The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A macular lesion on the side of the FACE, involving the CONJUNCTIVA and EYELIDS, as well as the adjacent facial skin, SCLERA; OCULOMOTOR MUSCLES; and PERIOSTEUM. Histological features vary from those of a MONGOLIAN SPOT to those of a BLUE NEVUS.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
HERPES ZOSTER but without eruption of vesicles. Patients exhibit the characteristic pain minus the skin rash, sometimes making diagnosis difficult.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Surgery performed to relieve pressure from MICROVESSELS that are located around nerves and are causing NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A small space in the skull between the MAXILLA and the SPHENOID BONE, medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure, and connecting to the NASAL CAVITY via the sphenopalatine foramen.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
A slow-growing benign pseudotumor in which plasma cells greatly outnumber the inflammatory cells.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Primary cell bodies are in the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. These fibers transmit information to secondary ... afferent cell bodies in the oralis and interpolaris portions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus plus the principal nucleus. Axons ... from the spinal nucleus (and a smaller number from the principal nucleus) then form the trigeminocerebellar tract and ascend to ...
The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. The ... The spinal trigeminal nerve nuclei which contains the general somatic afferent column. The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers ... It is caused by an underlying collection of gray matter known as the spinal trigeminal nucleus. ...
There is a concentrated nerve center in this area called the trigeminal nucleus. This major pathway of nerves controls pain ... Pain that stems from the trigeminal cervical nucleus. Any lifestyle limitation related to the teeth, muscles, or joints of the ... DMSD refers to a condition in which an individual experiences chronic pain or stiffness from these nerve inputs as a result of ... muscle spasms and referral pain through a low electrical signal that decreases lactic acid buildup and encourages healthy nerve ...
... with sensory neurons of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus sending axons to the trigeminal motor nucleus, which in turn ... The jaw jerk reflex or the masseter reflex is a stretch reflex used to test the status of a patient's trigeminal nerve (cranial ... This reflex is used to judge the integrity of the upper motor neurons projecting to the trigeminal motor nucleus. Both the ... It is performed when there are other signs of damage to the trigeminal nerve. The clinical presentation of cervical spondylotic ...
... the facial pit is innervated by the trigeminal nerve. In crotalines, information from the pit organ is relayed to the nucleus ... terminal nerve masses, or TNMs). The receptors are therefore not discrete cells, but a part of the trigeminal nerve itself. The ... The nerve fibers in the pit organ are constantly firing at a very low rate. Objects that are within a neutral temperature range ... The sensitivity of the nerve fibers is estimated to be >0.001 °C. The pit organ will adapt to a repeated stimulus; if an ...
Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducent, occulomotor and glossopharyngeal in ... Post mortem examination of cases have found depletion of nerve cells in the nuclei of cranial nerves. The histologic ... It causes progressive bulbar paralysis due to involvement of motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei. The most frequent ... In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. ...
... peripheral trigeminal nerve activates the hypothalamus and the hypothalamus in turn communicates with the trigeminal nucleus ... TACs are caused by activation of the autonomic nervous system of the trigeminal nerve in the face. As of 2015 about 50 cases ... There exists a direct connection between trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which is located in the brain stem, and the posterior ... Depending on which division of the trigeminal nerve innervates the area affected, autonomic symptoms may be less obvious. Short ...
Nerve fibres from the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve have also been documented. These afferents ... synapse with the visceral motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, located in the reticular formation of the brain stem. The efferent ... The reflex is mediated by nerve connections between the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal cranial nerve via the ciliary ... been seen to occur during many pan facial trauma surgeries due to stimulation of any of the three branches of trigeminal nerve ...
... axons transmitting information from the head and neck via the trigeminal nerve synapse at the ventral posteromedial nucleus of ... The internal arcuate fibers are composed of axons of nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus. The axons of the nucleus gracilis ... At the open medulla (further up the brainstem), the medial lemniscus contains axons from the trigeminal nerve (which supplies ... Fibres from these nuclei will pass to the contralateral side of the brainstem, as the internal arcuate fibres. ...
"The independent evolution of the enlargement of the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (PrV) in three different ... and inferior olivary-projecting neurons in the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali of pigeons". 26. Vis Neurosci: 341-347. Cite ...
... zolmitriptan labels within the cells of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and nucleus tractus solitaries. Zolmitriptan has a ... as well it can inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides from trigeminal perivascular nerve endings. It crosses the ...
... the entire length of the spinal cord and into the medulla oblongata where it becomes the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve ... Some of the SGR projects to the posteromarginal nucleus of the spinal cord, or lamina I, and laminae III-V. Most of these ... Many μ and κ-opioid receptors, presynaptic and postsynaptic, are found on these nerve cells; they can be targeted to manage ... The substantia gelatinosa is one point (the nucleus proprius being the other) where first order neurons of the spinothalamic ...
... produced by a mass of grey matter called the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. Swanson (2015). Neuroanatomical Terminology - ... It overlies the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. It is an elevation in the lower part of medulla, lateral to the fasciculus ... The tuberculum cinereum, more properly named trigeminal tubercle, is a raised area between the rootlets of the accessory nerve ...
The signal is interpreted in the trigeminal nerve nuclei, and an efferent nerve fiber signal goes to different parts of the ... fiber signal propagating through the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve to the trigeminal nerve nuclei ... When the trigeminal nerve is directly stimulated, there is the possibility that increased light sensitivity in the ocular nerve ... Stimulation of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve may enhance the irritability of the maxillary branch, resulting in ...
Pontine cranial nerve nuclei *chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Thalamic reticular nucleus. Hypothalamus (limbic system) (HPA axis)[edit]. *Anterior *Medial area *Parts of preoptic area * ... 1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ...
... one hypothesized cause is that the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve leads to nystagmus in individuals suffering from ... Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to be inhibitory for the commissures of the medial vestibular nucleus, the ... Naturally, the nerve conduction slows with aging and a decreased vibratory sensation is common. Additionally, there is a ... Other suggested causes of vestibular migraines include the following: unilateral neuronal instability of the vestibular nerve, ...
The reflex is mediated by: the nasociliary branch of the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) sensing the ... nucleus) is located in the pons of the brainstem. Use of contact lenses may diminish or abolish the testing of this reflex. The ... Damage to the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve results in absent corneal reflex when the affected eye is ... stimulus on the cornea only (afferent fiber). the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (CN VII) initiating the ...
Sensory information flows from whisker follicles to barrel cortex via the trigeminal nerve nuclei and the thalamus. Barrel like ... The paralemniscal pathway runs from the interpolar trigeminal nucleus via posterior nucleus (POm) of the thalamus to S2 and to ... Projections from the trigeminal nuclei to the thalamus are split into pathways designated lemniscal, extralemniscal, and ... afferent fibres from the follicles into the brainstem where they connect to neurons in four different trigeminal nerve nuclei: ...
The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) provides information concerning the general texture of food as well as the taste-related ... "Glossopharyngeal Nerve Transection Eliminates Quinine-Stimulated Fos-Like Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract ... Both the lesser palatine and the zygomatic are maxillary nerves (from the trigeminal nerve). The special visceral afferents of ... The lingual nerve (trigeminal, not shown in diagram) is deeply interconnected with the chorda tympani in that it provides all ...
... trigeminal nerve - polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These ... magnocellular nuclei and reticular nuclei of pontine tegmentum). The reticular activating system begins in the dorsal part of ... and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons originate from the raphe nuclei within the brainstem as well; the ... and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus of pons and midbrain (LDT) nuclei [17, 18]. The hypothalamic projection involves ...
... the trigeminal nerve (V), the facial nerve (VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the vagus nerve (X) and the accessory nerve ... XI). cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) "branchiomotor nuclei". TheFreeDictionary.com ... Some sources prefer the term "branchiomotor" or "branchial efferent". The only nerves containing SVE fibers are cranial nerves ... Special visceral efferent fibers (SVE) are the efferent nerve fibers that provide motor innervation to the muscles of the ...
... and from the trigeminal nerve, as well as from visual and auditory systems. It sends fibers to deep cerebellar nuclei that, in ... The interposed nucleus is smaller than the dentate nucleus but larger than the fastigial nucleus and functions to modulate ... The origin of the cerebellum is in close association with that of the nuclei of the vestibular cranial nerve and lateral line ... The fastigial nucleus is the most medial efferent cerebellar nucleus, targeting the pontine and medullary reticular formation ...
The vagus nerve is an unusual cranial parasympathetic in that it doesn't join the trigeminal nerve in order to get to its ... has parasympathetic functions that originate in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve and the nucleus ambiguus in the CNS. ... Specific nerves include several cranial nerves, specifically the oculomotor nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and ... Several parasympathetic nerves come off the vagus nerve as it enters the thorax. One nerve is the recurrent laryngeal nerve, ...
