Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Carbocysteine: A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.DNA, B-Form: The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.GuanineNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Xanthopterin: 2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).UracilCytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.ThyminePeptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.PolynucleotidesNucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TritiumOligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Self-Sustained Sequence Replication: An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Glycoside HydrolasesSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.G-Quadruplexes: Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.UridineViruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.DNA, Catalytic: Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Immobilized Nucleic Acids: DNA or RNA bound to a substrate thereby having fixed positions.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.SELEX Aptamer Technique: A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Ribonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.ComputersPoly G: A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Nucleic acid Complementary base sequence 5 Hormone Receptor 6 Avidin Biotin 7 Calmodulin Calmodulin binding molecule ... Nucleic acids function to trap mRNA, DNA, rRNA, and other nucleic acids/oligonucleotides. Protein A/G method is used to purify ... Affinity chromatography is an excellent choice for the first step in purifying a protein or nucleic acid from a crude mixture. ... Affinity chromatography can be used in a number of applications, including nucleic acid purification, protein purification[13] ...
Nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) is a method in molecular biology which is used to amplify RNA sequences. ... Compton, J (1991). "Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification". Nature. 350 (6313): 91-2. doi:10.1038/350091a0. PMID 1706072. ... Mugasa, CM; Laurent, T; Schoone, GJ; Kager, PA; Lubega, GW; Schallig, HD (2009). "Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification ... "Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification is more convenient than real-time PCR for quantification of Plasmodium ...
... and results in base pairing. These short nucleic acid sequences are commonly found in nature and have regulatory functions such ... "Nomenclature for Incompletely Specified Bases in Nucleic Acid Sequences". Retrieved 2008-02-04.. ... "The practical and pedagogical advantages of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation". Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 25 (7 ... Both types of molecules complement each other and can only base pair with the opposing type of nucleobase. In nucleic acid, ...
... a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform". Nucleic Acids Research. 30 (14): 3059-66 ... In bioinformatics, MAFFT is a multiple sequence alignment program for amino acid or nucleotide sequences. The software is named ... improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment". Nucleic Acids Research. 33 (2): 511-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gki198. PMC ... Sequence alignment software Clustal Katoh, Kazutaka; Misawa, Kazuharu; Kuma, Kei-ichi; Miyata, Takashi (2002). "MAFFT: ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 19 (18): 5015-20. doi:10.1093/nar/19.18.5015. PMC 328804 . PMID 1923769. Ealick SE, Rule SA, Carter DC ... Jonsson JJ, Williams SR, McIvor RS (Sep 1991). "Sequence and functional characterization of the human purine nucleoside ... 3. Reversal of purine base specificity by site-directed mutagenesis". Biochemistry. 36 (39): 11749-56. doi:10.1021/bi961971n. ... Nucleic Acids Research. 12 (14): 5779-87. doi:10.1093/nar/12.14.5779. PMC 320030 . PMID 6087295. Pannicke U, Tuchschmid P, ...
Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (W1): W80-W88. doi:10.1093/nar/gkx408. ISSN 0305-1048. Sharma, Chhaya; Mohanty, Debasisa. "Sequence ... D. Mohanty (2018-01-21). "In silico identification of novel biosynthetic pathways by knowledge-based prediction of protein ... and structure-based analysis of proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis". Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 36 (1 ... a bioinformatics resource for deciphering chemical structures of RiPPs based on prediction of cleavage and cross-links". ...
Biology Chromosome Gene Genetics Nucleic acid sequence Nucleobase "Nucleotides and Bases - Genetics Generation". Genetics ... Structure of Nucleic Acids. Secrist JA (May 2001). "Nucleoside and nucleotide nomenclature". Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid ... Nucleic acid synthesis is catalyzed by either DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase for DNA and RNA synthesis respectively. These ... TTP is not a substrate for nucleic acid synthesis, so it is not synthesized in the cell. Instead, dTTP is made indirectly from ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (1): 294-7. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg103. PMC 165550 . PMID 12520006. This database includes multiple sequence ... "GPCRDB (G Protein-Coupled Receptor Data Base): sequence-derived data". Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2007 ... IPR013312 Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1, GPR40) Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, GPR43) Free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3 ... IPR004065 Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 (LPAR2) Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 ( ...
Non-identity calculated based on (1-NCBI sequence identity). Figure 5: Divergence rate of C3orf70 with respect to Cytochrome C ... Nucleic Acids Res. Retrieved 2015-04-19. "dbSNP". Conserved Domain Database. National Center for Biotechnology Information. ... Blom, N.; Gammeltoft, S.; Brunak, S. "Sequence- and structure-based prediction of eukaryotic protein phosphorylation sites". ... The transcribed mRNA is a 5,901 base pair transcript. C3orf70 consists of one known splice variant with two exons of 388 base ...
Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of sequences of nucleic acids. The process has been automated since the ... A third base pair would expand the number of amino acids that can be encoded by DNA from the existing 20 amino acids to a ... Base pair synthesis[edit]. New nucleobase pairs can also be synthesized, A-T (adenine - thymine) and G-C (guanine - cytosine). ... DNA synthesis is the natural or artificial creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. The term DNA synthesis can refer ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 22:4673-4680(1994). Rost, Burkhard. "PredictProtein - Protein Sequence Analysis, Prediction of Structural ... Blom, N., Gammeltoft, S., & Brunak, S. (1999). Sequence and structure-based prediction of eukaryotic protein phosphorylation ... Nucleic Acids Research, gkt1115. Blom, N., Sicheritz‐Pontén, T., Gupta, R., Gammeltoft, S., & Brunak, S. (2004). Prediction of ... PRR30 has a length of 2618 base pairs of linear DNA. The PRR30 promoter directly flanks the gene and is 1162 base pairs in ...
... a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform". Nucleic Acids Research. 30 (14): 3059- ... Edgar, Robert C. (2004-01-01). "MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput". Nucleic Acids ... The best fitting nucleotide or amino acid substitution model for a multiple sequence alignment is the first step in ... Multiple sequence alignment algorithms can leave a large amount of indels in the sequence alignment when the indels do not ...
... and results in base pairing. These short nucleic acid sequences are commonly found in nature and have regulatory functions such ... "Nomenclature for Incompletely Specified Bases in Nucleic Acid Sequences". Retrieved 2008-02-04. Rozak DA (2006). "The practical ... Both types of molecules complement each other and can only base pair with the opposing type of nucleobase. In nucleic acid, ... nucleic acid notation for complementary bases (i.e. guanine = b, cytosine = q, adenine = n, and thymine = u), which makes it is ...
"Nomenclature for Incompletely Specified Bases in Nucleic Acid Sequences". Retrieved 2008-02-04. Sigel, Astrid; Operschall, Bert ... Molecular and cellular biology portal Biology Chromosome Gene Genetics Nucleic acid analogues Nucleic acid sequence Nucleobase ... Nucleic acids then are polymeric macromolecules assembled from nucleotides, the monomer-units of nucleic acids. The purine ... Nucleotide (abbreviated "nt") is a common unit of length for single-stranded nucleic acids, similar to how base pair is a unit ...
Nucleoside Nucleotide Nucleic acid notation Nucleic acid sequence Callahan; Smith, K.E.; Cleaves, H.J.; Ruzica, J.; Stern, J.C ... bases that have been modified after the nucleic acid chain has been formed. In DNA, the most common modified base is 5- ... The origin of the term base reflects these compounds' chemical properties in acid-base reactions, but those properties are not ... with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids. The ability of nucleobases to form base ...
"Nomenclature for Incompletely Specified Bases in Nucleic Acid Sequences". NC-IUB. 1984. Retrieved 2009-11-19. "First Americans ... The Formative stage Defined as "village agriculture" based. Most of these can be dated from 1000 BCE to 500 CE. Examples ... Since 1990, in the United States, physical anthropology and archaeological investigations based on the study of human remains ...
Henrissat, B; Bairoch, A (1993). "New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence ... Bairoch, A.; Boeckmann, B. (1991). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank". Nucleic Acids Research. 19 Suppl: 2247-2249. ... Bairoch, A (1999). "The ENZYME data bank in 1999". Nucleic Acids Research. 27 (1): 310-1. doi:10.1093/nar/27.1.310. PMC 148167 ... Bairoch, A (1996). "The ENZYME data bank in 1995". Nucleic Acids Research. 24 (1): 221-2. doi:10.1093/nar/24.1.221. PMC 145615 ...
... this is not sufficient for modern techniques which use sequencing-based DNA analysis. Therefore, a more efficient non-sequence- ... Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (9): e71. doi:10.1093/nar/gnh069. PMC 419624 . PMID 15150323. Esteban JA, Salas M, Blanco L (1993 ... and is a promising method for application to single cell genome sequencing and sequencing-based genetic studies. Many ... Diseases with heterogeneous properties, such as cancer, also benefit from MDA-based genome sequencing's ability to study ...
Nucleic Acids Res, 40(W1):W597-W603. Blom, N., Gammeltoft, S., and Brunak, S. (1999). "Sequence- and structure-based prediction ... It has 250 amino acids, 230 of which are in the domain of unknown function. No signal peptide has been found for this protein ... Links to sequences can be found in the table below: GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134291 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
Nucleotide similarity matrices are used to align nucleic acid sequences. Because there are only four nucleotides commonly found ... A later refinement was to determine amino acid similarities based on how many base changes were required to change a codon to ... Matrices for lower similarity sequences require longer sequence alignments. Amino acid similarity matrices are more complicated ... The BLOSUM series were generated by comparing a number of divergent sequences. The BLOSUM series are labeled based on how much ...
"The application of numerical estimates of base calling accuracy to DNA sequencing projects". Nucleic Acids Research. 23 (8): ... It was originally developed for Phred base calling to help in the automation of DNA sequencing in the Human Genome Project. ... Therefore, the need to use Phred for base calling of DNA sequencing traces has diminished, and using the manufacturer's current ... In contrast, instrument manufacturers like ABI continued to adapt their base calling software changes in sequencing chemistry, ...
"The application of numerical estimates of base calling accuracy to DNA sequencing projects". Nucleic Acids Res. 23: 1406-1410. ... Staden R (1979). "A strategy of DNA sequencing employing computer programs". Nucleic Acids Res. 6 (7): 2601-2610. doi:10.1093/ ... The Staden Package is computer software, a set of tools for DNA sequence assembly, editing, and sequence analysis. It is open- ... the use of sequence quality scores to generate accurate consensus sequences, and the ZTR file format. Free software portal ...
