Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins: Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.HMGB1 Protein: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.PhosphoproteinsFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B: A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein: A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nuclear Pore: An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Phosvitin: An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsCellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein: A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Thymosin: Thymosin. A family of heat-stable, polypeptide hormones secreted by the thymus gland. Their biological activities include lymphocytopoiesis, restoration of immunological competence and enhancement of expression of T-cell characteristics and function. They have therapeutic potential in patients having primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases, cancer or diseases related to aging.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Intranuclear Space: The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.HMGN1 Protein: An evolutionarily-conserved 10-kDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.HMGA1a Protein: An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Thymopoietins: Two closely related polypeptides (molecular weight 7,000) isolated from the thymus gland. These hormones induce the differentiation of prothymocytes to thymocytes within the thymus. They also cause a delayed impairment of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and are therefore believed to be the agent responsible for myasthenia gravis.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.HMGN Proteins: A family of HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS that bind to NUCLEOSOMES.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies: Circumscribed masses of foreign or metabolically inactive materials, within the CELL NUCLEUS. Some are VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Blotting, Southwestern: A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Y-Box-Binding Protein 1: Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/36129)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (2/36129)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (3/36129)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Drosophila oogenesis: versatile spn doctors. (4/36129)

Recent work on Drosophila oogenesis has uncovered connections between cell-cycle checkpoints and pattern formation. Genes of the spindle class, which encode double-strand break repair enzymes and RNA helicases, affect oocyte polarity and the decision whether to differentiate as an oocyte or a nurse cell.  (+info)

Meiosis: MeiRNA hits the spot. (5/36129)

The protein Mei2 performs at least two functions required in fission yeast for the switch from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles. One of these functions also requires meiRNA. It appears that meiRNA targets Mei2 to the nucleus, where it can promote the first meiotic division.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (6/36129)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (7/36129)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (8/36129)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

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Image Credit: Good Search I recently received a comment from someone who included some information about Nut Midline Carcinoma. If you are familiar with this aggressive cancer, and want a blog that focuses on it, heres a link. About Nut Midline Carcinoma. http://stridesforstephenstepstocurenmc.wordpress.com/stephensstory/
Active Motif provides a large number of recombinant bromodomain proteins for studies of bromodomain function in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling.
Changes in nuclear proteome inrinmutant reveal the potential downstream targets ofRIN. (a) Nuclear proteins were isolated from wild-type (WT)and rin mutant frui
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Shop Nuclear protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Nuclear protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Cavellán, E.; Asp, P.; Percipalle, P.; Farrants, A-Kristin.Ostlund., 2006: The WSTF-SNF2h chromatin remodeling complex interacts with several nuclear proteins in transcription
Adult Nuclear Protein Normal Eye Lysate, 0.1 mg. Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent pattern on SDS-PAGE analysis.
SPIN-2, 0.1 ml. SPIN-2 is a novel nuclear protein that functions to regulate cell cycle progression and this activity is related to the inhibition of apoptosis following the removal of essential growth factors.
POLDIP2鸡多克隆抗体(ab26188)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ICC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ヤギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab31319 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ELISA…Nucleophosmin抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
TNFAIP8L3兔多克隆抗体(ab111524)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma is an exceedingly rare subtype of squamous poorly-differentiated carcinoma and is considered one of the most aggressive human solid tumors [1-3]. NUT midline carcinoma is a relatively new entity, that may likely be under-recognized and under-diagnosed. All ages and organs might be affected, but most frequently NUT midline carcinoma arises along the trunk or the head and, in particular, in midline structures such as the mediastinum [1-3]. NUT midline carcinoma is characterized by the pathognomonic chromosomal rearrangement between the NUT gene with either bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) or, less frequently, with BRD3 (on chromosome 9), leading to the fusion genes BRD4-NUT or BRD3-NUT, respectively [1-3]. BRD is a DNA reader that activates transcription by binding to acetyl-modified lysine residues of histone tails [1, 3, 4]. The expression of several oncogenes, including transcription factors and MYC, is epigenetically regulated by BRD. ...
Excellgen Brahma-related Gene 1 protein, wild type, BRG1, SMARCA4 [RP-22] - Product Name Brahma-related Gene 1, BRG1, SMARCA4 Size 5,000 U Description The wild type human brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) encodes a protein of 1,647 amino acids that contains a conserved domain of the SWI2/SNF2 family necessary for normal mitotic growth and transcription regulation (1-3). BRG1 is an essential component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes
Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the
Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2) is a BET family chromatin adaptor required for expression of cell cycle associated genes and therefore involved in cell cycle progression. Brd2 is expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitors, displays cell cycle-stimulating activity and, when overexpressed, impairs neuronal differentiation. Paradoxically, Brd2 is also detected in differentiating neurons. To shed light on the role of Brd2 in the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation we have looked for Brd2 interacting proteins upon induction of neuronal differentiation. Surprisingly, we have identified the growth factor Pleiotrophin (Ptn). Ptn antagonizes the cell cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation. Moreover, Ptn knockdown reduces neuronal differentiation. Ptn-mediated antagonism of Brd2 has been assessed in a cell differentiation model and in two embryonic processes associated with the neural tube: spinal cord neurogenesis ...
... , Authors: Jianfei Qi, Zeev Ronai. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Class II transactivator (CIITA) is a global transcriptional coactivator of human leukocyte antigen-D (HLA-D) genes. CIITA contains motifs similar to guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. This report shows that CIITA binds GTP, and mutations in these motifs decrease its GTP-binding and transactivation activity. Substitution of these motifs with analogous sequences from Ras restores CIITA function. CIITA exhibits little GTPase activity, yet mutations in CIITA that confer GTPase activity reduce transcriptional activity. GTP binding by CIITA correlates with nuclear import. Thus, unlike other GTP-binding proteins, CIITA is involved in transcriptional activation that uses GTP binding to facilitate its own nuclear import. ...
The most common mode of healthcare delivery is through personal, face-to-face contact between a healthcare provider and a beneficiary (patient). There is, however, an increasing trend towards the provision of healthcare in the absence of personal contact. This limit of contact during patient care is known as in absentia health care. In Absentia healthcare, or distance medicine, occurs when the patient and care giver are at different locations, but still communicate by audio and video, or sometimes without any personal contact. A face-to-face contact is often a necessary prelude to rendering health care. This, however, may not be necessary for care; in fact current technologies permit with no prior or concurrent contact.[1][2] Some people argue that this type of in absentia medical care may derail the traditional sequences of examination, diagnosis and treatment, and that such a detour may challenge existing values of modern medicine. In absentia care assumes heightened relevance today because ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Huntingtin-associated protein 1 interacts with Ahi1 to regulate cerebellar and brainstem development in mice. AU - Sheng, Guoqing. AU - Xu, Xingshun. AU - Lin, Yung Feng. AU - Wang, Chuan En. AU - Rong, Juan. AU - Cheng, Dongmei. AU - Peng, Junmin. AU - Jiang, Xiaoyan. AU - Li, Shi Hua. AU - Li, Xiao Jiang. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Joubert syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the cerebellum and brainstem, with abnormal decussation in the brain. Mutations in the Abelson helper integration site 1 gene, which encodes the protein AHI1, have been shown to cause Joubert syndrome. In this study, we found that mouse Ahi1 formed a stable complex with huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), which is critical for neonatal development and involved in intracellular trafficking. Hap1-knockout mice showed significantly reduced Ahi1 levels, defective cerebellar development, and abnormal axonal decussation. Suppression of Ahi1 also ...
Orderly progression through the cell cycle is essential to maintain ploidy and stability of the genome. For the transition from G2 into mitosis, upstream checkpoint proteins signal the timing of mitotic entry. Among these are checkpoints to detect completion of DNA replication, the absence of genomic lesions, the doubling of cell mass, and the synthesis of macromolecules. Ultimately, these signals up- or downregulate the inhibitory Y15 phosphorylation of Cdc2, the universal switch for the transition from G2 into mitosis. Through controlling the kinases and phosphatases that phosphorylate and dephosphorylate Y15, these checkpoint-signaling pathways work together to ensure that mitosis is initiated only when it will result in two viable and identical daughters. Although most checkpoints halt cell cycle progression in response to an insult, osmotic stress and limited nutrition actually advance mitotic entry in S. pombe (Young and Fantes 1987; Shiozaki and Russell 1995). It is therefore likely that ...
The amount of cellular proteins is a crucial parameter that is known to vary between cells as a function of the replicative passages, and can be important during physiological aging. The process of protein degradation is known to be performed by a series of enzymatic reactions, ranging from an initial step of protein ubiquitination to their final fragmentation by the proteasome. In this paper we propose a stochastic dynamical model of nuclear proteins concentration resulting from a balance between a constant production of proteins and their degradation by a cooperative enzymatic reaction. The predictions of this model are compared with experimental data obtained by fluorescence measurements of the amount of nuclear proteins in murine tail fibroblast (MTF) undergoing cellular senescence. Our model provides a three-parameter stationary distribution that is in good agreement with the experimental data even during the transition to the senescent state, where the nuclear protein concentration changes
This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the forkhead-associated domain of the Ki-67 antigen. The encoded protein may bind RNA and may play a role in mitosis and cell cycle progression. Multiple pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 5, 10, 12, 15, and 19.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009 ...
The burgeoning wealth of gene sequences contrasts with our ignorance of gene function. One route to assigning function is by determining the sub-cellular location of proteins. We describe the identification of mouse genes encoding proteins that are confined to nuclear compartments by splicing endogeneous gene sequences to a promoterless betageo reporter, using a gene trap approach. Mouse ES (embryonic stem) cell lines were identified that express betageo fusions located within sub-nuclear compartments, including chromosomes, the nucleolus and foci containing splicing factors. The sequences of 11 trapped genes were ascertained, and characterisation of endogenous protein distribution in two cases confirmed the validity of the approach. Three novel proteins concentrated within distinct chromosomal domains were identified, one of which appears to be a serine/threonine kinase. The sequence of a gene whose product co-localises with splicesome components suggests that this protein may be an E3 ...
High throughput screening Scientists know that the faulty huntingtin protein causes HD, but how it kills cells is not fully known. By screening hundreds of compounds, scientists hope to find one that prevents the aggregation or cleavage of the mutant huntingtin protein - and thereby stops the cells being killed. If successful, they will try this in tissue culture, then examine the effects on animals carrying the faulty HD gene. If the results of both these are successful, the compound can be safety tested in preparation for human trials. ...
Provided herein are methods, compounds, and compositions for reducing expression of huntingtin mRNA and protein in an animal. Such methods, compounds, and compositions are useful to treat, prevent, delay, or ameliorate Huntingtons disease, or a symptom thereof.