... refers specifically to neurons that lie medial to and intermingled with the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve and ... mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal, or laterodorsal tegmental nucleus), so it is not unique to the pre-LC. That is, every ... The nuclei of pre-LC neurons are labeled in green, for FoxP2 (see above regarding FoxP2 as a marker for pre-LC neurons). Based ... Pre-LC neurons in rats are found just rostral to one of the best-known nuclei in the brainstem, the LC, hence the name "pre-LC ...
... nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) mid-pons: the motor nucleus for the trigeminal nerve (V) lower down in the ... the spinal and principal trigeminal nerve nuclei, which form the general somatic afferent column (GSA) of the trigeminal nerve ... facial nerve nucleus (VII) lower down in the pons: vestibulocochlear nuclei (vestibular nuclei and cochlear nuclei) (VIII) The ... of the facial nerve. A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the pons: mid-pons: the 'chief' or 'pontine' ...
... trigeminal ganglion) via sensory nerves endings. At the nerve ganglion the virus enters a latent phase and remains dormant ... The cytoplasms of the infected cells fuse, collectively forming giant cells with many nuclei. The balloon cells and multi- ... where it travels within axons to reach ganglionic nerve bodies. HSV-1 most commonly infects the trigeminal ganglia, where it ... rendering them the ability to affect adjacent epithelial cells and even the sensory axons of the trigeminal nerve. ...
... thalamic reticular nucleus, locus coeruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, olfactory ... Other examples of functional gap junctions detected in vivo are in the striatum, cerebellum, and suprachiasmatic nucleus. The ... Compared to chemical synapses, electrical synapses conduct nerve impulses faster, but, unlike chemical synapses, they lack gain ...
... thalamic reticular nucleus, locus coeruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, ventral ... "chemical nerve synapse". The chemical nerve synapse is the synapse most often truncated to the more ambiguous term "nerve ... By tracing nerve development in leeches with gap junction expression suppressed it was shown that the bidirectional gap ... Well before the demonstration of the "gap" in gap junctions they were seen at the junction of neighboring nerve cells. The ...
The principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve represents touch and position information of the head and face, but not ... Nearby important structures include the cranial nerve nuclei of the oculomotor (3rd) and trochlear (4th) nerve nuclei, which ... The facial motor nucleus and the superior salivary nucleus of the facial nerve are located within the pontine tegmentum. The ... The pontine tegmentum contains nuclei of the cranial nerves (trigeminal (5th), abducens (6th), facial (7th), and ...
The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... In somatosensory transduction, the afferent neurons transmit messages through synapses in the dorsal column nuclei, where ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ...
Radiation treatments are vitally necessary but may damage nerves near the target area or within the delivery path as nerve ... Radiation therapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic ... AT differs from conventional radiation therapy in several aspects; it neither relies upon radioactive nuclei to cause cellular ... capillary damage and nerve demyelination.[25] Subsequent damage occurs from vascular constriction and nerve compression due to ...
However during times of stress AHV-1 may move to nerve roots from nerve ganglia and "induce herpetic lesions", a visible ... DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off host cell synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other macro ... Primary latency sites in carries are the trigeminal ganglion, lymphoid tissue, and blood lymphocytes. The latency sites of APV- ... "Duck enteritis virus UL54 is an IE protein primarily located in the nucleus". Virology Journal. 12 (1): 198. doi:10.1186/s12985 ...
... one hypothesized cause is that the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve leads to nystagmus in individuals suffering from ... Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to be inhibitory for the commissures of the medial vestibular nucleus, the ... Naturally, the nerve conduction slows with aging and a decreased vibratory sensation is common.[26] Additionally, there is a ... Other suggested causes of vestibular migraines include the following: unilateral neuronal instability of the vestibular nerve, ...
Nerves *cranial. *trigeminal. *cervical. *brachial. *lumbosacral plexus. *somatosensory. *spinal. *autonomic. *Physiology * ...
... trigeminal nucleus, cerebellum, and spinal cord. However, PCD of neurons due to Bax deletion or Bcl-2 overexpression does not ... Cowan, WN (2001). "Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini: the path to the discovery of nerve growth factor". Annual Review ... Experiments that further supported this theory led to the identification of the first neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor ... by the formation of large vacuoles that eat away organelles in a specific sequence prior to the destruction of the nucleus.) ...
The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. ... The nucleus ambiguus, which form the special visceral efferent.. *The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory ... The spinal trigeminal nerve nuclei which contains the general somatic afferent column. ... They are caused by masses of gray matter known as the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus. The soma (cell bodies) in these ...
... nucleus ambiguus, solitary nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, pontine micturition center, ventral respiratory group, and ... Evidence suggest that OX1 neurons that synapse onto the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve and parts of the brain stem may play ... tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. ... the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus.[2][8] The ...
The most inferior of the spinal nerves, the coccygeal nerve leaves the spinal cord at the level of the conus medullaris via ... Intermediolateral nucleus. *Posterior thoracic nucleus. Anterior grey column. *Interneuron. *Alpha motor neuron *Onuf's nucleus ... In addition, it is surrounded by the nerves forming the cauda equina, from which it can be easily recognized by its bluish- ... However, adhering to the outer surface of the filum terminale are a few strands of nerve fibres which probably represent ...
PSN(英语:Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve). *脊髓核(英语:Spinal trigeminal nucleus) ... 闭孔内肌神经(英语:Obturator internus nerve). *梨状肌神经(英语:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... superior laryngeal nerve(英语:superior laryngeal nerve) *external laryngeal nerve(英语:external laryngeal nerve) ... Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve
... reaching the mesencephalic tract and the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve.. Although it was known that finger ... Proprioception of the head stems from the muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve, where the GSA fibers pass without ... Using Sherrington's system, physiologists and anatomists search for specialised nerve endings that transmit mechanical data on ... There are specific nerve receptors for this form of perception termed "proprioreceptors", just as there are specific receptors ...
Nucleus. *Branches *no significant branches. trigeminal. *Nuclei *PSN. *Spinal trigeminal nucleus. *MN ... The meningeal branch of vagus nerve (dural branch) is a recurrent filament given off from the jugular ganglion; it is ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meningeal_branch_of_vagus_nerve&oldid=657028818" ...
Radiation treatments may damage nerves near the target area or within the delivery path as nerve tissue is also radiosensitive. ... Radiation therapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic ... AT differs from conventional radiation therapy in several aspects; it neither relies upon radioactive nuclei to cause cellular ... capillary damage and nerve demyelination.[33] Subsequent damage occurs from vascular constriction and nerve compression due to ...
Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... trigeminal ganglia and superior cervical ganglia.[23][29] The viability of these mice was poor.[23] The BDNF-knockout mice had ... The activated JNK translocates into the nucleus, where it phosphorylates and transactivates c-Jun.[23][28] The transactivation ... and maintenance of nerve cells. They are small proteins that secrete into the nervous system to help keep nerve cells alive. ...
Oxytocin, most of which is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is one of the few hormones ... The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei located in the hypothalamus, project axons ... the majority of which is released from the supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. ...
PSN(英語:Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve). *脊髓核(英語:Spinal trigeminal nucleus) ... 閉孔內肌神經(英語:Obturator internus nerve). *梨狀肌神經(英語:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神經(英語:Cutaneous nerve): 股後皮神經(英語:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... 足底內側神經(英語:medial plantar nerve) (趾足底總神經(英語:common plantar digital nerves of medial plantar nerve) ... 神經學家常以體檢
迷走神經背核(英語:Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve) ... Trigeminal lemniscus(英語:Trigeminal lemniscus). *脊髓丘腦束. *Lateral ... nuclei(英語:List of thalamic nuclei). *paired: AN(英語:Anterior nuclei of thalamus) ... VP(英語:Ventral posterior nucleus)/VPM(英語:Ventral posteromedial nucleus)/VPL(英語:Ventral posterolateral nucleus) ... 基底核的結構,在兩張腦的切面中展示。藍色:尾狀核(Caudate nucleus)、核殼(英語:putamen);綠色
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... 1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... The medial globus pallidus acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. ...
inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... A bundle of nerve fibers (axons) connecting neighboring or distant nuclei of the CNS is a tract.. ...
The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei ... also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.[1] Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and ... In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) ...
Without this Hoxb-1 expression, a nerve similar to the trigeminal nerve arises. ... around the nucleus elongates and contracts in association with the centrosome to guide the nucleus to its final destination.[18 ... Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen purified the first trophic factor, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF ... They also showed that the synaptogenic signal is produced by the nerve, and they identified the factor as Agrin. Agrin induces ...
Facial nerve: the facial nerve's nuclei are in the brainstem (they are represented in the diagram as a „θ"). Orange: nerves ... Cranial nerve. disease. *V Trigeminal neuralgia. *Anesthesia dolorosa. *VII Facial nerve paralysis ... The nerve can be thought of as a bundle of smaller individual nerve connections that branch out to their proper destinations. ... It is thought that as a result of inflammation of the facial nerve, pressure is produced on the nerve where it exits the skull ...