January 2004). "Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification methods to detect avian influenza virus". Biochemical and Biophysical ... Collins also helped develop a number of rapid diagnostic tests based on nucleic acid analysis, notably the nucleic acid ... March 2003). "Comparison of nucleic acid-based detection of avian influenza H5N1 with virus isolation". Biochemical and ... novel nucleic acid based diagnostics for avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and foot-and-mouth disease ...
... essentially it must amplify its own nucleic acids in order to cause a disease. This amplification of nucleic acid in infected ... 4.5 PCR-based diagnostics. *4.6 Metagenomic sequencing. *4.7 Indication of tests. *5 Prevention *5.1 Immunity *5.1.1 Host ... PCR-based diagnostics[edit]. Technologies based upon the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method will become nearly ubiquitous ... Metagenomic sequencing[edit]. Given the wide range of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens that cause debilitating and life- ...
An update to the database of structure-based sequence alignments of structural domain superfamilies". Nucleic Acids Research. ... and significant sequence similarity. The most important of these is sequence similarity (usually amino acid sequence) since it ... is using protein families and superfamilies as the basis for development of a sequence/structure-based strategy for large scale ... DNA sequence similarity search BLASTp - Protein sequence similarity search OrthoFinder: a fast, scalable and accurate method ...
... (Inverse PCR) is a variant of the polymerase chain reaction that is used to amplify DNA with only one known sequence. One limitation of conventional PCR is that it requires primers complementary to both termini of the target DNA, but this method allows PCR to be carried out even if only one sequence is available from which primers may be designed. Inverse PCR is especially useful for the determination of insert locations. For example, various retroviruses and transposons randomly integrate into genomic DNA. To identify the sites where they have entered, the known, "internal" viral or transposon sequences can be used to design primers that will amplify a small portion of the flanking, "external" genomic DNA. The amplified product can then be sequenced and compared with DNA databases to locate the sequence which has been disrupted. The inverse PCR method involves a series of restriction ...
... is a method of investigating the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins in vitro. This technique can be used to study protein-DNA interactions both outside and within cells. The regulation of transcription has been studied extensively, and yet there is still much that is not known. Transcription factors and associated proteins that bind promoters, enhancers, or silencers to drive or repress transcription are fundamental to understanding the unique regulation of individual genes within the genome. Techniques like DNA footprinting help elucidate which proteins bind to these associated regions of DNA and unravel the complexities of transcriptional control. In 1978, David Galas and Albert Schmitz developed the DNA footprinting technique to study the binding specificity of the lac repressor protein. It was originally a modification of the Maxam-Gilbert chemical sequencing technique. The simplest application of this technique is to assess whether a given protein binds to a ...
The touchdown polymerase chain reaction or touchdown style polymerase chain reaction is a method of polymerase chain reaction by which primers avoid amplifying nonspecific sequences. The annealing temperature during a polymerase chain reaction determines the specificity of primer annealing. The melting point of the primer sets the upper limit on annealing temperature. At temperatures just above this point, only very specific base pairing between the primer and the template will occur. At lower temperatures, the primers bind less specifically. Nonspecific primer binding obscures polymerase chain reaction results, as the nonspecific sequences to which primers anneal in early steps of amplification will "swamp out" any specific sequences because of the exponential nature of polymerase amplification. The earliest steps of a touchdown polymerase chain reaction cycle have high annealing temperatures. The annealing temperature is ...
An expression cassette is a distinct component of vector DNA consisting of a gene and regulatory sequence to be expressed by a transfected cell. In each successful transformation, the expression cassette directs the cell's machinery to make RNA and protein(s). Some expression cassettes are designed for modular cloning of protein-encoding sequences so that the same cassette can easily be altered to make different proteins. An expression cassette is composed of one or more genes and the sequences controlling their expression. An expression cassette comprises three components: a promoter sequence, an open reading frame, and a 3' untranslated region that, in eukaryotes, usually contains a polyadenylation site. Different expression cassettes can be transfected into different organisms including bacteria, yeast, plants, and mammalian cells as long as the correct regulatory sequences are used. Expression vector Gene cassette ...
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. Sequencing results in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the sequenced molecule. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment. So far, most DNA sequencing has been performed using the chain termination method developed by Frederick Sanger. This technique uses sequence-specific termination of a DNA synthesis reaction using modified nucleotide substrates. However, new sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing are gaining an increasing share of the sequencing market. More genome data are now being produced by pyrosequencing than Sanger DNA sequencing. Pyrosequencing has enabled rapid genome sequencing. Bacterial genomes can be sequenced in a single ...
