Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Thymosin. A family of heat-stable, polypeptide hormones secreted by the thymus gland. Their biological activities include lymphocytopoiesis, restoration of immunological competence and enhancement of expression of T-cell characteristics and function. They have therapeutic potential in patients having primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases, cancer or diseases related to aging.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The area within the CELL NUCLEUS.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An evolutionarily-conserved 10-kDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Two closely related polypeptides (molecular weight 7,000) isolated from the thymus gland. These hormones induce the differentiation of prothymocytes to thymocytes within the thymus. They also cause a delayed impairment of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and are therefore believed to be the agent responsible for myasthenia gravis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Circumscribed masses of foreign or metabolically inactive materials, within the CELL NUCLEUS. Some are VIRAL INCLUSION BODIES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/36129)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (2/36129)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (3/36129)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Drosophila oogenesis: versatile spn doctors. (4/36129)

Recent work on Drosophila oogenesis has uncovered connections between cell-cycle checkpoints and pattern formation. Genes of the spindle class, which encode double-strand break repair enzymes and RNA helicases, affect oocyte polarity and the decision whether to differentiate as an oocyte or a nurse cell.  (+info)

Meiosis: MeiRNA hits the spot. (5/36129)

The protein Mei2 performs at least two functions required in fission yeast for the switch from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles. One of these functions also requires meiRNA. It appears that meiRNA targets Mei2 to the nucleus, where it can promote the first meiotic division.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (6/36129)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (7/36129)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (8/36129)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

Erythroleukemia typically affects adults in their 50s and 60s, although it can occur at any age. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. The cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, including the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes.

Erythroleukemia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells and restore normal blood cell production. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary. The prognosis for erythroleukemia is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of about 20%.

Erythroleukemia is classified as an acute leukemia, meaning it progresses rapidly and can lead to life-threatening complications if left untreated. It is important for patients to receive prompt and appropriate treatment to improve their chances of survival and quality of life.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

Also known as Burkitt's Lymphoma.

The symptoms of choriocarcinoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
* Pelvic pain
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Nausea and vomiting

If choriocarcinoma is suspected, a variety of tests may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. These may include:

* Ultrasound: This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves to create pictures of the uterus and ovaries. It can help doctors identify any abnormal growths or tumors in the area.
* Hysteroscopy: This procedure involves inserting a thin, lighted tube through the cervix to visualize the inside of the uterus. Doctors may use hysteroscopy to collect samples of tissue for testing.
* Laparoscopy: This procedure involves making small incisions in the abdomen and using a thin, lighted tube to visualize the inside of the pelvis. Doctors may use laparoscopy to collect samples of tissue for testing or to remove any tumors that are found.
* Biopsy: In this test, doctors take a small sample of tissue from the uterus and examine it under a microscope for cancer cells.

If choriocarcinoma is confirmed, treatment may involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for choriocarcinoma varies depending on the stage of the cancer when it is diagnosed. In general, the prognosis is good if the cancer is caught early and treated promptly. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis may be poorer.

It's important for women who have had a molar pregnancy or choriocarcinoma to follow up with their healthcare provider regularly to ensure that any remaining tissue is removed and to monitor for any signs of recurrence.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

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Protein nuclear magnetic resonance is performed on aqueous samples of highly purified protein. Usually, the sample consists of ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which ... Traditionally, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been limited to relatively small proteins or protein domains. This ... NMR spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of carbohydrates Nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Transition nuclear proteins (TNPs) are proteins that are involved in the packaging of sperm nuclear DNA during spermiogenesis. ... "Roles of transition nuclear proteins in spermiogenesis". Chromosoma. 111 (8): 483-8. doi:10.1007/s00412-002-0227-z. PMID ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Andrology, Reproductive system, Proteins, All stub ...
Inner nuclear membrane proteins (INM proteins) are membrane proteins that are embedded in or associated with the inner membrane ... Integral membrane protein Laminopathy Transmembrane protein Holmer, L.; Worman, H.J. (2001). "Inner nuclear membrane proteins: ... INM proteins also aid in organization of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The protein mPom121 is targeted to the INM and is ... In this model, proteins diffuse freely from the ER to the inner nuclear membrane, where association with nuclear lamina or ...
The nuclear protein in testis gene (i.e. NUTM1 gene) encodes (i.e. directs the synthesis of) a 1,132-amino acid protein termed ... The BRD4-NUTM1 fusion gene is a translocation that encodes a fusion protein that has merged most of the protein coding region ... This translocation is notated as t(15;19)(q13, p13.1). BRD4 protein recognizes acetylated lysine residues on proteins and by ... Pathologic Characterization and Survival Outcomes of Nuclear Protein of the Testis Carcinoma". Journal of Computer Assisted ...
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... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP140L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: SP140 nuclear body protein like". Retrieved 2016-12-13. Rose JE, Behm FM, Drgon T, Johnson C, Uhl GR (2010). " ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUMA1 gene. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein ... Ye, K; Compton D A; Lai M M; Walensky L D; Snyder S H (Dec 1999). "Protein 4.1N binding to nuclear mitotic apparatus protein in ... 2000). "Protein 4.1N binding to nuclear mitotic apparatus protein in PC12 cells mediates the antiproliferative actions of nerve ... 1999). "A nonerythroid isoform of protein 4.1R interacts with the nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein". J. Cell Biol. 145 ...
... (MENT) is a member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC2IP gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 interacting protein". Retrieved 2018-03-13. PDBe-KB provides an overview of ... all the structure information available in the PDB for Human NFATC2-interacting protein (NFATC2IP) v t e v t e (Articles with ...
Haltiwanger RS, Blomberg MA, Hart GW (May 1992). "Glycosylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Purification and ... protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-serine UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [protein]-L-threonine → UDP + [protein]-3-O-(N- ... The O-GlcNAc Database - A curated database for protein O-GlcNAcylation and referencing more than 14 000 protein entries and 10 ... which can increase the turnover of proteins such as the tumor repressor p53. The post-translational modification of proteins by ...
