Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Thymosin. A family of heat-stable, polypeptide hormones secreted by the thymus gland. Their biological activities include lymphocytopoiesis, restoration of immunological competence and enhancement of expression of T-cell characteristics and function. They have therapeutic potential in patients having primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases, cancer or diseases related to aging.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An evolutionarily-conserved 10-kDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Two closely related polypeptides (molecular weight 7,000) isolated from the thymus gland. These hormones induce the differentiation of prothymocytes to thymocytes within the thymus. They also cause a delayed impairment of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and are therefore believed to be the agent responsible for myasthenia gravis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Circumscribed masses of foreign or metabolically inactive materials, within the CELL NUCLEUS. Some are VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/36129)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (2/36129)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (3/36129)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Drosophila oogenesis: versatile spn doctors. (4/36129)

Recent work on Drosophila oogenesis has uncovered connections between cell-cycle checkpoints and pattern formation. Genes of the spindle class, which encode double-strand break repair enzymes and RNA helicases, affect oocyte polarity and the decision whether to differentiate as an oocyte or a nurse cell.  (+info)

Meiosis: MeiRNA hits the spot. (5/36129)

The protein Mei2 performs at least two functions required in fission yeast for the switch from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles. One of these functions also requires meiRNA. It appears that meiRNA targets Mei2 to the nucleus, where it can promote the first meiotic division.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (6/36129)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (7/36129)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (8/36129)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

I129 - H-1B - Specialty epub Histones and - Visa to make replaced now. service - liberal atmosphere vetting for an Cultural secret or religion over 21. array - such fame continuing for a time or society under 21.
ab165788 is not available and we regret any inconvenience caused. View our alternatives for ab165788 or you can download the archived datasheet PDF from this page.
Image Credit: Good Search I recently received a comment from someone who included some information about Nut Midline Carcinoma. If you are familiar with this aggressive cancer, and want a blog that focuses on it, heres a link. About Nut Midline Carcinoma.
Molecular cloning and characterisation of a human nuclear protein designated BM28 is reported. On the amino acid level this 892 amino acid protein, migrating on SDS-gels as a 125 kDa polypeptide, shares areas of significant similarity with a recently defined family of early S phase proteins. The members of this family, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm2p, Mcm3p, Cdc46p/Mcm5p, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc21p and the mouse protein P1 are considered to be involved in the onset of DNA replication. The highest similarity was found with Mcm2p (42% identity over the whole length and higher than 75% over a conservative region of 215 amino acid residues), suggesting that BM28 could represent the human homologue of the S. cerevisiae MCM2. Using antibodies raised against the recombinant BM28 the corresponding antigen was found to be localised in the nuclei of various mammalian cells. Microinjection of anti-BM28 antibody into synchronised mouse NIH3T3 or human HeLa cells presents evidence for the ...
We present a systematic analysis of sequence motifs found in metazoan protein factors involved in constitutive pre-mRNA splicing and in alternative splicing regulation. Using profile analysis we constructed a database enriched in protein sequences containing one or more presumptive copies of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM). We provide an accurate alignment of RRMs and structure-based criteria for identifying new RRMs, including many that lack the prototype RNP-1 submotif. We present a comprehensive table of 125 sequences containing 252 RRMs, including 22 previously unreported RRMs in 17 proteins. The presence of a putative RRM in these proteins, which are implicated in a variety of cellular processes, strongly suggests that their function involves binding to RNA. Unreported homologies in the RRM-enriched database to the metazoan SR family of splicing factors are described for an Arg-rich human nuclear protein and two yeast proteins (S. pombe mei2 and S. cerevisiae Npl3). We have rigorously ...
We present a systematic analysis of sequence motifs found in metazoan protein factors involved in constitutive pre-mRNA splicing and in alternative splicing regulation. Using profile analysis we constructed a database enriched in protein sequences containing one or more presumptive copies of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM). We provide an accurate alignment of RRMs and structure-based criteria for identifying new RRMs, including many that lack the prototype RNP-1 submotif. We present a comprehensive table of 125 sequences containing 252 RRMs, including 22 previously unreported RRMs in 17 proteins. The presence of a putative RRM in these proteins, which are implicated in a variety of cellular processes, strongly suggests that their function involves binding to RNA. Unreported homologies in the RRM-enriched database to the metazoan SR family of splicing factors are described for an Arg-rich human nuclear protein and two yeast proteins (S. pombe mei2 and S. cerevisiae Npl3). We have rigorously ...
Active Motif provides a large number of recombinant bromodomain proteins for studies of bromodomain function in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling.
Changes in nuclear proteome inrinmutant reveal the potential downstream targets ofRIN. (a) Nuclear proteins were isolated from wild-type (WT)and rin mutant frui
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Shop Nuclear protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Nuclear protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
DAXX ; BING2 ; DAP6 ; Death domain-associated protein 6 ; Daxx ; hDaxx ; ETS1-associated protein 1 ; EAP1 ; Fas death domain-associated ...
Cavellán, E.; Asp, P.; Percipalle, P.; Farrants, A-Kristin.Ostlund., 2006: The WSTF-SNF2h chromatin remodeling complex interacts with several nuclear proteins in transcription
Adult Nuclear Protein Normal Eye Lysate, 0.1 mg. Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent pattern on SDS-PAGE analysis.
SPIN-2, 0.1 ml. SPIN-2 is a novel nuclear protein that functions to regulate cell cycle progression and this activity is related to the inhibition of apoptosis following the removal of essential growth factors.
POLDIP2鸡多克隆抗体(ab26188)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ICC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab31319 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ELISA…Nucleophosmin抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma is an exceedingly rare subtype of squamous poorly-differentiated carcinoma and is considered one of the most aggressive human solid tumors [1-3]. NUT midline carcinoma is a relatively new entity, that may likely be under-recognized and under-diagnosed. All ages and organs might be affected, but most frequently NUT midline carcinoma arises along the trunk or the head and, in particular, in midline structures such as the mediastinum [1-3]. NUT midline carcinoma is characterized by the pathognomonic chromosomal rearrangement between the NUT gene with either bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) or, less frequently, with BRD3 (on chromosome 9), leading to the fusion genes BRD4-NUT or BRD3-NUT, respectively [1-3]. BRD is a DNA reader that activates transcription by binding to acetyl-modified lysine residues of histone tails [1, 3, 4]. The expression of several oncogenes, including transcription factors and MYC, is epigenetically regulated by BRD. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrapericardial NUT Midline Carcinoma. T2 - Unusual Presentation of a Rare Tumor and Literature Review with Management Considerations. AU - Samples, Stefani. AU - Gleditsch, Katrina. AU - Polimenakos, Anastasios. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Rearrangements in the nuclear protein in testis (NUT) gene cause carcinomas that represent a rare but aggressive tumor type that often present at advanced stages in midline structures. Survival rarely exceeds 12 months from the time of diagnosis. There have been no reports of a primary cardiac presentation, and few studies have reported on the numerous treatment strategies. Given their aggressive and invasive nature, NUT midline carcinomas present a therapeutic dilemma. Treatment may include surgical resection, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy, but no consistently successful treatment has been established. Surgical resection is indicated to reduce symptomatic mass effect whenever present. Novel therapies with bromodomain extra-terminal ...
Excellgen Brahma-related Gene 1 protein, wild type, BRG1, SMARCA4 [RP-22] - Product Name Brahma-related Gene 1, BRG1, SMARCA4 Size 5,000 U Description The wild type human brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) encodes a protein of 1,647 amino acids that contains a conserved domain of the SWI2/SNF2 family necessary for normal mitotic growth and transcription regulation (1-3). BRG1 is an essential component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes
Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the
Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2) is a BET family chromatin adaptor required for expression of cell cycle associated genes and therefore involved in cell cycle progression. Brd2 is expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitors, displays cell cycle-stimulating activity and, when overexpressed, impairs neuronal differentiation. Paradoxically, Brd2 is also detected in differentiating neurons. To shed light on the role of Brd2 in the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation we have looked for Brd2 interacting proteins upon induction of neuronal differentiation. Surprisingly, we have identified the growth factor Pleiotrophin (Ptn). Ptn antagonizes the cell cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation. Moreover, Ptn knockdown reduces neuronal differentiation. Ptn-mediated antagonism of Brd2 has been assessed in a cell differentiation model and in two embryonic processes associated with the neural tube: spinal cord neurogenesis ...
SIAH2 (seven in absentia homolog 2 (Drosophila)), Authors: Jianfei Qi, Zeev Ronai. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Class II transactivator (CIITA) is a global transcriptional coactivator of human leukocyte antigen-D (HLA-D) genes. CIITA contains motifs similar to guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. This report shows that CIITA binds GTP, and mutations in these motifs decrease its GTP-binding and transactivation activity. Substitution of these motifs with analogous sequences from Ras restores CIITA function. CIITA exhibits little GTPase activity, yet mutations in CIITA that confer GTPase activity reduce transcriptional activity. GTP binding by CIITA correlates with nuclear import. Thus, unlike other GTP-binding proteins, CIITA is involved in transcriptional activation that uses GTP binding to facilitate its own nuclear import. ...
The most common mode of healthcare delivery is through personal, face-to-face contact between a healthcare provider and a beneficiary (patient). There is, however, an increasing trend towards the provision of healthcare in the absence of personal contact. This limit of contact during patient care is known as in absentia health care. In Absentia healthcare, or distance medicine, occurs when the patient and care giver are at different locations, but still communicate by audio and video, or sometimes without any personal contact. A face-to-face contact is often a necessary prelude to rendering health care. This, however, may not be necessary for care; in fact current technologies permit with no prior or concurrent contact.[1][2] Some people argue that this type of in absentia medical care may derail the traditional sequences of examination, diagnosis and treatment, and that such a detour may challenge existing values of modern medicine. In absentia care assumes heightened relevance today because ...
Survival time associated PHD finger in Ovarian Cancer 1 (SPOC1) is a novel protein that has not been investigated before. The objective of this research was to investigate and identify endogenous SPOC1 at the cellular level, to characterize its molecular features and to try and identify its putative biological functions. In this study I have been able to show that SPOC1 is a nuclear localized protein that is tightly associated with chromatin in most cell cycle phases. SPOC1 was found to be a very labile protein in the soluble phase with a half-life of approximately 15 minutes, whereas it was stable over hours when associated with chromatin. SPOC1 shows a dynamic regulation in both its expression levels and its chromatin localization through out the cell cycle. During S-phase transition and early S-phase SPOC1 is released from the chromatin and found to localize in the soluble fraction of nuclear lysate and is significantly decreased in its expression levels suggesting that it is degraded. ...
PubMed journal article: Brahma-related gene 1 ameliorates the neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - Huntingtin-associated protein 1 interacts with Ahi1 to regulate cerebellar and brainstem development in mice. AU - Sheng, Guoqing. AU - Xu, Xingshun. AU - Lin, Yung Feng. AU - Wang, Chuan En. AU - Rong, Juan. AU - Cheng, Dongmei. AU - Peng, Junmin. AU - Jiang, Xiaoyan. AU - Li, Shi Hua. AU - Li, Xiao Jiang. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Joubert syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the cerebellum and brainstem, with abnormal decussation in the brain. Mutations in the Abelson helper integration site 1 gene, which encodes the protein AHI1, have been shown to cause Joubert syndrome. In this study, we found that mouse Ahi1 formed a stable complex with huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), which is critical for neonatal development and involved in intracellular trafficking. Hap1-knockout mice showed significantly reduced Ahi1 levels, defective cerebellar development, and abnormal axonal decussation. Suppression of Ahi1 also ...
Orderly progression through the cell cycle is essential to maintain ploidy and stability of the genome. For the transition from G2 into mitosis, upstream checkpoint proteins signal the timing of mitotic entry. Among these are checkpoints to detect completion of DNA replication, the absence of genomic lesions, the doubling of cell mass, and the synthesis of macromolecules. Ultimately, these signals up- or downregulate the inhibitory Y15 phosphorylation of Cdc2, the universal switch for the transition from G2 into mitosis. Through controlling the kinases and phosphatases that phosphorylate and dephosphorylate Y15, these checkpoint-signaling pathways work together to ensure that mitosis is initiated only when it will result in two viable and identical daughters. Although most checkpoints halt cell cycle progression in response to an insult, osmotic stress and limited nutrition actually advance mitotic entry in S. pombe (Young and Fantes 1987; Shiozaki and Russell 1995). It is therefore likely that ...