A cDNA library is a combination of cloned cDNA (complementary DNA) fragments inserted into a collection of host cells, which together constitute some portion of the transcriptome of the organism and are stored as a "library". cDNA is produced from fully transcribed mRNA found in the nucleus and therefore contains only the expressed genes of an organism. Similarly, tissue-specific cDNA libraries can be produced. In eukaryotic cells the mature mRNA is already spliced, hence the cDNA produced lacks introns and can be readily expressed in a bacterial cell. While information in cDNA libraries is a powerful and useful tool since gene products are easily identified, the libraries lack information about enhancers, introns, and other regulatory elements found in a genomic DNA library. cDNA is created from a mature mRNA from a eukaryotic cell with the use of reverse transcriptase. In eukaryotes, a poly-(A) tail (consisting of a long sequence of adenine nucleotides) distinguishes mRNA from tRNA and ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of restriction enzymes. In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, and sometimes for longer genomic DNA. There are other ways of mapping features on DNA for longer length DNA molecules, such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole molecule and to run the sequence through a computer program that will find the recognition sites that are present for every restriction enzyme known. Before sequencing was automated, it would have been prohibitively expensive to sequence an entire DNA strand. To find the relative positions of restriction sites on a plasmid, a technique involving single and double restriction digests is used. Based on the sizes ...
This article contains a list of the most studied restriction enzymes whose names start with Ba to Bc inclusive. It contains approximately 120 enzymes. The following information is given: Enzyme: Accepted name of the molecule, according to the internationally adopted nomenclature, and bibliographical references. (Further reading: see the section "Nomenclature" in the article "Restriction enzyme".) PDB code: Code used to identify the structure of a protein in the PDB database of protein structures. The 3D atomic structure of a protein provides highly valuable information to understand the intimate details of its mechanism of action. Source: Organism that naturally produces the enzyme. Recognition sequence: Sequence of DNA recognized by the enzyme and to which it specifically binds. Cut: Cutting site and DNA products of the cut. The recognition sequence and the cutting site usually match, but sometimes the cutting site can be ...
Coiled-Coil Domain Containing protein 82 (CCDC82) is a protein that in humans, is encoded for by the gene of the same name, CCDC82. The CCDC82 gene is expressed in nearly all of human tissues at somewhat low rates. As of today, there are no patents involving CCDC82 and the function remains unknown. CCDC82 is located on chromosome 11 at 11q21.5. It contains two domains of unknown function, DUF4196 and DUF4211. The DNA sequence is 37,155 base pairs long and contains 7 exons. CCDC82 is present in many orthologs. It is conserved throughout other mammals, reptiles, birds and bony fish. It is not found in invertebrates, bacteria or fungi. There are no paralogs. The predicted promoter for CCDC82 is located on the minus strand and spans from base pairs 96,122,963 to 96,123,587. It is 625 base pairs long. The transcription factors listed below are for the predicted promoter sequence ...
The staggered extension process (also referred to as StEP) is a common technique used in biotechnology and molecular biology to create new, mutated genes with qualities of one or more initial genes. The technique itself is a modified polymerase chain reaction with very short (approximately 10 seconds) cycles. In these cycles the elongation of DNA is very quick (only a few hundred base pairs) and synthesized fragments anneal with complementary fragments of other strands. In this way, mutations of the initial genes are shuffled and in the end genes with new combinations of mutations are amplified. The StEP protocol has been found to be useful as a method of directed evolution for the discovery of enzymes useful to industry. Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lori; Shao, Zhixin; Affholter, Joseph A.; Arnold, Frances H. (1998). "Molecular evolution by staggered extension process (StEP) in vitro recombination". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (3): 258-261. doi:10.1038/nbt0398-258. Zhao, Huimin; Zha, ...
Itoh S; Yanagimoto T; Tagawa S; et al. (1992). „Genomic organization of human fetal specific P-450IIIA7 (cytochrome P-450HFLa)-related gene(s) and interaction of transcriptional regulatory factor with its DNA element in the 5' flanking region". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1130 (2): 133-8. PMID 1562592 ...
மரபு நூலிழையில் உள்ள குறிப்பிட்ட ஒரு பகுதியைப் பெருக்குவதற்கு இந்தத் தொழில்நுட்பம் உதவுகின்றது. இலக்குப் பகுதியானது பொதுவாக 0.1-10 கிலோ தாங்கிச் சோடிகளைக் (kilo base pairs - kb) கொண்டதாக இருக்கும். ஆனாலும் ஒரு சில தாக்கங்கள் 40 கிலோ தாங்கிச் சோடிகள் வரை பெருக்கும் தன்மை கொண்டன.[2] குறிப்பிட்ட பகுதியின் பெருக்கமானது வழங்கப்படும் பொருட்களின் அளவில் தங்கியிருக்கும். செயற்பாட்டிற்குத் ...
注意:此处包括了那些只有微弱男性化效应(或抗男性化(如氧雄龙))的蛋白同化甾类(因为它们合成代谢效应也是通过激活雄激素受体而是显得)。. ...
This body of work focuses on practical applications of real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (RT-NASBA) in marine ... This technology was first validated using lab-based, benchtop instrumentation, and was then adapted into a complete field ... behind the development of numerous documented genetic detection technologies is to exploit specific nucleotide sequences ... This body of work focuses on practical applications of real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (RT-NASBA) in marine ...