... motor division of the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear and hypoglossal nerves.[63] ... Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal ... The latter consists of sensory nerves that transmit information from sense organs and motor nerves that influence target organs ... the nerves form a nerve net, but in most animals they are organized longitudinally into bundles. In simple animals, receptor ...
... and trochlear nerve (IV); the pons has the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ...
Cranial nerve. disease. *V Trigeminal neuralgia. *Anesthesia dolorosa. *VII Facial nerve paralysis ... The nerve cells have their body (the soma) in the spinal cord and a long projection (the axon) that carries electrical nerve ... The nerve dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome is caused by an immune attack on the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous ... Directly assessing nerve conduction of electrical impulses can exclude other causes of acute muscle weakness, as well as ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... 1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ...
... if sensation is in parts of the head or neck not covered by the cervical nerves, it will be the trigeminal nerve ganglia or the ... Cuneatus sends signals to the cochlear nucleus indirectly via spinal grey matter, this info is used in determining if a ... Merkel cell nerve endings are found in the basal epidermis and hair follicles; they react to low vibrations (5-15 Hz) and deep ... The first neuron always has its cell body in the dorsal root ganglion of the spinal nerve ( ...
... nucleus in the pons.[2] The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The medial vestibulospinal tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus or Schwalbe's nucleus.[2] The Schwalbe's nucleus ...
Hypoglossal nucleus. *Nucleus ambiguus. *Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve. *Inferior salivatory nucleus ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... 1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking ... The anterior olfactory nucleus projects, via the anterior commissure, to the contralateral olfactory bulb, inhibiting it. The ... Olfaction, taste, and trigeminal receptors (also called chemesthesis) together contribute to flavor. The human tongue can ... Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key-lock system: if the airborne molecules of a certain chemical can fit into the ...
... "main sensory nucleus" or "primary nucleus" or "principal nucleus") The spinal trigeminal nucleus The spinal trigeminal nucleus ... The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, ... There is also a distinct trigeminal motor nucleus that is medial to the chief sensory nucleus. Photic sneeze reflex Trigeminal ... Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent ( ...
... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei ... The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Trigeminal_nerve_nuclei". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
The mesencephalic nucleus is one of four trigeminal nerve nuclei, three sensory and one motor. The other two sensory nuclei are ... The mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve is involved with reflex proprioception of the periodontium and of the muscles of ... lesions of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus cause effects on feeding. The mesencephalic nucleus can be thought of simply as ... Cody FW, Lee RW, Taylor A (1972). "A functional analysis of the components of the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth nerve in ...
The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem ... There is also a distinct trigeminal motor nucleus that is medial to the chief sensory nucleus. ... Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view. ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Trigeminal_nerve_nuclei&oldid=690649" ...
principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve (Science: anatomy, nerve) The term commonly used to designate the nucleus pontis ... Synonym: nucleus sensorius principalis nervi trigemini, nucleus sensorius superior nervi trigemini, principal sensory nucleus ... located in pons lateral to the motor trigeminal nucleus; receives primary sensory (touch and pressure) input via the trigeminal ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Principal_sensory_nucleus_of_trigeminal_nerve&oldid= ...
What is sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve? Meaning of sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve as a legal term. What does ... sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve mean in law? ... Definition of sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve in the ... Related to sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve: spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve, ... Sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve legal definition of sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve https://legal-dictionary. ...
Trigeminal Nerve (GSA) 1st order - Trigeminal ganglion (semilunar, Gaussian) 2nd order - ... ANAT 2646 Trigeminal and Facial Nerves from ANAT 2646 at Life Chiropractic College West. ... Trigeminal Nerve (GSA) • 1st order - Trigeminal ganglion (semilunar, Gaussian) • 2nd order - Trigeminal nuclei - mesencephalic ... nasal and oral mucosa Facial Nerve • Cutaneous to the ear - 1st order - geniculate ganglion2nd order spinal trigeminal nucleus ...
Intralaminar nucleus, VPM = Ventral posteromedial nucleus, Main V = Main trigeminal nucleus, Spinal V = Spinal trigeminal ... The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve-the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2) and the mandibular nerve ( ... The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor ... Mesencephalic nucleus[edit]. The mesencephalic nucleus is not a true nucleus; it is a sensory ganglion (like the trigeminal ...
... spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve explanation free. What is spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve? Meaning of spinal nucleus of ... trigeminal nerve medical term. What does spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. spi·nal nu·cle·us of tri·gem·i·nal nerve. [TA] the long sensory nucleus extending from the ...
Gross anatomy The motor nucleus is a paired structure located within the mid-to-upper pons (tegmentum). It lies anteromedial to ... The motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is the only motor nucleus of the four main trigeminal nerve nuclei. ... The motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is the only motor nucleus of the four main trigeminal nerve nuclei. ... Motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Assoc Prof Craig Hacking ◉ ◈ and Dr Chris Rothe et al. ...
... the main trigeminal nucleus, and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus.. The three parts of the trigeminal nucleus receive ... Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus is not really a "nucleus." Rather, it is a sensory ... IL = Intralaminar nucleus. VPM = Ventral posteromedial nucleus. Main V = Main trigeminal nucleus. Spinal V = Spinal trigeminal ... Motor branches of the trigeminal nerve. Motor branches of the trigeminal nerve are distributed in the mandibular nerve. These ...
... along the course of the principle sensory nucleus and spinal nucleus of the right trigeminal nerve. Sagittal (b1), coronal (b2 ... along the course of the principal sensory nucleus and spinal nucleus of the right trigeminal nerve. No definite contrast ... along the course of the principal sensory nucleus and spinal nucleus of the right trigeminal nerve. No definite contrast ... Slight enhancement of the right V1, V2, and the cisterna right trigeminal nerve was detected (Figures 1 and 2). ...
Trigeminal Nerve / cytology * Trigeminal Nuclei / cytology* Substances * Receptors, GABA * Receptors, Glycine Grant support * ...
trigeminal spinal tract synonyms, trigeminal spinal tract pronunciation, trigeminal spinal tract translation, English ... dictionary definition of trigeminal spinal tract. pamphlet or leaflet; an extended area of land: a housing tract Not to be ... Related to trigeminal spinal tract: spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. tract. pamphlet or leaflet; an extended area of land: a ... nerve pathway, nerve tract, pathway. optic radiation, radiatio optica - a nerve pathway from the lateral geniculate body to the ...
Ctx = cortex; nuc = nucleus; V nuc = motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. ... ctx = cortex; RF = medullary reticular formation; PAG = periaqueductal grey of midbrain; nuc = nucleus. 1 = Structures with ... and roof nuclei of cerebellum (right panel of bottom row) (see text for details). All images are at ×400. ... and thalamic nuclei (bottom row). Mild olivary pathology was often associated with plaque-like, immunoreactive processes (left ...
The main purpose of the trigeminal nucleus is to... ... The trigeminal nucleus is the base of the trigeminal nerve in ... The trigeminal nerve is also called cranial nerve V. The trigeminal nerve is also called cranial nerve V. It carries sensation ... The trigeminal nucleus is the base of the trigeminal nerve in the brain stem. It is the place where all sensations from the ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus receives information about pain and temperature in the face, while the main nucleus is the ...
... control unit that is implanted within the patient and that is configured to apply at least one stimulus to a trigeminal nerve ... Methods of treating a patient with a psychiatric disorder include applying at least one stimulus to a trigeminal nerve within ... These nerve fibers may synapse in the same brainstem nuclei as the nerve fibers of the trigeminal nerve. Since the trigeminal ... the trigeminal nerve (100), the trigeminal ganglia (102), a branch of the trigeminal nerve (100), the greater occipital nerve(s ...
Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve; DTN, dorsal tegmental nucleus; 4V, fourth ventricle; VCA, ventral cochlear nucleus, ... 1997) Urinary bladder response to hypogastric nerve stimulation after bilateral resection of the pelvic nerve or spinal cord ... nuclei raphe magnus, and the reticular formation (gigantocellular reticular nuclei) (Fig. 9A-C). Besides FG-labeled cells in ... 18 intercostal nerve segments) as described previously (Lee et al., 2002b). The nerve segments were slightly inserted into both ...
Topographical representations of the muscles of mastication in the nucleus of the mesencephalic tract of the trigeminal nerve ... Topographical representations of the muscles of mastication in the nucleus of the mesencephalic tract of the trigeminal nerve ... Topographical representations of the muscles of mastication in the nucleus of the mesencephalic tract of the trigeminal nerve ... Topographical representations of the muscles of mastication in the nucleus of the mesencephalic tract of the trigeminal nerve ...