The amount of cellular proteins is a crucial parameter that is known to vary between cells as a function of the replicative passages, and can be important during physiological aging. The process of protein degradation is known to be performed by a series of enzymatic reactions, ranging from an initial step of protein ubiquitination to their final fragmentation by the proteasome. In this paper we propose a stochastic dynamical model of nuclear proteins concentration resulting from a balance between a constant production of proteins and their degradation by a cooperative enzymatic reaction. The predictions of this model are compared with experimental data obtained by fluorescence measurements of the amount of nuclear proteins in murine tail fibroblast (MTF) undergoing cellular senescence. Our model provides a three-parameter stationary distribution that is in good agreement with the experimental data even during the transition to the senescent state, where the nuclear protein concentration changes
This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the forkhead-associated domain of the Ki-67 antigen. The encoded protein may bind RNA and may play a role in mitosis and cell cycle progression. Multiple pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 5, 10, 12, 15, and 19.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009 ...
High throughput screening Scientists know that the faulty huntingtin protein causes HD, but how it kills cells is not fully known. By screening hundreds of compounds, scientists hope to find one that prevents the aggregation or cleavage of the mutant huntingtin protein - and thereby stops the cells being killed. If successful, they will try this in tissue culture, then examine the effects on animals carrying the faulty HD gene. If the results of both these are successful, the compound can be safety tested in preparation for human trials. ...
Provided herein are methods, compounds, and compositions for reducing expression of huntingtin mRNA and protein in an animal. Such methods, compounds, and compositions are useful to treat, prevent, delay, or ameliorate Huntingtons disease, or a symptom thereof.
NPM1 - NPM1 (untagged)-Human nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin) (NPM1), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
LC3-mHTT-IN-2 (Compound AN2) is a mHTT-LC3 linker compound, which interacts with both mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) and LC3B but not with wtHTT or irrelevant control proteins. LC3-mHTT-IN-2 reduces the levels of mHTT in an allele-selective manner in cultured Huntington disease (HD) mouse neurons. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Legleiter J, Lotz GP, Miller J, Ko J, Ng C, Williams GL, Finkbeiner S, Patterson PH, Muchowski PJ. Monoclonal antibodies recognize distinct conformational epitopes formed by polyglutamine in a mutant huntingtin fragment ...
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I have been continuing to characterise the huntingtin protein samples I am generating in the lab. You can read about my first attempts to map post-translational modifications by mass spec here. Previously I found phosphorylation modifications on the huntingtin protein which are located on the same sites as huntingtin protein derived from human cells which Read More …. ...
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YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether...
Tumor protein 53 (p53) is a critical regulator of cell cycle and apoptosis that is frequently disabled in human tumors. In many tumor types, p53 is deleted or mutated, but in others p53 is inactivated by overexpression or amplification of its negative regulator mouse double minute 2 (MDM2). A high-t …
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Has anyone tried a new product from Sigma for nuclear protein extraction?If so, I would be curious to find out how it worked and if you would recommend this product to others?Please reply to this posting or send an email to [email protected] Thanks, Laki. ...
In collaboration with Dr. Macdonald and others at CHDI, the Isis HD team is working to validate huntingtin lowering biomarkers. Beside the development of assays (investigative procedures) to measure the huntingtin protein in CSF, CHDI is also looking at PET-ligands to measure the effects of ISIS-HTTRx in the brain. The ligand, sometimes called a PET tracer, binds to a target or receptor in the brain, which can be measured in people using PET scan imaging. The team has selected ligands to targets that are altered in HD; the hope is that when huntingtin is lowered the level of these targets will be restored, indicating that ISIS-HTTRx has a desired effect ...
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This review describes the structure and functions of Y-box binding protein 1 ( YB-1) and its homologs. Interactions of YB-1 with DNA, mRNAs, and proteins are considered. Data on the participation of Y
Comparison of thyroid transcription factor-1 expression by 2 monoclonal antibodies in pulmonary and nonpulmonary primary tumors. ...
Background. A promising area of research is the analysis of multiplexed nuclear proteins on a per-cell basis and the correlation of multi-protein-based cell phenotype statistics with clinical patterns. Many believe that capturing this information from individual tumor cells, rather than average values for proteins across tumor cell populations, as obtained in singly stained serial sections, or as average values for proteins across homogenized tumor samples, may hold key information about disease state, and thus offer valuable information for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy selection. Objective. To demonstrate that multicolor IHC staining and multispectral imaging can be used to quantify reliably multiple nuclear proteins on a per-cell basis, without significant inter-stain interference or cross-talk. Additionally, our objective is to offer an example of the additional information afforded by multiplexed per-cell IHC. ER and ki67 were chosen for this demonstration because of the recent finding ...
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This list covers nuclear proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). Codes before these are ... hmgb2 protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.600.800 - hmgb3 protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.700 - sex-determining region y protein ... hmga proteins MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.500.100 - hmga1a protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.500.200 - hmga1b protein MeSH D12.776. ... hmga2 protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.600 - hmgb proteins MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.600.300 - hmgb1 protein MeSH D12.776. ...
Daly was particularly interested in nuclear proteins. She developed methods for the fractionation of nuclear material and the ... Brusch, Harris (1965). Histones and other nuclear proteins. Academic Press. pp. 13-15, 76-77. ISBN 9780123955937. Retrieved 8 ... She investigated protein synthesis, including the role of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein in protein synthesis. Using ... She studied histones, proteins found in cell nuclei, and was able to show the amino acid composition of various histone ...
Watts JD, Cary PD, Sautiere P, Crane-Robinson C (1990). "Thymosins: both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. ... Thymosin α1 is a peptide fragment derived from prothymosin alpha, a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTMA gene. It was ...
The protein contains only one nuclear export signal residue, found at 481-L; however the NES score was found to be low at 0.515 ... The protein is serine and threonine rich. The charge distribution of the protein is equally dispersed per there are no positive ... The C5orf34 protein contains two mammalian conserved domains: DUF 4520 and DUF 4524. The protein is also predicted to have a ... Structural analysis of the protein indicated it was sequestered in the nucleus with an 87% probability. Databases of protein ...
The genome codes for 30 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and lysis. Vertebrates serve as the natural host. " ...
The genome codes for 90 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export, and existing in occlusion bodies after cell death and remaining ...
The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and lysis. Birds serve as the natural host. "Viral ...
The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA ... Microtubular transport toward nucleus of the viral genome still protected by the core protein VII and a partial capsid mainly ... Host translation shutoff performed by the viral 100K protein. Assembly of new virions in the nucleus. Virions are released by ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Bovine serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact ...
Liang L, Deng L, Chen Y, Li GC, Shao C, Tischfield JA (September 2005). "Modulation of DNA end joining by nuclear proteins". ... In E. coli , the proteins involved are the Mut class proteins: MutS, MutL, and MutH. In most Eukaryotes, the analog for MutS is ... These proteins seem to be required for transmitting the checkpoint activation signal to downstream proteins. DNA damage ... Checkpoint Proteins can be separated into four groups: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-like protein kinase, proliferating ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nat Biotechnol. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... LIM domain-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LDB2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1999). "Isolation and chromosomal assignment of human genes encoding cofactor of LIM homeodomain proteins, CLIM1 and CLIM2". J ... an enigma family protein, with alpha-actinin 2". J Cell Biochem. 78 (4): 558-65. doi:10.1002/1097-4644(20000915)78:4. 3.0.CO;2- ...
Hes genes code nuclear proteins that suppress transcription. This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family ... The protein has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box promoter ... Yao J, Lai E, Stifani S (2001). "The winged-helix protein brain factor 1 interacts with groucho and hes proteins to repress ... Hes proteins also heterodimerize with bHLH repressors such as Hey1 and Hey2, a process which also blocks transcription. Hes ...
Houtsmuller, AB (2005). "Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching: Application to nuclear proteins". Advances in Biochemical ... This technique is commonly used in conjunction with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins, where the studied protein ... After the protein of interest is made fluorescent, generally by expression as a GFP fusion protein, a confocal microscope is ... When excited by a specific wavelength of light, the protein will fluoresce. When the protein that is being studied is produced ...
Mihelich, Peggy (8 March 2007). "Supercomputers crunching potato chips, proteins and nuclear bombs". CNN. Retrieved 28 April ... and 1 g of protein. Pringles are available in several flavors. Until the 1980s, only the original flavor was available in the ... after Salmonella was found in a Basic Food Flavors plant which produced the flavor-enhancing hydrolyzed vegetable protein used ...
"HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... cloning and characterization of a novel nuclear protein, HA95, homologous to A-kinase anchoring protein 95". Biology of the ... "Interaction of the nuclear matrix protein NAKAP with HypA and huntingtin: implications for nuclear toxicity in Huntington's ... A-kinase anchor protein 8-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP8L gene. AKAP8L has been shown to interact ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (Aug 2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS10 gene. Regulator of G protein signaling ... This protein associates specifically with the activated forms of the two related G-protein subunits, G-alphai3 and G-alphaz but ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS ... "GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins". ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ... Regulator of G protein signaling 4 protein is 37% identical to RGS1 and 97% identical to rat Rgs4. This protein negatively ...
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (1998). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins ... a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 (17): 2239-49. doi:10.1101/gad.11.17.2239. PMC 275390. PMID 9303539 ... Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15-like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPS15L1 gene. EPS15L1 has ... Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J, Gygi SP (2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... Zinc finger protein 318 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF318 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171467 ... Inoue A, Ishiji A, Kasagi S, Ishizuka M, Hirose S, Baba T, Hagiwara H (Jul 2000). "The transcript for a novel protein with a ... ZNF318+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (1999). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING zinc finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. ... in the ubiquitination of certain nuclear proteins. Five alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct ... This protein interacts with androgen receptor (AR) and may function as a coactivator that induces AR target gene expression in ...
Nuclear lamins interact with inner nuclear membrane proteins to form the nuclear lamina on the interior of the nuclear envelope ... This is accomplished by lamin and lamin-interacting proteins (SUN1/SUN2) connecting with proteins on the outer nuclear membrane ... Lamin proteins are involved in the disassembling and reforming of the nuclear envelope during mitosis, the positioning of ... Lamins, also known as nuclear lamins are fibrous proteins in type V intermediate filaments, providing structural function and ...
... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ... The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in ... Burkhart R, Schulte D, Hu D, Musahl C, Göhring F, Knippers R (1995). "Interactions of human nuclear proteins P1Mcm3 and P1Cdc46 ... The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in ... BMP-2-inducible protein kinase is an enzyme in humans encoded by the BMP2K gene. This gene is the human homolog of mouse BMP-2- ... Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is ...
Liang L, Deng L, Chen Y, Li GC, Shao C, Tischfield JA (September 2005). "Modulation of DNA end joining by nuclear proteins". ... Polymerase theta utilizes its helicase domain to displace replication protein A (RPA) from DNA ends and promote microhomology ... MMEJ is completely independent from classical NHEJ and does not rely on NHEJ core factors such as Ku protein, DNA-PK, or Ligase ...
Liang L, Deng L, Chen Y, Li GC, Shao C, Tischfield JA (September 2005). "Modulation of DNA end joining by nuclear proteins". ... HMGA2 protein specifically targets the promoter of ERCC1, thus reducing expression of this DNA repair gene. ERCC1 protein ... HGMA proteins are polypeptides of ~100 amino acid residues characterized by a modular sequence organization. These proteins ... High mobility group A (HMGA) proteins, characterized by an AT-hook, are small, nonhistone, chromatin-associated proteins that ...
Liang L, Deng L, Chen Y, Li GC, Shao C, Tischfield JA (September 2005). "Modulation of DNA end joining by nuclear proteins". ... Like all single-stranded DNA in the nucleus, the resected region is first coated by Replication protein A (RPA) complex,p235 ... After this short-range resection, other protein complexes can bind, namely the long-range resection machinery, which uses 5'→3 ... CtBP1-interacting protein (CtIP) needs to bind to the MRN complex so that the first phase of resection can begin, namely short- ...
This protein, which localizes to both sides of the nuclear pore complex at interphase, remains associated with the complex ... Nucleoporin 133 (Nup133) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUP133 gene. The nuclear envelope creates distinct ... It consists of two concentric membranes perforated by nuclear pores, large protein complexes that form aqueous channels to ... "Function and assembly of nuclear pore complex proteins". Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 77 (4): 321-9. doi:10.1139/bcb-77-4-321 ...