As nuclear RNA emerges from RNA polymerase, RNA transcripts are immediately covered with RNA-binding proteins that regulate ... DNA-binding protein RNA-binding protein database Ribonucleoprotein Wikimedia Commons has media related to RNA-binding proteins ... These structures illustrate the intricacy of protein-RNA recognition of RRM as it entails RNA-RNA and protein-protein ... These proteins then recruit splicesomal proteins to this target site. SR proteins are also well known for their role in ...
Due to the protein being originally identified as a RNA-binding protein it was named p54nrb for Nuclear RNA-binding protein, 54 ... As with all proteins of the DBHS familprotein is described as a multifunctional nuclear protein. The NONO protein has been ... The NonO protein belongs to the Drosophila behaviour/human splicing (DBHS) family of proteins. Proteins in the DHBS family ... Shav-Tal Y, Zipori D (November 2002). "PSF and p54(nrb)/NonO--multi-functional nuclear proteins". FEBS Letters. 531 (2): 109-14 ...
... encodes a nuclear protein, which belongs to a highly conserved family of WD40 repeat. This gene is present in many protein ... CREB-binding protein, also known as CREBBP or CBP, is a protein that is encoded by the CREBBP gene in humans. The CREB protein ... Proteins RbAp48 is a key player in the assembly of nucleosomes. RbAp48 protein is a subunit of the chromatin-assembly factor-1 ... RbAp48 protein is also found in numerous other protein complexes for regulation of chromatin structure. Studies show that ...
The encoded protein acts as a nuclear transcription factor. Translocation of the protein from the nucleus to mitochondria ... Autophagy-related protein 101 also known as ATG101 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C12orf44 gene (chromosome 12 ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ... However, ATG101 is not homologous to any of the other ATG proteins. ATG101 interacts with essential autophagy protein ATG13 in ...
It is an integral protein within the nuclear membrane. FLAP is necessary in synthesis of leukotriene, which are lipid mediators ... Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein also known as 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, or FLAP, is a protein that in ... 5-lipoxygenase-activating+protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ALOX5AP genome ... FLAP functions as a membrane anchor for 5-lipooxygenase and as an amine acid-bind protein. How FLAP activates 5-lipooxygenase ...
"Entrez Gene: GEMIN6 gem (nuclear organelle) associated protein 6". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A ... Gem-associated protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GEMIN6 gene. The gem-associated proteins are those found ... Oct 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode ... Gem-associated protein 6 has been shown to interact with gem-associated protein 7. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152147 ...
The encoded protein is found in the nucleoplasm, in nuclear "gems" (Gemini of Cajal bodies), and in the cytoplasm. Three ... Gem-associated protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GEMIN7 gene. The gem-associated proteins are those found ... "Entrez Gene: GEMIN7 gem (nuclear organelle) associated protein 7". Pellizzoni L, Baccon J, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Dreyfuss G ( ... Gem-associated protein 7 has been shown to interact with SMN1 and Gem-associated protein 6. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... a Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) Nuclear Targeting Subunit". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (16): 13819-13828. doi:10.1074/ ... protein-protein interactions, protein stability, cell movement, and apoptosis. These processes depend on the highly regulated ... The protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP) super-family forms the second group, and the aspartate-based protein phosphatases the third. ... Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common forms of reversible protein posttranslational modification (PTM), with up to ...
The product of this gene is part of the SMN protein complex localized to the cytoplasm, nucleoli, and to discrete nuclear ... The encoded protein directly interacts with a DEAD box protein and several spliceosome core proteins. Alternatively spliced ... "Entrez Gene: GEMIN4 gem (nuclear organelle) associated protein 4". Carnegie GK, Sleeman JE, Morrice N, Hastie CJ, Peggie MW, ... Gem-associated protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GEMIN4 gene. ...
"Entrez Gene: GEMIN5 gem (nuclear organelle) associated protein 5". Mourelatos Z, Dostie J, Paushkin S, Sharma A, Charroux B, ... Gem-associated protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GEMIN5 gene. Gem-associated protein 5 is part of the SMN ... a novel WD repeat protein component of the SMN complex that binds Sm proteins". J Biol Chem. 277 (7): 5631-6. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Hao le T, Fuller HR, Lam le T, Le TT, Burghes AH, Morris GE (2007). "Absence of gemin5 from SMN complexes in nuclear Cajal ...
Nuclear_pore#Import_of_proteins Jiang MC (October 2016). "CAS (CSE1L) signaling pathway in tumor progression and its potential ... "Cas Proteins". Retrieved 2019-12-04. Cellular+Apoptosis+Susceptibility+Protein at the US National ... The Cas family of proteins are a family of proteins that induce cellular apoptosis and cell proliferation. Apoptosis is a ... Without the CAS protein, a cell will not be able to go beyond the G2 phase. It is in the nucleus of the cell, where its ...
Chen D, Li Z, Yang Q, Zhang J, Zhai Z, Shu HB (Oct 2003). "Identification of a nuclear protein that promotes NF-kappaB ... NF-kappa-B-activating protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NKAP gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... "Entrez Gene: NKAP NF-kappaB activating protein". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial ...
Prickle is also known as REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein, which is a putative nuclear translocation receptor. Prickle ... Shimojo M, Hersh LB (December 2003). "REST/NRSF-interacting LIM domain protein, a putative nuclear translocation receptor". ... The first prickle protein was identified in Drosophila as a planar cell polarity protein. Vertebrate prickle-1 was first found ... April 2012). "Nuclear localization of Prickle2 is required to establish cell polarity during early mouse embryogenesis". ...
Rosorius O, Fries B, Stauber RH, Hirschmann N, Bevec D, Hauber J (2000). "Human ribosomal protein L5 contains defined nuclear ... The protein belongs to the L18P family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. The protein binds 5S rRNA to form ... 60S ribosomal protein L5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPL5 gene. Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze ... Jäkel S, Görlich D (1998). "Importin beta, transportin, RanBP5 and RanBP7 mediate nuclear import of ribosomal proteins in ...