... the activation of AMPA receptors thus inducing Glu release from nerve terminals isolated from the rat trigeminal caudal nucleus ... TCN). Nerve endings isolated from the rat TCN were loaded with [3H]D-aspartic acid ([3H]D-ASP), layered into thermostated ... The nucleus caudalis of the trigeminal spinal tract is widely acknowledged to play an integral role in the brain stem ... the activation of AMPA receptors thus inducing Glu release from nerve terminals isolated from the rat trigeminal caudal nucleus ...
... the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) and the rostral sector of the posterior complex (POm). This paper compares the ... The rodent barrel field cortex integrates somatosensory information from two separate thalamic nuclei, ... Thalamic Nuclei / anatomy & histology * Thalamic Nuclei / cytology * Thalamic Nuclei / physiology* * Trigeminal Nerve / ... Trigeminal receptive fields (RFs) of POm and VPM cells were mapped by computer-controlled displacement of individual whiskers; ...
The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei ... also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.[1] Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and ... In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) ...
So thats the trigeminal nerve, nerve 5. Now next we come to the junction of the ... nerves. From medial to lateral, they are the abducens nerve, nerve 6, the facial nerve, which is the seventh cranial nerve, and ... The rootlets of the vagus nerve just below the glossopharyngeal nerve. So the vagus nerve is cranial nerve 10. Cranial nerve 11 ... So trochlear nerve, nerve 4, nerve 5, is this very large protruding nerve, very ...
These include the trigeminal motor nucleus, facial nucleus and nerve, the trigeminal sensory and solitary tract nuclei, pons, ... facial cranial nerve motor; VP, trigeminal principal nucleus; VSN, trigeminal spinal tract nucleus. ... and nucleus accumbens), paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and trigeminal motor nucleus. Regions that showed significantly ... septal nuclei; sptV, spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve; STR, striatum; TH, thalamus; VL, lateral ventricle; VTA, ventral ...
Principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve; VIIIs, superior vestibular nucleus; BC, brachium conjuctivum; NRT, nucleus ... nucleus cuneiformis;NCS, nucleus centralis superior; NL, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus; NRPo, nucleus reticularis pontis ... oralis; NRT, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis; PDB, predorsal bundle;PN, pontine nuclei; VT, ventral tegmental nucleus (of ... The sections are 1125 μm (A) and 1275 μm (B) posterior to the caudal pole of the trochlear nucleus. A1 ,B1 , Higher power ...
then these cranial nerve nucleus include. trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus.. And then theres motor nucleus for trigeminal ... A number of cranial nerve nucleus are localized in pons and. ... And then theres abducens nucleus.. Theres facial nerve ... There are many nucleus in our pons.. ... 1.2.2 Cranial nerves13:47. 1.2.3 Ascending and descending ...
Artificial modulation of the afferent vagus nerve - a powerful entrance to the brain - affects a large number of physiological ... Artificial modulation of the afferent vagus nerve - a powerful entrance to the brain - affects a large number of physiological ... Electrical stimulation of the auricular vagus nerve (aVNS) is an emerging electroceutical technology in the field of ... Electrical stimulation of the auricular vagus nerve (aVNS) is an emerging electroceutical technology in the field of ...
Trigeminal nerve-trigeminal nucleus-. CEREBELLAR CORTEX AND INTERPOSITUS NUCLEUS OF CEREBELLUM are important because both are ... the glucodetectors also initiate afferent signals through the vagus nerve to the nucleus of the solitary tract, relaying to the ... Cerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus do the learning by receiving info about tone and air puff, interpositus nucleus ... T or F after removal from the brain, neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus cease following circadian cycle ...
Trigeminal nerve nuclei. The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through ... Trigeminal nerve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (688 words). The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Lacrimal Nerve is ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Maxillary nerve ...
... basal nucleus explanation free. What is basal nucleus? Meaning of basal nucleus medical term. What does basal nucleus mean? ... Looking for online definition of basal nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? ... motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal motor nucleus.. Synonym: masticatory nucleus. noradrenergic nucleus. A ... or the spinal trigeminal nucleus. trigeminal spinal nucleus. spinal trigeminal nucleus.. trochlear nucleus. A nucleus of the ...
  • The mesencephalic nucleus can thus be considered functionally as a sensory ganglion embedded within the brainstem, making it neuroanatomically unique[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, instead of joining the trigeminal ganglion, the neurons migrate into the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve-the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ) and the mandibular nerve (V 3 )-converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of incoming sensory-nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal ganglion is analogous to the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord, which contain the cell bodies of incoming sensory fibers from the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the trigeminal ganglion a single, large sensory root enters the brainstem at the level of the pons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor fibers pass through the trigeminal ganglion without synapsing on their way to peripheral muscles, but their cell bodies are located in the nucleus of the fifth nerve, deep within the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three branches converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion ), that is located within Meckel's cave , and contains the cell bodies of incoming sensory nerve fibers. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein said trigeminal nerve comprises at least one or more of a trigeminal ganglion and a branch of said trigeminal nerve. (google.de)
  • In this study, we examined interactions between P2X7 receptors and AMPA receptors co-expressed on primary afferents that from trigeminal ganglion (TG) project into the trigeminal caudal nucleus (TCN) of the rat brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings support the hypothesis of direct involvement by virus theory, reflecting rostral viral transmission along the gasserian ganglion to the trigeminal nuclei at brainstem and caudal spreading along the descending tract of CN V. (hindawi.com)
  • Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. (statemaster.com)
  • At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is a hole that transmits the mandibular nerve, the otic ganglion, the accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins (from the cavernous sinus to the pterygoid plexus) and the lesser superficial petrosal nerve. (statemaster.com)
  • A large basal ganglion nucleus shaped like a tadpole. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 It receives dense sensory innervation from the trigeminal ganglion and, in some species, modest autonomic innervation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Under certain conditions, the virus reactivates and travels to the dermatome corresponding to its nucleus or ganglion, producing the typical painful, vesicular rash of shingles. (jabfm.org)
  • After the primary infection, the virus spreads from the infected epithelial cells to nearby sensory nerve endings and is transported along the nerve axon to the cell body located in the trigeminal ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • Primary infection of any of the 3 (ie, ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular) branches of cranial nerve V can lead to latent infection of nerve cells in the trigeminal ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • The fibers of the trigeminal nerve that constitute the larger, or posterior, root pass from the brain stem to the apex of the temporal bone, where the trigeminal ganglion is located. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three branches depart from the trigeminal ganglion, as follows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bernd P, Represa J (1989) Characterization and localization of nerve growth factor receptors in the embryonic otic vesicle and cochleovestibular ganglion. (springer.com)
  • Carmignoto G, Maffei L, Candeo P, Canella R, Comelli C (1989) Effect of NGF on the survival of rat retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve section. (springer.com)
  • There are three branches of the nerve that have their sensory synapses in the trigeminal ganglion: the ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3). (utmb.edu)
  • 3-5 The sympathetic nervous system constricts cerebral blood vessels via cervical sympathetic nerves, 3 and the parasympathetic nervous system dilates the cerebral vasculature through the action of the facial nerve via the sphenopalatine ganglion. (bmj.com)
  • 4 The afferents of the trigeminal nerve input synapse onto the trigemino-cervical complex of the upper cervical cord, which activates the parasympathetic reflex through the sphenopalatine ganglion via the superior salivatory nucleus, dilating blood vessels. (bmj.com)
  • Within the jugular foramen, the glossopharyngeal nerve forms the superior ganglion (the glossopharyngeal neve is also associated with an inferior ganglion). (bionity.com)
  • Neuropathic pain is a persistent or chronic pain syndrome that can result from damage to the nervous system, the peripheral nerves, the dorsal root ganglion or dorsal root, or to the central nervous system. (google.com)
  • After a primary infection of the oral cavity, the virus migrates along the axons of the trigeminal nerve to reach the cell bodies of sensory neurons within the trigeminal ganglion (TG), where it establishes life-long latency ( 1 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The somatic sensory fibres have their cell bodies in the inferior vagal ganglion and synapse with the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve within the medulla. (gpnotebook.co.uk)
  • The special visceral sensory fibres have their cell bodies in the inferior vagal ganglion and synapse in the nucleus of tractus solitarius. (gpnotebook.co.uk)
  • It continues posteriorly and emerges from the cavernous sinus in Meckel's cave , where it pierces the meninges to enter the concave surface of the trigeminal ganglion . (kenhub.com)
  • The sensory ganglion cells lie in the superior and inferior ganglia of the nerve. (radiopaedia.org)
  • These fibers are carried in the lesser petrosal nerve via the tympanic branch to the otic ganglion . (radiopaedia.org)