NPM1 - NPM1 (untagged)-Human nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin) (NPM1), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
LC3-mHTT-IN-2 (Compound AN2) is a mHTT-LC3 linker compound, which interacts with both mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) and LC3B but not with wtHTT or irrelevant control proteins. LC3-mHTT-IN-2 reduces the levels of mHTT in an allele-selective manner in cultured Huntington disease (HD) mouse neurons. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Legleiter J, Lotz GP, Miller J, Ko J, Ng C, Williams GL, Finkbeiner S, Patterson PH, Muchowski PJ. Monoclonal antibodies recognize distinct conformational epitopes formed by polyglutamine in a mutant huntingtin fragment ...
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YAP (yes-associated protein) and TAZ are oncogenic transcriptional co-activators downstream of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. However, whether...
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Has anyone tried a new product from Sigma for nuclear protein extraction?If so, I would be curious to find out how it worked and if you would recommend this product to others?Please reply to this posting or send an email to [email protected] Thanks, Laki. ...
In collaboration with Dr. Macdonald and others at CHDI, the Isis HD team is working to validate huntingtin lowering biomarkers. Beside the development of assays (investigative procedures) to measure the huntingtin protein in CSF, CHDI is also looking at PET-ligands to measure the effects of ISIS-HTTRx in the brain. The ligand, sometimes called a PET tracer, binds to a target or receptor in the brain, which can be measured in people using PET scan imaging. The team has selected ligands to targets that are altered in HD; the hope is that when huntingtin is lowered the level of these targets will be restored, indicating that ISIS-HTTRx has a desired effect ...
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This review describes the structure and functions of Y-box binding protein 1 ( YB-1) and its homologs. Interactions of YB-1 with DNA, mRNAs, and proteins are considered. Data on the participation of Y
Background. A promising area of research is the analysis of multiplexed nuclear proteins on a per-cell basis and the correlation of multi-protein-based cell phenotype statistics with clinical patterns. Many believe that capturing this information from individual tumor cells, rather than average values for proteins across tumor cell populations, as obtained in singly stained serial sections, or as average values for proteins across homogenized tumor samples, may hold key information about disease state, and thus offer valuable information for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy selection. Objective. To demonstrate that multicolor IHC staining and multispectral imaging can be used to quantify reliably multiple nuclear proteins on a per-cell basis, without significant inter-stain interference or cross-talk. Additionally, our objective is to offer an example of the additional information afforded by multiplexed per-cell IHC. ER and ki67 were chosen for this demonstration because of the recent finding ...
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Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUMA1 gene. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 has been shown to interact with PIM1, Band 4.1, GPSM2 and EPB41L1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137497 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000066306 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Sparks CA, Bangs PL, McNeil GP, Lawrence JB, Fey EG (Oct 1993). "Assignment of the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA gene to human chromosome 11q13". Genomics. 17 (1): 222-224. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1307. PMID 8406455. "Entrez Gene: NUMA1 nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1". Bhattacharya, Nandini; Wang Zeping; Davitt Christine; McKenzie Ian F C; Xing Pei-Xiang; Magnuson Nancy S (Jul 2002). "Pim-1 associates with protein complexes necessary for mitosis". Chromosoma. Germany. 111 (2): 80-95. doi:10.1007/s00412-002-0192-6. ISSN 0009-5915. PMID 12111331. Mattagajasingh, S N; Huang S C; Hartenstein J S; Snyder M; ...
Mier1 encodes a novel transcriptional regulator and was originally isolated as a fibroblast growth factor early response gene. Two major protein isoforms have been identified, MIER1α and β, which differ in their C-terminal sequence. Previously, we demonstrated that both isoforms recruit histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to repress transcription. To further explore the role of MIER1 in chromatin remodeling, we investigated the functional interaction of MIER1 with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT), Creb-binding protein (CBP). Using GST pull-down assays, we demonstrate that MIER1 interacts with CBP and that this interaction involves the N-terminal half (amino acids 1-283) of MIER1, which includes the acidic activation and ELM2 domains and the C-terminal half (amino acids 1094-2441) of CBP, which includes the bromo-, HAT, C/H3 and glutamine-rich domains. Functional analysis, using HEK293 cells, shows that the CBP bound to MIER1 in vivo has no detectable HAT activity. Histone 4 peptide binding assays
Objective: Rare disease Background: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, highly lethal malignancy that results from a chromosome translocation and mostly arises in the midline organs. To date, no treatment has been established. Most patients receive combinations of chemotherapy regimens and radiation, and occasionally subsequent resection; nevertheless, patients have an average survival hardly exceeding 7 months. Case Report: A 21-year-old patient was admitted to our division with a large mediastinal mass with lung nodules, multiple vertebral metastases, and massive nodal involvement. In a few days, the patient developed a superior vena cava syndrome and an acute respiratory failure. Due to the rapid course of the disease, based on preliminary histology of poorly differentiated carcinoma, a dose-dense biweekly chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin was started. In the meantime, the diagnosis of NMC was confirmed. A surprising clinical benefit was obtained after the first cycle ...
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The seven in absentia homolog 2 (SIAH2) protein plays a significant role in the hypoxic response by regulating the abundance of hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha; however, its role in breast carcinoma is unclear. We investigated the frequency and expression pattern of SIAH2 in two independent cohorts of sporadic breast cancers. METHODS: Immunohistochemical evaluation of SIAH2protein expression was conducted in normal breast tissues and in tissue microarrays comprising ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and a cohort of invasive breast carcinomas. Correlation analysis was performed between SIAH2 and clinicopathological variables and intrinsic breast cancer subgroups and validated in a cohort of 293 invasive ductal carcinomas. Promoter methylation, gene copy number and mRNA expression of SIAH2 were determined in a panel of basal-like tumors and cell lines. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in nuclear SIAH2 expression from normal breast tissues through to DCIS and progression to
MTLHATRGAALLSWVNSLHVADPVEAVLQLQDCSIFIKIIDRIHGTEEGQQILKQPVSERLDFVCSFLQK 1 - 70 NRKHPSSPECLVSAQKVLEGSELELAKMTMLLLYHSTMSSKSPRDWEQFEYKIQAELAVILKFVLDHEDG 71 - 140 LNLNEDLENFLQKAPVPSTCSSTFPEELSPPSHQAKREIRFLELQKVASSSSGNNFLSGSPASPMGDILQ 141 - 210 TPQFQMRRLKKQLADERSNRDELELELAENRKLLTEKDAQIAMMQQRIDRLALLNEKQAASPLEPKELEE 211 - 280 LRDKNESLTMRLHETLKQCQDLKTEKSQMDRKINQLSEENGDLSFKLREFASHLQQLQDALNELTEEHSK 281 - 350 ATQEWLEKQAQLEKELSAALQDKKCLEEKNEILQGKLSQLEEHLSQLQDNPPQEKGEVLGDVLQLETLKQ 351 - 420 EAATLAANNTQLQARVEMLETERGQQEAKLLAERGHFEEEKQQLSSLITDLQSSISNLSQAKEELEQASQ 421 - 490 AHGARLTAQVASLTSELTTLNATIQQQDQELAGLKQQAKEKQAQLAQTLQQQEQASQGLRHQVEQLSSSL 491 - 560 KQKEQQLKEVAEKQEATRQDHAQQLATAAEEREASLRERDAALKQLEALEKEKAAKLEILQQQLQVANEA 561 - 630 RDSAQTSVTQAQREKAELSRKVEELQACVETARQEQHEAQAQVAELELQLRSEQQKATEKERVAQEKDQL 631 - 700 QEQLQALKESLKVTKGSLEEEKRRAADALEEQQRCISELKAETRSLVEQHKRERKELEEERAGRKGLEAR 701 - 770 LQQLGEAHQAETEVLRRELAEAMAAQHTAESECEQLVKEVAAWRERYEDSQQEEAQYGAMFQEQLMTLKE 771 - 840 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mammalian bromodomain protein, Brd4, interacts with replication factor C and inhibits progression to S phase. AU - Maruyama, Tetsuo. AU - Farina, Andrea. AU - Dey, Anup. AU - Cheong, JaeHun. AU - Bermudez, Vladimir P.. AU - Tamura, Tomohiko. AU - Sciortino, Selvaggia. AU - Shuman, Jon. AU - Hurwitz, Jerard. AU - Ozato, Keiko. PY - 2002/9. Y1 - 2002/9. N2 - Brd4 belongs to the BET family of nuclear proteins that carry two bromodomains implicated in the interaction with chromatin. Expression of Brd4 correlates with cell growth and is induced during early G1 upon mitogenic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the role of Brd4 in cell growth regulation. We found that ectopic expression of Brd4 in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells inhibits cell cycle progression from G1 to S. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous and transfected Brd4 interacts with replication factor C (RFC), the conserved five-subunit complex essential for DNA replication. In vitro analysis showed ...
NPCs assemble at the nuclear envelope in two different ways. The first occurs during reformation of the nuclear envelope at the end of mitosis and involves the recruitment of NPC components (nucleoporins or Nups) and membrane vesicles to chromatin. The second occurs during interphase and involves synthesis of new NPC components. Much less is known about this latter pathway, which is of particular importance in organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae that do not undergo nuclear envelope and NPC breakdown in mitosis. Now, three studies in this issue (see Flemming et al. on p. 387, Makio et al. on p. 459, and Onishchenko et al. on p. 475) shed some light on how new pores are formed in this organism. Together, these studies show that the nucleoporins Nup170 and Nup157 help to build new NPCs by recruiting nucleoporins and candidate membrane fusogens to sites of NPC assembly in the nuclear envelope.. Budding yeast NPCs are formed by the intimate interaction of ∼30 different nucleoporins in ...
Correlation between thyroid transcription factor-1 expression, immune-related thyroid dysfunction, and efficacy of anti-programmed cell death protein-1 treatment in non-small cell lung cancer
A novel gene therapy drug developed by antibody company Vybion has been shown to block cellular gene dysregulation and delay cognitive and motor problems associated with Huntingtons disease. The details of the intrabody drug INT41, an antibody that binds to an intracellular protein, were published in the Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases.. INT41 prevents toxic N-terminal huntingtin fragments from being transported into the nucleus of the cell and blocks them from binding with the DNA. The drug was tested in the well-validated R6/2 mouse model of Huntingtons disease.. "We believe that our therapeutic approach to the treatment of Huntingtons disease has provided a biological rationale linking Huntingtons disease progression and toxic N-terminal fragments," said Dr. Lee Henderson, CEO of Vybion. "We look forward to completing our plans for human patient trials.". The drug candidate is currently in late-stage preclinical development for the treatment of Huntingtons disease. Vybions ...