"Properties of the human nuclear protein p85Mcm. Expression, nuclear localization and interaction with other Mcm proteins". Eur ... phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the human P1 protein, a homologue of the yeast Mcm 3 replication protein". J. Cell ... "Properties of the nuclear P1 protein, a mammalian homologue of the yeast Mcm3 replication protein". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (5): ... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS2 gene. It is part of a larger family of ... Nlend MC, Bookman RJ, Conner GE, Salathe M (2002). "Regulator of G-protein signaling protein 2 modulates purinergic calcium and ... 1999). "Regulators of G protein signaling exhibit distinct patterns of gene expression and target G protein specificity in ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... Zinc finger MIZ domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZMIZ2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
protein binding. 细胞成分. · nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol ... activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response. · mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · ... endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein. Mol. Biol. Cell. December 2002 ...
A nuclear DNA phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of echolocation and historical biogeography of extant bats (chiroptera) ... Does the visual system of the flying fox resemble that of primates? The distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the primary ... A molecular perspective on mammalian evolution from the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein, with ...
"Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. doi ...
Hundreds of different PPR proteins from the nuclear genome are involved in the RNA editing process. These proteins consist of ... Tic56 is also a nuclear encoded protein. The preprotein its gene encodes is 527 amino acids long, weighing close to 62 thousand ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ...
1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 ... Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), so called because it is studded with ribosomes, and secretes proteins into the cytoplasm. ... Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Among its functions is the production of proteins and steroids, the maintenance of plasma ... Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi apparatus 10 Trans face of the ...
Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... "Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and their antagonists regulate spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced ...
Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene.[5][6] ... A critical role for nuclear liver X receptors alpha and beta". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 31900-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202993200. ... It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted protein structure characteristic of the other genes in this family. Apo C4 is ...
Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... inferred from three mitochondrial and six nuclear loci: a comparison of alignment, implied alignment and analysis methods". ... the proteins that guide the connections neurons make with each other. The California two-spot octopus has had its genome ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ...
Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound to plasma proteins including thyroxine-binding globulin, ... Nuclear Medicine. 46 (3): 65-75. doi:10.1160/nukmed-0068. PMID 17549317.. ... thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA transcription and protein ...
Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... engineering techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic material into the nuclear ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... This tomato gained the moniker "fish tomato".[16] The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the ...
The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ... protein binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding ...
The B. natans genome contains 293 genes that code for proteins as compared to the 465 genes in G. theta. B. natans also only ... "Going, Going, Not Quite Gone: Nucleomorphs as a Case Study in Nuclear Genome Reduction". Journal of Heredity. 100 (5): 582-90 ... Most of the genes that moved to the host cell involved protein synthesis, leaving behind a compact genome with mostly single- ... The genome contains 513 genes, 465 of which code for protein. Thirty genes are considered "plastid" genes, coding for plastid ...
Mijelin protein nula • Osteonektin • Protein C • Protein S • Proteoglikan • Serum amiloid P komponenta • Sialoglikoprotein ( ... 1999). "Identification and characterization of a novel cytokine, THANK, a TNF homologue that activates apoptosis, nuclear ... Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija, (BAFF) koji je takođe poznat kao faktor nekroze tumora ligand superfamilija član 13B, je protein ... On je izražen kao transmembranski protein na različitim ćelijskim tipovima, kao što su monociti, dendritske ćelije i ćelije ...
The adoption of joules as units of energy, FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Energy and Protein, 1971. A report on the ... "Report LA-8819: The yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory. Archived ...
... s have also been found to signal through membrane androgen receptors, which are distinct from the classical nuclear ... "G protein-coupled receptors: extranuclear mediators for the non-genomic actions of steroids". Int J Mol Sci. 15 (9): 15412-25 ... nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to ...
NuclearEdit. Primordial isotopes of the alkali metals Z. Alkali metal. Stable. Decays. unstable: italics. odd-odd isotopes ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... "National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 4 October 2012.. *^ Patton, I. Jocelyn; Waldbauer, L. J ... As a result of its extreme rarity in nature,[63] most francium is synthesised in the nuclear reaction 197Au + 18O → 210Fr + 5 n ...
AR NTD antagonists bind covalently to the NTD of the AR and prevent protein-protein interactions subsequent to activation that ... Eckhard Ottow; Hilmar Weinmann (8 September 2008). Nuclear Receptors as Drug Targets. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 255-. ISBN 978-3- ... Blood proteinsEdit. In addition to their antigonadotropic effects, estrogens are also functional antiandrogens by decreasing ... AR antagonists may not bind to or block membrane androgen receptors (mARs), which are distinct from the classical nuclear AR.[ ...
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... identical protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ... "The Angelman syndrome-associated protein, E6-AP, is a coactivator for the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily". Molecular and ...
A 24-hour urine collection can be used to quantify daily protein loss (see proteinuria), urine output, creatinine clearance or ... These may include Medical ultrasonography/ultrasound, computed axial tomography (CT), scintigraphy (nuclear medicine), ... protein in the urine (proteinuria), pus cells in the urine (pyuria) or cancer cells in the urine. ...
Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR),[79] Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions (LANR), Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ( ... It was adopted as a software product name Adobe ColdFusion and a brand of protein bars (Cold Fusion Foods).[182] It has also ... "International Society of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science.. *^ Biberian, Jean-Paul (2007), "Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ( ... In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear ...
"Sister group relationship of turtles to the bird-crocodilian clade revealed by nuclear DNA-coded proteins". Molecular Biology ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ...
A Kingdom-level phylogeny of Eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290 (5493): 972-977. [1] ... During mitosis, the nuclear membrane remains intact, and the spindle microtubules form inside of it.[2] ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Ruminants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ...
Nuclear fission * sw:Nuclear fission. Nuclear power * sw:Nuclear power. Nuclear weapon * sw:Nuclear weapon. Number * sw:Number ... Protein * sw:Protein. Protestant Reformation * sw:Protestant Reformation. Protist * sw:Protist. Psychology * sw:Psychology. ...
It is likely to exert this effect by binding to specific nuclear receptors (members of the retinoic acid receptor or retinoid X ... it was thought that the sole important retinoid delivery pathway to tissues involved retinol bound to retinol-binding protein ( ... receptor nuclear transcription family) which are found in every cell (including osteoblasts and osteoclasts). ...
"Sequential Resonance Assignments as a Basis for Determination of Spatial Protein Structures by High Resolution Proton Nuclear ... "A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions" (PDF). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14. Páxs. 313-324. ... "Protein Engineering 7 (7). ISSN 1741-0134, Páxs. 841-848.. *↑ 70,0 70,1 Thompson, J. D.; et al. (1994). "CLUSTAL W: improving ... 2005). Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins (en inglés) (third edition ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0- ...
protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • integral component of ... protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • autophagy. • protein glycosylation. • ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • cellular protein metabolic ... positive regulation of protein binding. • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation. • Notch receptor ...
X-ray crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance structure studies have shown how this binding distorts the DNA[23] by ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... Stribinskis, Vilius; Ramos, Kenneth S. (2006). "Activation of Human Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 Retrotransposition by ... aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) and then binds xenobiotic response elements (XREs) in DNA located upstream of ... 4 April - A new method developed by Cornell biological engineers offers an efficient way to make proteins for use in ... Danish nuclear physicist and Nobel laureate (b. 1922). Patricia Bergquist, New Zealand scientist who specialized in anatomy and ... American biochemist who studied protein structure and function as well as biochemical evolution (b. 1911). 6 June - Jean ...
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Protein nuclear ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which ... Protein nuclear magnetic resonance is performed on aqueous samples of highly purified protein. Usually, the sample consists of ... Traditionally, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been limited to relatively small proteins or protein domains. This ...
... we suggest that plant tissues express short-lived nuclear proteins as a primary response to IAA. We propose that these proteins ... Early auxin-induced genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins. S Abel, P W Oeller, and A Theologis ... that contain putative nuclear localization signals that direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein into the nucleus. Pulse- ... Some of the genes whose expression is induced by IAA encode a family of proteins in pea (PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6) and Arabidopsis ( ...
Tags: supercomputer, computers, Chip, computer, chips, super, clear, NUC, potato, IPS, tat, protein, pro, BOM, OTA, ...
The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and is the site of membrane protein synthesis. Protein ... pathway mediates protein homeostasis in cells by tagging misfolded proteins of the ER with the protein ubiquitin. Ubiquitylated ... The nuclear membrane is continuous with the ER membrane, prompting Michael Knop and colleagues to ask whether protein quality ... The authors propose that this ERAD-like pathway may ensure inappropriate proteins are excluded from the nucleus. The nuclear ...
Transport of proteins into and out of the nucleus occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPC). A heterodimeric protein complex ... functions to target proteins containing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) to the NPCs. Two additional proteins, the GTPase ... Molecular mechanisms of nuclear protein transport.. Moroianu J1.. Author information. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology, ... Protein transport across the NPC may occur via guided diffusion involving the karyopherin-mediated docking and undocking of ...
The Nuclear Protein Database (NPD) contains information on proteins that are localized to the nuclei of vertebrate cells. Over ... the sub-nuclear compartment where the protein was found is reported. The NPD also provides information on a proteins amino ... 1000 vertebrate proteins, mainly from mice and humans, are included. When known, ...
... Samantha s017244 at Sat Jul 24 10:05:18 EST 2004 *Previous message: Help ... but i could not harvest the proteins ** I want to ask it is fine to stain the cells and then harves the proteins? (I ve tried ... i wanted to isolate the proteins so i tried to use the normal protocol to prep the proteins (that protocol is fine for other ... proteins which had not been stained: just used trysin to trysinize the cells and lysis buffer we commonly use) ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Proteins matched: Nuclear hormone receptor, ligand-binding domain (IPR000536) This domain is found in the following proteins: ... Protein name. Species. Domain architecture. O17748 Nuclear hormone receptor family member nhr-174. Caenorhabditis elegans. ...
... for individual proteins, as demonstrated by a team led by Jörg Wrachtrup from the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research ... A higher frequency resolution enables a nuclear magnetic resonance tomography (NMR) ... Nuclear magnetic resonance scanner for individual proteins. Thanks to improved resolution, a quantum sensor can now identify ... Many diseases have their origins in defective proteins. As proteins are important biochemical motors, defects can lead to ...
Generation of GTP-Ran for nuclear protein import.. Moore MS1.. Author information. 1. Department of Cell Biology, Baylor ...
Protein separations at the nuclear envelope. The living cell separates its molecular components among numerous organelles. Most ... a double membraned structure perforated by large protein channels known as the nuclear pores. Through these channels the cell ... Caspi Y, Zbaida D, Cohen H, Elbaum M (2008) Synthetic Mimic of Selective Transport Through the Nuclear Pore Complex. Nano ... Kim S, Elbaum M. (2013) A simple kinetic model with explicit predictions for nuclear transport. Biophys J. 105:565-9. ...
Antibody against known nuclear protein , ,I am working on the sub-cellular localization of a putative nuclear protein ,of ... I need an antibody that specifically recognizes a known ,nuclear-localized protein to determine the quality of my nuclear ... Topic: Antibody against known nuclear protein. Hicham ZEGZOUTI zegzouti at Sun May 7 15:55:09 EST 2000 * ... Hi, I am also interested in the same nuclear protein antibody, and I was looking forward to see the answers to your request. ...
Drosophila nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins. (A) Three genes encode nuclear lamina-enriched LEM-D proteins, otefin (ote), dMAN1, ... The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that contributes to nuclear structure and function. LEM domain (LAP2, emerin ... THE nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network underlying the nuclear envelope. This network is composed of the nucleus- ... These include the presence of other LEM-D proteins within the nuclear lamina and the capacity of remaining LEM-D proteins to ...
Drosophila nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins. (A) Three genes encode nuclear lamina-enriched LEM-D proteins, otefin (ote), dMAN1, ... At least two nuclear Drosophila LEM-D proteins are required for adult survival. Shown is a graph of the percent survival of ... Unique and Shared Functions of Nuclear Lamina LEM Domain Proteins in Drosophila. Lacy J. Barton, Shameika R. Wilmington, ... Unique and Shared Functions of Nuclear Lamina LEM Domain Proteins in Drosophila. Lacy J. Barton, Shameika R. Wilmington, ...