Nucleic Acids Res., 28: 63-68. [Crossref]. 14. Nawathe, D.R., Ojeh, C.K. and Onunkwo, O. (1978) Incidence of Mareks disease in ... Dunn, J.R. and Gimeno, I.M. (2013) Current status of Mareks disease in the United States and worldwide based on a ... Wozniakowski, G. and Niczyporuk, J.S. (2015) Detection of specific UL49 sequences of Mareks diseasevirus CVI988/rispens strain ... was used for optimization of LAMP using six primers that target the HVT070 gene sequence of the virus. These primers can ...
I. Conserved genetic and nucleic acid base sequence homologies. D Dubnau, I Smith, P Morell, and J Marmur ... We need evidence-based answers in order to create migration policies that balance the human rights of migrants with the ... I. Conserved genetic and nucleic acid base sequence homologies. D Dubnau, I Smith, P Morell, J Marmur ... I. Conserved genetic and nucleic acid base sequence homologies. D Dubnau, I Smith, P Morell, J Marmur ...
Diagnostics based on nucleic acid sequence variant profiling: PCR, hybridization, and NGS approaches.. Khodakov D1, Wang C1, ... Nucleic acid sequence variations have been implicated in many diseases, and reliable detection and quantitation of DNA/RNA ... Nucleic acid analysis technologies being translated into the clinic can broadly be classified into hybridization, PCR, and ... sequencing, as well as their combinations. Here we review the molecular mechanisms of popular commercial assays, and their ...
New DNA-based materials have been developed which can be programmed to respond to specific nucleic acid sequences, with ... New DNA-based materials can be programmed to respond to specific nucleic acid sequences. Giovanna Sicilia ... New DNA-based materials have been developed which can be programmed to respond to specific nucleic acid sequences, with ... of NottinghamPharmacyNewsArchive2013New DNA-based materials can be programmed to respond to specific nucleic acid sequences ...
Nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) is a versatile in vitro nucleic acid amplification method. In this work, RNA ... Home » Microarray-based amplification and detection of RNA by nucleic acid sequence based amplification ... Microarray-based amplification and detection of RNA by nucleic acid sequence based amplification. ... Background: T7 based linear amplification of RNA is used to obtain sufficient antisense RNA for microarray expression profiling ...
We and others have recently reported on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) using the NucliSens Basic kit for the ... Rapid enterovirus RNA detection in clinical specimens by using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. J. Clin. Microbiol. ... Comparison of the NucliSens Basic Kit (Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification) and the Argene Biosoft Enterovirus Consensus ... Comparison of the NucliSens Basic Kit (Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification) and the Argene Biosoft Enterovirus Consensus ...
Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification of Aspergillus RNA in blood samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:1626-1629. ... Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification using molecular beacons for detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical ... Rapid real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification-molecular beacon platform to detect fungal and bacterial bloodstream ... Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) is an isothermal amplification process that specifically amplifies RNA even ...
RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with an internal standard enables reliable detection of ... RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with an internal standard enables reliable detection of ... "RNA Amplification By Nucleic Acid Sequence-based Amplification With an Internal Standard Enables Reliable Detection of ... RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with an internal standard enables reliable detection of ...
... ... "Diagnostics based on nucleic acid sequence variant profiling: PCR, hybridization, and NGS approaches." Advanced Drug Delivery ... Nucleic acid sequence variations have been implicated in many diseases, and reliable detection and quantitation of DNA/RNA ... Nucleic acid analysis technologies being translated into the clinic can broadly be classified into hybridization, PCR, and ...
Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directe ... Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. ... 6. A method of sequencing eleven consecutive bases in a target nucleic acid segment with a plurality of nucleic acid probes, ... A method of determining if a nucleotide sequence of a target nucleic acid is the same as a sequence of a first nucleic acid ...
Detection of HIV-1 RNA by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy ... Detection of HIV-1 RNA by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy ... Oehlenschlaeger, F., Schwille, P., & Eigen, M. (1996). Detection of HIV-1 RNA by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification ...
Nucleic acid Complementary base sequence 5 Hormone Receptor 6 Avidin Biotin 7 Calmodulin Calmodulin binding molecule ... Nucleic acids function to trap mRNA, DNA, rRNA, and other nucleic acids/oligonucleotides. Protein A/G method is used to purify ... Affinity chromatography is an excellent choice for the first step in purifying a protein or nucleic acid from a crude mixture. ... Affinity chromatography can be used in a number of applications, including nucleic acid purification, protein purification[13] ...
Nucleic acid sequence-based methods. The ability to detect intra-species and inter-species cell hybrids has been greatly ... facilitated by the development of nucleic acid sequencing methods, such as DNA barcoding (PCR- or sequence-based approaches ... Next generation sequencing. Agnostic sequencing of variable DNA sequences such as STR or SNP arrays. Detects inter- and intra- ... sequence-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, and next generation sequencing. Each of these approaches may also be ...
... dna sequence; isolated dna; significant amounts; acid sequence; amino acid; acid sequences; host cells; sequence encoding; base ... as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid ... The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand. The ... The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid ...
An Q, Olive D M. Molecular cloning and nucleic acid sequencing of Chlamydia trachomatis 16S rRNA genes from patient samples ... Methods: The FVU specimen was assayed with an immune based Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) and various nucleic acid amplification ... Chlamydia trachomatis variant not detected by plasmid based nucleic acid amplification tests: molecular characterisation and ... Chlamydia trachomatis variant not detected by plasmid based nucleic acid amplification tests: molecular characterisation and ...
