation is labeled with 32 P. The labeled and unlabeled DNA preparations are combined and electrophoresed in an agarose gel. Following electrophoresis, the DNA is denatured in situ and allowed to reanneal within the gel so that homologous DNA sequences present within restriction fragments of the same size can reanneal. After reannealing, unhybridized single-stranded DNA is digested in situ followed by detection of the reannealed DNA by autoradiography. When labeled and unlabeled DNAs are derived from different DNA preparations, only the restriction fragments commonly held by these two preparations are detected. When a restriction digest of total eukaryotic DNA is reassociated in the gel by this procedure, repeated restriction
Almost four months after losing it in the snow at Big White, a man has been reunited with his wedding ring. In January, Greg Hedges stopped under the Snow Ghost Express chair to take a photo of a friend.
simultaneously following the distribution of main sausage ingredients, i.e., proteins, fats, and starch. A more homogeneous distribution of the main ingredients was observed with higher concentration of added salts, while it was most pronounced for the MgSO4 recipe. Furthermore, FTIR imaging was used in order to follow the distribution of protein secondary structure motifs throughout the sausage matrix. It was confirmed that KCl inhibited the partial denaturation of proteins, unlike that observed ...
We report the hybridization properties of a novel artificial nucleic acid: acyclicl-threoninol nucleic acid (l-aTNA). l-aTNA formed a more stable duplex with DNA and RNA than either d-aTNA or serinol nucleic acid (SNA) as the rigidity of the l-form was more optimal for interaction with natural nucleic acids.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
The process opposite to supercooling, the melting of a solid above the freezing point, is much more difficult, and a solid will almost always melt at the same temperature for a given pressure. For this reason, it is the melting point which is usually identified, using melting point apparatus; even when the subject of a paper is freezing-point determination, the actual methodology is the principle of observing the disappearance rather than the formation of ice. It is, however, possible, at a given pressure to superheat a liquid above its boiling point without it becoming gaseous. ...
Denaturation Protein molecules carry out many important tasks in living systems. Most important, the majority of proteins are quite specific about which task they perform.
A Fast, Accurate, and Portable qPCR Machine. Run 40 Cycles in 20 Mins. Web Interface. Solid State Optics. Standard Curve & Melt Analysis. ±0.2 °C Accuracy. Get your own personal Real-Time PCR Machine from $4,999.
From setting up an HRM experiment to HRM data interpretation and analysis — get the answers you need. Simply click on the links below and obtain answers to some of the most frequently asked questions at every stage of your HRM experiment. In addition, discover the applications of this technology. |br />
The correct answer is Watson and Crick. DNA It is deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other org
Do you know how to use wax melts? If you do not have any idea about using the wax melt. We are here to tell you how to fulfill the job..
Transmembrane α-helical proteins are unusually stable judging from thermal denaturation studies, because they do not unfold completely within the membranes (the complete unfolding would require breaking down too many α-helical H-bonds in the nonpolar media). On the other hand, these proteins easily misfold, due to non-native aggregation in membranes, transition to the molten globule states, formation of non-native disulfide bonds, or unfolding of peripheral regions and nonregular loops that are locally less stable. It is also important to properly define the unfolded state. The unfolded state of membrane proteins in detergent micelles is different from that in the thermal denaturation experiments. This state represents a combination of folded hydrophobic α-helices and partially unfolded segments covered by the detergent. For example, the unfolded bacteriorhodopsin in SDS micelles has four transmembrane α-helices folded, while the rest of the protein is situated at the micelle-water ...
М.Б. Агранат, С.И. Анисимов, С.И. Ашитков, В.В. Жаховский, Н.А. Иногамов, П.С. Комаров, А.В. Овчинников, В.Е. Фортов, В.А. Хохлов, В.В. Шепелев, Прочностные свойства расплава алюминия в условиях экстремально высоких темпов растяжения при воздействии фемтосекундных лазерных импульсов, Письма в ЖЭТФ, 91 (9), 517-523 (2010) [M. B. Agranat, S.I. Anisimov, S.I. Ashitkov, V.V. Zhakhovskii, N.A. Inogamov, P.S. Komarov, A.V. Ovchinnikov, V.E. Fortov, V.A. Khokhlov, V.V. Shepelev, Strength properties of an aluminum melt at extremely high tension rates under the action of femtosecond laser pulses, JETP Lett. 91 (9), 471-477 (2010)], Scopus: 2-s2.0-77954431071. ...
A new method has been developed for determining the stability parameters of proteins from their heat-induced transition curves followed by observation of changes in the far-UV circular dichroism (CD). This method of analysis of the thermal denaturation curve of a protein gave values of stability par …
A new method has been developed for determining the stability parameters of proteins from their heat-induced transition curves followed by observation of changes in the far-UV circular dichroism (CD). This method of analysis of the thermal denaturation curve of a protein gave values of stability par …
Dna Double Helix software free downloads. Dna Double Helix shareware, freeware, demos: OnScreen DNA By-the-Day by OnScreen Science Inc, OnScreen DNA Model by OnScreen Science Inc, RC-AirSim by Fabricated Reality etc...
gb HRM PCR Master Mix falls into a group of Dye-Based Real-time PCR Master Mixes. The product is intended for amplification of DNA with subsequent High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis. HRM analysis is an efficient melt curve analysis method for genotyping, mutation scanning prior to sequencing analysis, DNA mapping, species identification or DNA methylation analysis etc. ...
Traditionally, determining the composition of alloys has been the domain of differential scanning calorimeters or differential thermal analyzers. This application note describes two high temperature melting systems using the STA 8000 Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer, demonstrating that the STA 8000 is also capable of this type of demanding analysis.