"Saethre-Chotzen mutations cause TWIST protein degradation or impaired nuclear location". Human Molecular Genetics. 9 (5): 813-9 ... Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) also known as class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 38 (bHLHa38) is a basic helix-loop-helix ... "Saethre-Chotzen mutations cause TWIST protein degradation or impaired nuclear location". Human Molecular Genetics. 9 (5): 813-9 ... proteins is the novel target for direct inhibition by another bHLH protein, Twist". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (11): ...
Schirmer EC, Florens L, Guan T, Yates JR, Gerace L (September 2003). "Nuclear membrane proteins with potential disease links ... Transmembrane protein 53, or TMEM53, is a protein that is encoded on chromosome 1 in humans. It has no paralogs but is ... This domain has not been found in proteins other than TMEM53 and its orthologs. Based on human and mouse EST profiles and a ... This suggests high likelihood that these sites are real and important for the protein's function. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ... "MRG15 activates the B-myb promoter through formation of a nuclear complex with the retinoblastoma protein and the novel protein ... May 1998). "NRP/B, a novel nuclear matrix protein, associates with p110(RB) and is involved in neuronal differentiation". The ... Craven RJ, Cance WG, Liu ET (September 1995). "The nuclear tyrosine kinase Rak associates with the retinoblastoma protein pRb ...
This list covers nuclear proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). Codes before these are ... hmgb2 protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.600.800 - hmgb3 protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.700 - sex-determining region y protein ... hmga proteins MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.500.100 - hmga1a protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.500.200 - hmga1b protein MeSH D12.776. ... hmga2 protein MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.600 - hmgb proteins MeSH D12.776.660.235.400.600.300 - hmgb1 protein MeSH D12.776. ...
2002). "Epstein-Barr virus encoded nuclear protein EBNA-3 binds a novel human uridine kinase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase ... 2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization". Nat. ...
Nuclear medicine List of PET radiotracers Staff. "Lilly Snags Avid Radiopharma", Forbes, November 8, 2010. Accessed November 8 ... would cross the blood-brain barrier and attach itself to amyloid protein deposits in the brain. The firm raised $500,000 from ... by other pharmaceutical firms as a means of determining the ability of the drugs to reduce the buildup of amyloid protein in ...
6 also known as DNA-binding protein RFX6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RFX6 gene. The nuclear protein encoded ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact. ...
Nuclear factor 1 X-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIX gene. NFI-X3, a splice variant of NFIX, regulates ... "Two nuclear localization signals are required for nuclear translocation of nuclear factor 1-A". FEBS Lett. 484 (2): 118-124. ... Wendler WM, Kremmer E, Förster R, Winnacker EL (1997). "Identification of pirin, a novel highly conserved nuclear protein". J. ... gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression ...
Nuclear localization signals allow proteins to be able to enter the nucleus, but many nuclear proteins possess their own. PANO1 ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2021-08-01. (CS1 maint: url- ... Stimulating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, GC box elements and HMG box-containing protein 1. Like previously ... PANO1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PANO1 gene. PANO1 is an apoptosis inducing protein that is able to ...
Cance WG, Craven RJ, Bergman M, Xu L, Alitalo K, Liu ET (December 1994). "Rak, a novel nuclear tyrosine kinase expressed in ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, or simply c-Src (cellular Src; pronounced "sarc ... Nada S, Okada M, MacAuley A, Cooper JA, Nakagawa H (May 1991). "Cloning of a complementary DNA for a protein-tyrosine kinase ...
This gene codes for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4-α) protein also known as transcription factor 14 (TCF14). HNF4α ... and several proteins involved in glucose and mitochondrial metabolism. Although pancreatic beta cells produce adequate insulin ...
C-jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK8IP3 gene. The protein ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK8IP3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3". Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nishitoh Hideki; Takeda ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ...
"SARS-CoV-2 N protein antagonizes type I interferon signaling by suppressing phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 ... Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3' end of the genome. N protein is ... In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ... Coronavirus proteins, Viral protein class, Viral structural proteins). ...
This gene encodes a member of the DEAD box protein family. DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala- ... nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members ... "Characterization of novel SF3b and 17S U2 snRNP proteins, including a human Prp5p homologue and an SF3b DEAD-box protein". EMBO ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ... Targeting of p21 promoter is responsible for inducing cell differentiation, which is promoted by modifying the DNA nuclear ... The protein caspase DNase is an endonuclease involved in the cell apoptotic process that facilitates the DNA breakup. Cell ... It also depends on the activity of a protein or a common signal. The factor that seems to induce more cell differentiation is ...
... a novel protein which interacts with a neuron-specific immediate early gene product arc, contains novel nuclear localization ... Nucleolar protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOL3 gene. NOL3 has been shown to interact with SFRS9 and ... "Alternative splicing determines the intracellular localization of the novel nuclear protein Nop30 and its interaction with the ... "Alternative splicing determines the intracellular localization of the novel nuclear protein Nop30 and its interaction with the ...
Its repression can be relieved by the sequestration of this protein into promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies or nucleoli. ... Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. Daxx, a Death domain- ... This protein also associates with centromeres in G2 phase. In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein may function to regulate ... It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor ...
ASCL1 protein encoded by the ASCL1 gene, Dok-7 protein encoded by the DOK7 gene, enolase 2 encoded by the ENOL2 gene, ... PDCIS is managed primarily by surgical removal in the same manner as ductal carcinoma in situ tumors that have the same nuclear ... and the expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related proteins such as the GDNF family of ligand proteins encoded by the ... and HER2/neu protein (however, 46.4% of the cases were not tested for the HER2/neu). In a second histopathological study of 44 ...
The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ... A weak nuclear localisation signal in the ICD of Ten-m3 facilitates the translocation of the ICD into the nucleus. TCAPs from ... Ten-m3 protein is expressed in the Purkinje's cell zone, molecular and granular layers and the white matter of the cerebellum. ... in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. Like the Ten-m ...
The cytoplasmic and often nuclear expression of S100 protein is present in nearly all tumor cells, and vimentin typically ... These cells have proteins that make up the characteristics of the tumor. These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells ... neurofilament protein) → - CD56/N-CAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) → ++ S100 → ++ Transthyretin → - Vimentin → +++ Desmin ... glial fibrillary acidic protein) → + Synaptophysin → - Chromogranin → - NSE (neuron-specific enolase) → ++ NFP ( ...