In a gene trap screen we recovered a mouse mutant line in which an insertion generated a null allele of the Brd4 gene. Brd4 belongs to the Fsh/Brd family, a group of structurally related proteins characterized by the association of two bromodomains and one extraterminal domain. Members of this family include Brd2/Ring3/Fsrg1 in mammals, fs(1)h in Drosophila, and Bdf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Brd4 heterozygotes display pre- and postnatal growth defects associated with a reduced proliferation rate. These mice also exhibit a variety of anatomical abnormalities: head malformations, absence of subcutaneous fat, cataracts, and abnormal liver cells. In primary cell cultures, heterozygous cells also display reduced proliferation rates and moderate sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate. Embryos nullizygous for Brd4 die shortly after implantation and are compromised in their ability to maintain an inner cell mass in vitro, suggesting a role in fundamental cellular processes. Finally, sequence ...
The MDM4 gene encodes a nuclear protein that contains a p53 binding domain at the N-terminus and a RING finger domain at the C-terminus. It is the human homolog of mouse double minute 4 (MDM4) protein and shows structural similarity to p53-binding protein MDM2. MDM4 is also called Mdm4 p53 binding protein homolog (mouse); transformed 3T3 cell double minute 4, p53 binding protein (mouse); MDMX, Mdm2-like p53-binding protein, HDMX, MRP1, MDM4-related protein 1, double minute 4 protein, and p53-binding protein Mdm4. Both MDM4 and MDM2 bind the p53 tumor suppressor protein and inhibit its activity, and have been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. However, unlike MDM2 which degrades p53, MDM4 inhibits p53 by binding its transcription activation domain. MDM4 can reverse MDM2-targeted degradation of p53, while maintaining suppression of p53 activity.. ...
The MDM4 gene encodes a nuclear protein that contains a p53 binding domain at the N-terminus and a RING finger domain at the C-terminus. It is the human homolog of mouse double minute 4 (MDM4) protein and shows structural similarity to p53-binding protein MDM2. MDM4 is also called Mdm4 p53 binding protein homolog (mouse); transformed 3T3 cell double minute 4, p53 binding protein (mouse); MDMX, Mdm2-like p53-binding protein, HDMX, MRP1, MDM4-related protein 1, double minute 4 protein, and p53-binding protein Mdm4. Both MDM4 and MDM2 bind the p53 tumor suppressor protein and inhibit its activity, and have been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. However, unlike MDM2 which degrades p53, MDM4 inhibits p53 by binding its transcription activation domain. MDM4 can reverse MDM2-targeted degradation of p53, while maintaining suppression of p53 activity.. ...
Computer models are relevant to cell biology only to the extent that they can generate testable predictions, and provide new insights into cellular processes. They can suggest unexpected relationships between steps in a process, or expose flaws in our understanding by failing to correctly simulate an experimental outcome. We believe that our model of nuclear protein import satisfies both of these requirements. The model nicely describes the general features of Impα-Impβ-mediated import, in terms of rates and the requirement for a Ran-gradient but, more importantly, it made several unanticipated predictions about the response of the system to changes in the concentrations of certain factors. Moreover, it fails to account for certain experimental observations, which illuminates our ignorance of the functions of some of these factors. Specifically, it did not predict the observed increase in cargo import in response to an elevation in RanBP1 concentration. This failure suggests that RanBP1 ...
The E3 Ubiquitin-protein Ligases Are Associated To Various Processes Such As Cell Cycle Control And Diverse Developmental Pathways. Arabidopsis Thaliana SEVEN IN ABSENTIA Like 7, Which Has Ubiquitin Ligase Activity, Is Located In The Nucleus And Cytosol
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the N-terminal region of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). As a result, mHtt forms aggregates that are abundant in the nuclei and processes of neuronal cells. Although the roles of mHtt aggregates are still debated, the formation of aggregates points to deficient clearance of mHtt in brain cells. Since the accumulation of mHtt is a prerequisite for its neurotoxicity, exploring the mechanisms for mHtt accumulation and clearance would advance our understanding of HD pathogenesis and help us develop treatments for HD. We know that the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy play important roles in clearing mHtt; however, how mHtt preferentially accumulates in neuronal nuclei and processes remains unclear. Studying the clearance of mHtt in neuronal cells is a challenge because neurons are morphologically and functionally polarized, which means the turnover of mHtt may be
We designed ISIS-HTTRx to target the huntingtin gene and reduce the production of huntingtin protein, which is the known cause of the disease," stated Frank Bennett, Ph.D., the Isis senior vice president for research. "This approach has the potential to prevent or slow the progression of this disease. If this first-in-human trial proves the drug is safe, we look forward to continuing our successful partnership with Roche to bring the drug to market ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Buy our Recombinant Human MDM2 protein. Ab82080 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
3657 Activation of p53 is a critical response to genotoxic stress. Upon DNA damage, the amount of p53 protein is elevated by virtue of increased stability. As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or programmed cell death. However, the mechanism by which p53 protein is stabilized subsequent to genotoxic stress is still poorly understood. Like p53, the ATF3 protein is also induced by a variety of cellular stresses and demonstrated p53 protein-protein interactions. Here we report that p53 is stabilized by ATF3 in wild type cells but not in cells null for the latter nuclear protein. This stabilization requires the interaction of these two proteins since an ATF3 mutant protein lacking the p53-binding domain failed to increase the stability of p53. ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, PIG3 and PUMA. ATF3 stabilized p53 protein, in ...
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... - DESCRIPTION: Human recombinant PB1-6 bromodomain protein expressed with an N-terminal 6xHis-tag in E.coli. ACCESSION #: NM_018313 INCLUDES AMINO ACIDS: 773-917 TAG(S): N-terminal 6xHis-tag MW: 20.0 kDa EXPRESSION SYSTEM: E. coli SUPPLIED
Plasmid pTWIN1-His6-Ssp-Htt2-90(A2C)-37Q from Dr. Hilal Lashuels lab contains the insert Huntingtin Exon1 fragment and is published in J Am Chem Soc. 2017 Oct 18;139(41):14456-14469. doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b06659. Epub 2017 Oct 9. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24859 Saurabh Agarwal, Giorgio Milazzo, Kimal Rajapakshe, Ronald Bernardi, Zaowen Chen, Eveline Barberi, Jan Koster, Giovanni Perini, Cristian Coarfa, Jason M. Shohet
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一、个人基本信息. 周栋,男,1984年8月生,山东诸城人,中国党员,博士,西北农林科技大学动物医学院讲师,中国畜牧兽医学会高级会员(A060001636S),执业兽医师,中国微生物学会会员(S212700378M)。中国畜牧兽医学会兽医产科学分会会员,中国畜牧兽医学会兽医内科与临床诊疗学分会会员,中国畜牧兽医学会动物繁殖学分会会员。自入职以来先后获批国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(31702310)、中国博士后基金面上项目(2016M602883)、陕西省自然科学基金(2017JQ3010)等多项科研资助,总经费60余万元。. 二、教育及研究经历. 1. 2004.09-2008.07,山东农业大学动物医学专业,获得农学学士学位;. 2. 2008.09-2011.07,山东农业大学临床兽医学专业,获农学硕士学位(导师:刘建柱 教授);. 3. ...
Fig. 3. 4.1N translocates from plasma membrane to nucleus and binds NuMA in PC12 cells in response to NGF treatment. After NGF (50 ng/ml) treatment, 4.1N concentration decreases gradually in non-nuclear fractions (A) but increases in nuclear fractions (C). As a control, the concentration of α-tubulin is unchanged in non-nuclear fractions (B) and remains undetectable in all nuclear fractions (D). E, 4.1N coimmunoprecipitates with NuMA in response to NGF treatment. PC12 cells were treated with 50 ng/ml NGF, and at the indicated times cells were lysed and immunoprecipitated (IP) with anti-NuMA antibody. Coprecipitated 4.1N was detected by Western blotting as described. F, Western blot of NuMA shows that same amount of the NuMA protein was immunoprecipitated in each lane.G, EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells does not alter 4.1N levels in non-nuclear fractions. H, 4.1N remains undetectable in nuclear fractions after EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells. I, NGF treatment does not alter 4.1N ...
The S. cerevisiae yeast transcriptional activator SNF2/SWI2 protein enzymes consist of two alpha/beta-lobes similar to SF2 helicases exons 7 and 8 that activates homeotic genes designated BRG1 (brm/SWI2-related gene-1) (BAF) complexes locus: 19p13.2, [§§], express two homologs of the SWI2 subunit. A conserved ATP binding site residue in BRG1 display conventional chromatin-remodeling activity and genomic Left-handed Z-DNA stability (the helicase-like screw motion of DNA motor proteins of human SWI/SNF along the active site.) and enhanced the DNA strand-exchange activity, whereas transcription requires, in addition, an activation domain intergenic solitary (LTRs) long terminal repeat subunits of Pol IVb are targeted, to successfully culminate the repair, indicate a communication and compensation between Brm and Brg-1. BRCA1 can directly interact with the BRG1. BRCA1 is associated with a SWI/SNF-related complex SMARCA4 and the tumor suppressor SMARCB1 the hSNF5/INI1 gene, allowing access to ...
The mystery of Huntington disease (HD) is how a toxic protein that is expressed in all the cells in the body kills only a select subset of neurons in the brain. In the disease, the mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) affects mainly neurons in the striatum, leading to the movement disorders characteristic of HD. To a lesser extent mHtt affects the cortex, leading to dementia. The secret to these limits may lie in the selective expression of a partner protein that cooperates with huntingtin to elicit toxicity, according to a paper out in the June 4 Science. The work, from Solomon Snyders lab at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, suggests that a G protein that is expressed mainly in the striatum, and somewhat in the cortex, is required for the mutant huntingtin protein to kill cells, likely through its effects on protein solubility. The work supports the idea that soluble huntingtin, not aggregates, is responsible for cell death, and could lead to a new target for reducing the proteins ...
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a primary disorder of the cardiac muscle characterized by ventricular chamber dilation and diminished cardiac contractility (1), is the most common cause of chronic heart failure (CHF) in the young and the most common indication for cardiac transplantation (2). The underlying etiologies are varied and include genetic, viral (myocarditis), toxins like alcohol, mitochondrial, and metabolic disorders (3-6).. Familial inheritance is seen in ≈30% to 40% of DCM patients (5). Autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is the most common (≈90%), followed by X-linked (5% to 10%), autosomal recessive, and mitochondrial inheritance patterns (,5%) (7). To date, mutations in ≈20 genes have been discovered in patients with DCM (8). Of these genes, the genes encoding Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif protein, titin, lamin A/C, and β-myosin heavy chain may each be responsible for 5% to 10% of familial DCM cases (9-12), with dystrophin thought to contribute in 10% to 15% of ...