Methyl Folate 800 mcg Smooth Melts at discount prices! Discover the health benefits of Methyl Folate 800 mcg Smooth Melts and more B-9 Vitamins / Folic Acid
I ask because Ive used protocols for ds sequencing with go ,sucess until recently. Lately, I had alot trouble with my ds templates. I ,remember reading that Sequenase 2.0 prefers ss templates. Is it worth it to ,switch? Antone have good protocols? Thanks in advance. , ,Picard cooperj at nhlbi.nih.gov (John Cooper) asks: ,Does any one know if single stranded sequencing is really superior to ds ,sequencing? I think that you get the best consistency with single-strand templates. DS templates exhibit more variability. Its probably to have highly purified DNA. Although CsCl-prepped DNA is obviously the best, for preparing multiple templates, we DNA prepared with the normal alkaline-lysis miniprep procedure and PEG precipitate (as described, for example, in the Molecular Cloning manual). This purified DNA is then denatured according to the latest guidelines in USBs Sequenase manuals which suggest alkaline denaturation _at 37oC_. ,Antone have good protocols? Ive used the following alternative, ...
The first synthesis of the new C-branched spermine derivative 17, as well as its ability to stabilise DNA duplexes and triplexes, are reported. The C-branched spermine block 17 was converted into the corresponding O-(2-cyanoethyl)-(N,N-diisopropyl)phospho. ...
Glad youre doing OK.. Its been several years, but I need to commiserate.. October 1997. After a period of unemployment in San Francisco, I acquired a new job. The evening of the first day, I celebrated by going around the corner and eating a nice, greasy patty melt at Mels Diner.. At this point I had spent most of my adulthood having occasional debilitating stomach-aches, but nothing I didnt recover from after some Pepto and a few hours rest. But the morning after the patty melt, I woke up at 4am in excruciating pain, and it wasnt going away this time. I woke up my roommate (who had also just become my co-worker, as he had helped me get the job) and asked him to take me to the hospital. I managed to stumble out to the car, but by the time we got to Kaiser Permenante I needed a wheelchair. I went into the emergency room, got admitted, got an X-ray… Then they found out I didnt have any insurance.. So it was off to the San Francisco County Hospital with lowly ol me. I arrived there at ...
A liquid diet consists of fluids or any food product that melts at room temperature and becomes a liquid. However, there are different types of liquid diets, such as clear and full liquid diets. A...
Appears very solid, with several hairline cracks across the surface of the mixture. There are two little darker circles on the middle with semi-translucent edges and centers. It is rock hard to the touch-I cant press through it at all or even make a dent. It is apparent the mixture did not solidify uniformly when I rub my finger across the surface; the darker semi-translucent areas have a bit of creamy slip, while the opaque white areas are skiddy and very hard. I can scrape up some of the mixture with the back of a fingernail and massage that into the back of my hand-it feels quite waxy and sticky. I can spread it out on the skin and it does seem to massage in, but it doesnt seem to melt at all. It leaves the skin feeling very sticky.. ...
Looking for phenate? Find out information about phenate. C6H5OH, a colorless, crystalline solid that melts at about 41°C;, boils at 182°C;, and is soluble in ethanol and ether and somewhat soluble in water.... Explanation of phenate
Looking for Agent Blue? Find out information about Agent Blue. 2 AsOOH Colorless crystals that melt at 200°C; soluble in alcohol and water; used as a herbicide Explanation of Agent Blue
Abstract. Bismuth-Tin 58-42 is a bismuth-base eutectic alloy that melts at 281 F (138 C). It has the highest melting point of the bismuth-base alloys commonly u
Definition of Nucleic acid heteroduplexes with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
DNA - A double helix DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid.It is a nucleic which is used for storing information for long term in all living beings and some viruses. Base composition in DNA varies from one species to other but in all the cases the amount of adenine is equal to thymine and the amount
Calf strain or tear is caused by overstretching or tearing of either of the 2 calf muscles. It usually starts with sudden pain in the back of the leg.
Buying or selling a duplex in Italy? Discover the best duplexes for sale in Italy. Owners and agents list your duplex and get it sold.
Biophysical and biochemical study of interactions of p53 proteins and its homologues with guanine quadruplexes and cytosine i-motifs - ongoing study ...
Jsme výrobní a distribuční společnost s více než 25letou historií a významným postavením na trhu s chladicí technikou v České republice.
melting The denaturation of a double-stranded nucleic acid into two single strands, especially in the context of the polymerase ... nucleic acid sequence The precise order of consecutively linked nucleotides in a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA. Long ... information transfer between the nucleic acids and from nucleic acid to protein is possible, but transfer from protein to ... denaturation The process by which nucleic acids or proteins lose their quaternary, tertiary, and/or secondary structures, ...
melting The denaturation of a double-stranded nucleic acid into two single strands, especially in the context of the polymerase ... nucleic acid sequence The precise order of consecutively linked nucleotides in a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA. Long ... ribonucleic acid (RNA) A polymeric nucleic acid molecule composed of a series of ribonucleotides which incorporate a set of ... motif Any distinctive or recurring sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid or of amino acids in a protein that is or is ...
... strands of the DNA double helix are physically separated at a high temperature in a process called nucleic acid denaturation. ... Sarkar G, Kapelner S, Sommer SS (December 1990). "Formamide can dramatically improve the specificity of PCR". Nucleic Acids ... The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)". Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (7): 2503-16. doi:10.1093/nar/17.7.2503. PMC ... Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (7): 1717-23. doi:10.1093/nar/20.7.1717. PMC 312262. PMID 1579465. Kellogg DE, Rybalkin I, Chen S, ...
... nucleic acid denaturation and chemical reactions that destroy the viral capsid are increased at higher temperatures, thus ...
disclosed the use of a helicase as a means for denaturation of double stranded DNA thereby including isothermal nucleic acid ... The advantages of HDA is that it provides a rapid method of nucleic acid amplification of a specific target at an isothermic ... easy to adapt nucleic acid test for the detection of Clostridium difficile". Other applications include the rapid detection of ... This process involves the separation of the double-stranded DNA in high heat into single strands (the denaturation step, ...
Most commonly, the pairs of nucleic bases A=T and G≡C are formed, of which the latter is more stable. DNA denaturation, also ... Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). ... occurs when half of the double-stranded nucleic acid has dissociated. If no additional nucleic acids are present, then [A], [B ... elegantly describe the thermodynamic parameters for forming double-stranded nucleic acid AB from single-stranded nucleic acids ...