His scientific work involved the characterization of biopolymers such as DNA, proteins and collagen by optical methods such as ... Marquard, Bryan (6 December 2011). "Paul Doty, 91, presidential adviser on nuclear arms control". Retrieved 2011-12 ... which led to his lifelong involvement in activities aiming to avert nuclear war. He was a special assistant to the president ... American anti-nuclear weapons activists, Educators from Charleston, West Virginia, Scientists from West Virginia, Polytechnic ...
When a nucleus is added to an egg during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the egg starts dividing in minutes, as compared to the ... of breast and ovarian cancers the protein encoded by DIRAS3 is not expressed, suggesting that it functions as a tumor ... "DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic ... "A phylogenetic approach to test for evidence of parental conflict or gene duplications associated with protein-encoding ...
... the microsporidia shrunk its genome eliminating almost 1000 genes and reduced even the size of protein and protein-coding genes ... Nuclear genome sizes are well known to vary enormously among eukaryotic species. In animals they range more than 3,300-fold, ... In 1972 Michael David Bennett hypothesized that there was a correlation with the DNA content and the nuclear volume while ... Hof, J. Van't; Sparrow, A. H. (June 1963). "A relationship between DNA content, nuclear volume, and minimum mitotic cycle time ...
The encoded protein is an Fe(II)-containing nuclear protein expressed in all tissues of the body and concentrated within dot- ... "Entrez Gene: PIR pirin (iron-binding nuclear protein)". Dechend, R; Hirano F; Lehmann K; Heissmeyer V; Ansieau S; Wulczyn F G; ... Wendler WM, Kremmer E, Forster R, Winnacker EL (May 1997). "Identification of pirin, a novel highly conserved nuclear protein ... 2004). "Crystal structure of human pirin: an iron-binding nuclear protein and transcription cofactor". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2): ...
The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another ... Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: SFRS6 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6". Zahler AM, Lane WS, Stolk JA, Roth MB (May 1992). "SR proteins: a ... Ramchatesingh J, Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Roth MB, Cooper TA (September 1995). "A subset of SR proteins activates splicing of ...
June 2016). "A novel nuclear DnaJ protein, DNAJC8, can suppress the formation of spinocerebellar ataxia 3 polyglutamine ... Heat shock 70kDa protein 1B is a chaperone protein, cooperating with other heat shock proteins and chaperone systems to ... Expression of heat shock protein 70kDa protein 2 in transformed tumor cells has been implicated in the rapid proliferation, ... Zeke T, Morrice N, Vázquez-Martin C, Cohen PT (January 2005). "Human protein phosphatase 5 dissociates from heat-shock proteins ...
Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a ... Cellular and nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies and phagocytosis by ... "Caspase-activated DNase Is Required for Maintenance of Tolerance to Lupus Nuclear Autoantigens." Arthritis and Rheumatism 64.4 ... cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins ...
Phylogenetic relationships of Sparassis inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and a protein-coding gene (rpb2 ... mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB". Int. J. Mol. Med. 30 (2): 344-50. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2012.1000. PMID ... nuclear rDNA and rpb2 genes" (PDF). Mycologia. 98 (4): 584-92. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.4.584. PMID 17139851. Blanco-Dios JB, ...
In Japan, Pope Francis expressed opposition to both nuclear weapons and nuclear energy, at one point stating that "Important ... protein, and iron, among other nutrients, and could potentially fight altitude sickness- a popular reason for its use, but it ... "In Japan, Pope Francis speaks out against the destruction caused by nuclear weapons". America Magazine. 25 November 2019. "Pope ...
Viral proteins proven to affect IFN signaling include EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) from ... For instance, both type I and type II IFNs activate a member of the CRK family of adaptor proteins called CRKL, a nuclear ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... phosphorylates ribosomal protein s6, which is involved in protein synthesis; and phosphorylates a translational repressor ...
"Identification of the nuclear and nucleolar localization signals of the protein p120. Interaction with translocation protein ... Ren Y, Busch RK, Perlaky L, Busch H (May 1998). "The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58), a nucleolar protein, interacts with ... Ren Y, Busch RK, Perlaky L, Busch H (1998). "The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58), a nucleolar protein, interacts with ... "The receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 is constitutively associated with a 64-kDa protein serine/threonine kinase ...
... molecular biophysicist and structural biologist known for foundational work in three-dimensional protein and nucleic acid ... Ear Institute UCL Eastman Dental Institute UCL Institute of Child Health UCL Institute of Neurology UCL Institute of Nuclear ...
The C-terminus of this protein interacts with mitochondrial ribosomes and helps insert both mitochondrial and nuclear produced ... Haque ME, Spremulli LL, Fecko CJ (2010). "Identification of protein-protein and protein-ribosome interacting regions of the C- ... Mitochondrial inner membrane protein OXA1L is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OXA1L gene located on 14q11.2. ... "Properties of the C-terminal tail of human mitochondrial inner membrane protein Oxa1L and its interactions with mammalian ...
... where it regulates actin-nuclear lamina associations, nuclear architecture, chromatin repositioning and gene expression. ... Edinburgh-led study identifies a novel function for the cell adhesion protein Mena at the nuclear membrane, ... Adhesion protein that regulates gene transcription via direct signalling across the nuclear envelope. Edinburgh-led study ... through which Mena regulates actin-nuclear lamina interactions, nuclear architecture and chromatin organisation at the nuclear ...
One hundred and twenty proteins have been identified from the nuclear protein mixture of MCF-7 cells, from which more than 90% ... are classically categorized as nuclear proteins. Fourteen proteins are found to be significantly less or more abundant (more ... Thus I have carried out a comparative proteomics research project to study differential expression of nuclear proteins in drug ... Since most anticancer drugs target the nuclei of the cancer cells, differential expression of nuclear proteins may play crucial ...
Nup180, a novel nuclear pore complex protein localizing to the cytoplasmic ring and associated fibrils. ...