  • the lesser petrosal nerve exits the cranium via the foramen ovale and synapses in the otic ganglion . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Neurons of this nucleus are pseudounipolar that receive proprioceptive information from the mandible and send projections to the trigeminal motor nucleus to mediate monosynaptic jaw jerk reflexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mesencephalic nucleus is the only structure in the central nervous system to contain the cell bodies of first order sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pseudounipolar neurons in the mesencephalic nucleus are embryologically derived from the neural crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this research project was to use the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracer technique to establish a topographical relationship between individual muscles of mastication and the specific neurons of the mesencephalic nucleus of V that serve each muscle of mastication . (musc.edu)
  • P2X7 receptors are widely expressed by several cell types involved in pain transmission, including the neurons, microglia, satellite glial cells, and astrocytes located in the dorsal root ganglia, the trigeminal ganglia, and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Located in the pons of the brain stem, the neurons of the main nucleus are arranged in a map of the face. (wisegeek.com)
  • In their pioneering effort to test this hypothesis, Edwards and Henkel (1978) described a rostrocaudal gradient of the number of tectal neurons projecting to the region of the abducens nucleus. (jneurosci.org)
  • The loss of substantia nigra neurons, which project to the caudate nucleus and putamen , results in depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine in these areas. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Unlike in visually foraging chicken, most trigeminal neurons in ducks are touch receptors, which develop following a unique pattern of neurotrophic factor receptor expression and produce robust mechano-current via the Piezo2 channel with novel properties. (pnas.org)
  • The pioneering investigations of Levi-Montalcini and coworkers established that nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important physiological regulator of neurons of the peripheral nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Allendoerfer KL, Shelton DL, Shooter EM, Shatz CJ (1990) Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity is transiently associated with the subplate neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex. (springer.com)
  • Ayer-LeLievre C, Olson L, Ebendal T, Seiger A, Persson H (1988b) Expression of the beta-nerve growth factor gene in hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Batchelor PE, Armstrong DM, Blaker SM, Gage FH (1989) Nerve growth factor receptor and choline acetyltransferase colocalization in neurons within the rat forebrain: response to fimbria-fornix transection. (springer.com)
  • Second-order neurons then cross and ascend as the trigeminothalamic tract to the contralateral ventro-posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus. (springer.com)
  • A thread-like axon (nerve fiber) extends from the neuron, often branching repeatedly, to provide functional connections to other neurons located at its endings (terminals), sometimes at remote locations within the nervous system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The soma (cell bodies) in these nuclei are the second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway , and their axons, called the internal arcuate fibers or fasciculi, decussate from one side of the medulla to the other to form the medial lemniscus . (wikipedia.org)
  • It accumulates in the nuclei of the infected neurons, where it can easily be visualized by applying in situ hybridization ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Such migraine trigger and the wave of depolarization induce the activation of neurons of the trigeminal nerve, which release chemical substances inducing the dilation of blood vessels and inflammation, which directly cause migraine headache ( Figure 2 ). (termedia.pl)
  • 7,11) The third migratory pathway is formed by neurons destined to become the inferior olivary nucleus (IO). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, motor nuclei are closer to the front (ventral), and sensory nuclei and neurons are closer to the back (dorsal). (wikipedia.org)
  • The bed nuclei lie lateral to the columns of the fornix and dorsal to the anterior commissure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The descending trigeminal nucleus consists of dorsal (DTNd) and ventral (DTNv) components. (umich.edu)
  • Harting, J. K., Huerta, M. F., Hashikawa, T. & van Lieshout, D. P. Projection of the mammalian superior colliculus upon the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus: organization of tectogeniculate pathways in nineteen species. (nature.com)
  • Anatomical 11.7T MRI shows a dispersion of the trigeminal tract ( tt ) into a ventral and dorsal portion. (springer.com)
  • 2016 ). Figure 1 depicts two trigeminothalamic tracts sprouting from the principal sensory nucleus (PSN), the ventral- and dorsal trigeminothalamic tract ( vtt and dtt , respectively). (springer.com)
  • A group of ChAT-IR cells lies dorsal to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • On a neuroanatomical level, differentiation of the visceral efferent column of the vagus into a dorsal motor nucleus (i.e. (umd.edu)
  • Disruption of the Frizzled3 (Fz3) gene leads to defects in axonal growth in the VII(th) and XII(th) cranial motor nerves, the phrenic nerve, and the dorsal motor nerve in fore- and hindlimbs. (nih.gov)
  • In Fz3(-/-) limbs, dorsal axons stall at a precise location in the nerve plexus, and, in contrast to the phenotypes of several other axon path-finding mutants, Fz3(-/-) dorsal axons do not reroute to other trajectories. (nih.gov)
  • Lesions can involve the substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray matter within the midbrain, inferior colliculus, inferior olivary nuclei, inferior cerebellar peduncles, medulla, solitary tract in the medulla, central tegmental tract and reticular formation in the dorsal pons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The patient visited his family physician, who diagnosed him with shingles in the V1 distribution of the trigeminal nerve. (jabfm.org)
  • Shingles in the V1 distribution of the Trigeminal Nerve. (jabfm.org)
  • Primary HSV-1 infection occurs most commonly in the mucocutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The goal of this article will be to discuss the anatomy, pathway, and distribution of the trigeminal nerve. (kenhub.com)
  • The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, pons and medulla, and into the high cervical spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem , midbrain to medulla . (bionity.com)
  • The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch , pain , and temperature from the ipsilateral face. (wikipedia.org)
  • A long, thin nucleus of the branchial motor column in the medulla. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Entering fibers of the trigeminal sensory root project medially to terminate in the medial trigeminal nucleus, located along the medial wall of the rostral medulla. (umich.edu)
  • Other entering sensory fibers turn caudally within the medulla, forming the trigeminal spinal tract, and terminate within the descending trigeminal nucleus. (umich.edu)
  • Fibers of the trigeminal spinal tract descend through the lateral alar medulla and into the dorsolateral cervical spinal cord. (umich.edu)
  • Fibers exit the spinal tract throughout its length, projecting to the ventral descending trigeminal nucleus (DTNv) in the medulla and to the funicular nucleus at the obex. (umich.edu)
  • The facial nerve and the two components of the vestibulocochlear nerve, for example, emerge from and enter the brain stem at the junction of the pons, medulla, and cerebellum. (vt.edu)
  • either of a pair of composite nerves rising from the side of the medulla, and with three great branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The word bulbar can refer to the nerves and tracts connected to the medulla, and also by association to those muscles innervated , such as those of the tongue , pharynx and larynx . (wikipedia.org)
  • It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla , just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve . (bionity.com)
  • From the medulla oblongata , the glossopharyngeal nerve passes laterally across the flocculus, and leaves the skull through the central part of the jugular foramen, in a separate sheath of the dura mater , lateral to and in front of the vagus and accessory nerves. (bionity.com)
  • There are four nuclei in the lower pons and medulla. (radiopaedia.org)
  • It exits the medulla oblongata from the postolivary sulcus, the glossopharyngeal nerve passes laterally across the flocculus , and leaves the skull through the pars nervosa of the jugular foramen in a separate sheath of the dura mater . (radiopaedia.org)
  • receives primary sensory ( touch and pressure ) input via the trigeminal nerve , projects to ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus . (biology-online.org)
  • A correlation matrix of pathologic severity also was calculated between distinct anatomic regions of involvement (striatum, substantia nigra, olivary and pontine nuclei, hippocampus, forebrain and thalamus, anterior cingulate and neocortex, and white matter of cerebrum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum). (nih.gov)
  • However, several cases had the presence of isolated Lewy body-like inclusions at atypical sites (e.g. thalamus, deep cerebellar nuclei) that are not typical for Lewy body-spectrum disease. (nih.gov)
  • This nucleus projects to the ventral posteriomedial (VPM) nucleus in the contralateral thalamus via the ventral trigeminal tract . (wikipedia.org)
  • Three nuclei, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), and parabigeminal nucleus (PBG), are traditionally identified as the main sources of cholinergic projections to other brainstem nuclei and to the thalamus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These μ-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas. (drugs.com)
  • DRGX is also important for the formation of the whisker-related somatosensory maps in the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, thalamus and somatosensory cortex. (mybiosource.com)
  • Its name ("trigeminal" = tri- , or three, and - geminus , or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons ) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ), and the mandibular nerve (V 3 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor division of the trigeminal nerve derives from the basal plate of the embryonic pons , and the sensory division originates in the cranial neural crest . (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor nucleus is a paired structure located within the mid-to-upper pons ( tegmentum ). (radiopaedia.org)
  • MRI performed one month after the onset revealed small hypersignal-T2 in the right dorsolateral mid-pons and from the right dorsolateral aspect of the pontomedullary region to the right dorsolateral aspect of the upper cervical cord, along the course of the principal sensory nucleus and spinal nucleus of the right trigeminal nerve. (hindawi.com)
  • There are many nucleus in our pons. (coursera.org)
  • There's facial nerve nucleus in the pons area. (coursera.org)
  • Horizontal section through the lower part of the pons showing the spinal trigeminal nucleus (#11). (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor nuclei for the trigeminal nerve lie in the upper pons. (vt.edu)
