Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.NF-kappa B p50 Subunit: A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Mice, Inbred C57BLEnhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Thiocarbamates: Carbamates in which the -CO- group has been replaced by a -CS- group.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Transcription Initiation, Genetic: The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ... Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the domain in winged-helix transcription factors (see Regulation of gene expression) has ... Winged-Helix+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Winged-helix_transcription_factors&oldid=730546101" ...
"Entrez Gene: TCF2 transcription factor 2, hepatic; LF-B3; variant hepatic nuclear factor". Montoli A, Colussi G, Massa O, ... HNF1 homeobox B (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B), also known as HNF1B or transcription factor 2 (TCF2), is a human gene ... "Abnormal nephron development associated with a frameshift mutation in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta ... TCF2 encodes transcription factor 2, a protein of the homeobox-containing basic helix-turn-helix family. The TCF2 protein is ...
Michelotti EF, Michelotti GA, Aronsohn AI, Levens D (1996). "Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is a transcription ... Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HNRNPK gene. This gene belongs to the ... Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and Y-box-binding protein". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (20): 15498-503. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Miau LH, Chang CJ, Shen BJ, Tsai WH, Lee SC (1998). "Identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) as a ...
... is one of the seven members of the Hes gene family (HES1-7). Hes genes code nuclear proteins that suppress transcription. ... Transcription factor HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1) is a protein that is encoded by the Hes1 gene, and is the mammalian ... The C-terminal WRPW domain inhibits transcription. Similarly to other HES proteins, Hes1 has been shown to interact with the co ... It is a transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. The protein has a particular ...
DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export, and tubule- ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the ...
DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Salmonidae serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Viral replication is nuclear, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral glycoproteins ...
The method of transcription is dsDNA(RT) transcription. The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export, and tubule-guided ... Viral replication is nuclear/cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... nuclear pore export. Parasitoid wasps in the subfamilies Banchinae and Campopleginae serve as hosts, but these wasps are ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Haliotidae molluscs serve as the ...
Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFYA gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: NFYA nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha". Yamada K, Osawa H, Granner DK (October 1999). "Identification of ... Maity SN, de Crombrugghe B (May 1998). "Role of the CCAAT-binding protein CBF/NF-Y in transcription". Trends in Biochemical ... Bevilacqua MA, Faniello MC, Iovine B, Russo T, Cimino F, Costanzo F (November 2002). "Transcription factor NF-Y regulates ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Glossina species serve as the natural ...
Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFYB gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: NFYB nuclear transcription factor Y, beta". Imbriano C, Bolognese F, Gurtner A, Piaggio G, Mantovani R (Jul 2001 ... Maity SN, de Crombrugghe B (Jun 1998). "Role of the CCAAT-binding protein CBF/NF-Y in transcription". Trends Biochem Sci. 23 (5 ... A potential role for CArG-box binding factor-A in kappa transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (30): 18881-90. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
They also control transcription, and process nuclear transport. The research associated with chromosomal instability is ... Hatch EM, Fischer AH, Deerinck TJ, Hetzer MW (July 2013). "Catastrophic nuclear envelope collapse in cancer cell micronuclei". ...
DNA templated transcription is the method of transcription. Molluscs serve as the natural host. Malacoherpesviridae may have ... Viral replication is nuclear, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral glycoproteins ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... nuclear pore export. Parasitoid wasps serve as hosts for the virus, and Lepidoptera serve as hosts for these wasps. The female ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... nuclear envelope breakdown, and nuclear pore export. Insects and marine crustaceans serve as the natural host. Transmission ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Musca domestica serve as the natural ...
Viral replication is nuclear/cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. The method of transcription is ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export, and tubule-guided viral movement. Monocots and family poaceae serve as ... dsDNA(RT) transcription. Translation takes place by leaky scanning, and ribosomal shunting. ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... nuclear pore export. Transmission routes are parental. The replication of the Bracovirus occurs within the ovaries of a ...
Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus infects an unusually wide ...
Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFYC gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: NFYC nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma". Joglekar MV, Patil D, Joglekar VM, Rao GV, Reddy DN, Mitnala S, ... Martinelli R, Heintz N (1994). "H1TF2A, the large subunit of a heterodimeric, glutamine-rich CCAAT-binding transcription factor ... coordinate regulation by transcription factors Oct-1 and NF-Y". Oncogene. 22 (49): 7762-73. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207091. PMID ...
Viral replication is nuclear, and is lysogenic. Dna templated transcription is the method of transcription. Molluscs serve as ...
Nuclear matrix (Nucleoskeleton). *Nucleoplasm (Nucleosol). *LITAF. *see also transcription factors and intracellular receptors ...
Romanelli MG, Tato' L, Lorenzi P, Morandi C (2004). "Nuclear localization domains in human thyroid transcription factor 2". ... 2004). "Production and application of polyclonal antibody to human thyroid transcription factor 2 reveals thyroid transcription ... 2002). "Thyroid transcription factor-2 gene expression in benign and malignant thyroid lesions". Thyroid. 11 (11): 995-1001. ... "Entrez Gene: FOXE1 forkhead box E1 (thyroid transcription factor 2)". FOXE1 Dixon MJ, Marazita ML, Beaty TH, Murray JC (March ...
It binds to nuclear receptors that regulates gene transcription. They induce keratinocyte differentiation and reduce epidermal ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... 2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • skeletal system morphogenesis. • transcription, DNA-templated. • ...
You are here: Home / Research & PIs / Projects / A - Nuclear Targets, Transcription, Translation ... A - Nuclear Targets, Transcription, Translation * Project A1 - Protein/protein interactions of Ebola virus proteins as targets ... A - Nuclear Targets, Transcription, Translation * Project A1 - Protein/protein interactions of Ebola virus proteins as targets ...
Nuclear domain 10, the site of DNA virus transcription and replication.. Maul GG1. ... The concept of specific nuclear deposition sites may explain the juxtaposition of various nuclear bodies and allows testable ... Within the highly organized nuclear structure, specific nuclear domains (ND10) are defined by accumulations of proteins that ... suggest that ND10 function as nuclear dumps or as nuclear depots. Consistent with the recruitment or deposition of various ...
Nuclear protein CBP is a coactivator for the transcription factor CREB.. Kwok RP1, Lundblad JR, Chrivia JC, Richards JP, ... The transcription factor CREB binds to a DNA element known as the cAMP-regulated enhancer (CRE). CREB is activated through ... We have previously identified a nuclear protein of M(r)265K, CBP, that binds specifically to the PKA-phosphorylated form of ... The activation domain of CBP interacts with the basal transcription factor TFIIB through a domain that is conserved in the ...
The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) has been implicated in the regulation of transcription of a variety of ... Intracellular thiols regulate activation of nuclear factor kappa B and transcription of human immunodeficiency virus. F J Staal ... Intracellular thiols regulate activation of nuclear factor kappa B and transcription of human immunodeficiency virus ... Intracellular thiols regulate activation of nuclear factor kappa B and transcription of human immunodeficiency virus ...
Chemical-induced activation of nuclear transcription factors and their regulation of cytokine secretion.. ... activates nuclear transcription factors, such as NF-kB, NF-IL-6 and AP-1. Unraveling the complex mechanism associated with ...
Nuclear proteins were harvested as described elsewhere (51,52,61,80,81,82,83,84) and assayed for transcription factor binding ... The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been proposed as a critical bridge between oxidant stress and gene ... Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been suggested to participate in chronic disorders, such ... Diabetes-Associated Sustained Activation of the Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-κB. Angelika Bierhaus, Stephan Schiekofer, ...
... www.curriki.org/oer/CELL-SIGNALING-Nuclear-Actin-as-Choreographer-of-Cell-Morphology-and-Transcription-252766 ... CELL SIGNALING: Nuclear Actin as Choreographer of Cell Morphology and Transcription. Website Address:https:// ...