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Antisens Protein of HTLV-2 (APH-2) was described in 2009. APH-2 mRNA is expressed in vivo in most HTLV-2 carriers. In recent years, several laboratories have searched for similarities and/or differences between APH-2 and the antisens protein of HTLV-1, HBZ. Similarly to HBZ, APH-2 negatively regulates HTLV-2 transcription. However, it does not promote cell proliferation. In vivo, APH-2 localizes in discrete nuclear domains distinct from nucleoli. We therefore characterized APH-2 subcellular localization, in order to decipher the determinants of such localization and to correlate it or not with APH-2 functions. We first identify APH-2-containing nuclear domains as PML nuclear bodies (PML-NB). PML-NB are modulators of a number of cellular processes ranging from transcription regulation to cell proliferation and death. We show that both an in silico-identified nuclear localization signal and the carboxy-terminal LXXLL motif contribute to APH-2 targeting to PML-NB. Covalent modification of APH-2 by ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder resulting from expansion (>37 units) of a polyglutamine tract in huntingtin, a 350 kDa protein of unknown function (1)....
The present study investigated the role of NFATc in p300- and ET-1-induced transcription of the gene encoding an antiapoptotic molecule, bcl-2, in cardiac myocytes. We showed here that mutation of NFAT sites within the bcl-2 promoter completely abolished both p300- and ET-1-responsive bcl-2 transcription in cardiac myocytes, suggesting a critical role of NFATc in these processes. To date, 5 NFAT isoforms have been identified and designated NFATc1 (also known as NFAT2 or NFATc), NFATc2 (NFAT1 or NFATp), NFATc3 (NFAT4 or NFATx), NFATc4 (NFAT3), and NFAT5. Among these, only NFAT5 appears to be constitutively nuclear and not to be regulated by calcineurin.27 NFATc1-NFATc4 bind the consensus DNA sequence through a Rel homology domain, and all 4 of these factors are expressed in cardiac myocytes.11 The present study demonstrated that NFATc1 binds to the NFAT site within the bcl-2 promoter in a sequence-specific manner. We also demonstrated that p300 acts as a coactivator of NFATc1 in the transcription ...
Allelic differences in nuclear protein binding at a genome-wide significant risk variant for schizophrenia in ZNF804A [Letter to the editor]. Molecular Psychiatry 16 (8) , pp. 787-789. 10.1038/mp.2011.21 ...
This article further shows the power of pharmacologic screens in highly characterized human cancer-derived cell lines. Despite lingering concerns about the artificial conditions in which cancer cell lines are established and maintained, it is now clear that major oncogenic pathways are typically faithfully maintained in vitro, and thus clinically relevant associations regarding sensitive histotypes and genomic subsets can be generated from these screens. Here, the investigators show that BET inhibition is a valid therapeutic strategy in a broad range of cancers, extending the potential impact beyond hematologic malignancies and the rare NUT midline carcinomas that have been the focus of prior investigations.. The association of JQ1 sensitivity with MYCN amplification status is compelling for 2 distinct reasons. The obvious one is that it nominates MYCN amplification as a predictive biomarker for BET inhibitory activity in patients, suggesting that diseases such as neuroblastoma, small-cell lung ...
JQ1 drug. Molecular model of a the experimental drug JQ1. JQ1 is a thienotriazolodiazepine, structurally related to benzodiazepines. It belongs to a class of drugs known as BET inhibitors. BET inhibitors such as JQ1 are undergoing clinical trials for treating a variety of cancers including NUT midline carcinoma. JQ1 has also been investigated for its potential in the treatment of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection, as a male contraceptive, and in the treatment of heart disease. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white), nitrogen (blue), oxygen (red), chlorine (green), sulphur (yellow). - Stock Image C028/8035
The pathological manifestation of nine hereditary neurodegenerative diseases including Huntingtons disease is the presence within the brain of aggregates of disease-specific proteins that contain polyglutamine tracts longer than a critical length. The molecular level mechanisms by which these proteins aggregate are still unclear. In an effort to shed light on this important phenomenon, we are investigating the aggregation of model fibril-forming peptides using molecular-level computer simulation. A simplified model of polyglutamine, the protein that is known to form fibrils (ordered aggregates of proteins in beta-sheet conformations) in the brains of victims of Huntingtons disease, has been developed. This model accounts for the most important types of intra- and inter-molecular interactions - hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions - while allowing the folding process to be simulated in a reasonable time frame. The model utilizes discontinuous potentials such as hard spheres and square ...
This application note describes a novel, cell-based assay platform that uses Enzyme Fragment Complementation (EFC) Technology to detect the specific binding and direct protein engagement of potential small molecule inhibitors to G9a methyltransferase and multiple bromodomain proteins. The combination of assay chemistry and liquid handling and detection microplate instrumentation create a simple, robust and definitive cell-based solution for inhibitory compound identification of these important e
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Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
J:117226 Wei K, Che N, Chen F, Myocardin-related transcription factor B is required for normal mouse vascular development and smooth muscle gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2007 Feb;236(2):416-25 ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens pirin (iron-binding nuclear protein) (PIR), transcript variant 1 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Importin and nucleoplasmin complex, molecular model. Nucleoplasmin tags proteins for entry to the cell nucleus, while importin transports the protein across the nuclear membrane. - Stock Image C025/1566
OK-1035 is a potent and selective DNA-PK inhibitor. When a synthetic peptide was used as a substrate, OK-1035 caused 50% inhibition of DNA-PK activity at 8 microM. OK-1035 inhibited the phosphorylation by DNA-PK of consensus peptide as well as that of recombinant human wild type-p53. Kinetic studies indicated that OK-1035 inhibited DNA-PK activity in an ATP-competitive manner.
The NFAT family of transcription factors include the cytoplasmic NFAT transcription factors [NFATc1 (NFATc), NFATc2 (NFATp), NFATc3 (NFAT4, NFATx), NFATc4 (NFAT3), NFATc5] and nuclear NFAT (NFATn ...
The NFAT family of transcription factors include the cytoplasmic NFAT transcription factors [NFATc1 (NFATc), NFATc2 (NFATp), NFATc3 (NFAT4, NFATx), NFATc4 (NFAT3), NFATc5] and nuclear NFAT (NFATn ...
Histone H3 is a 17 kDa nuclear protein that is a component of an octamer containing pairs of each of four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, H4).
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
... , Authors: Anne Hamburger, Arundhati Ghosh, Smita Awasthi. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
All things considered, with the separated shoulder that ended his season and the collapse that ended that of his team, life seems like it has been pretty enjoyable for Joffrey Lupul the Toronto Maple Leafs forward who has been issuing travel dispatches
Chiang MC、Cheng YC、Liang YJ、Chen HM、Lin KH、Yen CH,「PPARgamma up-regulates the UPS and HSP in mutant Huntingtin expressing cells and attenuates aggregates and protection against ER stress and apoptosis」,102年度「微免及檢驗醫學」暨「生化及藥理醫學」跨學門學術交流研討會,台北市,臺灣,國科會生物處,2013-11- ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Chemistry Mastermind is a competition for year 9-11 school pupils to select the team to represent the Essex section in the National RSC Top of the bench competition ...
The following is a list of how-to and tutorial content that matched your search term. ProgrammableWebs how-to content comes from two sources; full-blown tutorials that we publish ourselves and other highly relevant tutorials that we find elsewhere on the Web. This list represents on combination of both tutorial types and if you go to ProgrammableWebs API University, youll not only be able to find more, they are organized based on your role (API providers or developers who consumes APIs). If you know of a tutorial that would be of interest to the ProgrammableWeb community, wed like to know about it. Be sure to check our guidelines for making contributions to ProgrammableWeb ...
J:168852 Yu J, Lei K, Zhou M, Craft CM, Xu G, Xu T, Zhuang Y, Xu R, Han M, KASH protein Syne-2/Nesprin-2 and SUN proteins SUN1/2 mediate nuclear migration during mammalian retinal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Mar 15;20(6):1061-73 ...
Plasmid pBacMam2-DiEx-LIC-N-flag_huntingtin_full-length_Q66 from Dr. Cheryl Arrowsmiths lab contains the insert HTT and is published in J Biol Chem. 2019 Apr 26;294(17):6986-7001. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.007204. Epub 2019 Mar 6. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
ELF2 is a nuclear protein that is conserved across several species. Multiple isoforms have been identified. Isoform 1 transcriptionally activates the LYN and BLK promoters and acts synergistically with RUNX1 to transactivate the BLK promoter, while isoform 2 is thought to function in repression of RUNX1-mediated transactivation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromosomal deletion 4p15.32→p14 in a treacher collins syndrome patient. T2 - Exclusion of the disease locus from and mapping of anonymous DNA sequences to this region. AU - Jabs, Ethylin Wang. AU - Coss, Cathleen A.. AU - Hayflick, Susan J.. AU - Whitmore, Theodore E.. AU - Pauli, Richard M.. AU - Kirkpatrick, Susan J.. AU - Meyers, Deborah A.. AU - Goldberg, Rosalie. AU - Day, Donald W.. AU - Rosenbaum, Kenneth N.. PY - 1991/9. Y1 - 1991/9. N2 - Theacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition of bilateral craniofacial abnormalities of structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. A patient with severe manifestations of Treacher Collins syndrome and a de novo chromosomal deletion in region 4p15.32→p14 was identified. Anonymous DNA sequences of loci D4S18, D4S19, D4S20, D4S22, and D4S23 were mapped to the deleted region. DNA probes previously mapped to loci on chromosome 4p (D4S10, D4S15, D4S16, D4S26, D4S35, D4S95, D4S144, RAF1P1, QDPR, and ...
Treacher Collins is a condition in which the cheek-bones and jawbones are underdeveloped. Children with this condition have very small or partially absent cheek bones and notches in or stretching of the lower eyelids. The ears are frequently abnormal and part of the outer ear is usually absent. Hearing loss is also associated with this syndrome.. For more detailed information, please download our free booklet, A Guide to Understanding Treacher Collins Syndrome.. ...