Acetic acid HCl Nitric acid Basic nucleic acid denaturants include: NaOH Other nucleic acid denaturants include: DMSO Formamide ... which promotes denaturation of nucleic acids in order to eliminate the influence of nucleic acid shape on their electrophoretic ... Acetic acid Trichloroacetic acid 12% in water Sulfosalicylic acid Bases work similarly to acids in denaturation. They include: ... Other than denaturation by heat, nucleic acids can undergo the denaturation process through various chemical agents such as ...
denaturation The process by which nucleic acids or proteins lose their quaternary, tertiary, and/or secondary structures, ... information transfer between the nucleic acids and from nucleic acid to protein is possible, but transfer from protein to ... deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A polymeric nucleic acid molecule composed of a series of deoxyribonucleotides, each of which ... In double-stranded nucleic acids, the two paired strands must be oriented in opposite directions in order to base-pair with ...
denaturation A process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary, tertiary, and secondary structure which is ... including amino acids and nucleic acids. nucleic acid The biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of ... ribonucleic acid (RNA) A nucleic acid polymer composed of a series of ribonucleotides which incorporate a set of four ... deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A nucleic acid polymer that serves as the fundamental hereditary material in all living organisms. ...
... and interference with biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleic acids, and lipids. Another type of stressor could be the ... These chemicals inflict extensive cellular damage to different systems such as the bacterial membrane, denaturation of proteins ... A cell can also shift from production of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids to decrease the fluidity of the ... including chaperones and proteases are rapidly induced to protect against the denaturation of proteins within the bacteria. ...
For nucleic acids, urea is the most commonly used denaturant. For proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an anionic ... This denaturation, which is referred to as reconstructive denaturation, is not accomplished by the total linearization of the ... Ethidium bromide binds nucleic acid chains through the process of Intercalation. While Ethidium bromide is a popular stain it ... Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a popular nucleic acid stain. EtBr allows one to easily visualize DNA or RNA on a gel as EtBr ...
... may refer to; Protein denaturation, the process of disrupting the structure of proteins or nucleic acids Drug ...
... also sometimes called renaturization The conversion of denatured protein or nucleic acid to its native configuration is called ... Renaturation can mean: the inverse process of denaturation ecological restoration, ...
However, extraction and analysis of nucleic acids and proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is possible using ... Formalin fixation leads to degradation of mRNA, miRNA, and DNA as well as denaturation and modification of proteins in tissues ... or sites to which radiolabeled nucleic acid probes bind in in situ hybridization. For autoradiography on a microscopic level, ... During the 19th century many fixation techniques were developed by Adolph Hannover (solutions of chromates and chromic acid), ...
He was also a pioneer of ideas in the area of nucleic acid compaction. In 1961, he showed that ribonuclease could be refolded ... after denaturation while preserving enzyme activity, thereby suggesting that all the information required by protein to adopt ... especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation (see Anfinsen's ... its final conformation is encoded in its amino-acid sequence. He belonged to the National Academy of Sciences (USA), the Royal ...
... basic and dimeric nucleic acid-binding proteins. Furthermore, it is conserved in most sequenced archeal genomes. The ... The stabilisation of the double helix against denaturation, in the Archaea, is due to the presence of a particular specific ... They stabilize the double helix, preventing denaturation at high temperature thus promoting annealing above the melting point. ... amino acids and aromatic compounds like phenol. It uses a modified Entner-Doudroff pathway for glucose oxidation and the ...
At ULB, Thomas attended lectures by Jean Brachet, who pioneered the field of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and their role in ... Under Brachet's supervision, Thomas prepared and defended a PhD thesis on the denaturation of DNA in 1952. After two years of ... Melting this secondary structure was coined DNA denaturation, by analogy with the similar process long known for proteins. Once ... DNA denaturation could be understood as the unwinding of the double helix. It became fundamental in all processes that use DNA ...
He also had a strong interest in the NMR and ESR of nucleic acids and other biological macromolecules. To further his ... Origins of contact-shifted resonances and denaturation by dimethyl sulfoxide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1973 ... Nucleic acids; a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study. Science (Washington, DC, United States) (1964), 144(3623), 1234-7. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of thymine nearest neighbor base frequency ratios in deoxyribonucleic acid. Journal of ...
Nucleic Acids Research, 39 (8): e52-e52, doi:10.1093/nar/gkr035, PMC 3082908, PMID 21297115. Ririe, KM; Rasmussen, RP; Wittwer ... "High-resolution thermal denaturation of DNA. I. Theoretical and practical considerations for the resolution of thermal ... the conformation and the modifications of DNA and RNA Nucleic acid thermodynamics Ansevin, A.T.; Vizard, D.L.; Brown, B.W.; ...
Infectious particles possessing nucleic acid are dependent upon it to direct their continued replication. Prions, however, are ... Sterilizing prions, therefore, requires the denaturation of the protein to a state in which the molecule is no longer able to ... Alper T, Cramp WA, Haig DA, Clarke MC (May 1967). "Does the agent of scrapie replicate without nucleic acid?". Nature. 214 ( ... all of which contain nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, or both), the hypothesized role of a protein as an infectious agent stands in ...
Frontiers in Nucleic Acids. ACS Symposium Series. Vol. 1082. p. 111. doi:10.1021/bk-2011-1082.ch007. ISBN 978-0-8412-2623-4. ... Wartell, R. M.; Benight, A. S. (1985). "Thermal denaturation of DNA molecules: A comparison of theory with experiment". Physics ... Nucleic Acids Research. 30 (17): 3662-3671. doi:10.1093/nar/gkf508. PMC 137430. PMID 12202750. "Roger Wartell". Archived from ...
Nucleic acid molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through a matrix of ... For full denaturation of proteins, it is also necessary to reduce the covalent disulfide bonds that stabilize their tertiary ... When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases), the preferred matrix is purified agarose. In both ... Nucleic acids are often denatured by including urea in the buffer, while proteins are denatured using sodium dodecyl sulfate, ...
"Reversible chemical modification of nucleic acids and improved method for nucleic acid hybridization", published 2003-08-28, ... Once the temperature rises over 70 °C, during the denaturation step in the first cycle, the wax bead melts, allowing the Taq ... Another chemical modification of nucleic acid is through the heat-reversible covalent modification which acts to impede the ... Highly specific oligonucleotides: Oligonucleotides are short polymers of nucleic acid which easily bind. Highly specific ...