Árpád Dynasty based on genome sequencing of DNA derived from the skeletal remains of Hungarian King Béla III (1172-1196) and ... HaploGrep 2: mitochondrial haplogroup classification in the era of high-throughput sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44(W1): ... Phylogenetic tree based on 208 high coverage modern Y-chromosome datasets and two ancient Y-chromosome sequences belonging to ... We set out to identify the origins of the Árpád Dynasty based on genome sequencing of DNA derived from the skeletal remains of ...
Here, we used a sequence-based genotyping approach to characterize worldwide plum germplasm including the potential progenitor ... Nucleic Acids Res. 42, D1237-D1244 (2014).. *CAS. *Article. * Google Scholar. *60.. Krzywinski, M. et al. Circos: an ... The sequence-based genotyping method used here has limitations caused by the lack of a plum reference assembly and the reliance ... In the present study, we generated a set of sequence-based SNP markers densely distributed across the Prunus genome in order to ...
Platforms and Analytical Tools Used in Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Microbial Genotyping Procedures.. MacCannell D1. ... Massively parallel sequencing technologies have decreased the cost of sequencing by more than 6 orders or magnitude over this ... In the decade and a half since the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the technical feasibility, cost, and ... As the generation of large amounts of sequence data becomes increasingly routine, the role of bioinformatics in data analysis ...
Nucleic Acid Database. *wwPDB Partners. *RCSB PDB. *PDBe. *PDBj. *BMRB. RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the ... The identification of similar sequences in this report is based on clustering as described here. ... Structures of protein chains with identical sequences (sequence identity > 95%) are aligned, superimposed and clustered. ... Sequence Similarity Cutoff. Rank. Chains in Cluster. Cluster ID / Name. Legend Entity #2 , Chains: P DNA (5-D(*TP*CP*TP*AP*AP* ...
Structure of the complex of lac repressor headpiece and an 11 base-pair half-operator determined by nuclear magnetic resonance ... Nucleic Acid Database. *wwPDB Partners. *RCSB PDB. *PDBe. *PDBj. *BMRB. RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the ... The identification of similar sequences in this report is based on clustering as described here. ... Structures of protein chains with identical sequences (sequence identity > 95%) are aligned, superimposed and clustered. ...
Selecting the most likely causal variants within an LD block is relatively straightforward within coding sequence, but is more ... Base Sequence * Chromatin / chemistry* * Conserved Sequence * Databases, Nucleic Acid* * Enhancer Elements, Genetic ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D930-4. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr917. Epub 2011 Nov 7. ... Selecting the most likely causal variants within an LD block is relatively straightforward within coding sequence, but is more ...
Optimal Sequencing of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) and Standard Platinum-based Chemotherapy in First-Line NSCLC. The safety and ... To evaluate the response duration of MK-3475 based on schedule of administration with standard platinum-based chemotherapy in ... type and grade in patients with Chemotherapy naive advanced NSCLC based on the sequence of administration with first-line ... Folic Acid Antagonists. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. To Top. *For Patients and Families ...
Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jul 15;30(14):3059-66. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jul 15;30(14):3059-66.. MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast ... in which an amino acid sequence is converted to a sequence composed of volume and polarity values of each amino acid residue. ( ... The average percent identities among input sequences are ∼35-85% (A) and ∼15-65% (B). The average length of input sequences is ...
The molecular phylogeny of 36 specimens of Japanese Amanitaspecies was studied based on nucleotide sequences of the internal ... Nucleic Acids Res.22: 4673-4680.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Van Nues, R. W., Rientjes, J. M. J., Van der Sande, C. A. F. M., Zerp ... The molecular phylogeny of 36 specimens of JapaneseAmanita species was studied based on nucleotide sequences of the internal ... Molecular phylogeny of JapaneseAmanita species based on nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of ...