Nuclear Transport; Polyadenylation; Protein Methylation; Protein Sorting; Protein-Protein Interactions; Poly(A) Binding Protein ... Arginine Methylation of the Nuclear Poly(A) Binding Protein Weakens the Interaction with Its Nuclear Import Receptor, ...
Although anti-HMGB1 antibodies measured by ELISA often coincide with nuclear IF-ANA staining, our results indicate that anti- ... but not nuclear, staining of HEp-2 cells. We confirm that anti-HMGB1 antibodies are common in SLE and correlate with disease ... and complement protein C4 (r = -0.23; p = 0.002). Average anti-HMGB1 antibody levels were significantly higher among patients ... HMGB1 antibodies do not give rise to nuclear staining of the predominantly used commercial HEp-2 cell slides. ...
NPD is a searchable database of information on proteins that are localised to the nucleus of vertebrate cells. ...
Youre reviewing:Human Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Sm D1 protein - orb511212. Your Rating. 1 star. 2 stars. 3 stars. 4 ... Human Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Sm D1 protein ... Human Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Sm D1 protein Catalog ...
The product is dedicated to people with an increased demand for protein (e.g. recreational physical activity enthusiasts, ... which will allow to enrich them with an optimally specified portion of protein. ... NUCLEAR NUTRITION ISOTOPE WHEY protein supplement is a tasty and convenient source of complete whey protein in the form of high ... Nuclear Nutrition Isotope Whey Protein Isolate 2 kg. NUCLEAR NUTRITION ISOTOPE WHEY protein supplement is a tasty and ...
Human Regulatory Protein Ki-1/57 Is a Target of SUMOylation and Affects PML Nuclear Body Formation.. Saito, Ângela; Souza, ... Ki-1/57 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic regulatory protein first identified in malignant cells from Hodgkins lymphoma. It is ... Previous characterization of its protein interaction profile by yeast two-hybrid screening showed that Ki-1/57 interacts with ... Ki-1/57 belongs to the family of intrinsically unstructured proteins and undergoes phosphorylation by PKC and methylation by ...
The nuclear pore complex protein Tpr is a common autoantigen in sera that demonstrate nuclear envelope staining by indirect ... Nuclear Pore Protein p62 Autoantibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Doris M Kraemer*, 1, Hans-Peter Tony2. 1 Queens Cancer ... the outer nuclear membrane (ONM), an inter membrane space, the inner nuclear membrane (INM), the underlying nuclear lamina and ... Human nucleoporin p62 and the essential yeast nuclear pore protein NSP1 show sequence homology and a similar domain ...
Since TIF-1 proteins have significant roles in oncogenesis, these antibodies may be produced during misdirected antitumor ... Anti-155/140 antibodies target TIF-1 family proteins, TIF-1α and TIF-1β, in addition to TIF-1γ. ... Nuclear Proteins / immunology* * Transcription Factors / immunology* Substances * Autoantibodies * Autoantigens * Nuclear ... Conclusion: Anti-155/140 antibodies target TIF-1 family proteins, TIF-1α and TIF-1β, in addition to TIF-1γ. Since TIF-1 ...
... protein will always be at hand! Dietary supplement NUCLEAR NUTRITION HYDRO HIGH PROTEIN SHOT is a handy source of hydrolyzed ... What are the benefits of NUCLEAR NUTRITION HYDRO HIGH PROTEIN SHOT dietary supplement? ... The protein supplement does not contain sugar and fat, which makes it suitable for weight loss and working on a shapely figure ... beef protein, which was obtained from high-quality, tested raw materials. The product was prepared in the form of a fruity ...
Hwang, JR, Chou, CL, Medvar, B, Knepper, MA & Jung, HJ 2017, Identification of β-catenin-interacting proteins in nuclear ... Identification of β-catenin-interacting proteins in nuclear fractions of native rat collecting duct cells. American Journal of ... Identification of β-catenin-interacting proteins in nuclear fractions of native rat collecting duct cells. In: American Journal ... Identification of β-catenin-interacting proteins in nuclear fractions of native rat collecting duct cells. / Hwang, Jacqueline ...
... is normally a virus-encoded nuclear proteins that. We previously reported (K. is normally a virus-encoded nuclear proteins that ... These protein include TATA-binding proteins (TBP) (65, 104), TAK (43, 44), PKR (8, 79), T3R (21), Tat-binding proteins 1 (83, ... Tat proteins from major HIV-1 isolates can be 101 proteins long; some lab isolates possess a truncated Tat proteins of 86 ... Proteins 49 to 58 comprise a basic-charged area essential for nuclear localization and binding towards the HIV head RNA, TAR ( ...
KASH proteins are key players in animal nuclear migration. Thus, this study not only reveals an important nuclear migration ... plant male fertility depends on vegetative nuclear movement mediated by two families of plant outer nuclear membrane proteins. ... plant male fertility depends on vegetative nuclear movement mediated by two families of plant outer nuclear membrane proteins. ... plant male fertility depends on vegetative nuclear movement mediated by two families of plant outer nuclear membrane proteins. ...
Mouse NFE2L2(Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2) ELISA Kit. * Home. ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2 from Rat in samples from ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2 from Mouse in samples ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2 from Human in samples ...
Classification: NUCLEAR PROTEIN. *Organism(s): Homo sapiens. *Expression System: Escherichia coli. *Mutation(s): Yes ... Cambridge University Chemical Laboratory and Cambridge Centre for Protein Engineering, Medical Research Council Centre, Hills ...
Nuclear translocation of ASPL-TFE3 fusion protein creates favorable metabolism by mediating autophagy in translocation renal ... Since the TFE3 translocation causes overexpression of the TFE3 protein, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TFE3 protein has been ... Mal-Lys: prediction of lysine malonylation sites in proteins integrated sequence-based features with mRMR feature selection. ... Machine learning with autophagy-related proteins for discriminating renal cell carcinoma subtypes. 20 January 2020 ...
N2 - In this study, the gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression levels and nuclear DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor ... AB - In this study, the gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression levels and nuclear DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor ... In this study, the gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression levels and nuclear DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor ... abstract = "In this study, the gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression levels and nuclear DNA-binding activity of nuclear ...