2004). "Thermoadaptation trait revealed by the genome sequence of thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus". Nucleic Acids ... In the procedure of heat denaturation, one can subject a mixture of proteins to high temperatures, which will result in the ... proteins and nucleic acids) which form the three-dimensional structures essential to their enzymatic activity. Above the native ... Perl D, Mueller U, Heinemann U, Schmid FX (May 2000). "Two exposed amino acid residues confer thermostability on a cold shock ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (15): 7351-67. doi:10.1093/nar/16.15.7351. PMC 338413. PMID 3045756. Portal: Biology (Articles needing ... After mixing and denaturation, the strands are allowed to anneal to produce three different combinations as detailed in the ...
... nucleic acids) by weakening the hydrophobic effect. For example, a chaotropic agent reduces the amount of order in the ... and may cause its denaturation. Conversely, an antichaotropic agent (kosmotropic) is a molecule in an aqueous solution that ... macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (e.g. DNA and RNA). Chaotropic solutes increase the entropy of the system by ... Tertiary protein folding is dependent on hydrophobic forces from amino acids throughout the sequence of the protein. Chaotropic ...
Sprinzl M, Cramer F (1979). "The -C-C-A end of tRNA and its role in protein biosynthesis". Progress in Nucleic Acid Research ... Felsenfeld G, Cantoni GL (May 1964). "Use of thermal denaturation studies to investigate the base sequence of yeast serine sRNA ... Kumar P, Mudunuri SB, Anaya J, Dutta A (January 2015). "tRFdb: a database for transfer RNA fragments". Nucleic Acids Research. ... Itoh Y, Sekine S, Suetsugu S, Yokoyama S (July 2013). "Tertiary structure of bacterial serenocysteine tRNA". Nucleic Acids ...
... ethanol and acetone are rarely used alone for fixing blocks unless studying nucleic acids. Acetic acid is a denaturant that is ... However they cause extensive denaturation despite preserving fine cell structure and are used mainly as secondary fixatives. ... as proteins and nucleic acids. In performing their protective role, fixatives denature proteins by coagulation, by forming ... Hepes-glutamic acid buffer-mediated organic solvent protection effect (HOPE) gives formalin-like morphology, excellent ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (7): e50. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1406. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 3985630. PMID 24452797. Dimalanta, E.T. et al ... "Single-molecule denaturation mapping of DNA in nanofluidic channels". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (30 ... Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (15): e118. doi:10.1093/nar/gku556. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 4150756. PMID 25013180. Grunwald, Assaf; ... Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (18): e117. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv563. ISSN 0305-1048. PMC 4605287. PMID 26019180. Vranken, Charlotte; ...
... the nucleic acids necessary for purification. The Chelex process is safe and is "not open to automation". This method connects ... This method includes three steps; denaturation, annealing, extension. DNA markers are used to identify specific DNA ...
... nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ... denaturation (biochemistry) - dendrite - dendritic cell - dendritic spine - deoxyribonucleoprotein - deoxyribose - desmopressin ... amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - AMPA ... It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (7): 3109. doi:10.1093/nar/16.7.3109. PMC 336462. PMID 3368322. MacLeod AR, Houlker C, Reinach FC, ... "Beta beta homodimers exist in native rabbit skeletal muscle tropomyosin and increase after denaturation-renaturation". Protein ... β-tropomyosin is roughly 32 kDa in molecular weight (284 amino acids), but multiple splice variants exist. Tropomysin is a ... which is one amino acid away from the C-terminus. β-tropomyosin also has a Serine residue at position 283, thus, it is likely ...
The guideline consists of the following elements: 1) experimental design, 2) sample, 3) nucleic acid extraction, 4) reverse ... This includes: denaturation, annealing, and elongation. The products of RT-PCR can be analyzed with gel electrophoresis. ... This genetic disease is caused by a malfunction in the HPRT1 gene, which clinically leads to the fatal uric acid urinary stone ... The second cycle is the initial denaturation wherein reverse transcriptase is inactivated. The remaining 40-50 cycles are the ...
US 5641658, Adams CP, Kron SJ, "Method for performing amplification of nucleic acid with two primers bound to a single solid ... Repeated denaturation and extension results in localized amplification of DNA fragments in millions of separate locations ... and Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research EP 0972081, Farinelli L, Kawashima E, Mayer P ), "Method of nucleic acid ... EP 0975802, Kawashima E, Farinellit L, Mayer P, "Method of nucleic acid sequencing", published 2004-06-23 Voelkerding KV, Dames ...
Qian, Hong; Hofrichter, James; Baldwin, Robert L (December 10, 2002). "Biophysical chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids: a ... Schellman, John A. (April 1987). "Selective binding and solvent denaturation". Biopolymers. 26 (4): 549-559. doi:10.1002/bip. ... proteins and nucleic acids, in terms of their interactions with large and small molecules, solvents and solutes, sometimes in ' ... especially proteins and nucleic acids. 1983 Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1983 Honorary Doctorate, Chalmers ...
Gene synthesis Genetic engineering Nucleic acid analogues Protein structure prediction software Proteomics Proteome SCOPE ( ... This PCR based method begins with an initial denaturation of the template, followed by annealing of primers and a short ... that converts amino acid sequences into a sequence composed of volume and polarity values for each amino acid residue. This new ... These analyses can help to identify hot spot amino acids that can serve as the target sites for mutations. Multiple sequence ...
1979). "Fluctuations in superhelical DNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 6 (3): 967-982. doi:10.1093/nar/6.3.967. PMC 327745. PMID 155809 ... Form IV (green curve) is the product of alkali denaturation of Form I. Its structure is unknown, except that it is persistently ... Nucleic Acids Res. 47 (2): 521-532. doi:10.1093/nar/gky1091. PMC 6344874. PMID 30395328. Albert AC, Spirito F, Figueroa-Bossi N ... Nucleic Acids Res. 24 (15): 3093-3099. doi:10.1093/nar/24.15.3093. PMC 146055. PMID 8760899. Singer, Emily (5 January 2016). " ...