The nuclear protein DEK is an endogenous DNA-binding chromatin factor regulating hematopoiesis. DEK is one of only 2 known ... Both altered HSC and HPC numbers in vivo or in vitro, suggesting the nuclear function of DEK is not required. Thus, DEK acts as ... To determine whether extracellular DEK required nuclear function to regulate hematopoiesis, we utilized 2 mutant forms of DEK: ... one that lacked its nuclear translocation signal and one that lacked DNA-binding ability. ...
... published in the Journal of Cell Biology reveals how shuttling proteins known as importins control the function of nuclear ... Scientists at the University of Basel report on startling new research that might overturn established models of nuclear ... Nuclear pore complexes are tiny channels where the exchange of substances between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm takes ... pores - as opposed to the view that nuclear pores control the shuttling of importins. ...
Protein nuclear magnetic resonance is performed on aqueous samples of highly purified protein. Usually, the sample consists of ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which ... Traditionally, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been limited to relatively small proteins or protein domains. This ... Protein NMR utilizes multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to obtain information about the protein. Ideally, ...
Additional functions for NPCs and their constituent proteins (nucleoporins) are emerging, some independent of classical ... Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate all selective bidirectional transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. ... Acting out of character: regulatory roles of nuclear pore complex proteins Dev Cell. 2009 Nov;17(5):617-25. doi: 10.1016/j. ... Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate all selective bidirectional transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Additional ...
While there is evidence that distinct protein isoforms resulting from alternative pre-mRNA splicing play critical roles in ... UNC-75 protein, as well as a subset of related C. elegans RRM proteins, localizes to dynamic nuclear speckles; this ... Two neuronal, nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins involved in synaptic transmission Curr Biol. 2003 Aug 5;13(15):1317-23. ... We show that unc-75 encodes an RRM domain-containing RNA binding protein that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system ...
... of the GFP-Auz/IAA proteins from a diffuse nuclear signal to one associated with subnuclear puncta called nuclear protein ... Rac Recruits Aux/IAA Proteins to Deadly Nuclear Bodies Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... In protoplasts transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Aux/IAA fusion proteins under the control of an inducible ... and arabidopsis mediate auxin-induced formation of proteolytically active nuclear protein bodies that contain AUX/IAA proteins ...
nuclear envelope;. HA,. hemagglutinin;. NES,. nuclear export sequence;. GFP,. green fluorescent protein;. GST,. glutathione S- ... RNA but not for classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-mediated protein import. This study shows that Nup82, a protein ... Two yeast nuclear pore complex proteins involved in mRNA export form a cytoplasmically oriented subcomplex. Michael E. Hurwitz ... but not for classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear protein import. ...
Inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins are proteins that are embedded in or associated with the inner membrane of the nuclear ... Integral membrane protein Laminopathy Transmembrane protein Holmer, L.; Worman, H.J. (2001). "Inner nuclear membrane proteins: ... INM proteins also aid in organization of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The protein mPom121 is targeted to the INM and is ... In this model, proteins diffuse freely from the ER to the inner nuclear membrane, where association with nuclear lamina or ...
2018 Feb 10;: Authors: Sala S, Ampe C Abstract Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that partake in ... An emerging link between LIM domain proteins and nuclear receptors. Cell Mol Life Sci. ... yet pleiotropy of LIM domain proteins and nuclear receptors frequently occurs. LIM domain protein-nuclear receptor complexes ... LIM domain proteins act as important coregulators of nuclear receptor-mediated gene transcription, in which they can either ...
... protein-associated nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) by proteasome-dependent and independent mechanisms. In addition, all herpesviruses ... In particular, viral tegument proteins that share sequence homology to the formylglycineamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase ( ... encode for a potent ubiquitin protease that can efficiently remove ubiquitin chains from proteins and thereby interfere with ... Gammaherpesviral Tegument Proteins, PML-Nuclear Bodies and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System by Florian Full 1, Alexander S. Hahn ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone- ... Acetyl-CoA + [protein]-L-lysine = CoA + [protein]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine. UniProt ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q15788 - Homo sapiens 182 * O43793 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ...
The first factor to interact with Pol III transcripts is La protein, which binds principally via its conserved N-terminal ... Keywords: tRNA processing RNA modification RNase P RNA recognition motif (RRM) Protein structure modeling Transcription ... exonucleolytic digestion and also contributes to their nuclear retention. The variety of modifications found on La-associated ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone- ... Only motif 1 is essential for the association with nuclear receptors, while adjacent Ser-884 displays selectivity for nuclear ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): E1P5P7 - Homo sapiens 0 * Q9JLT9 - Mus musculus no matching PDB entries ...
The nuclear pore complex is the main transportation hub for exchange between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It is built from ... The nuclear pore complex protein ALADIN is anchored via NDC1 but not via POM121 and GP210 in the nuclear envelope. Biochem ... Molecular interactions between the importin α/β heterodimer and proteins involved in vertebrate nuclear protein import 11 ... Huebner A, Mann P, Rohde E et al (2006) Mice lacking the nuclear pore complex protein ALADIN show female infertility but fail ...
Identification of nuclear proteins in previous studies (12-14) may have been limited by the low abundance of nuclear proteins ... S-nitrosylation of nuclear factors in cortical neurons. We next sought to study S-nitrosylation of nuclear proteins that are ... 1 Identification of S-nitrosylated nuclear proteins using SNORAC.. (A) Nuclear extracts from E17 cortical neurons were treated ... Protein identification from neuronal extracts. Neuronal nuclear protein extracts (50 μg) were precipitated by adding cold ...
Im working on a DNA binding, nuclear protein, and am interested in separating nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, both for ... Im working on a DNA binding, nuclear protein, and am interested in separating nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, both for ... Top : New Forum Archives (2009-): : Protein and Proteomics. Nuclear extraction - (May/26/2010 ). Hi,. Ive reviewed the forum ... my cytoplasmic fraction is contaminated with nuclear proteins.. Ive noticed that following swelling, all protocols use either ...
  • Since the outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum it is possible that the inner nuclear membrane proteins are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, whereby the proteins move into the nucleus by lateral diffusion through a nuclear pore. (
  • Some of the genes whose expression is induced by IAA encode a family of proteins in pea (PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6) and Arabidopsis (IAA1 and IAA2) that contain putative nuclear localization signals that direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein into the nucleus. (
  • The nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. (
  • Transport of proteins into and out of the nucleus occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPC). (
  • Two additional proteins, the GTPase Ran and p10, are required to translocate the docked NLS protein into the nucleus. (
  • Communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm takes place at the nuclear envelope, a double membraned structure perforated by large protein channels known as the nuclear pores. (
  • Through these channels the cell is able not only to pass but to concentrate specific proteins inside, or outside, of the nucleus. (
  • Recent evidence suggests that some LEM-D proteins are not enriched in the nuclear lamina, but shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. (
  • Nuclear pore complexes are tiny channels where the exchange of substances between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm takes place. (
  • Genetic information is protected in the cell nucleus by a membrane that contains numerous nuclear pores . (
  • These pores facilitate the traffic of proteins known as importins that deliver molecular cargoes between the nucleus and the surrounding cytoplasm. (
  • For a long time scientists have reasoned that a molecular filter within the nuclear pore complex prevents or enables the passage of molecules into the nucleus. (
  • Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate all selective bidirectional transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (
  • Nuclear lamina is the material that lines the inside of a cell's nucleus. (
  • As the nuclear gate, the NPC is vital for regulating the transport of ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and proteins to and from the nucleus and plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of nuclear structure. (
  • They shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, amongst other as a consequence of triggering cells with ligands of nuclear receptors. (
  • The nuclear pore complex is the main transportation hub for exchange between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. (
  • Since protein M1 is not available in large quantities before late stages of infection, such an indirect recognition mechanism probably ensures that genomic RNPs are not exported from the host nucleus until sufficient quantities of viral mRNA and progeny genomic RNA have been synthesized. (
  • Structural proteins of cell nucleus, the nuclear lamins and lamina-associated proteins, play an important role in the regulation of a number of signal transduction pathways associated with stress. (
  • Analysis of the molecular signatures in response of the skin to a range of damaging factors not only points at the likely involvement of the nuclear lamina in transmission of the signals between the environment and cell nucleus but also defines skin's sensitivity to stress, and therefore the capacities to counteract external damage in aging. (
  • 2008. Acinetobacter baumannii outer membrane protein A targets the nucleus and induces cytotoxicity. (
  • Thus, the nucleoskeleton associated with the INMis needed to transmit signals to the nucleus and induce changes in chromatin organisation andultimately gene expression.A novel family of NUCLEAR ENVELOPE ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (NEAPs)proposed to be new components of the plant nucleoskeleton has been recently evidenced inthe model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Here we show that NS1 can induce an efficient translocation of Crk proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which results in an altered pattern of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation. (
  • A green fluorescent protein tagged with nuclear import and export signals tended to get stuck in the nucleus. (
  • Protein aggregates in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus, inhibit transport of proteins and mRNA across the nuclear envelope," concluded Hipp. (
  • Scientists are already investigating small molecules that affect nucleocytoplasmic transport, normalizing protein levels inside and outside the nucleus (see Aug 2015 news ). (
  • Finally, RNA-protein and protein-protein cross-linking experiments showed that DBP40 interacts with poly(A)(+) RNA as well as actin, both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. (
  • We propose that actin associated with DBP40, and perhaps with additional hnRNP A/B-type proteins, is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm bound to mRNA. (
  • EYA1, a protein that contributes to ear development, is present in the cytoplasm of many neuroblastoma tumors, but this protein migrates to the nucleus in the cells of more aggressive forms of the disease. (
  • The EYA1 protein enters the cancer cell's nucleus due to the presence of an enzyme called PRMT1. (
  • They're almost certainly tied to a distortion in the protein structure that prevents normal functioning, as well as interruptions in the organization of the DNA in the nucleus and the way it affects the creation of other proteins. (
  • According to the research, the physical connection via the protein takes place at many points in the nucleus - both on chromosome extremities (telomeres) and on other parts of chromosomes. (
  • The NPC spans the dual membrane of the the nuclear envelope (NE) and acts as a gateway for macromolecular traffic between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. (
  • LRRC42, which was found to localize in the nucleus of mammalian cells, is likely to interact with and stabilize GATAD2B (GATA zinc finger domain-containing 2B) and MBD3 (Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3) proteins that could contribute to lung cancer cell proliferation partly through the regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1. (
  • Transport of maize streak virus (MSV) DNA into the nucleus of host cells is essential for virus replication and the presence of virus particles in the nuclei of infected cells implies that coat protein (CP) must enter the nucleus. (
  • Both ss and ds DNA moved into the nucleus when co-injected with the CP but not with E. coli proteins alone. (
  • It distinguishes sub-nuclear localization in 13 distinct substructures and distinguishes between nuclear proteins confined to the nucleus and those that are also native to other compartments (traveler proteins). (
  • These observations indicate that vaccinia virus replication complexes have ready access to nuclear proteins by allowing leakage from the nucleus. (
  • Nucleic acid biosynthesis in the cytoplasm of the cell has long encouraged the concept that the virus likely encodes all of the proteins required for DNA and mRNA synthesis since virus replication complexes may not have access to proteins normally targeted to the nucleus. (
  • The import and export of proteins to and from the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (reviewed in reference 15 ). (
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) 1 is a double membrane system consisting of the intermediate filament nuclear lamin polymer and associated proteins attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) ( 1 ), nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) that direct transport of soluble macromolecules in and out of the nucleus ( 2 ), and the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) and associated proteins. (