Members of the CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail (CITED) family bind CREB-binding protein and p300 with high affinity and regulate gene transcription. Gene knockout studies indicate that CITED2 is required for neural crest and neural tube development and that it functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2 (TFAP2). Here we describe human CITED4, a new member of this family, which is encoded by a single exon mapping to chromosome 1p34--1p35. CITED4 and p300/CREB-binding protein are present in endogenous naturally occurring complexes, indicating that they interact physiologically. The interaction occurs between the cysteine-histidine-rich domain 1 of p300 and the carboxyl terminus of CITED4. In keeping with this, CITED4 functions as a transactivator when artificially targeted to a promoter element. CITED4 physically interacts with all TFAP2 isoforms in vitro and strongly co-activates all TFAP2 isoforms in Hep3B cells. Co-activation of TFAP2 requires amino
This study has revealed that the integral inner nuclear membrane protein Src1 functions in gene regulation of subtelomeric genes and is embedded functionally in a network of factors, which participate in transcription-coupled mRNA export. Importantly, Src1 is associated with subtelomeric chromatin and thus can help to organize this region of the chromosomes. In previous studies, Src1 was shown to contain an intron with the possibility of alternative splicing (Davis et al., 2000; Rodríguez-Navarro et al., 2002). Our study revealed that both splice forms localize to the nuclear periphery and are integral inner nuclear membrane proteins (King et al., 2006). However, both proteins are not functionally equivalent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that two forms of a protein generated by alternative splicing in yeast have different functions.. The N domain of Src1 mediates nuclear targeting, and insertion into the nuclear membrane requires the first transmembrane span. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutation in the DNA mismatch repair gene homologue hMLH 1 is associated with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer. AU - Bronner, C. Eric. AU - Baker, Sean M.. AU - Morrison, Paul T.. AU - Warren, Gwynedd. AU - Smith, Leslie G.. AU - Lescoe, Mary Kay. AU - Kane, Michael. AU - Earabino, Christine. AU - Lipford, James. AU - Lindblom, Annika. AU - Tannergård, Pia. AU - Bollag, Roni J.. AU - Godwin, Alan R.. AU - Ward, David C.. AU - Nordenskjøld, Magnus. AU - Fishel, Richard. AU - Kolodner, Richard. AU - Liskay, R. Michael. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - THE human DNA mismatch repair gene homologue, hMSH2, on chromosome 2p is involved in hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC)1,2. On the basis of linkage data, a second HNPCC locus was assigned to chromosome 3p21-23 (ref. 3). Here we report that a human gene encoding a protein, hMLHl (human MutL homologue), homologous to the bacterial DNA mismatch repair protein MutL, is located on human chromosome 3p21.3-23. We propose ...
RecQ protein-like helicases (RECQLs), nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins, and nuclear envelope proteins LMNA (lamins) ... The Bloom syndrome protein interacts with other proteins, such as topoisomerase IIIα and RMI2,[28][29][30] and suppresses ... Mutations may also lead to the truncation (shortening) of the WRNp protein, leading to the loss of its nuclear localization ... This leads to mislocalisation of heterochromatin, which normally lie in close proximity, or with, the nuclear matrix, nuclear ...
The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... Import of the viral genome into host nucleus mediated by core protein VII. Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA ... Microtubular transport toward nucleus of the viral genome still protected by the core protein VII and a partial capsid mainly ... Host translation shutoff performed by the viral 100K protein. Assembly of new virions in the nucleus. Virions are released by ...
The protein contains 9 or 14 tetratricopeptide repeats, depending on the splice variant, and a putative bipartite nuclear ... protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-serine (2) UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [protein]-L-threonine → UDP + [protein]-3-O-(N ... Kreppel LK, Blomberg MA, Hart GW (Apr 1997). "Dynamic glycosylation of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. Cloning and ... Haltiwanger RS, Blomberg MA, Hart GW (May 1992). "Glycosylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Purification and ...
Watts JD, Cary PD, Sautiere P, Crane-Robinson C (1990). "Thymosins: both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. ... Thymosin α1 is a peptide fragment derived from prothymosin alpha, a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTMA gene. It was ...
Vielhaber EL, Duricka D, Ullman KS, Virshup DM (December 2001). "Nuclear export of mammalian PERIOD proteins". J. Biol. Chem. ... PER1 also interacts with proteins ATM and Chk2. These proteins are key checkpoint proteins in the cell cycle. Cancer patients ... The PER1 gene encodes the period circadian protein homolog 1 protein in humans. The PER1 protein is important to the ... PER interacts with other PER proteins as well as the E-box regulated, clock controlled proteins CRY1 and CRY2 to create a ...
Boulikas T (1997). "Nuclear import of DNA repair proteins". Anticancer Research. 17 (2A): 843-63. PMID 9137418. Selby CP, ... DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6 (also CS-B protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERCC6 gene. The ERCC6 gene ... Hence, confounding based on protein-protein, protein-substrate, and/or substrate-substrate interactions disallows conclusions ... Boulikas, T (March-April 1997). "Nuclear import of DNA repair proteins". Anticancer Research. 17 (2A): 843-63. PMID 9137418. ...
The protein contains only one nuclear export signal residue, found at 481-L; however the NES score was found to be low at 0.515 ... The protein is serine and threonine rich. The charge distribution of the protein is equally dispersed per there are no positive ... The C5orf34 protein contains two mammalian conserved domains: DUF 4520 and DUF 4524. The protein is also predicted to have a ... Matthews, Harry R.; Huebner, Verena D. (1984-03-01). "Nuclear protein kinases". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 59 (1-2): ...
LAP2 is an inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein. Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. The ... "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... "Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein". Molecular Biology of the Cell ...
The ratio of protamine 2 to protamine 1 and transition nuclear proteins has been found to change the sperm head shape in ... Before the toroid is formed, histones are removed from the DNA by transition nuclear proteins, so that protamine can condense ... Protamines are small, arginine-rich, nuclear proteins that replace histones late in the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and ... Balhorn R (2007). "The protamine family of sperm nuclear proteins". Genome Biology. 8 (9): 227. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-227. ...
... a new domain in nuclear proteins". Trends Biochem Sci. 27 (10): 495-7. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(02)02189-8. PMID 12368078. ... YTH domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YTHDC1 gene. YTHDC1 has been shown to interact ... Imai Y, Matsuo N, Ogawa S, Tohyama M, Takagi T (1998). "Cloning of a gene, YT521, for a novel RNA splicing-related protein ... Stoss O, Olbrich M, Hartmann AM, Konig H, Memmott J, Andreadis A, Stamm S (2001). "The STAR/GSG family protein rSLM-2 regulates ...
Spermatid nuclear transition protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNP1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1991). "Nuclear transition protein 1 from ram elongating spermatids. Mass spectrometric characterization, primary structure and ... 2000). "Abnormal spermatogenesis and reduced fertility in transition nuclear protein 1-deficient mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... 2007). "Quantitative assessment of transition proteins 1, 2 spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein transcripts in ...
Protein glycosylation has long been regarded not to occur in the cytoplasmic/nuclear compartments of the cell. However, ... O-GlcNAc cycles rapidly on and off most proteins, unlike most mature glycans, depending on both the protein and the protein ... O-linked glycosylation OGT (gene) Comer, F.I.; Hart, G.W. (2000). "O-glycosylation of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. Dynamic ... It is found on hundreds, if not thousands, of nucleocytoplasmic proteins, and in fact many of the most heavily studied proteins ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... "Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ... ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right. ZEB2 interacts with ...
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (1999). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins ... ubiquitin-protein transferase activity. • ubiquitin-like protein transferase activity. • protein binding. • androgen receptor ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING zinc finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. ... protein polyubiquitination. • transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • protein ...
Liang L, Deng L, Chen Y, Li GC, Shao C, Tischfield JA (2005). "Modulation of DNA end joining by nuclear proteins". J. Biol. ... Liang L, Deng L, Chen Y, Li GC, Shao C, Tischfield JA (2005). "Modulation of DNA end joining by nuclear proteins". J. Biol. ... These proteins seem to be required for transmitting the checkpoint activation signal to downstream proteins. DNA damage ... In E. coli , the proteins involved are the Mut class proteins. This is followed by removal of damaged region by an exonuclease ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nat Biotechnol. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... LIM domain-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LDB2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1999). "Isolation and chromosomal assignment of human genes encoding cofactor of LIM homeodomain proteins, CLIM1 and CLIM2". J ... an enigma family protein, with alpha-actinin 2". J Cell Biochem. 78 (4): 558-65. doi:10.1002/1097-4644(20000915)78:4. 3.0.CO;2- ...
Hes genes code nuclear proteins that suppress transcription. This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family ... The protein has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box promoter ... Yao J, Lai E, Stifani S (2001). "The winged-helix protein brain factor 1 interacts with groucho and hes proteins to repress ... Hes proteins also heterodimerize with bHLH repressors such as Hey1 and Hey2, a process which also blocks transcription. Hes ...
Liang L, Deng L, Chen Y, Li GC, Shao C, Tischfield JA (2005). "Modulation of DNA end joining by nuclear proteins". J. Biol. ... The protein is a member of the XPG/RAD2 endonuclease family and is one of ten proteins essential for cell-free DNA replication ... Dianov GL, Jensen BR, Kenny MK, Bohr VA (1999). "Replication protein A stimulates proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent ... "Regulation of DNA replication and repair proteins through interaction with the front side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...
... (Nup54) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUP54 gene. The nuclear envelope creates distinct nuclear ... Finlay DR, Meier E, Bradley P, Horecka J, Forbes DJ (1991). "A complex of nuclear pore proteins required for pore function". J ... It consists of two concentric membranes perforated by nuclear pores, large protein complexes that form aqueous channels to ... "Viral protein R regulates docking of the HIV-1 preintegration complex to the nuclear pore complex". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (21): ...
Mihelich, Peggy (8 March 2007). "Supercomputers crunching potato chips, proteins and nuclear bombs". CNN. Retrieved 28 April ... after Salmonella was found in a Basic Food Flavors plant which produces the flavor-enhancing hydrolyzed vegetable protein used ...
"HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... cloning and characterization of a novel nuclear protein, HA95, homologous to A-kinase anchoring protein 95". Biology of the ... "Interaction of the nuclear matrix protein NAKAP with HypA and huntingtin: implications for nuclear toxicity in Huntington's ... A-kinase anchor protein 8-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP8L gene. AKAP8L has been shown to interact ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (Aug 2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS10 gene. Regulator of G protein signaling ... This protein associates specifically with the activated forms of the two related G-protein subunits, G-alphai3 and G-alphaz but ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS ... "GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins". ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ... Regulator of G protein signaling 4 protein is 37% identical to RGS1 and 97% identical to rat Rgs4. This protein negatively ...