  • The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory, whereas the mandibular nerve supplies motor as well as sensory (or "cutaneous") functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, teeth on one side of the jaw can be numbed by injecting the mandibular nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mandibular nerve (V 3 ) carries sensory information from the lower lip, the lower teeth and gums, the chin and jaw (except the angle of the jaw, which is supplied by C2-C3), parts of the external ear and parts of the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its name ("trigeminal" = triplets with a common origin) derives from the fact that it has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ), and the mandibular nerve (V 3 ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The mandibular nerve has both sensory and motor functions. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Motor fibers of the eye are distributed (together with sensory fibers) in branches of the mandibular nerve. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The mandibular nerve carries touch/position and pain/temperature sensation from the mouth. (thefullwiki.org)
  • It does not carry taste sensation (chorda tympani is responsible for taste), but one of its branches, the lingual nerve carries multiple types of nerve fibers that do not originate in the mandibular nerve . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. (statemaster.com)
  • While all three trigeminal branches carry sensory information, only the mandibular branch carries motor input. (statemaster.com)
  • Somatosensory innervation is provided by the maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX). (medscape.com)
  • Pertinent to burning mouth syndrome (BMS), the lingual branch of the mandibular nerve (V3) supplies the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. (medscape.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve takes part in many reflexes, including the corneal and mandibular (jaw) reflex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The phrenic nerve provides both motor and sensory innervation to the diaphragm, while the trigeminal nerve carries sensation from the mandibular teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This medical illustration shows the trigeminal nerve and its branches to the face, teeth and jaws, the maxillary, mandibular, lingual and inferior alveolar nerves. (smartimagebase.com)
  • It is characterized by unilateral pain following the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V (typically radiating to the maxillary or mandibular area in 35% of affected patients) and is often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. (medscape.com)
  • And then there's abducens nucleus. (coursera.org)
  • It lies in the floor of the fourth ventricle near the midline, and it is the origin of the abducens nerve (CN VI). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The superior fovea has a triangular shape that is an important landmark for the motor nucleus of the trigeminal, abducens, and facial nerves. (thejns.org)
  • The inferior maxillary nerve (which is joined to the smaller, or anterior, root of the trigeminal nerve, containing the motor fibers) leaves the skull through the foramen ovale and innervates the skin of the lower part of the face, the mucosa of the cheeks and tongue, the lower jaw, and the muscles of mastication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They are caused by the largest nuclei of the olivary bodies, the inferior olivary nuclei . (wikipedia.org)
  • A discrete group of ChAT-IR cells is located in the sagulum, and additional cells are scattered in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A few studies have identified cholinergic effects in other brainstem auditory nuclei, such as the inferior colliculus (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pubmed ID: 25793729 Auditory brainstem implantation at the cochlear nuclei used mainly for neurofibromatosis type 2 patients with bilateral loss of the cochlear nerves has more recently been extended to the inferior colliculus. (jove.com)
  • The nasociliary nerve divides off the ophthalmic division just before entering the orbit through the superior orbital fissure and through the tendinous ring between the inferior and superior divisions of the oculomotor nerve . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The autonomic parasympathetic fibers arise in the inferior salivary nucleus . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The evoked potential is generated in the cochlea, goes through the cochlear nerve, through the cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain, on to the medial geniculate body, and finally to the auditory cortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I wave originated from the peripheral portion of eighth cranial nerve adjacent to cochlea, II wave from cochlear nucleus, III wave from superior olivary nucleus, IV wave from lateral lemniscus, and V wave from inferior colliculus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is also a distinct trigeminal motor nucleus that is medial to the chief sensory nucleus. (bionity.com)
  • The rodent barrel field cortex integrates somatosensory information from two separate thalamic nuclei, the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) and the rostral sector of the posterior complex (POm). (nih.gov)
  • At th anterior and medial part of the Sphenoid is a circular aperture, the foramen rotundum, for the transmission of the maxillary nerve. (statemaster.com)
  • The anterior thalamic nucleus sends axons to medial cerebral cortices: the cingulate gyrus, the anterior limbic area, and the parahippocampal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Horseradish peroxidase histochemical studies of afferent and efferent projections of the trigeminal nerve in two species of chondrostean fishes revealed medial, descending and ascending projections. (umich.edu)
  • The patient developed acute reactivation HZ in the V1 distribution of the right trigeminal nerve involving the forehead, scalp, and medial upper eyelid 13 days after being treated with auricular acupuncture for chronic low-back pain. (jabfm.org)
  • From this nucleus the fibers pass forward through the tegmentum , the red nucleus , and the medial part of the substantia nigra , forming a series of curves with a lateral convexity, and emerge from the oculomotor sulcus on the medial side of the cerebral peduncle . (statemaster.com)
  • The posterior scalp and the neck are innervated by C2-C3, not by the trigeminal nerve. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Additionally, I suggest that the posterior atlas irritated the anterolateral aspect of the brainstem, irritating any combination of the bottom seven cranial nerves. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Casas-Torremocha, D., Clasca, F. & Nunez, A. Posterior thalamic nucleus modulation of tactile stimuli processing in rat motor and primary somatosensory cortices. (nature.com)
  • The internal laryngeal nerve descends within the carotid sheath posterior to the internal carotid artery and then passes anteromedially at the level of thyrohyoid membrane. (gpnotebook.co.uk)
  • Additionally, the zygomatic , pterygopalatine , and the posterior superior alveolar nerves unite at the opening of the foramen rotundum to form the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve. (kenhub.com)
  • The nucleus of the oculomotor nerve does not consist of a continuous column of cells, but is broken up into a number of smaller nuclei, which are arranged in two groups, anterior and posterior. (statemaster.com)
  • Those of the posterior group are six in number, five of which are symmetrical on the two sides of the middle line, while the sixth is centrally placed and is common to the nerves of both sides. (statemaster.com)
  • More lateral, but also less posterior, are the general somatic afferent nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal motor nucleus innervates the muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor veli palatini, and tensor tympani. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ophthalmic (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the superior orbital fissure and innervates the upper eyelids, the conjunctiva, the skin of the forehead, and the anterior part of the scalp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The superior maxillary (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, enters the pterygopalatine fossa, and innervates the skin of the lower lid, the cheek and nose, the mucosa of the nasal cavity, and the upper jaw. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Trigeminal (V) innervates jaw. (coursehero.com)
  • showed that the trigeminal nerve also innervates the cochlear nucleus and the superior olivary complex [36]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Induction of spreading depression has been shown to cause vasodilation in meningeal vessels by a reflex dependent on trigeminal and parasympathetic pathways [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusions Delivery of 100 Hz EA to the trigeminal nerve area reduces HR and increases parasympathetic nervous activity and cerebral blood flow. (bmj.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that this reflex can be modulated by the vagus nerve, leading to an inhibition of the parasympathetic output of the reflex in healthy participants. (neurology.org)
  • ChAT-immunoreactive (ChAT-IR) cells comprise several prominent groups, including the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and parabigeminal nucleus, as well as the cranial nerve somatic motor and parasympathetic nuclei. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is the accessory parasympathetic nucleus of the oculomotor nerve, supplying the constricting muscles of the iris. (statemaster.com)
  • [1] Adding to the complexity of this nerve is the fact that autonomic nerve fibers as well as special sensory fibers (taste) are contained within it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background The autonomic nervous system and trigeminal nerve are involved in adjusting flow through diverging cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) to the trigeminal nerve area on cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system function. (bmj.com)
  • 2 The autonomic nervous system and afferent nerves of the trigeminal nerve area participate in adjusting flow through diverging cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex. (bmj.com)
  • Objective The trigeminal autonomic reflex is a physiologic reflex that plays a crucial role in primary headache and particularly in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, such as cluster headache. (neurology.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize neural correlates of the modulatory effect of noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) on the trigeminal autonomic reflex. (neurology.org)
  • A nearby nucleus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, is responsible for the autonomic functions of the oculomotor nerve, including pupillary constriction and lens accommodation. (statemaster.com)
  • Just lateral to this are the autonomic (or visceral) efferent nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • This area is a bit below the autonomic motor nuclei, and includes the nucleus ambiguus, facial nerve nucleus, as well as the motor part of the trigeminal nerve nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among otologists, Jack Pulec was always acknowledged as an innovator, whether he was injecting eustachian tubes with Teflon, sectioning trigeminal nerves , or reconsidering surgery of the facial nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Facial nerve nucleus in brainstem separated between upper and lower face. (coursehero.com)
  • Posteriorly the transversely coursing fibers of the facial nerve intervene between the motor trigeminal and superior vestibular nuclei. (docme.ru)