  • Transport not only localizes proteins destined for the nucleus or cytoplasm, but also functions as a key step in signal transduction pathways and in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (
  • Correct targeting of nuclear proteins is mediated by nuclear localization sequences (NLS) which permit specific binding to the nucleus and subsequent translocation across the nuclear envelope via the nuclear pore complex. (
  • The eukaryotic nucleus is composed of DNA, RNA and protein, encapsulated by a nuclear envelope. (
  • The nucleus must maintain order in the presence of a very high density and variety of protein and RNA. (
  • The nuclear matrix is a proteinaceous network thought to provide structure and organization to the nucleus. (
  • We believe that relatively stable interactions of nuclear molecules with the nuclear matrix are key to organization of the nucleus. (
  • Binding studies presented in this work suggest that these plant proteins may participate in RNA/DNA/protein complexes in the nucleus. (
  • A group of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 41-43 kDa in size found in the cell nucleus. (
  • We show for the first time that one of the two predicted nuclear targeting motifs is required for nuclear localization of BAP1 and that a truncation mutant found in a lung cancer cell line results in BAP1 that fails to localize to the nucleus. (
  • Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) lined with intrinsically disordered FG-domains act as selective gatekeepers for molecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR ) is a field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is used to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of proteins , and also nucleic acids , and their complexes. (
  • INM proteins also aid in organization of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). (
  • Current opinion is that INM proteins synthesised in the cytoplasm are transported to the INM through nuclear pore complexes (NPC). (
  • LIM domain protein-nuclear receptor complexes function in diverse physiological processes. (
  • Acts as an adapter between viral RNPs complexes and the nuclear export machinery of the cell. (
  • NUP98 Fusion Proteins Interact with the NSL and MLL1 Complexes to Drive Leukemogenesis. (
  • and the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of proteins and RNAs. (
  • SUN proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and form complexes with KASH proteins of the outer nuclear membrane that connect the nuclear envelope (NE) to the cytoskeleton. (
  • These complexes have well-established functions in nuclear anchorage and migration in interphase, but little is known about their involvement in mitotic processes. (
  • Pre-mRNP complexes were isolated from rat liver nuclei as 40S hnRNP particles, and actin-binding proteins were collected by DNase I affinity chromatography. (
  • The nuclear transcription factors YY1, SP1, and TATA binding protein were found to colocalize with virus replication complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. (
  • The association of YY1 with replication complexes was dependent on DNA replication and required only the DNA binding domain of the protein, indicating that DNA binding alone may be responsible for the association of nuclear transcription factors with viral replication complexes in the cytoplasm. (
  • Also, the nuclear transcription factor YY1 was reported to be localized with viral replication complexes in the cytoplasm ( 3 ). (
  • A proteomics-based, tandem affinity purification (TAP) procedure was used in this study to identify the component proteins of COUP-TFI complexes in mammalian cells. (
  • Several known proteins of transcriptional repressive complexes, including NCoR, HDAC1 and TIF1β/KAP-1, were found to co-purify with COUP-TFI, as were other transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the SWI/SNF family member Brahma, and its associated factors BAF155 and BAF170. (
  • The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. (
  • Identifying protein complexes is a valuable way to uncover protein function, and affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry and label-free quantification is a reliable method for this approach. (
  • We therefore applied quantitative interaction proteomics to identify exhaustively the nuclear complexes containing HIF2α in a human melanoma cell line, 501mel. (
  • These results suggest that chromatin remodeling across the GM-CSF promoter in T cells is a result of recruitment of SWI/SNF type remodeling complexes by NF-κB proteins binding to the CD28 response region of the promoter. (
  • The WSTF (Williams syndrome transcription factor) protein is involved in vitamin D-mediated transcription and replication as a component of two distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, WINAC and WICH, respectively. (
  • However, recent studies have shown that there is also actively transcribed chromatin at the NE, specially associated with the nuclear pore complexes. (
  • in the cytoplasm, the cytoplasmic ER, or the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). (
  • Furthermore, the RNPs enter the host cytoplasm only when associated with the M1 protein that is necessary to guide them to the plasma membrane. (
  • A transient expression of HsdM-EGFP in COS-1 cells exhibited exclusively a nuclear localization of the fusion proteins, whereas the fusion proteins of HsdM with substitutions in residues lysine to alanine in the NLS sequences, 7 AAAKAAA 13 , were localized in the cytoplasm. (
  • It easily slips into the cytoplasm in control cells, or cells expressing a nuclear version of β-17 (NLS-β17). (
  • The product of this gene is part of a large complex localized to the cytoplasm, nucleoli, and to discrete nuclear bodies called Gemini bodies (gems). (
  • In addition, the nuclear proteins RNA polymerase II, TAFIIp32, and histone deacetylase 8, but not the structural protein lamin B, also were found in the cytoplasm of the cell. (
  • Two nuclear proteins have been reported to be localized in the cytoplasm of vaccinia virus-infected cells. (
  • It is proposed that nuclear import is facilitated by NLS-receptors which reside in the cytoplasm and at the nuclear pore. (
  • Moreover, in transfected HeLa cells, chimeric GFP containing a nuclear localization signal and a C-terminal CaaX motif of N-Ras induces intranuclear membrane stacks that resemble those induced by lamins and ER-like cisternae that are induced in the cytoplasm upon increased synthesis of integral ER membrane proteins. (
  • Among the few well-characterized INM proteins are lamin B receptor (LBR), lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1), lamina-associated polypeptide-2 (LAP2), emerin and MAN1. (
  • It is likely that the majority of them are also associated with the nuclear lamina. (
  • Some may interact directly with the nuclear lamina, and some may be associated with it through scaffold proteins. (
  • In this model, proteins diffuse freely from the ER to the inner nuclear membrane, where association with nuclear lamina or chromatin immobilizes them. (
  • The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that contributes to nuclear structure and function. (
  • LEM domain ( L AP2, e merin, M AN1 domain, LEM-D) proteins are components of the nuclear lamina, identified by a shared ∼45-amino-acid motif that binds Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a chromatin-interacting protein. (
  • Drosophila melanogaster has three nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins, named Otefin (Ote), Bocksbeutel (Bocks), and dMAN1. (
  • Mutant phenotypes displayed by lem-d double mutants differ from baf mutants, suggesting that BAF function is retained in animals with a single nuclear lamina LEM-D protein. (
  • Our findings predict that cell-specific mutant phenotypes caused by loss of LEM-D proteins reflect both the constellation of LEM-D proteins within the nuclear lamina and the capacity of functional compensation of the remaining LEM-D proteins. (
  • THE nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network underlying the nuclear envelope. (
  • Through interactions with BAF, LEM-D proteins connect interphase chromosomes to the nuclear lamina, thereby contributing to global nuclear organization. (
  • Most show enriched localization within the nuclear lamina, wherein the LEM-D proteins direct shared protein associations. (
  • Drosophila nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins. (
  • A) Three genes encode nuclear lamina-enriched LEM-D proteins, otefin ( ote ), dMAN1 , and bocksbeutel ( bocks ). (
  • The lamin Dm 0 staining shows O-shaped deformities in the bocks −/− nuclear lamina, evident in the higher magnification inset in the bottom left corner. (
  • We have set the stage to dissect the ways that a cell's nuclear lamina promote tissue organization process during development. (
  • The nuclear lamina proteins have been implicated in a number of degenerative disorders with frequent clinical manifestations of the skin conditions related to premature aging. (
  • The NPC is in turn anchored in the NE by the nuclear lamina, a meshwork of lamins and lamin-associated proteins that forms a 15 nm thick fibrous structure between the inner nuclear membrane and peripheral chromatin. (
  • The nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork lining the nucleoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope. (
  • Implications for the synthesis of CaaX-containing proteins are discussed and the difference from intranuclear fibrous lamina annulate lamellae formations is emphasized. (
  • The nuclear lamina is an essential component of metazoan cells. (
  • Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. (
  • Authors: Sala S, Ampe C Abstract Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that partake in several biological processes including development, reproduction and metabolism. (
  • Inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins are proteins that are embedded in or associated with the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope (NE). (
  • Lamins and chromatin found at the nuclear envelope are organised with the assistance of proteins embedded in the INM. (
  • Once INM:chromatin interactions have been established following formation of the nuclear envelope, soluble nuclear proteins may bind to exposed chromosomal segments. (
  • Zattas, D. & Hochstrasser, M. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation at the yeast endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. (
  • 60 MDa in yeast ( 2 )] spanning the nuclear envelope (NE), a double membrane whose lumen is continuous with the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum ( 3 ). (
  • It is built from nucleoporins that form distinct subcomplexes to establish this huge protein complex in the nuclear envelope. (
  • Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase is critical for nuclear envelope integrity. (
  • DMPK is a nuclear envelope (NE) protein that promotes myogenic gene expression in skeletal myoblasts. (
  • During evolution, eukaryotic cells have acquired a nuclear envelope (NE) enclosingand protecting the genome, which is organized in chromatin, a structure wrapping DNAaround histone proteins. (
  • To comprehensively identify integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope (NE), we prepared separately NEs and organelles known to cofractionate with them from liver. (
  • Many diseases have been linked to the nuclear envelope (NE), the membrane structure that forms the boundary of the nuclear compartment ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • SUN proteins facilitate the removal of membranes from chromatin during nuclear envelope breakdown. (
  • A favored hypothesis to explain the pathology underlying nuclear envelopathies is that mutations in nuclear envelope proteins alter genome/chromatin organization and thus gene expression. (
  • To identify nuclear envelope proteins that play roles in genome organization, we analyzed nuclear envelopes from resting and phytohemagglutinin-activated leukocytes because leukocytes have a particularly high density of peripheral chromatin that undergoes significant reorganization upon such activation. (
  • A total of 3351 proteins were identified between both nuclear envelope data sets among which were 87 putative nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that were not identified in a previous proteomics analysis of liver nuclear envelopes. (
  • Nuclear envelope localization was confirmed for 11 new NETs using tagged fusion proteins and antibodies on spleen cryosections. (
  • The variation in the protein milieu with pharmacological activation of the same cell population and consequences for gene regulation suggest that the nuclear envelope is a complex regulatory system with significant influences on genome organization. (
  • Lamins and an increasing number of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been linked to a similarly increasing number of diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to neuropathy, dermopathy, lipodystrophy, bone disorders, and progeroid aging syndromes ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. (
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) has emerged as an important structure that serves numerous pivotal roles in the cell including compartmentalization, control of nuclear position and morphology, contribution to cell stability, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. (
  • Omnus, D. J. & Ljungdahl, P. O. Latency of transcription factor Stp1 depends on a modular regulatory motif that functions as cytoplasmic retention determinant and nuclear degron. (
  • Protein transport across the NPC may occur via guided diffusion involving the karyopherin-mediated docking and undocking of import substrate to multiple binding sites that extend from the cytoplasmic to the nucleoplasmic ends of the NPC. (
  • We sublocalized the yeast nucleoporin Nup82 to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) by immunoelectron microscopy. (
  • The nucleoporins Nsp1 ( 10 ) and Nic96 (Michael P. Rout, personal communication), which are found in a complex with Nup49 ( 11 , 12 ), and Nup57 ( 13 ) have been localized to the cytoplasmic and nuclear sides of the NPC, so presumably this entire complex is found on both sides of the NPC. (
  • This study shows that Nup82, a protein required for poly(A) + RNA export ( 18 , 19 ), also is located on the cytoplasmic face of the NPC and interacts physically with Nup159. (
  • Bastos R, Ribas de Pouplana L, Enarson M et al (1997) Nup84, a novel nucleoporin that is associated with CAN/Nup214 on the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex. (
  • I'm working on a DNA binding, nuclear protein, and am interested in separating nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, both for cleaner results, as well as for recognizing nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation. (
  • I was somewhat concerned that 15 minutes with a 0.5% IGPAL buffer would also partially lyse nuclei, and indeed, my cytoplasmic fraction is contaminated with nuclear proteins. (
  • The NE is composed of two membranes: on the nucleoplasmic side,the Inner Nuclear Membrane (INM) and on the cytoplasmic side, the Outer NuclearMembrane. (