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (1998). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins ... a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 (17): 2239-49. doi:10.1101/gad.11.17.2239. PMC 275390 . PMID 9303539 ... Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15-like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPS15L1 gene. EPS15L1 has ... Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J, Gygi SP (2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein ...
The nuclear lamina consist of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... "Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (12): ... Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression. Vertebrate lamins ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... Zinc finger protein 318 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF318 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171467 ... ZNF318 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Ishizuka M, Kawate H, Takayanagi R, Ohshima H, Tao RH, Hagiwara H (Jun 2005). "A zinc finger protein TZF is a novel corepressor ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Nuclear lamins interact with membrane-associated proteins to form the nuclear lamina on the interior of the nuclear envelope. ... Intermediate filament Nuclear lamina Laminopathies Inner nuclear membrane proteins Dechat, Thomas; Adam, Stephen A.; Taimen, ... This is accomplished by lamin and lamin-interacting proteins (SUN1/SUN2) connecting with proteins on the outer nuclear membrane ... Lamin proteins are involved in the disassembling and reforming of the nuclear envelope during mitosis, the positioning of ...
The protamines are a diverse family of small arginine-rich proteins that are synthesized in the late-stage spermatids of many ... gene and amino-acid sequences suggests that the family evolved from specialized histones through protamine-like proteins to the ... The protamine family of sperm nuclear proteins. *Rod Balhorn. 1. Genome Biology volume 8, Article number: 227 (2007) Cite this ... and comprise the most heterogeneous group of sperm basic nuclear proteins. These proteins have a higher lysine and arginine ...
Protein 4.1N Binding to Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein in PC12 Cells Mediates the Antiproliferative Actions of Nerve Growth ... Protein 4.1N Binding to Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein in PC12 Cells Mediates the Antiproliferative Actions of Nerve Growth ... Protein 4.1N Binding to Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein in PC12 Cells Mediates the Antiproliferative Actions of Nerve Growth ... Protein 4.1N Binding to Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein in PC12 Cells Mediates the Antiproliferative Actions of Nerve Growth ...
title = "Nuclear pore protein NUP88 activates anaphasepromoting complex to promote aneuploidy",. abstract = "The nuclear pore ... Nuclear pore protein NUP88 activates anaphasepromoting complex to promote aneuploidy. In: Journal of Clinical Investigation. ... Nuclear pore protein NUP88 activates anaphasepromoting complex to promote aneuploidy. Ryan M. Naylor, Karthik B. Jeganathan, ... The nuclear pore complex protein NUP88 is frequently elevated in aggressive human cancers and correlates with reduced patient ...
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Protein nuclear ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which ... Protein nuclear magnetic resonance is performed on aqueous samples of highly purified protein. Usually, the sample consists of ... Traditionally, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been limited to relatively small proteins or protein domains. This ...
... we suggest that plant tissues express short-lived nuclear proteins as a primary response to IAA. We propose that these proteins ... Early auxin-induced genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins. S Abel, P W Oeller, and A Theologis ... that contain putative nuclear localization signals that direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein into the nucleus. Pulse- ... Some of the genes whose expression is induced by IAA encode a family of proteins in pea (PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6) and Arabidopsis ( ...
Tags: supercomputer, computers, Chip, computer, chips, super, clear, NUC, potato, IPS, tat, protein, pro, BOM, OTA, ...
Transport of proteins into and out of the nucleus occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPC). A heterodimeric protein complex ... functions to target proteins containing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) to the NPCs. Two additional proteins, the GTPase ... Molecular mechanisms of nuclear protein transport.. Moroianu J1.. Author information. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology, ... Protein transport across the NPC may occur via guided diffusion involving the karyopherin-mediated docking and undocking of ...
The Nuclear Protein Database (NPD) contains information on proteins that are localized to the nuclei of vertebrate cells. Over ... the sub-nuclear compartment where the protein was found is reported. The NPD also provides information on a proteins amino ... 1000 vertebrate proteins, mainly from mice and humans, are included. When known, ...
... Samantha s017244 at cuhk.edu.hk Sat Jul 24 10:05:18 EST 2004 *Previous message: Help ... but i could not harvest the proteins ** I want to ask it is fine to stain the cells and then harves the proteins? (I ve tried ... i wanted to isolate the proteins so i tried to use the normal protocol to prep the proteins (that protocol is fine for other ... proteins which had not been stained: just used trysin to trysinize the cells and lysis buffer we commonly use) ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Proteins matched: Nuclear hormone receptor, ligand-binding domain (IPR000536) This domain is found in the following proteins: ... Protein name. Species. Domain architecture. O17748 Nuclear hormone receptor family member nhr-174. Caenorhabditis elegans. ...
... for individual proteins, as demonstrated by a team led by Jörg Wrachtrup from the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research ... A higher frequency resolution enables a nuclear magnetic resonance tomography (NMR) ... Nuclear magnetic resonance scanner for individual proteins. Thanks to improved resolution, a quantum sensor can now identify ... Many diseases have their origins in defective proteins. As proteins are important biochemical motors, defects can lead to ...
Characterization of two nuclear proteins that interact with cytochrome P-450 1A2 mRNA - Regulation of RNA binding and possible ...
Generation of GTP-Ran for nuclear protein import.. Moore MS1.. Author information. 1. Department of Cell Biology, Baylor ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Nuclear factor interleukin-3-regulated protein (NFIL3, also known as E4BP4) was first identified as a transcriptional repressor ...
Protein separations at the nuclear envelope. The living cell separates its molecular components among numerous organelles. Most ... a double membraned structure perforated by large protein channels known as the nuclear pores. Through these channels the cell ... Caspi Y, Zbaida D, Cohen H, Elbaum M (2008) Synthetic Mimic of Selective Transport Through the Nuclear Pore Complex. Nano ... Kim S, Elbaum M. (2013) A simple kinetic model with explicit predictions for nuclear transport. Biophys J. 105:565-9. ...
Drosophila nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins. (A) Three genes encode nuclear lamina-enriched LEM-D proteins, otefin (ote), dMAN1, ... The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that contributes to nuclear structure and function. LEM domain (LAP2, emerin ... THE nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network underlying the nuclear envelope. This network is composed of the nucleus- ... These include the presence of other LEM-D proteins within the nuclear lamina and the capacity of remaining LEM-D proteins to ...
Drosophila nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins. (A) Three genes encode nuclear lamina-enriched LEM-D proteins, otefin (ote), dMAN1, ... At least two nuclear Drosophila LEM-D proteins are required for adult survival. Shown is a graph of the percent survival of ... Unique and Shared Functions of Nuclear Lamina LEM Domain Proteins in Drosophila. Lacy J. Barton, Shameika R. Wilmington, ... Unique and Shared Functions of Nuclear Lamina LEM Domain Proteins in Drosophila. Lacy J. Barton, Shameika R. Wilmington, ...
... published in the Journal of Cell Biology reveals how shuttling proteins known as importins control the function of nuclear ... Scientists at the University of Basel report on startling new research that might overturn established models of nuclear ... Nuclear pore complexes are tiny channels where the exchange of substances between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm takes ... pores - as opposed to the view that nuclear pores control the shuttling of importins. ...
... of the GFP-Auz/IAA proteins from a diffuse nuclear signal to one associated with subnuclear puncta called nuclear protein ... Rac Recruits Aux/IAA Proteins to Deadly Nuclear Bodies Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... In protoplasts transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Aux/IAA fusion proteins under the control of an inducible ... and arabidopsis mediate auxin-induced formation of proteolytically active nuclear protein bodies that contain AUX/IAA proteins ...
... 25.11.2011. Scientists have long held theories about the importance ... Nuclear lamina is the material that lines the inside of a cells nucleus. Its major structural component is a family of ... "We have set the stage to dissect the ways that a cells nuclear lamina promote tissue organization process during development." ... proteins called lamins, of which B-type lamins are prominent members and thought to be absolutely essential for a cells ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins antibody [39C7] (ab60080) : Flow cytometry protocols, ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
nuclear envelope;. HA,. hemagglutinin;. NES,. nuclear export sequence;. GFP,. green fluorescent protein;. GST,. glutathione S- ... RNA but not for classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-mediated protein import. This study shows that Nup82, a protein ... Two yeast nuclear pore complex proteins involved in mRNA export form a cytoplasmically oriented subcomplex. Michael E. Hurwitz ... but not for classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear protein import. ...
2018 Feb 10;: Authors: Sala S, Ampe C Abstract Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that partake in ... An emerging link between LIM domain proteins and nuclear receptors. Cell Mol Life Sci. ... yet pleiotropy of LIM domain proteins and nuclear receptors frequently occurs. LIM domain protein-nuclear receptor complexes ... LIM domain proteins act as important coregulators of nuclear receptor-mediated gene transcription, in which they can either ...
... protein-associated nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) by proteasome-dependent and independent mechanisms. In addition, all herpesviruses ... In particular, viral tegument proteins that share sequence homology to the formylglycineamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase ( ... encode for a potent ubiquitin protease that can efficiently remove ubiquitin chains from proteins and thereby interfere with ... Gammaherpesviral Tegument Proteins, PML-Nuclear Bodies and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System by Florian Full 1, Alexander S. Hahn ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone- ... Acetyl-CoA + [protein]-L-lysine = CoA + [protein]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine. UniProt ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q15788 - Homo sapiens 182 * O43793 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ...