This nearly neutral pH enables the protein to fold properly and inhibits denaturation. The twenty most conserved amino acids, ... Maglott D, Ostell J, Pruitt KD, Tatusova T (January 2011). "Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI". Nucleic Acids ... Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (Database issue): D1005-10. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1184. PMC 3013736. PMID 21097893. Wu C, Orozco C, ... Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (Database issue): D76-83. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1179. PMC 3245017. PMID 22139911. Kerrien S, Aranda B, ...
Therefore, the alpha helix of proteins and the double helix of nucleic acids have CD spectral signatures representative of ... such as the enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of denaturation) that cannot otherwise be easily obtained. Anyone attempting to ... If the sample is a protein, the mean residue weight (average molecular weight of the amino acid residues it contains) is often ... and tryptophan amino acids. Unlike in far-UV CD, the near-UV CD spectrum cannot be assigned to any particular 3D structure. ...
Nucleic acids attain their native state through base pairing and, to a lesser extent, other interactions such as coaxial ... as many proteins become insoluble on denaturation. Proteins in the native state will have defined secondary structure, which ... In biochemistry, the native state of a protein or nucleic acid is its properly folded and/or assembled form, which is operative ... Additionally, artificial nucleic acid structures used in DNA nanotechnology are designed to have specific native configurations ...
McDowall MD, Scott MS, Barton GJ (January 2009). "PIPs: human protein-protein interaction prediction database". Nucleic Acids ... Disruption of homo-oligomers in order to return to the initial individual monomers often requires denaturation of the complex. ... Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (Database issue): D535-9. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj109. PMC 1347471. PMID 16381927. Peri S, Navarro JD, ... Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (Database issue): D436-41. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj003. PMC 1347366. PMID 16381906. Pagel P, Kovac S, ...
FISH analysis uses fluorescent probes that only bind a certain part of a nucleic acid sequence, originally developed to ... denaturation to form single stranded DNA, and the hybridization of the two resulting samples to metaphase chromosomes. Then the ...
"Activity and phylogenetic diversity of bacterial cells with high and low nucleic acid content and electron transport system ... "Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells: analogy ...
Metal salts can be used at low concentrations to precipitate enzymes and nucleic acids from solutions. Polyvalent metal ions ... The greatest disadvantage to isoelectric point precipitation is the irreversible denaturation caused by the mineral acids. For ... The pI of most proteins is in the pH range of 4-6. Mineral acids, such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid are used as ... Alginate, carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylic acid, tannic acid and polyphosphates can form extended networks between protein ...
In biology, a mutation is an alteration in the nucleic acid sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal ... Slipped strand mispairing - Denaturation of the new strand from the template during replication, followed by renaturation in a ... Amino acid substitution (e.g., D111E) - The first letter is the one letter code of the wild-type amino acid, the number is the ... The interactors can be other proteins, molecules, nucleic acids, etc. There are many mutations that fall under the category of ...
Laboratory of Ross Hardison, Article Structures of Nucleic Acids Campbell, Mary K. & Farrell, Shawn O. (2006). Biochemistry. ... Heat denaturation of DNA, also called melting, causes the double helix structure to unwind to form single stranded DNA. When ... The hyperchromic effect is the striking increase in absorbance of DNA upon denaturation. The two strands of DNA are bound ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 30 (11): 2349-57. doi:10.1093/nar/30.11.2349. PMC 117190. PMID 12034821. O'Brian CA (1998). "Protein ... The structure of PKC alpha was better preserved during denaturation of the enzyme at 75 °C in the presence of calcium ions than ... Much of the research of PKC alpha pertaining to its role in liver tissue involves the effects of bile acids on the ... Le M, Krilov L, Meng J, Chapin-Kennedy K, Ceryak S, Bouscarel B (Aug 2006). "Bile acids stimulate PKCalpha autophosphorylation ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 34 (Web Server issue): W137-42. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl130. PMC 1538828. PMID 16844977. Seitz T, Bocola M, ... Chemical denaturation of several natural and 2 designed TIM barrel variants invariably involves a highly populated equilibrium ... Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (6): 1481-8. doi:10.1093/nar/28.6.1481. PMC 111042. PMID 10684945. Nagano N, Hutchinson EG, Thornton ... TIM barrels contain 200-250 amino acid residues, folded into 8 alpha helices (α-helices) and 8 beta strand (β-strands). The β- ...
... lipids are formed from fatty acids and glycerols, and nucleic acids are formed from nucleotides. Biochemistry studies the ... There are four steps to a proper polymerase chain reaction: 1) denaturation 2) extension 3) insertion (of gene to be expressed ... nucleic acids and other biomolecules; their metabolic pathways and flow of chemical energy through metabolism; how biological ... For example, a protein is a polymer whose subunits are selected from a set of twenty or more amino acids, carbohydrates are ...
Nucleic acid denaturation was achieved by incubation in formamide (100%) at 105°C for 5 min. Hybridization was performed at 37° ... To search for potential viral etiologic agents, we performed an unbiased metagenomic analysis (12). Viral nucleic acids were ... Reverse transcription nested PCR was used to detect BoAstV-NeuroS1 in nucleic acid extracts from formalin-fixed, paraffin- ... Histology was reviewed, and nucleic acids were extracted from selected sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded affected ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation *nucleic acid denaturation. Loading. Connect with NLM * * * National Library of Medicine. 8600 ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation Medicine & Life Sciences 20% * Drosophila melanogaster Medicine & Life Sciences 14% ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidoreductases, RNA, Archaeal, RNA, Bacterial, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Sequence ... The structure of both communities changed with soil pH, with distinct populations in acid and neutral soils. Phylogenetic ... The structure of both communities changed with soil pH, with distinct populations in acid and neutral soils. Phylogenetic ... The structure of both communities changed with soil pH, with distinct populations in acid and neutral soils. Phylogenetic ...