  • I need both cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts. (
  • I have always problems of contamination of the nuclear extract with cytoplasmic fraction. (
  • In our lab to obtain nuclear extracts and cytoplasmic extracts we use a nuclear extract kit from active motif and has not given us any contamination. (
  • This was not observed using NS1 proteins deficient in SH3 binding or engineered to be exclusively cytoplasmic, indicating a physical role for NS1 as a carrier in the nuclear translocation of Crk. (
  • Furthermore, cytoplasmic aggregates recruited and sequestered nuclear pore members and transport factors. (
  • However, when the coding sequence of the HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) Gag protein was used as a readout, the cytoplasmic levels of the un-spliced HIV -gag mRNAs were highly enhanced in the absence of Tpr. (
  • Mutagenesis of a potential nuclear localization signal in the CP resulted in cytoplasmic accumulation of the mutant protein. (
  • Vaccinia virus replicates in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell, raising questions as to whether vaccinia virus has access to nuclear proteins. (
  • The cytoplasmic localization of YY1 was resistant to the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. Evidence is presented indicating that nuclear import and export pathways were not adversely affected by vaccinia virus infection. (
  • This activity was detected in the cytoplasmic fraction of virus-infected cells but was predominantly in the nuclear fraction of uninfected cells. (
  • While there is evidence that distinct protein isoforms resulting from alternative pre-mRNA splicing play critical roles in neuronal development and function, little is known about molecules regulating alternative splicing in the nervous system. (
  • this localization pattern supports a role for the protein in pre-mRNA splicing. (
  • Bischoff FR, Krebber H, Kempf T et al (1995) Human RanGTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 is a homologue of yeast Rna1p involved in mRNA processing and transport. (
  • In addition, the more transient nature of Cas9 protein compared to plasmid/mRNA delivery further reduces off-target activity without decreasing on-target efficiency (1,2). (
  • The production of GM-CSF is regulated primarily at the level of transcription, via proximal promoter and enhancer regions ( 10 - 12 ), although posttranscriptional control also contributes to the final level of mRNA and protein ( 13 ). (
  • LEM domain (LAP2, emerin, MAN1 domain, LEM-D) proteins represent one family of lamin interacting proteins. (
  • A typical study might involve how two proteins interact with each other, possibly with a view to developing small molecules that can be used to probe the normal biology of the interaction (" chemical biology ") or to provide possible leads for pharmaceutical use ( drug development ). (
  • The nucleoplasmic domains of such proteins can interact with chromatin to create a scaffold and restrict the conformation of chromosomes within three dimensions. (
  • Characterization of two nuclear proteins that interact with cytoc. (
  • It has been shown to interact with nuclear transport factors and is required for nuclear export of poly(A) + RNA but not for classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-mediated protein import. (
  • The first factor to interact with Pol III transcripts is La protein, which binds principally via its conserved N-terminal domain (NTD), to the UUU-OH motif that results from transcription termination. (
  • Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins is an emerging pathogenic mechanism whereby bacterial proteins can interact with nuclear molecules and alter the physiology of host cells. (
  • Herein we report identification of LRRC42 as a potential therapeutic target and also provide evidence that LRRC42 could interact with GATAD2B (GATA zinc finger domain containing 2B) and MBD3 (Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3) proteins that are likely to play a significant role in human pulmonary carcinogenesis. (
  • A variety of nuclear membrane proteins interact with repressed chromatin, yet the functional role of these interactions remains poorly understood. (
  • Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. (
  • Seventy proteins were identified that interact with HIF2α, including some well-known HIF partners and some new interactors. (
  • This difference in composition (a high content of negatively charged amino acids compared with the high content of positively charged amino acids in protamines) suggests that the gene 4 protein, which is not likely to bind to and condense DNA, may instead bind to and interact with the protamines and perform some other function related to chromatin repackaging. (
  • A heterodimeric protein complex, composed of karyopherin alpha and beta (or importin alpha and beta) functions to target proteins containing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) to the NPCs. (
  • Additional functions for NPCs and their constituent proteins (nucleoporins) are emerging, some independent of classical transport. (
  • An emerging link between LIM domain proteins and nuclear receptors. (
  • In establishing interactions with nuclear receptors, the LIM domains are important, yet pleiotropy of LIM domain proteins and nuclear receptors frequently occurs. (
  • Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. (
  • Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids ( PGR , GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). (
  • LXXLL motifs 3, 4 and 5 are essential for the association with nuclear receptors. (
  • may enhance ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear hormone receptors. (
  • Only motif 1 is essential for the association with nuclear receptors, while adjacent Ser-884 displays selectivity for nuclear receptors. (
  • 20-40 kD can move through the NPC by passive diffusion, larger proteins require soluble transport receptors called karyopherins ( Chook and Blobel, 2001 ). (
  • Further, we fabricate pores that approach the size of the nuclear pore complex (diameter down to 50 nm) and graft disordered phenylalanine-glycine nucleoporin domains to the walls, followed by titration of karyopherin β1 transport receptors. (
  • Nuclear receptors, the transcription factors regulated by ligands, have become major targets for drug discovery, including new drug development for chemotherapy. (
  • These NLS-receptors could facilitate an early step of nuclear protein import, i.e. targeting and binding of nuclear proteins at the nuclear pore. (
  • FG-nanopores showed a clear selectivity as transport receptors can translocate across the pore whereas other proteins cannot. (
  • performed specialized proteomics on nuclear extracts from embryonic rat cortical neurons to identify hundreds of proteins that could be S-nitrosylated. (
  • Proteomics of phosphorylation and protein dynamics during fertilization and meiotic exit in the Xenopus egg. (
  • To identify integral proteins of the NE, we took advantage of recent advances in high-throughput shotgun proteomics using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) ( 4 , 5 ), by which the coupling of tandem mass spectrometry with multiple liquid chromatography steps allows analysis of the enormous number of peptides generated by direct digestion of a complex biochemical fraction. (
  • To enrich for NE-specific proteins, we employed a "subtractive proteomics" approach (fig. S1). (
  • Here, a quantitative proteomics approach revealed an ERAD branch required for INM protein quality control in yeast. (
  • and help to repress gene expression, both by tethering specific genomic regions to the nuclear periphery, and by interaction with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3. (
  • May coactivate expression via a remodeling of chromatin and its interaction with histone acetyltransferase proteins. (
  • In the cerebral cortex, S-nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is required for gene transcription during neuronal development, but few other nuclear targets of S-nitrosylation have been identified to date. (
  • Moreover, S-nitrosylation of the histone-binding protein RBBP7 was necessary for dendritogenesis of cortical neurons in culture. (
  • We previously showed that S-nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) during this period results in dissociation of HDAC2 from chromatin, promoting histone acetylation and expression of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent genes that are critical for neuronal migration ( 4 , 8 ). (
  • The localization of nuclear proteins and modified histone tails changes during cell differentiation at the tissue as well as at the cellular level. (
  • These include markers of silent chromatin such as heterochromatin protein 1 ( 12 ) and proteins that modify chromatin to a silent conformation such as histone deacetylase 3 ( 13 ). (
  • Particularly, silencing by Lem2 is epistatic with the Snf2/HDAC (histone deacetylase) repressor complex SHREC at telomeres, while its necessity can be bypassed by deleting Epe1, a JmjC protein with anti-silencing activity. (
  • We report that the Asi complex functions together with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 to degrade soluble and integral membrane proteins. (
  • We show that the Asi ubiquitin ligase is involved in degradation of mislocalized integral membrane proteins, thus acting to maintain and safeguard the identity of the INM. (
  • Two integral membrane proteins are localized to the NPC in mammals ( 3 ), but the number specific to the inner nuclear membrane is unknown: It includes at least 11 proteins and their splice variants ( 1 ). (
  • This branch involved the integral membrane proteins Asi1, Asi2, and Asi3, which assembled into an Asi complex. (
  • Depending on the environment of atoms within the protein, the nuclei of individual atoms will absorb different frequencies of radio signals. (
  • The Nuclear Protein Database (NPD) contains information on proteins that are localized to the nuclei of vertebrate cells. (
  • Bottom: confocal images of wild-type (wt) and bocks mutant third-instar larval salivary gland nuclei stained for DNA (DAPI), lamin Dm 0 (green), FG-repeat containing nuclear porins (FG-Nups, red), and the merged image. (
  • The fully sequenced bacterial genome can predict proteins that target the nuclei of host cells based on the presence of nuclear localization signal (NLS). (
  • Aggressive forms of neuroblastoma contain a specific protein in their cells' nuclei that is not found in the nuclei of more benign forms of the cancer, and the discovery, made through research from the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC), could lead to new forms of targeted therapy. (
  • While science already assigned a role to Lamin A proteins in stabilizing a cell's genetic system, some scientists were convinced that Lamin A was only found on the internal wall of nuclei, tied to the extremities of the jumble of coils. (
  • One of these, mAb A60, recognizes a vertebrate nervous system- and neuron-specific nuclear protein that we have named NeuN (Neuronal Nuclei). (
  • Using isolated yeast nuclei we demonstrate that the anti-idiotype antibodies compete for binding of nuclear proteins in vitro. (
  • Membrane and protein dynamics in live plant nuclei infected with Sonchus yellow net virus, a plant-adapted rhabdovirus. (
  • nuclear-localized protein to determine the quality of my nuclear fractions. (
  • Thus, NE-specific proteins were determined by subtracting the proteins present in MM fractions from those of the NE fractions after proteomic analysis. (
  • Thus, nuclear envelopes were isolated from leukocytes in the two states and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology using an approach that used expected contaminating membranes as subtractive fractions. (
  • Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. (
  • After NGF (50 ng/ml) treatment, 4.1N concentration decreases gradually in non-nuclear fractions ( A ) but increases in nuclear fractions ( C ). As a control, the concentration of α-tubulin is unchanged in non-nuclear fractions ( B ) and remains undetectable in all nuclear fractions ( D ). E , 4.1N coimmunoprecipitates with NuMA in response to NGF treatment. (
  • G , EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells does not alter 4.1N levels in non-nuclear fractions. (
  • H , 4.1N remains undetectable in nuclear fractions after EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells. (
  • In human cervical carcinoma cell lines grown in vitro these monoclonal antibodies specifically immunoprecipitate the putative M r 17,000 and 18,000 HPV18 E6 proteins in nuclear protein fractions. (
  • Molecular mechanisms of nuclear protein transport. (
  • The Nuclear pore complex (NPC) has a molecular mass of approx. (
  • The present study deals with the molecular modeling of the viral protein (NS3 of DENV1-4), the host protein (NRBP) and their interactions through protein-protein docking study. (
  • Ran proteins serve as molecular escorts for the transported protein on both sides of the complex and are regenerated by a GDP-GTP exchange reaction. (
  • In a HPV18 DNA containing human cervical carcinoma established in nude mice, these monoclonal antibodies specifically immunoprecipitate a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 6500 as predicted for the HPV18 ORF E6* gene product in a nuclear protein fraction. (
  • To unravel this striking difference, we present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations that reveal that FG-pores exhibit a high-density, nonuniform protein distribution, in contrast to a uniform and significantly less-dense protein distribution in the SG-mutant. (
  • Proteins detected by multidimensional protein identification technology in the cofractionating organelles were subtracted from the NE data set. (
  • The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and is the site of membrane protein synthesis. (
  • Protein homeostasis in this compartment is ensured by endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathways that in yeast involve the integral membrane E3 ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 and Doa10 operating with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 (refs 2 , 3 ). (
  • Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are eliminated by a quality-control system called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). (
  • Structurally, the ONM is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is studded with ribosomes ( 3 ), yet it also contains unique proteins, many of which connect the cytoskeleton to the NE ( 4 ). (
  • Together, these findings emphasize that LEM-D proteins have the capacity to make diverse contributions to many nuclear processes, ranging from transcriptional regulation to maintenance of genome stability. (
  • Auxin stimulates gene expression by triggering the proteasome-mediated proteolysis of a family of transcriptional repressors, auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins. (
  • Three different viral transcriptional activator proteins, including the viral capping enzyme, the E4L protein, and VITF-3, are required for intermediate gene transcription initiation. (