  • Proposed phosphorylation sites are amino acid residues identified to be phosphorylated in proteins isolated from sperm or following in vitro incubation of the isolated proteins of five mammalian species with cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We determined that NUP88 and the nuclear transport factors NUP98 and RAE1 comprise a regulatory network that inhibits premitotic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). When overexpressed, NUP88 sequesters NUP98-RAE1 away from APC/CCDH1, triggering proteolysis of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a tumor suppressor and multitasking mitotic kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • Even though it is likely that the protamine P2 gene derives from a duplication of the protamine P1 gene, the two proteins appear to be rapidly diverging in amino-acid sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The predicted aminoacid sequence for this protein, which would be approximately the same size as protamine P2, contains stretches of repeating glutamic and aspartic acid residues similar in number and distribution to the clusters of arginine and lysine residues found in the DNA-binding domains of protamines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This difference in composition (a high content of negatively charged amino acids compared with the high content of positively charged amino acids in protamines) suggests that the gene 4 protein, which is not likely to bind to and condense DNA, may instead bind to and interact with the protamines and perform some other function related to chromatin repackaging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Auxin stimulates gene expression by triggering the proteasome-mediated proteolysis of a family of transcriptional repressors, auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that group 2, 3 and 4 LIM domain proteins, primarily known for their roles in actin cytoskeleton organization, also partake in gene transcription regulation. (medworm.com)
  • A comparison study of HER2 protein overexpression and its gene status in breast cancer. (medworm.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The study aims to determine the concordance between HER2 protein IHC score and its gene status by dual-colour dual-hapten in-situ-hybridization (DDISH) study. (medworm.com)
  • In the cerebral cortex, S-nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is required for gene transcription during neuronal development, but few other nuclear targets of S-nitrosylation have been identified to date. (sciencemag.org)
  • Myotonic dystrophy 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by a triplet nucleotide repeat expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the gene coding for myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). (uniprot.org)
  • DMPK is a nuclear envelope (NE) protein that promotes myogenic gene expression in skeletal myoblasts. (uniprot.org)
  • Muscular dystrophy research has revealed the NE to be a key determinant of nuclear structure, gene regulation, and muscle function. (uniprot.org)
  • 2003. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium translocated leucine-rich repeat effector protein inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression. (springer.com)
  • AtNEAP proteins are encoded by a small gene familycomposed of three genes and are targeted through a nuclear localisation signal to the nucleuswhere they are anchored at the INM through their C-terminal transmembrane domain.AtNEAPs also possess several long coiled-coil domains reminiscent of the lamin structure inanimals. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Earlier this year, scientists discovered that hexanucleotide repeats in the C9ORF72 gene, which cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, interfere with traffic across the nuclear pore, perhaps due to abnormal poly-dipeptide aggregates encoded by the expansion (see Aug 2015 news ). (alzforum.org)
  • Gene disruption by cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of Cas9 protein and guide RNA. (biocat.com)
  • Large genomic fragment deletion and functional gene cassette knock-in via Cas9 protein mediated genome editing in one-cell rodent embryos. (biocat.com)
  • The Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) gene encoding vPK has been cloned and sequenced. (usda.gov)
  • Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis showed that PARP14 bound to a group of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG)-encoded proteins, most with an unknown function, and it was required for their nuclear accumulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • The product of this gene is part of a large complex localized to the cytoplasm, nucleoli, and to discrete nuclear bodies called Gemini bodies (gems). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Indeed, there is no evidence for participation of host proteins in vaccinia virus DNA replication or early gene transcription. (asm.org)
  • In addition, most proteins known to be required for intermediate and late gene transcription are virus encoded (reviewed in reference 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Three different viral transcriptional activator proteins, including the viral capping enzyme, the E4L protein, and VITF-3, are required for intermediate gene transcription initiation. (asm.org)
  • The vaccinia virus A18R, G2R, and J3R proteins have been implicated in intermediate and late gene transcription elongation and termination ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The NPAT gene encodes a protein required for the G1/S transition of the mitotic cell cycle. (cags.org.ae)
  • The gene encodes a 154 kDa protein product composed of 1427 amino acids. (cags.org.ae)
  • This gene mutation was considered a candidate for pathogenicity due to several reasons: it was a novel variant predicted to be deleterious, the NPAT gene had a low %HI score in DECIPHER and it encoded a protein involved in chromatin remodeling, a mechanism commonly affected in neurodevelopmental disorders. (cags.org.ae)
  • Collectively, our TAP strategy revealed that COUP-TFI may associate with a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins in HeLa S3 cells as well as other classes of proteins that have not been previously implicated in the regulation of gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many of these proteins and COUP-TFI were demonstrated to co-occupy the promoter of retinoic acid-induced 1, a newly identified, COUP-TFI target gene in HeLa S3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Comparison of protamine gene and amino-acid sequences suggests that the family evolved from specialized histones through protamine-like proteins to the true protamines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even though it is likely that the protamine P2 gene derives from a duplication of the protamine P1 gene, the two proteins appear to be rapidly diverging in amino-acid sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • this cluster also contains the gene for transition protein-2, which is also involved in chromosome condensation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This difference in composition (a high content of negatively charged amino acids compared with the high content of positively charged amino acids in protamines) suggests that the gene 4 protein, which is not likely to bind to and condense DNA, may instead bind to and interact with the protamines and perform some other function related to chromatin repackaging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the relationship between NF-κB and GM-CSF transcription in a chromatin context, we analyzed the chromatin structure of the GM-CSF gene in T cells and the role of NF-κB proteins in chromatin remodeling. (rupress.org)
  • To identify the predicted gene product, ORF E6* from a HeLa cDNA clone was expressed as an MS2 fusion protein in Escherichia coli . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a HPV18 DNA containing human cervical carcinoma established in nude mice, these monoclonal antibodies specifically immunoprecipitate a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 6500 as predicted for the HPV18 ORF E6* gene product in a nuclear protein fraction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently reported that a 42 kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the human CR2 gene [Tolnay, Lambris and Tsokos (1997) J. Immunol. (biochemj.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) has emerged as an important structure that serves numerous pivotal roles in the cell including compartmentalization, control of nuclear position and morphology, contribution to cell stability, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. (csic.es)
  • Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are important sensors of Ca 2+ elevations in plant cells regulating the gene expression linked with various cellular processes like stress response, growth and development, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
  • ZoCDPK1 ( Zingiber officinale Calcium-dependent protein kinase 1) is a salinity and drought-inducible CDPK gene isolated from ginger and undergoes dynamic subcellular localization during stress conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cai S, Han H-J, Kohwi-Shigematsu T (2003) Tissue-specific nuclear architecture and gene expression regulated by SATB1. (springer.com)
  • Forrester WC, van Genderen C, Jenuwein T, Grosschedl R (1994) Dependence of enhancer-mediated transcription of the immunoglobulin mu gene on nuclear matrix attachment regions. (springer.com)
  • Autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) ( 5 ), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B ( 29 ), and dilated cardiomyopathy (see reference 36 and references therein) are caused by certain mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding lamins A/C. The X-linked form of EDMD results from mutations in EMD, which encodes the lamin A-binding transmembrane protein emerin ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Bischoff FR, Krebber H, Kempf T et al (1995) Human RanGTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 is a homologue of yeast Rna1p involved in mRNA processing and transport. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the more transient nature of Cas9 protein compared to plasmid/mRNA delivery further reduces off-target activity without decreasing on-target efficiency (1,2). (biocat.com)
  • The production of GM-CSF is regulated primarily at the level of transcription, via proximal promoter and enhancer regions ( 10 - 12 ), although posttranscriptional control also contributes to the final level of mRNA and protein ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we used qRT-PCR and western blotting to examine the mRNA and protein levels of the Dvls in association with WWOX in HNSCC cell lines and tumor tissues. (jcancer.org)
  • performed specialized proteomics on nuclear extracts from embryonic rat cortical neurons to identify hundreds of proteins that could be S-nitrosylated. (sciencemag.org)
  • To identify integral proteins of the NE, we took advantage of recent advances in high-throughput shotgun proteomics using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) ( 4 , 5 ), by which the coupling of tandem mass spectrometry with multiple liquid chromatography steps allows analysis of the enormous number of peptides generated by direct digestion of a complex biochemical fraction. (sciencemag.org)
  • To enrich for NE-specific proteins, we employed a "subtractive proteomics" approach (fig. S1). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, a quantitative proteomics approach revealed an ERAD branch required for INM protein quality control in yeast. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using a flag-tagged adenoviral MLP, we have shown that the C-terminus is required for oligomerization and that this is a precursor to stretch sensing and subsequent nuclear translocation. (ahajournals.org)
  • All of the encoded proteins carry an amino-terminal LEM-D (green box). (genetics.org)
  • B) Shown is a chart of the percentage similarity derived from pairwise alignments of amino acid sequences of LEM-D proteins, including either the LEM-D alone or the non-LEM-D regions of the proteins. (genetics.org)
  • LdMNPV vPK shows a 24% amino acid identity to the catalytic domains of the eucaryotic protein kinases nPKC from rabbits, HSPKCE from humans, APLPKCB from Aplysia californica , and dPKC98F from Drosophila melanogaster , and homology to several other protein kinases from yeasts, mice, and bovines. (usda.gov)
  • Goodwin, G. H., Sanders, C. and Johns, E. W., A new group of chromatin-associated proteins witha high content of acidic and basic amino acids. (wiley.com)
  • We demonstrate that dpy-30 encodes a novel nuclear protein of 123 amino acids that is present in both hermaphrodites and males (XO) throughout development. (biologists.org)
  • The interaction between LaC and a protein in the basket could mean that LaC filaments regulate the distribution of the NPCs in the nuclear membrane, a mechanism which may be linked to the development of progeria. (phys.org)
  • Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins is an emerging pathogenic mechanism whereby bacterial proteins can interact with nuclear molecules and alter the physiology of host cells. (springer.com)
  • Among them, HsdM, a subunit of KpnAl that is a type I restriction-modification system found in K. pneumoniae , was selected for the experimental proof of nuclear targeting in host cells. (springer.com)
  • A transient expression of HsdM-EGFP in COS-1 cells exhibited exclusively a nuclear localization of the fusion proteins, whereas the fusion proteins of HsdM with substitutions in residues lysine to alanine in the NLS sequences, 7 AAAKAAA 13 , were localized in the cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • It easily slips into the cytoplasm in control cells, or cells expressing a nuclear version of β-17 (NLS-β17). (alzforum.org)
  • isotonic (or protein extraction from fragile cells): 10 mM Tris HCl, pH 7.5, with 2 mM MgCl 2 , 3 mM CaCl 2 , 0.3 M Sucrose. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Simply pre-incubate Cas9 protein with gRNA and then transfect or electroporate into your cells or model system. (biocat.com)