  • Maximum Likelihood Genetic Sequence Reconstruction from Oligo Content," Sep. (patents.com)
  • Despite the large number of genes identified, only ~ 60% of cases receive a genetic diagnosis using targeted-sequencing. (springer.com)
  • Overall, these data emphasize the artificiality of simple tree structures for representing genomic sequence variation within Pisum and emphasize the need for fine structure haplotype analysis to accurately define the genetic structure of the species. (genetics.org)
  • THE genetic diversity of a species is the sum of its total DNA sequence variation, resulting from millions of years of cumulative mutation, recombination, and selection. (genetics.org)
  • These tests analyze variations in the sequence, structure, or expression of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in order to diagnose disease or medical conditions, infection with an identifiable pathogen, or determine genetic carrier status. (fda.gov)
  • BIOL 5381 Genomics (3 semester hours) The fundamentals of how the human genome sequence was acquired and the impact of the human genome era on biomedical research, medical care and genetic testing will be explored. (utdallas.edu)
  • These research challenges suggest aiming to sequence the genetic information of single cells without prior amplification, and without the prior need to clone the genetic material into sequencing vectors. (google.es)
  • Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made it possible to systematically search for rare disease-contributing genetic variants in human genomic studies. (bmj.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Rapid improvements in nucleotide sequencing access and affordability have led to a drastic increase in availability of genetic information. (asm.org)
  • It is often necessary, in the technologies related to nucleic acids and genetic material, to determine whether a gene, a gene portion or a nucleotide sequence is present in a living organism, a cell extract of this organism or a biological sample. (google.com)
  • Genetic diseases such as Huntington's disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, phenylketonuria and β-thalassemia can thus be diagnosed through the analysis of nucleic acids of individuals. (google.com)
  • The amplified single-stranded RNA can easily be detected in real time by the use of molecular beacon (MB) probes, which are self-reporting, hairpin-structured, single-stranded nucleic acid (NA) probes that brightly fluoresce when they are bound to their targets ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • We have studied the molecular basis of DNA-ligand interactions, particularly, sequence recognitions and interplay of multi-functions displayed by various DNA-binding proteins and antibiotics. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The A-to-B transition in DNA has also served as a prototype case for testing out and validating empirical energy functions and force fields used in molecular dynamics simulations on nucleic acids (2-4). (redorbit.com)
  • The first layer of immunity is based on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and is known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI), which prevents a large number of potential pathogenic microbes from invasion ( Jones and Dangl, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, our results provide a platform for designing and controlling macromolecular droplets via the information encoded in component molecules and pave the way for various applications of sequence-designed DNA such as cell mimics, synthetic membraneless organelles, and artificial molecular systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • Molecular characterization using Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analysis demonstrated that although there was some similarity in the patterns generated, the isolations were distinct from each other. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • One such class of such elements has been termed translational enhancers, based on their ability to enhance the expression of various mRNA reporter gene constructs or to promote initiation in the absence of any identifiable SD. (pnas.org)
  • This sequence was first identified by mutagenesis studies in the mRNA of phage T7 gene 0.3 and subsequently found in the λ cI , lysU , glnS , rpoH , and cspA mRNAs of Escherichia coli ( 5 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • In a study of ribosome-mediated protection of mRNA from base modification by chemical probes, Huttenhofer and Noller ( 15 ) failed to observe any protection of the DB region T4 gene 32 mRNA. (pnas.org)
  • Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been shown to overcome some of the disadvantages of whole exome sequencing (WES) and targeted gene panels, due to WGS coverage uniformity [ 23 ], allowing also the identification of deep-intronic variants and structural variations. (springer.com)
  • Sequence diversity of 39 dispersed gene loci was analyzed in 48 diverse individuals representative of the genus Pisum. (genetics.org)
  • Whole genome deep sequencing of a bulked homozygous F2 population and analysis via the Next Generation EMS mutation mapping pipeline (NGM) unambiguously determined the causal mutation to be a single nucleotide polymorphisim (SNP) residing in HASTY , a previously characterized gene involved in microRNA biogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lmx1b is an example of a gene with a weak Kozak consensus sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding the DNA gyrase A subunit of Streptococcus pneumoniae was cloned and sequenced. (asm.org)
  • Gabel C, Maier R. Nucleotide sequence of the coxA gene encoding subunit I of cytochrome aa3 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. (labome.org)
  • Robinson K, Schreier H. Isolation, sequence and characterization of the maltose-regulated mlrA gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeum Pyrococcus furiosus. (labome.org)
  • This clustering of base pair substitutions is unusual and suggests that mutation may result from unique structural features of the PKD1 gene. (labome.org)
  • Fecal samples were determined for bacterial community diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Any gene or part of gene being characterized by a specific sequence of nucleotide bases, it is sufficient to search directly the presence of all or part of said specific sequence in a sample containing a mixture of polynucleotides. (google.com)
  • The method may, but need not, involve amplifying the nucleic acid in vitro using cycles of denaturation and amplification to yield product duplexes, and detecting the product duplexes. (google.com)
  • Although several in vitro studies have reproduced droplet formation by changing the concentrations of proteins/RNAs and salts ( 8 , 9 , 12 , 13 ), no study has demonstrated the control of dynamic behavior of macromolecular droplets by varying the biological information encoded in the biopolymer sequence. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we used a high-throughput sequencing approach to identify pathogen-responsive miRNAs using 15 small RNA (sRNA) libraries prepared from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves collected at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-inoculation with P. capsici . (frontiersin.org)
  • Reproducibility of high-throughput mRNA and small RNA sequencing across laboratories. (alzforum.org)
  • This review provides an overview of the basic principles, chemistry, and operational mechanics of current sequencing technologies, including both conventional Sanger and NGS approaches. (cdc.gov)