  • Proteins not previously implicated in transcriptional regulation were also found to co-purify with COUP-TFI including the DNA repair protein DDB1, a pro-apoptotic protein that is deleted in breast cancer (DBC1), HSP70, HSP90 and the ubiquitin ligase HYD1. (
  • Collectively, our TAP strategy revealed that COUP-TFI may associate with a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins in HeLa S3 cells as well as other classes of proteins that have not been previously implicated in the regulation of gene expression. (
  • Non-transcriptional regulation of EMT II' celebrado en Alicante (España) del 13 al 16 de noviembre de 2013. (
  • The core proteins, WSTF, SNF2h, and nuclear myosin 1, are associated with the RNA polymerase III genes 5 S rRNA genes and 7SL, and post-transcriptional silencing of WSTF reduces the levels of these transcripts. (
  • We recently reported that a 42 kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the human CR2 gene [Tolnay, Lambris and Tsokos (1997) J. Immunol. (
  • showed that in transfected protoplasts expressing constitutively active or dominant-negative forms of the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac, the activity of Rac controlled the degradation of luciferase-Aux/IAA fusion proteins (Luc-Aux/IAA). (
  • In protoplasts transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Aux/IAA fusion proteins under the control of an inducible promoter, the GFP signal was predominantly nuclear, and addition of auxin or coexpression of constitutively active Rac accelerated the rate at which the GFP signal became undetectable following cessation of expression. (
  • Employing a genetically amenable model system enables us to analyze nuclear architecture across several mutant backgrounds, and we are currently exploring methods to control expression of the Dam fusion proteins in a temporal manner and in specific tissues. (
  • We have confirmed the correct expression and localization of our fusion proteins and we are currently analyzing DNA binding sites using whole-genome tiling arrays and qPCR. (
  • In the testis, antigen retrieval (AR) was indispensable for detecting H3K9me1 and me3, G9a, and nuclear protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • Myotonic dystrophy 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by a triplet nucleotide repeat expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the gene coding for myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). (
  • The non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of many influenza A strains, especially those of avian origin, contains an SH3 ligand motif, which binds tightly to the cellular adaptor proteins Crk (Chicken tumor virus number 10 (CT10) regulator of kinase) and Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL). (
  • The homology suggests that vPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase as defined by Hanks et al. (
  • CAPE inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in T cells. (
  • Proposed phosphorylation sites are amino acid residues identified to be phosphorylated in proteins isolated from sperm or following in vitro incubation of the isolated proteins of five mammalian species with cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C. (
  • Other factors such as repetitive sequences or loss of soluble protein could still contribute. (
  • NeuN is a soluble nuclear protein, appears as 3 bands (46-48 × 10(3) M(r)) on immunoblots, and binds to DNA in vitro. (
  • Here we describe a protein degradation pathway at the INM in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) mediated by the Asi complex consisting of the RING domain proteins Asi1 and Asi3 (ref. 4 ). (
  • During import the karyopherin heterodimer dissociates: karyopherin alpha and import substrates enter and accumulate in the nucleoplasm, whereas karyopherin beta accumulates at the nuclear pore complex. (
  • Caspi Y, Zbaida D, Cohen H, Elbaum M (2008) Synthetic Mimic of Selective Transport Through the Nuclear Pore Complex. (
  • In contrast to prevailing views, the team led by Prof. Roderick Lim, Argovia Professor at the Biozentrum and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute of the University of Basel, has now demonstrated that the nuclear pore complex does not work like a simple filter that regulates the nuclear transport process. (
  • Instead, cargo-carrying importins function as bona fide components that regulate the nuclear pore complex transport barrier. (
  • The insights provided by the study also have implications for the understanding of diseases associated with transport defects at the nuclear pore complex, such as cancer. (
  • We always thought of the nuclear pore complex as a standalone machine that controls nuclear transport", says Lim. (
  • Now, we have a much greater appreciation for how the systematic interplay of importin alpha and beta are able to regulate the nuclear pore complex to sustain continuous transport. (
  • Karyopherins regulate nuclear pore complex barrier and transport function, The Journal of Cell Biology (2017). (
  • this complex is essential for RNA export, but not for classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear protein import. (
  • A second complex found on both sides of the NPC and connected to the above one contains Nup188, Nic96, and the pore membrane protein, Pom152 ( 14 ). (
  • On the other hand, nucleoporins forming the scaffold structure of the nuclear pore complex are eminently mutation-prone. (
  • Beck M, Forster F, Ecke M et al (2004) Nuclear pore complex structure and dynamics revealed by cryoelectron tomography. (
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • The NE allows communication between both compartments through Nuclear PoreComplexes and bridges the cytoskeleton to the nucleoskeleton through the LInker ofNucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton complex. (
  • Proteins in all three pellets were proteolytically cleaved, and the complex peptide mixtures were separated by sequential salt steps followed by acetonitrile gradients to slowly release peptides into the mass spectrometer. (
  • Besides INM misfolded proteins, the Asi complex promoted the degradation of functional regulators of sterol biosynthesis. (
  • The mislocalization of THOC2 and the suggestion of RNA processing defects in disease is consistent with our identification of THOC4(ALYREF), the nuclear cap binding complex (NCBP1, NCBP2, ARS2), and exosomal subunits as genetic interactors of C9orf72 mediated toxicity. (
  • A large coiled-coil protein, Tpr (Translocated promoter region) is located at the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex ( NPC ), and plays an important role in the architecture of the nuclear basket (NB). (
  • On the nuclear side of the NPC, RanGTP acts to dissociate Impβ from the complex. (
  • We show here that the WICH complex (WSTF-SNF2h) interacts with several nuclear proteins as follows: Sf3b155/SAP155, RNA helicase II/Gualpha, Myb-binding protein 1a, CSB, the proto-oncogene Dek, and nuclear myosin 1 in a large 3-MDa assembly, B-WICH, during active transcription. (
  • Co-precipitation of a complex formed in v i v o between hnRNP D0B and the TATA-binding protein demonstrates that hnRNP D0B interacts with the basal transcription apparatus. (
  • Both altered HSC and HPC numbers in vivo or in vitro, suggesting the nuclear function of DEK is not required. (
  • Reconstitution of intermediate transcription in vitro was reported to require an unidentified protein, called VITF-2 ( 13 ). (
  • In addition, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 and RBM3 were shown to activate transcription from a late promoter in vitro ( 18 ). (
  • Finally, intermediate and late transcription termination and transcript release in an in vitro system were shown to require a cellular protein fraction ( 9 ). (
  • We have characterized a set of related proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis that associate with MAR DNA in vitro. (
  • Of the more than 20 NPC proteins (called nucleoporins or Nups for short) identified so far in yeast, only a few have been sublocalized within the NPC. (
  • A number of proteins called nucleoporins have been localized to discrete regions of the NPC and are often used as markers for this compartment, e.g. (
  • Approximately half of the nucleoporins (or Nups) contain a phenyalanine-glycine repeat motif (FG repeat), which may be diagnostic for proteins playing a role in nuclear transport. (
  • Its major structural component is a family of proteins called lamins, of which B-type lamins are prominent members and thought to be absolutely essential for a cell's survival. (
  • LRRC42 protein contains two leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) which are widespread structural motifs comprising 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucine residues. (
  • Using unbiased screening with a novel genome-wide yeast library based on a tandem fluorescent protein timer 5 , we identify more than 50 substrates of the Asi, Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ubiquitin ligases. (
  • Although HsdM tested in this study has not been considered to be a virulence factor, the prediction of NLS motifs from the full sequenced genome of bacteria extends our knowledge of functional genomics to understand subcellular targeting of bacterial proteins. (
  • With transfection-ready Cas9 protein-the newest addition to SBI´s genome editing products-you can get more efficient genome editing with fewer off-target events. (
  • Taking the power of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to the next level, transfectable/electroporatable Cas9 protein delivers more efficient genome editing while reducing off-target events (1-3). (
  • Large genomic fragment deletion and functional gene cassette knock-in via Cas9 protein mediated genome editing in one-cell rodent embryos. (
  • Poxviruses are unique among DNA genome viruses because their genome never crosses the nuclear membrane where nucleic acid synthesis otherwise occurs. (
  • The protamines are a diverse family of small arginine-rich proteins that are synthesized in the late-stage spermatids of many animals and plants and bind to DNA, condensing the spermatid genome into a genetically inactive state. (
  • Asi1 is an inner nuclear membrane protein that restricts promoter access of two latent transcription factors. (
  • Chen X, Wang Y, Chen YZ, Harry BL, Nakagawa A, Lee ES, Guo H, Xue D. Regulation of CED-3 caspase localization and activation by C. elegans nuclear-membrane protein NPP-14. (
  • Here, we show that, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the nuclear membrane protein Lem2 associates with chromatin and mediates silencing and heterochromatin localization. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1. (
  • Several lines of evidence are compatible with the hypothesis that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) or leader protein (EBNA-LP) affects expression of the EBV latent infection membrane protein LMP1. (
  • Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that group 2, 3 and 4 LIM domain proteins, primarily known for their roles in actin cytoskeleton organization, also partake in gene transcription regulation. (
  • LIM domain proteins act as important coregulators of nuclear receptor-mediated gene transcription, in which they can either function as coactivators or corepressors. (
  • As was reported previously for depletion of Nup159 or of Rss1/Gle1, we show here that depletion of Nup82 has no detectable effect on classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear import. (
  • In particular, viral tegument proteins that share sequence homology to the formylglycineamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGARAT, or PFAS), an enzyme in the cellular purine biosynthesis, are important for disrupting the intrinsic antiviral response associated with Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) protein-associated nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) by proteasome-dependent and independent mechanisms. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • The fragmentation pattern often yields amino acid sequence information, allowing protein identification from a single unique peptide, thus increasing sensitivity. (
  • Expression of vPK with a rabbit reticulocyte system generated a 31-kDa protein, which is in close agreement with the predicted size of 32 kDa from the amino acid sequence. (
  • A canonical nuclear import sequence in the N-terminus of Gemin4 was identified. (
  • Here, we present a new method (LocNuclei) that predicts nuclear substructures from sequence alone. (
  • We have generated anti-idiotype antibodies against the SV40 T-antigen nuclear localization sequence that allowed us to study NLS-binding proteins in a variety of different organisms. (
  • Even though it is likely that the protamine P2 gene derives from a duplication of the protamine P1 gene, the two proteins appear to be rapidly diverging in amino-acid sequence. (
  • The predicted aminoacid sequence for this protein, which would be approximately the same size as protamine P2, contains stretches of repeating glutamic and aspartic acid residues similar in number and distribution to the clusters of arginine and lysine residues found in the DNA-binding domains of protamines. (
  • We conclude that the sequence-dependent density distribution of disordered proteins inside the NPC plays a key role for its conductivity and selective permeability. (
  • We cloned the cDNA encoding this protein and found it to be identical with hnRNP D0B, a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein. (
  • The intranuclear concentration of sequence-specific protein was estimated to be 250-400 nM, indicating that the protein binds to the CR2 promoter in v i v o . (
  • Snail binds to eEF1A through the SNAG domain, a novel protein nuclear export signal (NES) present in several transcription factor families, and this binding is regulated by phosphorylation. (
  • Since nuclear proteins are sensitive to fixation, immunohistochemical conditions should be optimized in light of the particular antibodies and tissues employed. (
  • Thus, conditions for the detection of epigenetic marks and nuclear proteins should be optimized in consideration of fixation time and AR application in different tissues and antibodies. (
  • Use TrueMAB Monoclonal Antibodies raised against authentic protein antigens for immunoassays where a protein's native conformation is a critical parameter. (
  • Anti-Cysteine and serine rich nuclear protein 3 antibodies are available from several suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 100 cysteine and serine rich nuclear protein 3 Antibodies across 15 suppliers. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • 76 Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80kDa (NCBP1) Antibodies from 20 manufacturers are available on (
  • Proteins of similar size are recognized by these antibodies in yeast, Drosophila, rat and human cells. (
  • One of the proteins recognized by anti-idiotype antibodies is identical to a previously identified NLS-binding protein. (
  • We show that the yeast mutant npl3, which is defective in nuclear protein localization, has an altered distribution of antigens recognized by these anti-idiotype antibodies, at the semi-permissive temperature. (
  • It has been proposed that chromatin-binding/modifying proteins embedded within the inner nuclear membrane may be central in determining the identity of newly differentiated cells. (