RNA-binding protein TLS is a major nuclear aggregate-interacting protein in Huntingtin exon 1 with expanded polyglutamine- ... Dive into the research topics of RNA-binding protein TLS is a major nuclear aggregate-interacting protein in Huntingtin exon 1 ...
... which is required for tat protein-mediated trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have identified a nuclear protein from ... which is required for tat protein-mediated trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have identified a nuclear protein from ... which is required for tat protein-mediated trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have identified a nuclear protein from ... which is required for tat protein-mediated trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have identified a nuclear protein from ...
Recent studies using fluorescent microscopic techniques suggest that protein factors can access and are freely mobile in ... It is unclear how protein factors find and interact with their targets, and the structure and function of nuclear compartments ... Matera, A.G.; Izaguire-Sierra, M.; Praveen, K.; Rajendra, T.K. Nuclear bodies: Random aggregates of sticky proteins or ... and nuclear bodies such as nuclear speckles, Cajal bodies, and nucleoli comprising a high density of macromolecules. In ...
... which is a component of cellular structures called nuclear bodies. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The SP110 gene provides instructions for making a protein called SP110 nuclear body protein, ... The SP110 gene provides instructions for making a protein called SP110 nuclear body protein, which is a component of cellular ... SP110 nuclear body protein is active primarily in immune system cells called leukocytes and in the spleen. It likely helps ...
... anticarbamylated protein antibodies, and antiacetylated protein antibodies) have different characteristics, diagnostic/ ... These autoantibodies (anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs), rheumatoid factors (RF), anticollagen type II ... circulating serum proteins including antibodies and acute phase proteins; nuclear components; enzymes (calpain inhibitor ... Citrullinated and carbamylated proteins are recognized by anticitrullinated protein antibodies and anticarbamylated protein ...
Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Submitted by admin_notgoodus... ... Read more about Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences ... Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Science 463:1079-1083. ... Tan, S.S.H., P.M.L. Ng, B. Ho, J.L. Ding 2005 The antimicrobial properties of C-reactive protein (CRP). Innate Immunity 11: 249 ...
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... activator protein-1; nuclear factor-kappaB; mitogen-activated protein kinase; neoplastic transformation; Fragaria ananassa Duch ... Inhibitory effect on activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and cell transformation by extracts of strawberries (Fragaria ... induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were studied. The inhibitory effects of strawberry ...
Linear Arrays of Nuclear Envelope Proteins Harness Retrograde Actin Flow for Nuclear Movement . Science 329(5994):956-959. ... Nuclear markers confirm taxonomic status and relationships among highly endangered and closely related right whale species. ... Evolutionary relationships of marine turtles: A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes . Molecular ... A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics ...
  • Edinburgh-led study identifies a novel function for the cell adhesion protein Mena at the nuclear membrane, where it regulates actin-nuclear lamina associations, nuclear architecture, chromatin repositioning and gene expression. (
  • Colocalisation of Mena with nesprin-2 (left) and model of the proposed role for Mena at the nuclear membrane (right) [for details see Nat. (
  • Cell adhesion complexes - protein complexes that form with adhesion receptors in the cell membrane and mediate interactions between neighbouring cells or with molecules in the surrounding extracellular environment - and the cytoskeleton, a structure that helps cells maintain their shape and internal organisation, have well established functions as sensors of mechanical forces and key mediators of mechanotransduction. (
  • They employed cutting-edge technologies, including quantitative proteomics, high- and super-resolution cell imaging and DNA sequencing, to show that a protein called Mena, which is usually found at sites of cell adhesion near the plasma membrane, has a role in transmitting force from the cytoskeleton into the nucleus of cells. (
  • Due to the substantial progress in elucidation of the structure of the nuclear membrane and pore complex, recently novel autoantigens localised within the nucleus and the nuclear envelope have been investigated in more detail. (
  • 2 ] differentiate the nuclear envelope (NE) into five regions, the outer nuclear membrane (ONM), an inter membrane space, the inner nuclear membrane (INM), the underlying nuclear lamina and the nuclear pore complex (NPC). (
  • In X-linked EDMD, immunohistochemical staining using an antiemerin antibody shows the absence of normal staining of the inner nuclear membrane in 95% of patients (see image below). (
  • Multiple and surprising new functions for emerin, a nuclear membrane protein. (
  • Efficient plant male fertility depends on vegetative nuclear movement mediated by two families of plant outer nuclear membrane proteins. (
  • Given the role of nuclear pore complex proteins in general nucleocytoplasmic transport, our study revealed a novel role of Nup210 in promoting metastasis. (
  • This suggests that the C9ORF72 mutation may cause disease by disrupting this process, called nuclear or nucleocytoplasmic transport. (
  • The screen identified numerous genes that encode components of the nuclear pore and the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery, providing strong evidence for this pathway as the mechanism of neurodegeneration. (
  • NTF2 is a cytosolic proteins responsible for nuclear import of Ran a small Ras-like GTPase involved in a number of critical cellular processes including cell cycle regulation chromatin corporation during mitosis reformation of the nuclear envelope following mitosis and controlling the directionality of nucleocytoplasmic transport. (
  • In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin stimulates the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation (at Ser 552 ) of β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that acts as a transcriptional coregulator in the nucleus. (
  • The purpose of this study was to identify β-catenin-interacting proteins that might be involved in transcriptional regulation in rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, using experimental and computational approaches. (
  • In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin stimulates the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation (at Ser552) of β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that acts as a transcriptional coregulator in the nucleus. (
  • We previously reported (K. is normally a virus-encoded nuclear proteins that functions being a transcriptional transactivator from the individual immunodeficiency pathogen type CB7630 1 (HIV-1) CB7630 longer terminal do it again (LTR). (
  • Rabbit anti-HMGB1 antibodies gave rise to cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, staining of HEp-2 cells. (
  • Comprehensive Identification of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic TNRC6A-Associating Proteins. (
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease which is classically characterised by a variety of autoantibodies to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), other nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens. (