... topoisomerisation and thermal denaturation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985, 13, 6017-6034. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Huang, G.; Huang, H. Application of hyaluronic acid as carriers in drug delivery. Drug Deliv. 2018, 25, 766-772. [Google ... used a PDT compound containing hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is a ligand of the CD44 receptor, whose expression level was reported ... A Dose-Dependent Role for Amino Acid and Iron Transporters. Inorg. Chem. 2014, 53, 5150-5158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [ ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation. D. Gresham, Curry, B., Ward, A., D Gordon, B., Brizuela, L., Kruglyak, L., and Botstein, D., " ... Nucleic Acid Hybridization. J. Schacherer, Ruderfer, D. M., Gresham, D., Dolinski, K., Botstein, D., and Kruglyak, L., "Genome- ... Amino Acid Sequence. Z. Khan, Amini, S., Bloom, J. S., Ruse, C., Caudy, A. A., Kruglyak, L., Singh, M., Perlman, D. H., and ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation G2.111.87.615 G2.111.603 G2.149.115.615 G5.627 G5.355.720 Nucleic Acid Hybridization G2.111.87.620 ... Nucleic Acid Renaturation G2.111.87.625 G2.111.619 G2.149.115.625 Nucleoside Q D3.438.759.590.454.500 D3.633.100.759.590.454. ... Nucleic Acid-Independent G2.111.87.675.333 G2.111.660.333 G2.149.115.675.333 G3.734.333 G3.495.770.333 Peptide Chain Elongation ... Amino Acid Transport System y+ D12.776.157.530.937.375 D12.776.543.585.937.375 Amino Acid Transport System y+L D12.776.157.530. ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Plasmids --chemistry. en_US. ...
Nucleic acid denaturation, function (observable entity). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Nucleic acid denaturation, ... Nucleic acid denaturation, function Active Synonym false false 75166015 Nucleic acid denaturation Active Synonym false false ...
Acid Denaturation, Nucleic Denaturation, Nucleic Acid Nucleic Acid Denaturations RNA Denaturation - Narrower Concept UI. ... Acid Denaturation, Nucleic. DNA Denaturation. DNA Melting. Denaturation, DNA. Denaturation, Nucleic Acid. Denaturation, RNA. ... Nucleic Acid Denaturation - Preferred Concept UI. M0015049. Scope note. Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids ... Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted ...
Base Sequence, DNA, Nucleic Acid Denaturation, Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Thermodynamics, Transition Temperature. * ...
This process is called nucleic acid denaturation.. Annealing stage. In this stage, the reaction mixture is allowed to cool for ... After an initial denaturation step, where the DNA is heated to 95 for a few minutes (up to 10 depending on complexity), the ... It adjusts the optimal temperature at each stage of amplification that involves denaturation, annealing, and elongation of DNA. ...
Nucleic acid denaturation was achieved by incubation in formamide (100%) at 105°C for 5 min. Hybridization was performed at 37° ... To search for potential viral etiologic agents, we performed an unbiased metagenomic analysis (12). Viral nucleic acids were ... Reverse transcription nested PCR was used to detect BoAstV-NeuroS1 in nucleic acid extracts from formalin-fixed, paraffin- ... Histology was reviewed, and nucleic acids were extracted from selected sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded affected ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation. *Plasmodium falciparum. *Polymers. *Senegal. *Protozoan Proteins. *Polymerase Chain Reaction ...
Filters: Keyword is Nucleic Acid Denaturation and Author is Kalko, Susana G [Clear All Filters] ...
3.Amplify the nucleic acids using the denaturation, annealing, and polymerization times and temperatures listed below. 4. ... Dissolve the nucleic acids in 50 μl of TE (pH 8.0) containing 20 μg/ml DNase-free RNase A (pancreatic RNase). Vortex the ... Precipitate the nucleic acid by adding 2 volumes of ethanol. • Mix by vortexing. • Stand the tubes for 2 minutes. • Centrifuge ... Dissolve the nucleic acids in 50 μl of TE (pH 8.0) containing 20 μg/ml DNase-free RNase A (pancreatic RNase). Vortex the ...
1 The key steps in the PCR process are denaturation of target nucleic acid, annealing of primers and extension. To amplify the ... of target nucleic acid is enabled by the use of target-specific primers. The cobas® master mix contains detection probes ... Introduction: Nucleic Acid Amplification and the Evolution of Molecular Diagnostics. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a ... Amplification of SARS-CoV-2 target nucleic acid from the sample is enabled by primers directed to the SARS-CoV-2 specific ORF 1 ...
Mytech chemicals Formamide is an organic solvent, which allows for the denaturation and renaturation of nucleic acids at room ... Formamide reduces thermal stability of double stranded nucleic acids and is generally used for DNA renaturation or DNA-RNA ... It provides resistance to a wide range of acids, alkalis, bleaches and solvents used in many chemical processing industry ...
Nucleic Acid Conformation * Nucleic Acid Denaturation * Oligodeoxyribonucleotides * Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet * ...
conformational study of biomolecular interaction with nanoparticles, where the degree of protein or nucleic acid denaturation ... determination of nucleic acid-ligand interactions, e.g. between cationic porphyrins and DNA (Pasternack 2003) ... determination of nucleic acid conformations (A-RNA, A-DNA, B-DNA, Z-DNA) ... SAXS provides low resolution information on the structure, conformation and assembly state of proteins, nucleic acids and ...
MELTING is a free open source software which computes the enthalpy, entropy and melting temperature of nucleic acids. MELTING ... locked nucleic acids, 2-hydroxyadenines and azobenzenes. It also includes temperature corrections for monovalent ions (sodium, ... Computing accurate nucleic acid melting temperatures has become a crucial step for the efficiency and the optimisation of ... Marmur J, Doty P: Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. J ...
RSC Viral Total Nucleic Acid Purification Kit with the Qiagen EZ1 Virus Mini Kit. The Maxwell® RSC system demonstrates higher ... Cycling conditions were: Reverse transcription for 10 minutes at 45°C followed by denaturation at 95°C for 10 minutes and ... Nucleic acid purification was then performed according to manufacturers instructions. Total nucleic acid was eluted in 50μl ... The Maxwell® RSC Viral Total Nucleic Acid Purification Kit efficiently isolated viral nucleic acid from serum and plasma in a ...
Ozone is able to carry out the dissociation of proteins,the denaturation and reduction of nucleic acid and enzymes activity, ...