  • Artificial modulation of the afferent vagus nerve - a powerful entrance to the brain - affects a large number of physiological processes implicating interactions between the brain and body. (frontiersin.org)
  • The gag reflex is absent in patients with damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve as it is responsible for the afferent limb of the reflex. (bionity.com)
  • It is a purely sensory nerve that carries afferent stimuli of pain , light touch , and temperature from the upper eyelids and supraorbital region of the face, up to the vertex of the head. (kenhub.com)
  • For example, binding of PRR can lead to activation of the afferent vagus nerve, which communicates neuronal signals via the lower brain stem (nucleus tractus solitarius) to higher brain centers such as the hypothalamus and amygdala. (biologists.org)
  • Near the sulcus limitans are the visceral afferent nuclei, namely the solitary tract nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have been told it is not MS or Trigeminal Neuralgia even though a lot of my pain patterns seem to follow branches of the TN nerves or nucleus from brain, into tmj joint, face, teeth and nucleus at cervical spine. (medhelp.org)
  • I have had three neurologists rule on trigeminal neuralgia. (medhelp.org)
  • I have had three neurologists rule out trigeminal neuralgia. (medhelp.org)
  • I currently have 16 Meniere's syndrome, two Parkinson's disease, two Trigeminal neuralgia and two Bell's palsy patients under my care. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Neuropathic pain (neuralgia) is a pain that comes from problems with signals from the nerves. (amazonaws.com)
  • The most common disease of the trigeminal nerve is neuralgia, manifested by attacks of acute pain in the zone of innervation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a distinctive facial pain syndrome that may become recurrent and chronic. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic demonstration of demyelination in primary trigeminal neuralgia. (medscape.com)
  • Neuropathic pain syndromes include allodynia, various neuralgias such as post herpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia, phantom pain, and complex regional pain syndromes, such as reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia. (google.com)
  • Sensory fibers from other cranial nerves, such as the facial and the glossopharyngeal, also feedback there. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the origin of motor axons in both the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, and its axons innervate the muscles of swallowing and vocalization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcification can lead to compression of the adjacent structures that are innervated by the glossopharyngeal and trigeminal nerves and the chorda tympani. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal , vagus , and accessory nerves . (bionity.com)
  • Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal , vagus , and accessory nerves . (bionity.com)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve pairs of cranial nerves . (bionity.com)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve, being mostly sensory, does not have a cranial nerve nucleus of its own. (bionity.com)
  • We investigated the possibility that ATP plays a permissive role in the activation of AMPA receptors thus inducing Glu release from nerve terminals isolated from the rat trigeminal caudal nucleus (TCN). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The caudal pole of the nucleus begins 2 mm above the oral pole of the facial nucleus and from this point it extends rostrally, terminating at the level at which the heavily pigmented cells of the locus coeruleus first appear. (docme.ru)
  • Results nVNS prompted an increase in activation of the left pontine nucleus and a decreased activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus. (neurology.org)
  • Psychophysiologic interaction analyses revealed an increased functional connectivity between the left pontine nucleus and the right hypothalamus and a decreased functional connectivity between the right parahippocampal gyrus and the bilateral spinal trigeminal nuclei (sTN). (neurology.org)
  • Conclusions These findings indicate a complex network involved in the modulatory effect of nVNS including the hypothalamus, the sTN, the pontine nucleus, and the parahippocampal gyrus. (neurology.org)
  • After acute varicella zoster infection, the virus migrates up sensory axons and becomes latent in regional ganglia or nuclei, where it remains dormant, often for years. (jabfm.org)
  • Trigeminal nerve nuclei and thoracic spinal ganglia are the most commonly affected. (jabfm.org)
  • Both pain fibers have input from the trigeminal ganglia to the spinal nucleus, with subsequent synapses leading to the postcentral gyrus and the reticular activating system. (utmb.edu)
  • Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus which establishes lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia (TG). (asm.org)
  • Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve. (jabfm.org)
  • T H E HUMAN MOTOR TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS A QUANTITATIVE STUDY J. TOMASCH AND A. J. MALPASS' Department of Anatomy, Queen's University, Eingston, On.tario, Canada FIVE FIGURES The morphological study of the human brain stem up to date has been centered chiefly on the description of fiber tracts and nuclei. (docme.ru)
  • Click here for the gross anatomy of the cranial nerves (First Year Medicine ANAT1006 ). (videohelp.com)
  • However, the exact anatomy of the central portion of the trigeminal pathways in humans remains a point of discussion. (springer.com)
  • However, they also conclude that the exact anatomy of the trigeminal pathways in the human brainstem remain elusive (Solstrand Dahlberg et al. (springer.com)
  • Defects in the XII th cranial (hypoglossal) and phrenic nerves in Fz3 −/− embryos. (nih.gov)
  • The trigeminal nerve divides into three main branches, one of which, the ophthalmic branch, provides corneal innervation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Other diseases of the trigeminal nerve, including neuritis and infection with the virus of herpes zoster, are accompanied by sensory and motor disturbances in the zone of innervation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • And the remaining nerves that are more complex, contain several components including the innervation of the branchial arch musculature (e.g. (videohelp.com)
  • C - E′ ) Innervation of facial muscles by the VII th nerve in sagittal ( C - D′ ) and coronal ( E and E′ ) sections. (nih.gov)
  • The motor nucleus lies in the upper part of the nucleus ambiguus which receives bilateral supranuclear innervation from the corticobulbar fibers . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Electrical stimulation of the auricular vagus nerve (aVNS) is an emerging electroceutical technology in the field of bioelectronic medicine with applications in therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • After the first fMRI session, the participants received either sham vagus nerve stimulation or nVNS outside the scanner and underwent a subsequent fMRI session. (neurology.org)
  • Note: The glossopharyneal nerve contributes in the formation of the pharyngeal plexus along with the vagus nerve. (bionity.com)
  • The internal laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. (gpnotebook.co.uk)
  • Section through superior colliculus showing path of oculomotor nerve . (statemaster.com)
  • The fibers of the oculomotor nerve arise from a nucleus in the midbrain , which lies in the gray substance of the floor of the cerebral aqueduct and extends in front of the aqueduct for a short distance into the floor of the third ventricle . (statemaster.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. (statemaster.com)
  • The nucleus of the oculomotor nerve, considered from a physiological standpoint, can be subdivided into several smaller groups of cells, each group controlling a particular muscle. (statemaster.com)
  • Close to the midline are the motor efferent nuclei, such as the oculomotor nucleus, which control skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve is involved with reflex proprioception of the periodontium and of the muscles of mastication in the jaw that functions to prevent biting down hard enough to lose a tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporomandibular joints and the Golgi tendon organs of the jaw muscles do not project to the mesencephalic nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve houses the cell bodies that innervate all of the muscles derived from the first pharyngeal arch. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Topographical representations of the muscles of mastication in the nucleus of the mesencephalic. (musc.edu)
  • Orbital imaging showed no abnormality of bilateral optic nerves/chiasm, extraocular muscles, and globes. (hindawi.com)
  • Facial expressions are mediated by muscles, cranial nerves, and the CNS pathways i. (coursehero.com)
  • The nuclei of the cranial nerves, other than those for the eye muscles, have, to our knowledge, not been considered from a quantitative point of view. (docme.ru)
  • Some say pain comes from the zygapophyseal joints, some from the muscles, others from the nerve root compression from the intervertebral foramen or disk, and finally, others from the disk itself. (chiro.org)
  • Fluorescent labeling highlights the nerves (green), muscles (orange), and cell nuclei (blue). (faseb.org)
  • CN V1 travels in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus below CN IV (trochlear nerve) and above CN V2 . (kenhub.com)
  • All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six- to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice underwent trigeminal stereotactic electrolysis (TSE) to destroy the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. (arvojournals.org)
  • The areas of cutaneous distribution (dermatomes) of the three sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve have sharp borders with relatively little overlap (unlike dermatomes in the rest of the body, which have considerable overlap). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. (statemaster.com)
  • The acronym MOM can be used to recall the three branches of the trigeminal nerve. (kenhub.com)
  • The ophthalmic branch is the first division of the trigeminal nerve. (kenhub.com)
  • The branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve are summarized below. (kenhub.com)
  • Like the ophthalmic branch, the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V2) is a purely sensory entity that carries impulses from the midface. (kenhub.com)
  • P2X7 receptors expressed on glutamatergic nerve terminals in the rat TCN can mediate Glu release directly and indirectly by facilitating the activation of presynaptic AMPA receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main trigeminal nucleus carries information from different receptors that convey the feeling of touch on the face. (wisegeek.com)
  • In mice, this thalamic nucleus has significant amounts of expression of leptin receptors, NPY and GLP-1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bernd P (1985) Appearance of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured neural crest cells. (springer.com)
  • Research on drugs that incorporate artificial antibodies, which merge with the CGRP before it reaches nerve receptors in the brain, is in its early stages. (tbilaw.com)