  • In both vegetative and reproductive organs, FIE formed cytoplasmic high-molecular-mass complexes, in parallel to the nuclear PRC2 complexes. (
  • This screen identified nuclear pore complex protein, Nup210 as a potential metastatic susceptibility gene. (
  • The most common mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the ATRX protein. (
  • Other mutations insert or delete genetic material in the ATRX gene or alter how the gene's instructions are used to make the protein. (
  • Mutations may destabilize the ATRX protein or affect its interactions with other proteins. (
  • Argentaro A, Yang JC, Chapman L, Kowalczyk MS, Gibbons RJ, Higgs DR, Neuhaus D, Rhodes D. Structural consequences of disease-causing mutations in the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain of the chromatin-associated protein ATRX. (
  • Four and a half LIM protein 1 gene mutations cause four distinct human myopathies: a comprehensive review of the clinical, histological and pathological features. (
  • 2002). These disorders and their relationship to LMNA mutations have been reviewed recently {Burke and Stewart (2002)}, and Hutchinson (2002) has reviewed the function of lamins in the nuclear envelope. (
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Lamin A is a major component of the nuclear envelope, so mutations in this gene are likely to have a broad impact on both nuclear structure and function. (
  • Examples of research topics appropriate for this Program Announcement include, but are not limited to, proposals to: o Characterize changes in nuclear structure and/or post-translational processing of nuclear envelope proteins caused by mutations in the LMNA gene. (
  • Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules can be controlled by protein that have the capability to move openly through the pore from the NPC. (
  • For quite a while, researchers have known that mechanical forces are important for regulation of multiple cellular processes, including genome organisation and gene expression in the cell nucleus, but the mechanisms involved and the links between cell adhesion complexes, cytoskeletal proteins and nuclear functions remain poorly understood. (
  • They discovered that Mena interacts with the nuclear envelope protein nesprin-2 and that it regulates the morphology of the nucleus, the organisation of chromatin and gene expression. (
  • The non-histone nuclear protein high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is typically associated with nucleosomes, but may shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and under some conditions also be released extracellularly and participate in systemic inflammation. (
  • RanGAP is important for transporting material between the cell's gel-like interior (cytoplasm) and the nucleus though a structure called the nuclear pore. (
  • Protein that are destined towards the nucleus have a very nuclear localization sign (NLS) and protein targeted for the cytoplasm include a nuclear export sign (NES). (
  • Proteins export happens by an identical mechanism needing the recognition from the NES including cargo from the exportin such as GSK256066 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid for example Crm1 in the nucleus. (
  • Nuclear lamin A/C R482Q mutation in canadian kindreds with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy. (
  • 2002. Homozygous defects in LMNA, encoding lamin A/C nuclear envelope proteins, cause autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy in human (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder type 2) and mouse. (
  • Thus, antibodies against double-stranded (ds) DNA, histones and DNA-histone complexes typically produce a homogeneous nuclear staining pattern on non-dividing cells, and staining of the condensed chromatin-associated antigens in mitotic cells. (
  • This attribute is useful for assigning protein-ligand complexes when the assignments of the unliganded protein are known. (
  • PcGs form nuclear multi-subunit Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs). (
  • The nuclear envelope can be perforated with huge proteinaceous assemblies referred to as nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). (
  • Nesprin-1 and -2 are involved in the pathogenesis of Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and are critical for nuclear envelope integrity. (
  • o Characterize age-related changes in lamins and the nuclear envelope, and determine whether these play any role in development of adverse phenotypes during normal aging. (
  • 2002. Life at the edge: The nuclear envelope and human disease. (
  • This segregation needs that exchange of substances between your two compartments occurs over the dual lipid bilayer from the nuclear envelope for both procedures to operate optimally. (
  • Recently several novel autoantibodies against a variety of specific nuclear pore proteins have been described, including the nucleoporin p62. (
  • It really is a 95- to 105-kDa proteins that binds DNA through C-terminal zinc finger motifs (59, 60). (
  • Although the specific function of the ATRX protein is unknown, studies suggest that it helps regulate the activity (expression) of other genes through a process known as chromatin remodeling. (
  • The ATRX protein appears to regulate the expression of two genes, HBA1 and HBA2 , that are necessary for the production of hemoglobin. (
  • Other genes regulated by the ATRX protein have not been identified. (
  • Researchers believe that the RAD21 protein, as a structural component of the cohesin complex, also plays important roles in stabilizing cells' genetic information, repairing damaged DNA, and regulating the activity of certain genes that are essential for normal development. (
  • A defective or missing RAD21 protein likely alters the activity of the cohesin complex, impairing its ability to regulate genes that are critical for normal development. (
  • This work establishes a connection between the adhesome component Mena and the LINC complex, through which Mena regulates actin-nuclear lamina interactions, nuclear architecture and chromatin organisation at the nuclear periphery, fine-tuning gene expression. (
  • Electron microscopy of patients with EMD1 and EMD2 can show irregularly thickened nuclear lamina, rearranged heterochromatin, chromatin condensation and decondensation, focal chromatin loss or extrusion into the sarcoplasm, nuclear disintegration/fragmentation and tubulofilamentous inclusions within the nuclear matrix. (
  • Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein that packages DNA into chromosomes. (
  • Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved chromatin modifiers that regulate developmental pathways in plants. (
  • The cytosolic accumulation of PRC2 components in plants supports the model that PcGs have alternative non-nuclear functions that go beyond chromatin methylation. (
  • We used a standard chromatin immunoprecipitation procedure coupled to mass spectrometry (ChIP-MS) in a nuclear fraction isolated from rat IMCD suspensions. (
  • Product is produced in the process of multi-stage cross-flow microfiltration which allows the best fractions of proteins to be obtained, while also retaining their biological properties. (
  • Recently, nuclear localization of tTG has been reported indicating the potential of active nuclear transport. (
  • Control of the localization and function of a miRNA silencing component TNRC6A by Argonaute protein. (
  • Proteins 49 to 58 comprise a basic-charged area essential for nuclear localization and binding towards the HIV head RNA, TAR (14, 23, 41, 93). (
  • FA WELLNESS WHEY PROTEIN protein supplement is a product in the form of an easily dissolvable powder, which allows you to enrich your daily diet with high-quality whey protein. (