G) Nuclear localization of FKHR1(T24A)-HA in CV1 cells. (H) Nuclear localization of FKHR1(S253A)-HA in CV1 cells. (I) Nuclear ... Protein kinase B/Akt-mediated phosphorylation promotes nuclear exclusion of the winged helix transcription factor FKHR1. ... The negative regulation of nuclear transcription factors by protein phosphorylation generally is manifested as an inhibition of ... Protein kinase B/Akt-mediated phosphorylation promotes nuclear exclusion of the winged helix transcription factor FKHR1 ...
Nuclear transcription factor Y subu.... Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta (CAAT box DNA-binding protein subunit B) ( ... Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit betaImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... tr,F8VSL3,F8VSL3_HUMAN Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=NFYB PE=1 SV=1 ... Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta. ). HUMAN. 207. UniRef90_P25208. Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta. BOVIN ...
Component of the sequence-specific heterotrimeric transcription factor (NF-Y) which specifically recognizes a 5-CCAAT-3 box ... RNA polymerase II transcription regulator complex Source: MGI. *transcription regulator complex Source: MGI ,p>Inferred by ... sp,P70353,NFYC_MOUSE Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit gamma OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Nfyc PE=1 SV=2 ... positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: NTNU_SBInferred from direct assayi*. "NF-Y is essential for ...
Compare Anti-nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... Your search returned 139 nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta Antibodies across 25 suppliers. ... Anti-nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta Antibody Products. Anti-nuclear transcription factor Y subunit beta Antibody ...
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α suppresses steatosis-associated liver cancer by inhibiting PPARγ transcription. ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α suppresses steatosis-associated liver cancer by inhibiting PPARγ transcription. ... We have revealed a protumoral interaction of Akt2 signaling with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and PPARγ, transcription ... In liver, the transcription factor PPARγ promotes metabolic adaptations of lipogenesis and aerobic glycolysis under the control ...
Transcription-coupled changes in nuclear mobility of mammalian cis-regulatory elements. By Bo Gu, Tomek Swigut, Andrew Spencley ... Transcription-coupled changes in nuclear mobility of mammalian cis-regulatory elements. By Bo Gu, Tomek Swigut, Andrew Spencley ... Transcription-coupled changes in nuclear mobility of mammalian cis-regulatory elements Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... SAGA interacting factors confine sub-diffusion of transcribed genes to the nuclear envelope. Nature 441, 770-773 (2006). doi: ...
Nuclear respiratory factor 1 and endurance exercise promote human telomere transcription. By Aurélie Diman, Joanna Boros, ... Nuclear respiratory factor 1 and endurance exercise promote human telomere transcription. By Aurélie Diman, Joanna Boros, ... Nuclear respiratory factor 1 and endurance exercise promote human telomere transcription Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... Control of mitochondrial transcription specificity factors (TFB1M and TFB2M) by nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1 and NRF-2) ...
2013 (English)In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 24Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published ...
RNA Polymerase II Transcription (Homo sapiens) * Generic Transcription Pathway (Homo sapiens) * Nuclear Receptor transcription ... A classic example of bifunctional transcription factors is the family of Nuclear Receptor (NR) proteins. These are DNA-binding ... These coactivator complexes typically nucleate around a MED1 coactivator protein that is directly bound to the NR transcription ... transcription factors that bind certain hormones, vitamins, and other small, diffusible signaling molecules. The non-liganded ...
Strategies to regulate transcription factor-mediated gene positioning and interchromosomal clustering at the nuclear periphery. ... In budding yeast, targeting of active genes to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and interchromosomal clustering is mediated by ... and Gcn4 are necessary and sufficient to promote positioning at the nuclear periphery and interchromosomal clustering. However ... transcription factor (TF) binding sites in the gene promoters. For example, the binding sites for the TFs Put3, Ste12, ...