  • Pain can be experienced when the free nerve endings which constitute the pain receptors in the skin as well as in certain internal tissues are subjected to mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli. (google.com)
  • Here, we present the molecular characterization of embryonic duck bill, which we show contains a high density of mechanosensory corpuscles innervated by functional rapidly adapting trigeminal afferents. (pnas.org)
  • The locations of the cell bodies where cranial nerve afferents terminate or cranial nerve efferents originate , can be predicted to some extent from the embryology of the brainstem. (videohelp.com)
  • They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. (drugs.com)
  • The most rostral of the thalamic nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Retrograde transport of HRP through sensory root fibers also revealed an ascending bundle of fibers that constitutes the neurites of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, cell bodies of which are located in the rostral optic tectum. (umich.edu)
  • Retrograde transport of HRP through motor root fibers labeled ipsilateral cells of the trigeminal motor nucleus, located in the rostral branchiomeric motor column. (umich.edu)
  • The red nucleus is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination. (statemaster.com)
  • The central processes pass to the nucleus of the tractus solitarius , conveying taste sensation, and to the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve conveying somatic sensation. (radiopaedia.org)
  • To subserve this reflex protective function, mechanoreceptive nerves in the periodontal ligament sense tooth movement and project to the mesencephalic nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mesencephalic nucleus is one of four trigeminal nerve nuclei, three sensory and one motor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike many nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS), the mesencephalic nucleus contains no chemical synapses but are electrically coupled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, because of its reflex function, the mesencephalic nucleus can be tested with the jaw jerk reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its function in oral proprioception, lesions of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus cause effects on feeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mesencephalic nucleus can be thought of simply as the "nucleus that keeps your teeth in" by preventing one from biting down hard enough to lose a tooth on foods containing eg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The positive results for each individual muscle indicated a definite topographical representation in the mesencephalic nucleus of V which was carefully plotted . (musc.edu)
  • it receives the fibers of the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve that descend along its lateral border as the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve [TA]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The spinal trigeminal nucleus receives information about pain and temperature in the face, while the main nucleus is the destination of information about touch and position. (wisegeek.com)
  • [1] Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V , VII , IX , and X . (wikipedia.org)
  • This nucleus receives axons from the mammillary body via the mammillothalamic tract, from the hippocampus via the fornix, and from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Once formed, the ophthalmic nerve also receives its meningeal tributary from the dura of the anterior cranial fossa. (kenhub.com)
  • Recently, however, a bilateral projection of each hemiface was hypothesized, based on animal studies that showed the coexistence of an additional trigeminothalamic tract sprouting from the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus that ascends ipsilaterally. (springer.com)
  • The motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is the only motor nucleus of the four main trigeminal nerve nuclei. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The fifth nerve is primarily a sensory nerve, but it also has certain motor functions (biting, chewing, and swallowing). (thefullwiki.org)
  • And then there's motor nucleus for trigeminal nerve. (coursera.org)
  • A nucleus of the somatic motor column in the hindbrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The human motor trigeminal nucleus. (docme.ru)
  • Because it forms a well defined cell group, we selected for our study the motor trigeminal nucleus. (docme.ru)
  • Latcrally the root fibers of I t e fifth cranial nerve separate the motor from the main sensory trigeminal nucleus. (docme.ru)
  • Its functional relationship to the motor trigeminal nucleus itself is undecided. (docme.ru)
  • It was found that the left nucleus was also of a slightly greater cross sec- H U M A N MOTOR TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS 93 tional area. (docme.ru)
  • Spinal nerves contain both motor and sensory components. (videohelp.com)
  • Electrical stimulation of axons (for example, those found in a motor nerve) that induces axonal action potentials, which propagate back to the neuronal cell body. (biologists.org)
  • The output of these CPGs, often measured as recordings of motor nerves, is referred to as fictive behavior, as the patterns of nerve activity closely match those that occur during in vivo behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Research in the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of peripheral neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, motor neuron diseases including ALS and SMA, nerve injuries and muscle diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • It supplies motor fibres to stylopharyngeus muscle, the only motor component of this cranial nerve. (bionity.com)
  • DMNX) and a ventrolateral motor nucleus (i.e. (umd.edu)
  • This is the fifth of twelve pairs of cranial nerves that are responsible for transmitting numerous motor, sensory, and autonomous stimuli to structures of the head and neck . (kenhub.com)
  • While the trigeminal nerve (CN V) is largely a sensory nerve, it also mingles in the realm of motor supply. (kenhub.com)
  • Neuroanatomy, Nucleus Trigeminal. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Knowledge of the exact neuroanatomy of the trigeminal tracts will contribute to the understanding of orofacial pain and its treatment. (springer.com)
  • It lies anteromedial to the main sensory nucleus and adjacent to the lateral aspect of the floor of the fourth ventricle . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve: Visceral pain as well as somatic sensory fibers from the skin of the outer ear. (bionity.com)
  • A limbic nucleus that sits at the ventral head of the striatum, contiguous with the caudate and putamen and adjacent to the olfactory tubercle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anterior olfactory nucleus, which is distinct in most mammals, is sparse in primates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although the tracts and nuclei of the cranial nerves are intricate, they can be systematised in terms of their function components contained within each nerve. (videohelp.com)
  • Three post-mortem human brainstems were scanned for anatomical and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging at 11.7T. The trigeminal tracts were delineated in each brainstem using track density imaging (TDI) and tractography. (springer.com)
  • 2018 ). In 2016, a review of tracing studies in animals and functional MRI studies in humans provided an overview of the trigeminal tracts in the brainstem (Henssen et al. (springer.com)
  • It has four nuclei that send fibers to form its tracts and is associated with three separate branches. (kenhub.com)
  • Slight enhancement of the right V1, V2, and the cisterna right trigeminal nerve was detected. (hindawi.com)
  • In the upper cervical spine region, the trigeminocervical nucleus is an area of convergence of sensory nerve fibers originating from both the trigeminal nerve and the upper spinal nerves. (spine-health.com)
  • The spinal nucleus is composed of three subnuclei: subnucleus oralis (pars oralis), subnucleus caudalis (pars caudalis), and subnucleus interpolaris (pars interpolaris). (wikipedia.org)
  • The subnucleus oralis is associated with the transmission of discriminative (fine) tactile sense from the orofacial region, and is continuous with the principal sensory nucleus of V . The subnucleus interpolaris is also associated with the transmission of tactile sense, as well as dental pain , whereas the subnucleus caudalis is associated with the transmission of nociception and thermal sensations from the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ventrally and mcdially lie the cells of the nucleus pontis centralis caudalis. (docme.ru)
  • The brain's trigeminal nucleus caudalis system becomes overactive, according to The Journal. (tbilaw.com)
  • Photic sneeze reflex Trigeminal nerve Dissection of brain-stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • An initial brain MRI was unremarkable and she was diagnosed with trigeminal cephalalgia and treated symptomatically. (hindawi.com)
  • The trigeminal nucleus is the base of the trigeminal nerve in the brain stem. (wisegeek.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is also called cranial nerve V. It carries sensation from nerve fibers in the face to the brain for processing. (wisegeek.com)
  • Pain and temperature, and touch or pressure, are relayed to the nucleus, but with different pathways through the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • The trigeminal nucleus is close to the parts of the brain stem that regulate breathing and heart rate. (wisegeek.com)
  • Further, since all of the cranial nerves arise from the brain stem, tumors or injuries in this region will often impinge on the functions of more than one nucleus. (wisegeek.com)
  • To develop a mouse model of neurotrophic keratopathy by approaching the trigeminal nerve through the brain and to evaluate changes in corneal cell apoptosis and proliferation. (arvojournals.org)
  • 7 While most brain regions do not register or transmit pain signals, the trigeminal nerve network does. (mercola.com)
  • Pain is relayed through the trigeminal network to an area in your brain stem called the trigeminal nucleus. (mercola.com)
  • The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve are located in the brain stem. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Buck CR, Martinez HJ, Black IB, Chao MV (1987) Developmentally regulated expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene in the periphery and brain. (springer.com)
  • In reality, during a migraine nerve endings in the brain go awry. (tbilaw.com)
  • The most widely accepted hypothesis of migraine suggests that a migraine attack is precipitated when pain-sensing nerve cells in the brain (called nociceptors) release chemicals called neuropeptides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves form a synapse first at these nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few ChAT-IR cells are found in the cochlear nucleus and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The maxillary nerve (V 2 ) carries sensory information from the lower eyelid and cheek, the nares and upper lip, the upper teeth and gums, the nasal mucosa, the palate and roof of the pharynx, the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses and parts of the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The nerves unite within the superior orbital fissure to form the ophthalmic division. (kenhub.com)