  • When it comes to the random mixture of chromosomes, every consistent genetic process is a kind of miracle that lets us pass on our genetic code and produce proteins and cells. (haaretz.com)
  • Scaffidi, P., Misteli, T. and Bianchi, M. E., Release of chromatin protein HMGB1 by necrotic cells triggers inflammation. (wiley.com)
  • This was addressed here by following the fate of several nuclear proteins after infection of cells with vaccinia virus. (asm.org)
  • Two nuclear proteins have been reported to be localized in the cytoplasm of vaccinia virus-infected cells. (asm.org)
  • b ) Wild-type cells ( top row ) and sxm1 cells ( bottom row ) were probed for either an NLS-GFP reporter ( left ) or the endogenous protein Npl3p ( right ). (rupress.org)
  • Proteins of similar size are recognized by these antibodies in yeast, Drosophila, rat and human cells. (biologists.org)
  • The nuclear lamina is an essential component of metazoan cells. (biologists.org)
  • G , EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells does not alter 4.1N levels in non-nuclear fractions. (jneurosci.org)
  • H , 4.1N remains undetectable in nuclear fractions after EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nuclear targeting of 4.1N arrests PC12 cells at G1 phase. (jneurosci.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry on a panel of human tissues revealed that the TCF-1 protein was found exclusively in thymocytes and in CD3+ T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In untreated control cells, most of this activity found with the nuclear fraction can be extracted by chelators. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both thymocytes and T cells overexpressing gag-PKB displayed elevated levels of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-X L . In addition, the activation of peripheral T cells led to enhanced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation via accelerated degradation of the NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα. (rupress.org)
  • Various types of proteins are required for nuclear organization, which confers a variety of nuclear functions in eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • Instead, cargo-carrying importins function as bona fide components that regulate the nuclear pore complex transport barrier. (phys.org)
  • Now, we have a much greater appreciation for how the systematic interplay of importin alpha and beta are able to regulate the nuclear pore complex to sustain continuous transport. (phys.org)
  • Karyopherins regulate nuclear pore complex barrier and transport function, The Journal of Cell Biology (2017). (phys.org)
  • Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein abundance, localization, and function. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear proteins EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C interact with the cell DNA binding protein RBPJ and regulate cell and viral genes. (harvard.edu)
  • Although HsdM tested in this study has not been considered to be a virulence factor, the prediction of NLS motifs from the full sequenced genome of bacteria extends our knowledge of functional genomics to understand subcellular targeting of bacterial proteins. (springer.com)
  • With transfection-ready Cas9 protein-the newest addition to SBI´s genome editing products-you can get more efficient genome editing with fewer off-target events. (biocat.com)
  • Taking the power of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to the next level, transfectable/electroporatable Cas9 protein delivers more efficient genome editing while reducing off-target events (1-3). (biocat.com)
  • Poxviruses are unique among DNA genome viruses because their genome never crosses the nuclear membrane where nucleic acid synthesis otherwise occurs. (asm.org)
  • The protamines are a diverse family of small arginine-rich proteins that are synthesized in the late-stage spermatids of many animals and plants and bind to DNA, condensing the spermatid genome into a genetically inactive state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have confirmed the correct expression and localization of our fusion proteins and we are currently analyzing DNA binding sites using whole-genome tiling arrays and qPCR. (csic.es)
  • The presence of putative WRKY transcription factor binding sites (W-boxes) in the promoters of many of these genes prompted a screen of 72 annotated WRKY factors in the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) genome for regulators of transcripts encoding mitochondrial proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Genome-wide expression analysis following high-light stress in transgenic lines with perturbed AtWRKY40 and AtWRKY63 function revealed that these factors are involved in regulating stress-responsive genes encoding mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins but have little effect on more constitutively expressed genes encoding organellar proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • There are three Dvl protein coding genes in the human genome. (jcancer.org)
  • Thus, NE-specific proteins were determined by subtracting the proteins present in MM fractions from those of the NE fractions after proteomic analysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • After NGF (50 ng/ml) treatment, 4.1N concentration decreases gradually in non-nuclear fractions ( A ) but increases in nuclear fractions ( C ). As a control, the concentration of α-tubulin is unchanged in non-nuclear fractions ( B ) and remains undetectable in all nuclear fractions ( D ). E , 4.1N coimmunoprecipitates with NuMA in response to NGF treatment. (jneurosci.org)
  • Wu, RAC GTPases in tobacco and arabidopsis mediate auxin-induced formation of proteolytically active nuclear protein bodies that contain AUX/IAA proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ainsi, le nucléosquelette associé à l'INM est nécessaire pour transmettre des signaux au noyau et induire des changements dans l'organisation de la chromatine et finalement dans l'expression des gènes.Une nouvelle famille de protéines associées à l'enveloppe nucléaire (NEAP),proposées comme nouveaux composants du nucléosquelette de la plante, a récemment été mise en évidence dans la plante modèle Arabidopsis thaliana. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The nuclear lamina proteins have been implicated in a number of degenerative disorders with frequent clinical manifestations of the skin conditions related to premature aging. (dovepress.com)
  • These genes included alternative respiration pathway components such as Alternative oxidase1a ( AOX1a ) and NADH dehydrogenaseB2 ( NDB2 ), AAA ATPases ( Ubiquinol - cytochrome c reductase synthesis1 [ BCS1 ]), mitochondrial substrate carriers, heat shock proteins, and a variety of other functions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These proteins work as down-stream effectors of the Fzd proteins but up-stream of β-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway ( 5 ). (jcancer.org)
  • Several binding partners of the Dvl proteins have been identified which act in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. (jcancer.org)
  • 12 ) reported that the WWOX protein interacts with Dvl proteins and inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by preventing the nuclear import of these proteins. (jcancer.org)
  • In their research article , Jiří Friml and colleagues describe PATELLINs, plasma membrane-localized proteins required for auxin-induced PIN1 relocalization and multiple developmental processes. (biologists.org)
  • This method is based on the expression in vivo of chimeric proteins containing an adenine methyltransferase (Dam) from E. coli that methylates the DNA in the vicinity of native binding sites of a chromatin-interacting protein. (csic.es)
  • In addition to all 13 known NE integral proteins, 67 uncharacterized open reading frames with predicted membrane-spanning regions were identified. (sciencemag.org)
  • All of the eight proteins tested targeted to the NE, indicating that there are substantially more integral proteins of the NE than previously thought. (sciencemag.org)
  • NEs and MMs isolated from rodent liver ( Fig. 1A ) ( 7 , 8 ) were extracted with 0.1 M NaOH to enrich for transmembrane proteins in the pellet (fig. S2). (sciencemag.org)
  • The transmembrane proteins of the INM include emerin, MAN1, and NET25, the main subjects of this study. (asm.org)
  • During import the karyopherin heterodimer dissociates: karyopherin alpha and import substrates enter and accumulate in the nucleoplasm, whereas karyopherin beta accumulates at the nuclear pore complex. (nih.gov)
  • Caspi Y, Zbaida D, Cohen H, Elbaum M (2008) Synthetic Mimic of Selective Transport Through the Nuclear Pore Complex. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In contrast to prevailing views, the team led by Prof. Roderick Lim, Argovia Professor at the Biozentrum and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute of the University of Basel, has now demonstrated that the nuclear pore complex does not work like a simple filter that regulates the nuclear transport process. (phys.org)
  • The insights provided by the study also have implications for the understanding of diseases associated with transport defects at the nuclear pore complex, such as cancer. (phys.org)
  • We always thought of the nuclear pore complex as a standalone machine that controls nuclear transport", says Lim. (phys.org)
  • A second complex found on both sides of the NPC and connected to the above one contains Nup188, Nic96, and the pore membrane protein, Pom152 ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, nucleoporins forming the scaffold structure of the nuclear pore complex are eminently mutation-prone. (springer.com)
  • Beck M, Forster F, Ecke M et al (2004) Nuclear pore complex structure and dynamics revealed by cryoelectron tomography. (springer.com)
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • The NE allows communication between both compartments through Nuclear PoreComplexes and bridges the cytoskeleton to the nucleoskeleton through the LInker ofNucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton complex. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Besides INM misfolded proteins, the Asi complex promoted the degradation of functional regulators of sterol biosynthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mislocalization of THOC2 and the suggestion of RNA processing defects in disease is consistent with our identification of THOC4(ALYREF), the nuclear cap binding complex (NCBP1, NCBP2, ARS2), and exosomal subunits as genetic interactors of C9orf72 mediated toxicity. (alzforum.org)
  • A large coiled-coil protein, Tpr (Translocated promoter region) is located at the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex ( NPC ), and plays an important role in the architecture of the nuclear basket (NB). (cuvillier.de)
  • On the nuclear side of the NPC, RanGTP acts to dissociate Impβ from the complex. (rupress.org)
  • We show here that the WICH complex (WSTF-SNF2h) interacts with several nuclear proteins as follows: Sf3b155/SAP155, RNA helicase II/Gualpha, Myb-binding protein 1a, CSB, the proto-oncogene Dek, and nuclear myosin 1 in a large 3-MDa assembly, B-WICH, during active transcription. (eurekamag.com)
  • Co-precipitation of a complex formed in v i v o between hnRNP D0B and the TATA-binding protein demonstrates that hnRNP D0B interacts with the basal transcription apparatus. (biochemj.org)
  • hNaa50p appears both freely in the cell and associated to two other proteins, hNaa10p and hNaa15p, which together make up the NatE complex. (uib.no)
  • Activated Dvl proteins inactivate the β-catenin degradation complex (APC- Axin- GSK3β) by binding to Axin. (jcancer.org)
  • Our results demonstrated that each EBNA3 protein forms a distinct complex with RBPJ. (harvard.edu)
  • Interestingly, lem-d double mutants displayed distinct developmental and cellular mutant phenotypes, suggesting that Drosophila LEM-D proteins have developmental functions that are differentially shared with other LEM-D family members. (genetics.org)
  • Hipp and co-senior author Ulrich Hartl wondered if amyloidogenic proteins affect nucleocytoplasmic transport in similar ways, and if the cellular location of those aggregates was important. (alzforum.org)
  • The initiation and termination of vaccinia virus postreplicative transcription have been reported to require cellular proteins, some of which are believed to be nuclear proteins. (asm.org)
  • A broad range of bacterial pathogens, including the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia , uses a so-called type III protein secretion machinery to deliver bacterial effector proteins into the host cell for modulation of cellular functions. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2004. Identification of a nuclear targeting signal in YopM from Yersinia spp. (springer.com)
  • Proteins detected by multidimensional protein identification technology in the cofractionating organelles were subtracted from the NE data set. (sciencemag.org)
  • Herein we report identification of LRRC42 as a potential therapeutic target and also provide evidence that LRRC42 could interact with GATAD2B (GATA zinc finger domain containing 2B) and MBD3 (Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3) proteins that are likely to play a significant role in human pulmonary carcinogenesis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Partly due to the insolubility of the matrix, and to the heterogeneity of MAR DNA, very few of the protein components of the nuclear matrix have been identified. (openthesis.org)
  • DPY-30 is required for the sex-specific association of DPY-27 (a chromosome condensation protein homolog) with the hermaphrodite X chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • An inhibitor of its enzyme activity could destabilize chromosome formation and prevent nuclear division, and thus function as anti-cancer drug. (uib.no)
  • Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are eliminated by a quality-control system called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). (sciencemag.org)
  • This conclusion is supported by studies showing that ectopically produced LEM-D proteins have distinct capacities to rescue the tissue-specific phenotypes found in single lem-d mutants. (genetics.org)
  • NET25 and MAN1 share an ∼40-residue LEM homology domain with emerin, the protein mutated in X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. (asm.org)