  • Hu, C.-D., Chinenov, Y. & Kerppola, T. K. Visualization of interactions among bZIP and Rel family proteins in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. (
  • We show that unc-75 encodes an RRM domain-containing RNA binding protein that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system and neurosecretory gland cells. (
  • Scientists have long held theories about the importance of proteins called B-type lamins in the process of embryonic stem cells replicating and differentiating into different varieties of cells. (
  • We found that DMPK localizes to the NE and coimmunoprecipitates with Lamin-A/C. Overexpression of DMPK in HeLa cells or C2C12 myoblasts disrupts Lamin-A/C and Lamin-B1 localization and causes nuclear fragmentation. (
  • Among them, HsdM, a subunit of KpnAl that is a type I restriction-modification system found in K. pneumoniae , was selected for the experimental proof of nuclear targeting in host cells. (
  • Simply pre-incubate Cas9 protein with gRNA and then transfect or electroporate into your cells or model system. (
  • When it comes to the random mixture of chromosomes, every consistent genetic process is a kind of miracle that lets us pass on our genetic code and produce proteins and cells. (
  • Scaffidi, P., Misteli, T. and Bianchi, M. E., Release of chromatin protein HMGB1 by necrotic cells triggers inflammation. (
  • Nuclear extracts were prepared from 293T cells overexpressing C/EBP-α or -β. (
  • EMSA using nuclear extracts of 293T cells overexpression C/EBP-α and C/EBP-β. (
  • 293T cells were transfected with expression vectors for C/EBP-α or -β and harvested 48 h after transfection, and nuclear extracts from the cells were subjected to SDS-PAGE. (
  • To investigate if CP might also be involved in viral DNA nuclear transport, Escherichia coli -expressed CP, together with TOTO-1-labeled viral ss or ds DNA, was microinjected into maize and tobacco epidermal cells. (
  • This was addressed here by following the fate of several nuclear proteins after infection of cells with vaccinia virus. (
  • Differences in expression between activated and resting leukocytes were confirmed for some NETs by RT-PCR, and most of these proteins appear to only be expressed in certain types of blood cells. (
  • b ) Wild-type cells ( top row ) and sxm1 cells ( bottom row ) were probed for either an NLS-GFP reporter ( left ) or the endogenous protein Npl3p ( right ). (
  • Many of these proteins and COUP-TFI were demonstrated to co-occupy the promoter of retinoic acid-induced 1, a newly identified, COUP-TFI target gene in HeLa S3 cells. (
  • These proteins are often overexpressed in cancer cells, and HIF overexpression frequently correlates with poor prognosis, making HIF proteins promising therapeutic targets. (
  • Nuclear targeting of 4.1N arrests PC12 cells at G1 phase. (
  • To investigate the relationship between NF-κB and GM-CSF transcription in a chromatin context, we analyzed the chromatin structure of the GM-CSF gene in T cells and the role of NF-κB proteins in chromatin remodeling. (
  • The UPS functions in the selective degradation of numerous short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells ( 6 ). (
  • In this study, we sought to characterize the in vivo growth suppression phenotype of BAP1, to determine if it was a genuine tumor suppressor, to ask whether the mutations found in cancer cells inactivated protein function, and to ask whether BAP1 exerted its tumor suppressor activity through the BRCA1 pathway. (
  • Thus, the nuclear scaffold places limits on what genes can and can not be expressed within a given cell and, hence, may serve a basis for cell identity. (
  • We propose that these proteins act as activators or repressors of genes responsible for mediating the various auxin responses. (
  • Braun DA, Sadowski CE, Kohl S et al (2016) Mutations in nuclear pore genes NUP93, NUP205 and XPO5 cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. (
  • AtNEAP proteins are encoded by a small gene familycomposed of three genes and are targeted through a nuclear localisation signal to the nucleuswhere they are anchored at the INM through their C-terminal transmembrane domain.AtNEAPs also possess several long coiled-coil domains reminiscent of the lamin structure inanimals. (
  • Orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) possesses the ability to either activate or repress the transcription of a diversity of target genes through undefined mechanisms. (
  • Primary structures of mouse protamine genes and proteins. (
  • It is now known that alterations in the expression of genes that encode drug- and bile-acid-transporter proteins in both the gut and liver play a previously unrecognized role in determining patient drug response and eventual clinical outcome. (
  • Wu, RAC GTPases in tobacco and arabidopsis mediate auxin-induced formation of proteolytically active nuclear protein bodies that contain AUX/IAA proteins. (
  • Ainsi, le nucléosquelette associé à l'INM est nécessaire pour transmettre des signaux au noyau et induire des changements dans l'organisation de la chromatine et finalement dans l'expression des gènes.Une nouvelle famille de protéines associées à l'enveloppe nucléaire (NEAP),proposées comme nouveaux composants du nucléosquelette de la plante, a récemment été mise en évidence dans la plante modèle Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • These proteins appear to be similar to the NOP56/NOP58 family of proteins previously identified in several eukaryotic organisms. (
  • Such inner-nuclear-membrane proteins (INMs) may function simply by restricting the movement of bound chromatin, by recruiting chromatin-remodeling proteins, or through inherent enzyme activity. (
  • Inner nuclear membrane proteins Asi1, Asi2, and Asi3 function in concert to maintain the latent properties of transcription factors Stp1 and Stp2. (
  • S-nitrosylation (or "SNO") is a PTM involving the attachment of a nitric oxide group to target proteins. (
  • In this system, ubiquitin is covalently conjugated to target proteins ( 7 ). (
  • NEs and MMs isolated from rodent liver ( Fig. 1A ) ( 7 , 8 ) were extracted with 0.1 M NaOH to enrich for transmembrane proteins in the pellet (fig. S2). (
  • Sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus nuclear viroplasms contain polymerase-associated proteins. (
  • We have initiated a study of the cytopathology of nucleorhabdoviruses by analyzing the subcellular localization of sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) genomic and antigenomic RNAs and the encoded polymerase proteins. (
  • In their research article , Jiří Friml and colleagues describe PATELLINs, plasma membrane-localized proteins required for auxin-induced PIN1 relocalization and multiple developmental processes. (
  • This method is based on the expression in vivo of chimeric proteins containing an adenine methyltransferase (Dam) from E. coli that methylates the DNA in the vicinity of native binding sites of a chromatin-interacting protein. (
  • Their study published in the Journal of Cell Biology reveals how shuttling proteins known as importins control the function of nuclear pores - as opposed to the view that nuclear pores control the shuttling of importins. (
  • Cytological analysis indicates that the NLS-binding proteins reside in part at nuclear pores. (
  • Using the MosSCI technique, we have created Caenorhabditis elegans strains containing single copy insertions of Dam fused to NE and nuclear pore proteins such as emerin/EMR-1, lamin/LMN-1 and Nup98/NPP-10N. (
  • There are several proteins associated with the inner nuclear membrane. (
  • All of the encoded proteins carry an amino-terminal LEM-D (green box). (
  • B) Shown is a chart of the percentage similarity derived from pairwise alignments of amino acid sequences of LEM-D proteins, including either the LEM-D alone or the non-LEM-D regions of the proteins. (
  • LdMNPV vPK shows a 24% amino acid identity to the catalytic domains of the eucaryotic protein kinases nPKC from rabbits, HSPKCE from humans, APLPKCB from Aplysia californica , and dPKC98F from Drosophila melanogaster , and homology to several other protein kinases from yeasts, mice, and bovines. (
  • Goodwin, G. H., Sanders, C. and Johns, E. W., A new group of chromatin-associated proteins witha high content of acidic and basic amino acids. (
  • The gene encodes a 154 kDa protein product composed of 1427 amino acids. (
  • Comparison of protamine gene and amino-acid sequences suggests that the family evolved from specialized histones through protamine-like proteins to the true protamines. (
  • In addition, all herpesviruses encode for a potent ubiquitin protease that can efficiently remove ubiquitin chains from proteins and thereby interfere with several different cellular pathways. (
  • Distinct nuclear import and export pathways mediated by members of the karyopherin b family. (
  • Larger proteins require active transport processes that involve peptide signal sequences in the transported proteins that are specific for different transport pathways. (
  • This protein acts as a cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation substrate and its effects on cell-cycle progression are enhanced by the co-expression of cyclin E and CDK2. (
  • Interestingly, lem-d double mutants displayed distinct developmental and cellular mutant phenotypes, suggesting that Drosophila LEM-D proteins have developmental functions that are differentially shared with other LEM-D family members. (
  • At least two nuclear Drosophila LEM-D proteins are required for adult survival. (
  • Furthermore, we report that the subnuclear-localized EXC-7 protein, the C. elegans ortholog of the neuron-restricted Drosophila ELAV splicing factor, acts in parallel to UNC-75 to also affect cholinergic synaptic transmission. (
  • To determine whether extracellular DEK required nuclear function to regulate hematopoiesis, we utilized 2 mutant forms of DEK: one that lacked its nuclear translocation signal and one that lacked DNA-binding ability. (
  • Extracellular DEK does not require its nuclear function to regulate hematopoiesis. (
  • Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein abundance, localization, and function. (
  • Four nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily members, including pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), constitutive androstane receptor (NR1I3), farnesoid X receptor (NR1H4), and vitamin D receptor (NR1I1), play pivotal roles in drug- and bile-acid- activated programs of gene expression to coordinately regulate drug- and bile-acid transport activity in the intestine and liver. (
  • Hipp and co-senior author Ulrich Hartl wondered if amyloidogenic proteins affect nucleocytoplasmic transport in similar ways, and if the cellular location of those aggregates was important. (
  • Targeting this we performed homology modeling and protein-protein docking study of NS3 with NRBP (Nuclear Receptor Binding Protein) of human as it has been proved that NS3 of DENV interacts with NRBP which causes cellular trafficking in human cell. (
  • The initiation and termination of vaccinia virus postreplicative transcription have been reported to require cellular proteins, some of which are believed to be nuclear proteins. (
  • BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1), a deubiquitinating enzyme of unknown cellular function, is mutated in breast and lung cancers. (
  • These `lamin membrane arrays' are attached to the inner nuclear membrane but are not continuous with it. (
  • 2004. Identification of a nuclear targeting signal in YopM from Yersinia spp. (
  • The inner nuclear membrane (INM) functions in essential nuclear processes including chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression 1 . (
  • 2003. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium translocated leucine-rich repeat effector protein inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression. (
  • LRR-containing proteins participate in many important biological processes, including plant and animal immunity, hormone-receptor interactions, cell adhesion, signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and apoptosis ( 11 - 14 ). (
  • Furthermore, many binding partners have been identified for NETs that are either chromatin proteins, enzymes that modify chromatin proteins, or regulators of gene expression ( 1 , 11 ). (
  • Partly due to the insolubility of the matrix, and to the heterogeneity of MAR DNA, very few of the protein components of the nuclear matrix have been identified. (
  • Hi, I am also interested in the same nuclear protein antibody, and I was looking forward to see the answers to your request. (
  • Bound proteins were visualized by Western immunoblotting with anti-NuMA antibody. (
  • After immunoprecipitation with anti-myc antibody, bound proteins were visualized by Western blotting with anti-HA antibody. (
  • Outside of the LEM-D, the three proteins carry regions predicted to be intrinsically disordered (ID, gray boxes) and additional domains, including the MAN1-Src1-p C-terminal domain (MSC, purple box), the U2AF homology motif (UHM, blue box), a transmembrane domain (TM, yellow box) or a peripheral localization domain (PL, orange box). (
  • These data further emphasize the role of Crk proteins as host cell interaction partners of NS1, and highlight the potential for host cell manipulation gained by a viral protein simply via acquiring a short SH3 binding motif. (
  • Association of lamins with the inner nuclear membrane is mediated by specific modifications in the CaaX motif at their C-termini. (
  • Other proteins that contain a CaaX motif include the Ras proteins and many other small G proteins, fungal mating pheromones and large G protein subunits. (
  • Probably functions as a general coactivator, rather than just a nuclear receptor coactivator. (
  • La protects RNAs from 3′ exonucleolytic digestion and also contributes to their nuclear retention. (
  • Mediates the nuclear export of encapsidated genomic RNAs (ribonucleoproteins, RNPs). (
  • Exportin5 mediates the nuclear export of dsRNAs including pre-miRNAs, adenoviral RNAs and tRNAs. (
  • B-WICH also contains RNAs, 45 S rRNA, 5 S rRNA, 7SL RNA, and traces of the U2 small nuclear RNA. (
  • Nuclear protein binding sites in the mouse adiponectin promoter. (
  • The mouse adiponectin promoter fragment from −256 to 21 bp was end labeled and used for DNase I footprint analysis with the nuclear extract of rat liver or white adipose tissue (WAT). (
  • Such proteins could include enzymes that modify histones-such as methylases and acetylases-which act to alter the three-dimensional conformation of chromatin, as well as DNA binding proteins-such as helicases, gyrases, and transcription factors-that are involved in unwinding/looping DNA and/or recruiting RNAP holoenzyme. (
  • Indeed, there is no evidence for participation of host proteins in vaccinia virus DNA replication or early gene transcription. (
  • In addition, most proteins known to be required for intermediate and late gene transcription are virus encoded (reviewed in reference 2 ). (
  • The vaccinia virus A18R, G2R, and J3R proteins have been implicated in intermediate and late gene transcription elongation and termination ( 4 ). (
  • Nevertheless, there is also evidence for participation of host cell proteins in vaccinia virus transcription. (
  • Thus, we describe a nuclear role for eEF1A and provide a novel mechanism for protein nuclear export that attenuates the activity of SNAG-containing transcription factors. (