Nuclear myosin 1 contributes to a chromatin landscape compatible with RNA polymerase II transcription activation.. [Bader ... Nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) is emerging as a regulator of transcription and chromatin organization. Using chromatin ... myosin synergizes with Pol II-associated actin to link the polymerase machinery with permissive chromatin for transcription ... histone methyl transferase Set1/Ash2 to maintain and preserve H3K9acetylation and H3K4trimethylation for active transcription. ...
... we highlight recent advances which demonstrate the importance of transcription factors from the bHLH-PAS and nuclear receptor ... 3. JH-Dependent Transcription Mediated by bHLH-PAS and Nuclear Receptor Proteins. Analysis of JH-inducible genes has identified ... Molecular Mechanisms of Transcription Activation by Juvenile Hormone: A Critical Role for bHLH-PAS and Nuclear Receptor ... Ecdysone is a direct regulator of transcription and, like other steroid hormones acts through a nuclear receptor pathway. The ...
Multiple transcription factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulate IL6 ... Title: Keap1 silencing boosts lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of interleukin 6 via activation of nuclear factor κB in ... Journal Article: Keap1 silencing boosts lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of interleukin 6 via activation of nuclear ... 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; GENES; INFLAMMATION; LIGASES; MACROPHAGES; MICE; MONOCYTES; PHOSPHORYLATION; STRESSES; TRANSCRIPTION ...
A strategy to achieve this in eukaryotic cells is to control the movement of transcription factors across the nuclear envelope ... Dal81 Enhances Stp1- and Stp2-Dependent Transcription Necessitating Negative Modulation by Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Asi1 ... Dal81 Enhances Stp1- and Stp2-Dependent Transcription Necessitating Negative Modulation by Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Asi1 ... Dal81 Enhances Stp1- and Stp2-Dependent Transcription Necessitating Negative Modulation by Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Asi1 ...
Influence of nuclear background on transcription of a maize mitochondrial region associated with Texas male sterile cytoplasm. ... Fertility restoration had no effect on the transcription of atp6. Nuclear background, distinct from fertility restoration, also ... Nuclear restorer genes directed an RNA processing event that apparently decreased the abundance of mature urf13-T transcripts, ... Payne GA, Yoder OC (1978) Effect of the nuclear genome of corn on the sensitivity to Helminthosporium maydis race T-toxin and ...
Nuclear ErbB2 increases RNA Pol I transcription in vivo. To address whether nuclear ErbB2 plays a role in RNA Pol I ... we defined a novel function of nuclear ErbB2 in enhancing rRNA gene transcription by RNA polymerase-I (RNA Pol I). Nuclear ... which is relied on the proceeding transcription. These data support our finding that nuclear ErbB2 increases rDNA transcription ... Nuclear ErbB2 Enhances Translation and Cell Growth by Activating Transcription of Ribosomal RNA Genes. Long-Yuan Li, Hsiuyi ...
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... ... An oscillation in pcna transcription was also observed during light-dark cycles, but again not in constant darkness. Our ... we studied the transcription pattern of clock genes in retina, including clock1a, clock1b, bmal1a (brain and muscle ARNT-Like ... and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Cell proliferation at both sites exhibits a daily rhythm in number of dividing cells. To ...