... nucleic acid denaturation and chemical reactions that destroy the viral capsid are increased at higher temperatures, thus ...
denaturation. The strands of the DNA double helix are held together by hydrogen bonding interactions between the complementary ... Word forms nucleic acid : singular nucleic acid plural nucleic acids biology an acid such as DNA or RNA that is found in the ... Nucleic acid thermodynamics - is the study of the thermodynamics of nucleic acid molecules, or how temperature affects nucleic ... Nucleic acid - Nucleic acids are biological molecules essential for life, and include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA ( ...
Nucleic Acid Denaturation, Phagocytosis, Protein Structure, RNA, Tertiary, Transcription. @article{levashina_conserved_2001,. ... Nucleic Acid Denaturation, Phagocytosis, Protein Structure, RNA, Tertiary, Transcription},. pubstate = {published},. tppubtype ... Abstract , Links , BibTeX , Tags: alpha-Macroglobulins, Amino Acid, Animals, Cell Surface, Complement C3, Esters, Genetic, ... keywords = {alpha-Macroglobulins, Amino Acid, Animals, Cell Surface, Complement C3, Esters, Genetic, hoffmann, Insect Proteins ...
The thermocycler achieved 9 min (1 min pre-denaturation + 45 PCR cycles) ultrafast nucleic acid amplification, shortening the ... compared to the conventional 120 min nucleic acid amplification, and has the potential to be used for rapid nucleic acid ... Ultrafast Microfluidic PCR Thermocycler for Nucleic Acid Amplification. An, Yi-Quan; Huang, Shao-Lei; Xi, Bang-Chao; Gong, ... The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is essential in nucleic acid amplification tests and is widely used in many applications ...
  • Ozone is able to carry out the dissociation of proteins,the denaturation and reduction of nucleic acid and enzymes activity, and therefore purify and sanitize the air. (connection.eu)
  • Heat kills Salmonella, campylobacter bacteria, & other germs in turkey via denaturation of proteins. (wardsci.com)
  • During the denaturation process, proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary, tertiary, and secondary structures which are present in their native state when exposed to external stress or compounds like a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat . (wardsci.com)
  • Functional proteins have four levels of structural organization: 1) Primary structure: the linear structure of amino acids that make up the polypeptide chain 2) Secondary structure: regular, repeated patterns of folding of the protein backbone. (wardsci.com)
  • According to the patent, peptides, proteins, fusion proteins, protein complexes, nucleic acids, and the like are labeled with an acrylic moiety and attached to acrylic-functionalized glass surfaces through a copolymerization with acrylic monomer. (genomeweb.com)
  • Other in silico methods that are routinely used in research laboratories include molecular modelling (a technique used to model or mimic the structure of molecules) and protein sequencing and its alignment (methods used to evaluate identities and similarities in the amino acid sequence of proteins) [25-28]. (biomedscis.com)
  • The thermocycler achieved 9 min (1 min pre-denaturation + 45 PCR cycles) ultrafast nucleic acid amplification, shortening the time by 92% compared to the conventional 120 min nucleic acid amplification, and has the potential to be used for rapid nucleic acid detection. (bvsalud.org)
  • PCR technology is a nucleic acid amplification technique that mimics the process of DNA replication in vitro. (biobbsp.com)
  • The suitability of RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) for the detection of dengue viral RNA was investigated. (who.int)
  • Computing accurate nucleic acid melting temperatures has become a crucial step for the efficiency and the optimisation of numerous molecular biology techniques such as in situ hybridization, PCR, antigene targeting, and microarrays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MELTING is a free open source software which computes the enthalpy, entropy and melting temperature of nucleic acids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It incorporates all the thermodynamic parameters and corrections provided in MELTING 4.x and introduces a large set of thermodynamic formulae and parameters, to facilitate the calculation of melting temperatures for perfectly matching sequences, mismatches, bulge loops, CNG repeats, dangling ends, inosines, locked nucleic acids, 2-hydroxyadenines and azobenzenes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ). (en-academic.com)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a complex molecule of many components. (cdc.gov)
  • Nucleic acids direct the course of protein synthesis, thereby regulating all cell activities. (en-academic.com)
  • Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell , and, by directing the process of protein synthesis, they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing. (en-academic.com)
  • For a discussion of the genetic code, see heredity , and for a discussion of the role played by nucleic acids in protein synthesis, see metabolism . (en-academic.com)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis(2), Cited by: Structural studies on Allium cepa L. (mueck-consulting.com)
  • Inhibits DNA and protein synthesis and, thus, cell-proliferation by causing DNA cross-linking and denaturation of double helix. (medscape.com)
  • Nucleic acids are polynucleotides-that is, long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides ( nucleotide ). (en-academic.com)
  • DNA and RNA can be represented as simple strings of letters, where each letter corresponds to a particular nucleotide , the monomeric component of the nucleic acid polymers. (fdocuments.net)
  • It mainly repeats three cycles: high temperature denaturation, low temperature annealin. (biobbsp.com)
  • It mainly repeats three cycles: high-temperature denaturation, low temperature annealing and extension, and then amplifies the target DNA millions of times. (breakingnewsfinancial.com)
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a technique in which cycles of denaturation, annealing with primer, and extension with DNA polymerase, are used to amplify the number of copies of a target DNA sequence by more than 100 times in a few hours. (jrank.org)
  • At this time, nucleic acids like DNA were thought to be short oligonucleotides (four or five nucleotides long), functioning primarily in phosphate storage. (fdocuments.net)
  • These components can be divided into four main groups: basic elements, nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids. (cdc.gov)
  • The quality of many experiments in molecular biology depends on the accurate characterisation of the helix-coil transition of nucleic acid duplexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These probes are used in nucleic acid hybridization, in situ hybridization and other molecular biology procedures. (jrank.org)
  • The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a method to replicate DNA and generate multiple copies of a specific nucleic acid, was invented by Kary Mullis a research scientist at Cetus Corporation in 1983. (thejournalofprecisionmedicine.com)
  • or conjugate, complex, or fusion protein or fusion polypeptide including the same disclosed amino acid sequence derived from bacterium (e.g., mycoplasma, anaplasma, etc. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 22. An isolated polypeptide comprising at least 20 contiguous amino acids of the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID No: 5328, wherein the polypeptide elicits an immune response. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Such reactive species can induce oxidation of amino acids, nucleic acids, and unsaturated fatty acid peroxides through interaction with membrane lipids, leading to changes in the membranes' function. (anikgroup.ir)