  • The nutrient uses one of the most popular forms of whey protein, which is whey protein concentrate (WPC). (
  • Protein product that provides the purest whey protein isolate. (
  • Nuclear Nutrition Atomic Whey Protein. (
  • o Determine how changes in the nuclear interactions of the lamins contribute to cardiovascular disease. (
  • o Determine the cell-specific functions of the lamins in cells of the cardiovascular system, such as endothelial cells and cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells, and the molecular mechanisms through which these proteins control and regulate cellular function. (
  • In this study we use the yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation to show that tTG interacts with the nuclear transport protein importin-alpha3. (
  • Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that Nup210 interacts with histone H3 variants associated at the nuclear periphery. (
  • The proteins components composed of the NPC participate in several proteins known as nucleoporins (Nups). (
  • Depending on the many different nuclear target antigens for ANA, different IF-staining patterns can be seen. (
  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) serves as the sole gate between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm and contains several different nuclear pore proteins such as nucleoporin p62. (
  • Taken together, these studies don't prove whether abnormal RNA-protein binding, toxic protein products, or both are responsible for diseases caused by these G 4 C 2 repeats. (
  • Protein identification is acquired by peptide fingerprinting or microsequencing. (
  • Since most anticancer drugs target the nuclei of the cancer cells, differential expression of nuclear proteins may play crucial roles as cancer cells acquire drug resistance. (
  • Neurons (red), created from ALS patients bearing the C9ORF72 expansion, show clumps of the RanGAP protein (yellow) on their nuclei (white). (
  • Analysing endogenous FIE and transgenic gFIE-green fluorescent protein fusion protein (gFIE-GFP) showed that FIE accumulates in the nuclei of every cell type examined. (
  • The RAD21 protein is part of a protein group called the cohesin complex that holds the sister chromatids together. (
  • Moreover increased phosphorylation of a phospho-tyrosine protein and several phospho-threonine proteins was observed in polysorbitan monolaurate treated cells. (
  • Some of the proteins whose abundances are altered have also been reported to play important roles in resisting genotoxic stress in other normal and cancer cells. (
  • Since TIF-1 proteins have significant roles in oncogenesis, these antibodies may be produced during misdirected antitumor immunity. (
  • Thus I have carried out a comparative proteomics research project to study differential expression of nuclear proteins in drug resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (
  • One hundred and twenty proteins have been identified from the nuclear protein mixture of MCF-7 cells, from which more than 90% are classically categorized as nuclear proteins. (
  • In contrast, ANA specific for extrachromosomal antigens can be identified as a speckled nuclear staining pattern in non-dividing cells, and diffuse extra-chromosomal staining of dividing cells. (
  • Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. (
  • The overly long RNA might alter the function of RNA-binding proteins or cause cells to produce toxic proteins. (
  • of Ran and the nuclear export processes are restored in polysorbitan monolaurate treated cells overproducing NTF2. (
  • In these cases, the entire gene is missing from one copy of the chromosome in each cell, so cells produce a reduced amount of RAD21 protein. (
  • As a result of this deletion, affected individuals are missing one copy of the RAD21 gene in each cell, so cells produce a reduced amount of RAD21 protein. (
  • Researchers from two independent research teams have discovered how the mislocalization of a protein, known as TDP-43, alters the genetic instructions for UNC13A, providing a possible therapeutic target that could also have implications in treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and other forms of dementia. (
  • Interaction of tissue transglutaminase with nuclear transport protein importin-alpha3. (
  • Alteration of mismatch repair system protein expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHQ) in tumoural tissue is a useful technique for Lynch Syndrome (LS) screening . (
  • He studies the role of tissue-specific RNA binding proteins in the function and development of tissue. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Mouse Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2 (NFE2L2) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2 (NFE2L2) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Rat Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2 (NFE2L2) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • How aberrant nuclear structure and function lead to HGS and the other various disorders affecting such a variety of tissues is currently unknown. (
  • In other cases, the condition is caused by variants within the RAD21 gene that impair or eliminate the function of the RAD21 protein. (
  • This decrease was coincidental with a significant reduction of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity. (
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2 Like Protein 2 from Mouse in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (
  • Insights from NMR Spectroscopy into the Conformational Properties of Man-9 and Its Recognition by Two HIV Binding Proteins. (
  • FA NUTRITION BILLIONAIRE PROTEIN BAR is an excellent choice for physically active people who care about a varied diet. (
  • Experiments in yeast demonstrated toxic protein effects. (
  • These changes prevent the ATRX protein from effectively regulating gene expression. (
  • Prevalence of altered mismatch repair protein nuclear expression detected by immunohistochemistry on adenomas with high-grade dysplasia and features associated with this risk in a population-based study]. (
  • A third study, published in Nature Neuroscience by a team led by Stanford University's Dr. Aaron Gitler, focused on the potential toxic effects of proteins produced by the expanded G 4 C 2 repeats. (
  • Thus, this study not only reveals an important nuclear migration mechanism in plant fertilization but also, suggests that similar nuclear migration machinery is conserved between plants and animals. (
  • Increasing evidence suggests that nuclear migration is important for eukaryotic development. (
  • Although nuclear migration is conserved in plants, its importance for plant development has not yet been established. (
  • The most extraordinary plant nuclear migration events involve plant fertilization, which is starkly different from that of animals. (
  • Here, we report that WPP domain-interacting proteins (WIPs) and their binding partners the WPP domain-interacting tail-anchored proteins (WITs) are essential for pollen nuclear migration. (
  • KASH proteins are key players in animal nuclear migration. (
  • These data suggest that importin-alpha3 could mediate active nuclear transport of tTG which may be important for the regulation of critical cellular processes. (
  • Other proteins involved in nuclear transport were also stuck outside. (
  • MCF-7 cell lines resistant to etoposide and mitoxantrone are more similar in protein abundance changes. (
  • Using electron microscopy we demonstrate that nuclear expression of tTG in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line is induced by retinoic acid (RA). (
  • The percentage of pathologic nuclear expression found in IHQ is high. (
  • A shortage of RAD21 protein may contribute to intellectual disability, but the mechanism is unclear. (