  • Sanger sequencing of candidate variants was conducted in the extended family members. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to design a whole genome sequencing (WGS) based approach to increase the diagnostic yield of complex Retinitis Pigmentosa cases. (springer.com)
  • This list includes nucleic acid-based companion diagnostic tests. (fda.gov)
  • DNA Probe-based Diagnostic Market report helps to increase business/sales activities by understanding competitor's businesses better, company's strategic, business and operational performance, recognize potential partnerships and suppliers. (sbwire.com)
  • New York, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 04/16/2018 -- The latest market intelligence study on DNA Probe-based Diagnostic market relies on statistics derived from the application of both primary and secondary research to present insights pertaining to the operational model, opportunities and competitive landscape of DNA Probe-based Diagnostic market for the forecast period, 2018 - 2025. (sbwire.com)
  • In addition, the research on the DNA Probe-based Diagnostic market concentrates on extracting valuable data on swelling investment pockets, significant growth opportunities and major market vendors to help understand business owners what their competitors are doing best to stay ahead in the competition. (sbwire.com)
  • The research also segments the DNA Probe-based Diagnostic market on the basis of the end-user, product type, application and demography for the forecast period 2018 - 2025. (sbwire.com)
  • For more clarity on the real potential of the DNA Probe-based Diagnostic market for the forecast period of 2018 - 2025 the study provides vital intelligence on the major opportunities, threats and challenges posed by the industry. (sbwire.com)
  • There are 14 Chapters to deeply display the global DNA Probe-based Diagnostic Profiler market. (sbwire.com)
  • What is estimated growth rate and market size of the DNA Probe-based Diagnostic industry for the forecast period 2018 - 2025? (sbwire.com)
  • What are major driving factors impacting the DNA Probe-based Diagnostic market worldwide? (sbwire.com)
  • Which market trends from the yesteryears and the future are likely to keep the prospect of the DNA Probe-based Diagnostic market high for the forecast period 2018 - 2025? (sbwire.com)
  • We have tested this model of enhancer action by constructing mutations in the anti-DB that alter its mRNA base-pairing potential and examining expression of a variety of DB-containing mRNAs in strains expressing the mutant anti-DB 16S rRNA. (pnas.org)
  • Because of the widespread distribution of DB elements and their proposed importance in the initiation process, we have tested the base-pairing model by constructing mutations in the anti-DB of 16S rRNA and examining the effects of the 16S rRNA mutations on the expression of DB-containing mRNAs. (pnas.org)
  • The simplicity of performing a single parental backcross and genome sequencing a small pool of segregating mutants has great promise for identifying mutations that may be difficult to map using conventional approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies on Escherichia coli have identified quinolone resistance mutations in the GyrA quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR), located between amino acid residues 67 and 106 ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Based on Hadoop and HBase, we developed SeqHBase, a big data-based toolset for analysing family based sequencing data to detect de novo, inherited homozygous, or compound heterozygous mutations that may contribute to disease manifestations. (bmj.com)
  • 7 ] and determined the phylogenetic origins and closest kinship of the Árpád Dynasty based on shared Y chromosome haplogroup derivation in the context of 40 Eurasian populations. (nature.com)
  • The phylogenetic tree obtained supported the traditional classification systems of Bas (1969) and Singer (1986), which are based on morphological characters, in the division of the genus Amanita is divided into subgenera Amanita and Lepidella by the amyloidity of basidiospores. (springer.com)
  • Serovar Typhi is shown to be nested within clade A. Our findings are supported by both phylogenetic support, based on a core genome alignment, and Bayesian approaches, based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms. (asm.org)
  • Developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) during the past decade have made it possible to economically sequence the mitochondrial and Y chromosomes in large number of individuals [ 12 ]. (nature.com)
  • In the decade and a half since the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the technical feasibility, cost, and overall utility of sequencing have changed dramatically, including applications for infectious disease epidemiology. (cdc.gov)
  • We applied multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing to obtain SEOV genome sequences from clinical and reservoir host specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Investigators at the Scripps Research Institute, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, and the Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital have come up with a set of next-generation sequencing techniques for profiling antibody repertoires of immune B cells - collections that provide clues for treating and tracking some forms of infectious disease. (genomeweb.com)
  • Factors such as the presence of a well-established healthcare system, access to technologically advanced diagnostics and blood screening techniques, recommendations for blood screening, high and growing burden of infectious diseases, rising number of genome-based drug development activities, and the availability of R&D funding for genomics research are the major factors that are expected to drive the growth of the North American market during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the T7 based amplification techniques are reproducible but may distort the true abundance of targets. (ebscohost.com)
  • Nucleic acid amplification techniques can detect most serotypes, including those that grow poorly or not at all in cell culture, can provide results within 24 h, and, consequently, can significantly alter patient management ( 13 , 14 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Advances in detect-to-warn systems have the potential to reduce significantly the casualties associated with bioterrorism attacks on both indoor and outdoor targets, ranging from individual high-value buildings to extended military bases. (nap.edu)
  • These findings lead us to conclude that enhancement of translation by the DB does not involve mRNA-rRNA base pairing. (pnas.org)
  • Although the mRNA mutagenesis studies cited above lend considerable credence to the mRNA-rRNA base-pairing model of enhancer action, supporting biochemical or rRNA mutagenesis data are lacking. (pnas.org)
  • Base-pairing interactions between mRNA and rRNA place considerable constraints on the orientation of mRNA within the ribosome. (pnas.org)
  • We conclude, therefore, that although DB elements may contribute to the efficiency of initiation, the mechanism of enhancement of translation does not involve mRNA-rRNA base pairing. (pnas.org)
  • Rarely, GUG is used as an initiation codon, but methionine is still the first amino acid as it is the met-tRNA in the initiation complex that binds to the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • For initiation of translation from such a site, other features are required in the mRNA sequence in order for the ribosome to recognize the initiation codon. (wikipedia.org)