  • It was found that NADPH, the key cofactor for fatty acid biosynthesis, is limited due to reduced flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and transhydrogenation cycle and that this can be overcome by over-expression of an endogenous malic enzyme. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate whether archaea possessing ammonia monooxygenase genes were responsible for autotrophic nitrification in acid soils, the community structure and phylogeny of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea were determined across a soil pH gradient (4.9-7.5) by amplifying 16S rRNA and amoA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Genes are DNA (Nucleic Acid) Mendle's experiments in the late 19 th century the showed that a gene is a discrete chemical entity (unit of heredity) that is capable of changing (mutable). (fdocuments.net)
  • 9. An isolated nucleic acid having at least 80% identity to SEQ ID NO: 449, wherein the isolated nucleic acid encodes a S. pneumoniae surface protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • andc) an RNA of a) or b), wherein U is substituted for T;wherein the isolated nucleic acid encodes a S. pneumoniae surface protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Autotrophic ammonia oxidation occurs in acid soils, even though laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia oxidizing bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. (elsevier.com)
  • This chapter will be review the evidence that nucleic acids are the genetic material, and then exploring the chemical structure of nucleic acids. (fdocuments.net)
  • Interactions of histones and histone peptides with DNA Thermal denaturation and solubility studies. (mueck-consulting.com)
  • ROS also play a part in membrane disruption, as they can drive protein denaturation and virus leakage. (anikgroup.ir)
  • Seventeen enzymes convert cholesterol into bile acids, which are transformed into bile salts by the association with Na + or K + ions. (frontiersin.org)
  • This article covers the chemistry of nucleic acids, describing the structures and properties that allow them to serve as the transmitters of genetic information. (en-academic.com)
  • Theory of Qualitative and Quantitative Inorganic Analysis: Common ion effect, solubility product and super saturation, Chemistry of analysis of various groups of basic and acidic radicals, of identification of acid radicals in typical combinations. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • Once laboratory nucleic acid contamination occurs, normal experiments must be stopped. (breakingnewsfinancial.com)
  • Reagent contamination reagent containers, vessels, water and other solutions can be contaminated with nucleic acids during the preparation of PCR reagents. (breakingnewsfinancial.com)
  • 9. Precipitate nucleic acids from the supernatant by adding 2 volumes of ethanol at room temperature. (igem.org)
  • Results showed that Pi limitation facilitates up-regulation of Pi-associated metabolism, RNA degradation, and triacylglycerol biosynthesis while down-regulation of ribosome biosynthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent experiments in the early to middle of the 20 th century showed that chemical entity is a nucleic acid, most commonly DNA. (fdocuments.net)
  • What happens to protein structures during denaturation? (wardsci.com)
  • Structures of Nucleic Acids CHAPTER 2 STRUCTURES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids , which are the polymeric acids isolated from the nucleus of cells. (fdocuments.net)
  • Although this conveys almost all the information content of the nucleic acids, it does not tell you anything about the underlying chemical structures. (fdocuments.net)
  • Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Techniques for measuring specific nucleic acid interaction with another nucleic acid or with a protein by digestion of the non-interacting nucleic acid by various nucleases. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Intra and intergeneric similarities of Chromobacterium and Janthinobacterium ribosomal ribonucleic acid cistrons. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The rate of protein, nucleic acid denaturation and chemical reactions that destroy the viral capsid are increased at higher temperatures, thus viruses will survive best at low temperatures. (waterresearchanddevelopmentconsultancy.com)
  • 2. A recombinant expression vector comprising the nucleic acid of claim 1 operably linked to a transcription regulatory element. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 18. A recombinant expression vector comprising the nucleic acid of claim 17 operably linked to a transcription regulatory element. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Denaturation reactions aren't strong enough to break the peptide bonds, so the primary structure (sequence of amino acids) remains the same after a denaturation process. (wardsci.com)
  • New process for reducing the nucleic acid content of yeast. (mit.edu)
  • It provides resistance to a wide range of acids, alkalis, bleaches and solvents used in many chemical processing industry applications. (knowde.com)
  • naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid, sugars, and a mixture of organic bases (purines and pyrimidines). (en-academic.com)
  • Isomerism in alkanes sources, methods of formation (with special reference of Wurtz reaction, Kolbe reaction, Corey House reaction and decarboxylation of carboxylic acids. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • GeneFriends has been updated to include gene and transcript co-expression networks based on RNA-seq data from 46,475 human and 34,322 mouse samples, a new paper in Nucleic Acids Research says. (genomeweb.com)
  • Equipment contaminationSemi-automatic nucleic acid extractors and fully automatic nucleic acid extractors can cause samples or nucleic acid templates to spill during extraction and contaminate the machine. (breakingnewsfinancial.com)
  • Column-based extraction is a method that employs selective binding of nucleic acid to a solid matrix, such as silica that is packed in a column. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein is used largely as an unisolated intermediate in the manufacture of acrylic acid, most of which is converted to its lower alkyl esters. (cdc.gov)
  • 8. The isolated nucleic acid of claim 5, wherein the S. pneumoniae surface protein provides protective immunity against an infection by S. pneumoniae. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The SCSA determined the stability of the sperm chromatin structure within a donor over time by measuring the resistance of the sperm DNA to in-situ denaturation. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids, which are the polymeric acids isolated from the nucleus of cells. (fdocuments.net)
  • Individuality of DNA denaturation patterns in human sperm as measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay. (cdc.gov)
  • A study of DNA denaturation patterns in human sperm was conducted as part of a NIOSH longitudinal study of semen quality in males not occupationally or environmentally exposed to toxic chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • After all non-interacting regions are eliminated by nuclease digestion, the protected nucleic acid that remains is analyzed. (wakehealth.edu)