  • Downstream of anisomycin signalling, a second ERK-dependent pathway, independent of MSK and CREB, was also required for the transcription of Nurr1 and Nor1 . (biochemj.org)
  • Within this context, it is increasingly becoming evident that cell nuclei harbor the potential for an intrinsic signal transduction pathway(s), as indicated by the presence of nuclear enzymes and substrates associated with the synthesis of diacylglycerol and inositol phospholipids. (ahajournals.org)
  • Accordingly, we used genetically engineered mice to test the hypothesis that the cardioprotection afforded by iNOS gene transfer is mediated by COX-2 upregulation via a nuclear factor (NF)-κB-dependent pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, full-length DCNP1 but not the mutants interacted with and repressed the transcriptional activity of BMAL1, a transcription factor that transactivates Nat through the E-box motif. (chinaphar.com)
  • Nuclear DCNP1 represses NAT expression and melatonin biosynthesis by interacting with BMAL1 and repressing its transcriptional activity. (chinaphar.com)
  • APC loss is an early event in tumorigenesis, and causes an increase of nuclear β‐catenin and its transcriptional activity. (embopress.org)
  • These signals confer efficient nuclear export as measured directly by fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP), and they are critical for the function of APC in reducing the transcriptional activity of β‐catenin in complementation assays of APC mutant colorectal cancer cells. (embopress.org)
  • Our evidence indicates that the rate of nuclear export of APC, rather than its nuclear import or steady‐state levels, determines the transcriptional activity of β‐catenin. (embopress.org)
  • EBNA 2 activates transcription from the viral Cp (C promoter) during infection to generate the 120 kb transcript that encodes all nuclear antigens required for immortalization by EBV. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • LP removes NCOR and RBPJ repressive complexes from promoters, enhancers, and matrix-associated deacetylase bodies, whereas E2 activates transcription from distal enhancers. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Since this organism possesses two kinds of morphologically and functionally different nuclei in one cell, it provides an excellent model system to analyse topological requirements for DNA replication and transcription. (biologists.org)
  • The nuclear matrix is the foundation from which this organization is built, providing a scaffold upon which nuclear processes such as DNA replication and transcription occur. (gtmb.org)
  • Replication in the heterochromatic micronucleus occurs in foci-like structures showing spatial and temporal patterns similar to nuclei of higher eukaryotes, demonstrating that these patterns are inherent features of nuclear architecture. (biologists.org)
  • In isolated rat liver nuclei, the nuclear envelope was first found to synthesize in vitro phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate. (ahajournals.org)
  • Publications] Ken Tsutsui: 'Incorporation of exogenous circular DNA into large catenated networks in isolated nuclei.Evidence for involvement of the nuclear scaffold. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We found that c2 transcription occurs in nuclei of C2-Idf/C2 heterozygotes, but mRNA does not accumulate, suggesting that the inhibition is mediated by RNA silencing. (genetics.org)
  • Typically nuclear matrices are obtained following the salt extraction of nuclease-digested nuclei. (gtmb.org)
  • The structure of the nuclear matrix consisting of residual nucleoli, surrounding nuclear pore-lamina complex, and internal matrix is revealed when nuclease-digested nuclei are extracted with salt (e.g., 0.25 M ammonium sulfate). (gtmb.org)
  • Briefly, nuclei are digested with DNAase I followed by extraction with 0.25 M ammonium sulfate, yielding NM1-IF [nuclear matrices (NM) with attached intermediate filaments (IF)] (Sun et al. (gtmb.org)
  • Repression is independent of the location of the GAL4-binding sites relative to the transcription start site. (asm.org)
  • Following B-WICH assembly, NM1 mediates physical recruitment of the histone acetyl transferase PCAF and the histone methyl transferase Set1/Ash2 to maintain and preserve H3K9acetylation and H3K4trimethylation for active transcription. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, glucocorticoid-induced hyperacetylation caused by increased expression of the nuclear cofactor p300 and its histone acetyl transferase activity and decreased expression and activity of histone deacetylases plays an important role in glucocorticoid-induced muscle proteolysis and wasting. (ovid.com)
  • to test the ability of full-length EBNA3C to regulate transcription, EBNA3C (amino acids 11 to 992) was fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4. (asm.org)
  • We have used fluorescence anisotropy measurements to define the equilibrium binding parameters of the phosphoCREB:CBP interaction and report here that CBP can activate transcription through a region in its carboxy terminus. (nih.gov)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigens EBNALP (LP) and EBNA2 (E2) are coexpressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes and are critical for lymphoblastoid cell line outgrowth. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Together, these results suggest that TIP might be a transcription factor involved in regulating the defense response of Arabidopsis to TCV and that its normal role is compromised by interaction with the invading viral CP. (unl.edu)
  • Viral replication is nuclear. (wikipedia.org)