DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaGene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Elymus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wild rye is used with some other grasses.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Nuclear Respiratory Factors: A family of transcription factors that control expression of a variety of nuclear GENES encoding proteins that function in the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of the MITOCHONDRIA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Genes, Chloroplast: Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Pontederiaceae: A plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Most species are perennials, native primarily to tropical America. They have creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots, and leaves in clusters at the base of the plant or borne on branched stems. The fruit is a capsule containing many seeds, or a one-seeded winged structure.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.NF-E2-Related Factor 1: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is involved in regulating inflammatory responses, MORPHOGENESIS, and HEME biosynthesis.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Leigh Disease: A group of metabolic disorders primarily of infancy characterized by the subacute onset of psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, ataxia, weakness, vision loss, eye movement abnormalities, seizures, dysphagia, and lactic acidosis. Pathological features include spongy degeneration of the neuropile of the basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord. Patterns of inheritance include X-linked recessive, autosomal recessive, and mitochondrial. Leigh disease has been associated with mutations in genes for the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX; CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE; ATP synthase subunit 6; and subunits of mitochondrial complex I. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p850).Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies: A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by alterations of mitochondrial metabolism that result in muscle and nervous system dysfunction. These are often multisystemic and vary considerably in age at onset (usually in the first or second decade of life), distribution of affected muscles, severity, and course. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp984-5)Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1: A transcription factor that controls the expression of variety of proteins including CYTOCHROME C and 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHETASE. It plays an important role in maintenance of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of MITOCHONDRIA.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Spisula: A genus of surf clams in the family Mactridae, class BIVALVIA. They are often used in EMBRYOLOGY research.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Tetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cypriniformes: An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).Euglena gracilis: A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Ophthalmoplegia, Chronic Progressive External: A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Rutamycin: A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Cytochrome b6f Complex: A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Euglena: A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.MERRF Syndrome: A mitochondrial encephalomyopathy characterized clinically by a mixed seizure disorder, myoclonus, progressive ataxia, spasticity, and a mild myopathy. Dysarthria, optic atrophy, growth retardation, deafness, and dementia may also occur. This condition tends to present in childhood and to be transmitted via maternal lineage. Muscle biopsies reveal ragged-red fibers and respiratory chain enzymatic defects. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p986)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Kluyveromyces: An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.PyridazinesDNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Aspartate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
This gene is the responsible for this congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Its locus - place of the mutation - is 1q21, which ... They play an important role in the organization of chromatin and nuclear membrane. Unlike most muscular dystrophies, lamin A/C ... This gene is responsible for synthesizing proteins lamin A and C. These are structural proteins of intermediate filaments that ... It is believed that the cure can be found by fixing the defective genes that cause it. There is an open prognosis because this ...
2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 19 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • ... Stubbs L, Carver E, Ashworth L, Lopez-Molina L (Jan 1996). "Location of the DBP transcription factor gene in human and mouse". ...
Humans generally have two active copies of autosomal genes (ignore X chromosome genes and other special cases for the moment), ... The term "aneuploidy" refers to an abnormal numbers of nuclear chromosomes; extra-nuclear genomes are not counted. It's ... If both alleles at a gene (or locus) on the homologous chromosomes are the same, they and the organism are homozygous with ... Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes which contain the same genes in the same order along their chromosomal arms.. The ...
Richard, P.; Manley, J. L. (1 June 2009). "Transcription termination by nuclear RNA polymerases". Genes & Development. 23 (11 ... In vertebrates, the majority of gene promoters contain a CpG island with numerous CpG sites. When many of a gene's promoter CpG ... The latter (heterochromatin) includes gene-poor regions such as telomeres and centromeres but also regions with normal gene ... by the nuclear membrane. This allows for the temporal regulation of gene expression through the sequestration of the RNA in the ...
... (LXR-alpha) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1H3 gene (nuclear receptor ... "Entrez Gene: nuclear receptor subfamily 1". Gupta DS, Kaul D, Kanwar AJ, Parsad D (Jan 2010). "Psoriasis: crucial role of LXR- ... NR1H3 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. NR1H3 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. This article ... alpha RNomics". Genes and Immunity. 11 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1038/gene.2009.63. PMID 19798078. Brendel C, Gelman L, Auwerx J (Jun ...
2002). "Human homologue of a gene mutated in the slow Wallerian degeneration (C57BL/Wld(s)) mouse". Gene. 284 (1-2): 23-9. doi: ... A key nuclear enzyme for NAD homeostasis". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (10): 8524-30. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111589200. PMID 11751893.. ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 1 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMNAT1 gene.[5][6][7] It is a ...
Johnson, Kevin P.; Clayton, Dale H. (2000). "Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes Contain Similar Phylogenetic. Signal for Pigeons ... Pereira, S. L.; Johnson, K. P.; Clayton, D. H.; Baker, A. J. (2007). "Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences support a ...
RNA, U2 small nuclear, also known as RNU2, is a human gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: RNU2 RNA, U2 small nuclear ... Van Arsdell SW, Weiner AM (1984). "Human genes for U2 small nuclear RNA are tandemly repeated". Mol. Cell. Biol. 4 (3): 492-9. ... 1985). "Nuclease S1-sensitive sites in multigene families: human U2 small nuclear RNA genes". EMBO J. 4 (7): 1839-45. PMC ... 1984). "Genes and pseudogenes for human U2 RNA. Implications for the mechanism of pseudogene formation". J. Mol. Biol. 179 (2 ...
Mutations in lamin genes can result in laminopathies, some of which are potentially lethal disorders. Nuclear lamins were first ... Nuclear lamins interact with membrane-associated proteins to form the nuclear lamina on the interior of the nuclear envelope. ... Intermediate filament Nuclear lamina Laminopathies Inner nuclear membrane proteins Dechat, Thomas; Adam, Stephen A.; Taimen, ... Later in 1978, immunolabeling techniques revealed that lamins are localized at the nuclear envelope under the inner nuclear ...
... of the nuclear envelope. It is encoded by the LEMD3 gene and was first identified after it was isolated from the serum of a ... Inner nuclear membrane proteins Worman, H. J.; Fong, L. G.; Muchir, A.; Young, S. G. (2009). "Laminopathies and the long ... LEM domain-containing protein 3 (LEMD3), also known as MAN1, is an integral protein in the inner nuclear membrane (INM) ... LEMD3 seems to play an important role in regulating the expression of several fundamental genes. LEMD3 has been associated with ...
"Entrez Gene: TMPO thymopoietin". Holmer L, Worman HJ (Nov 2001). "Inner nuclear membrane proteins: functions and targeting". ... "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... The human TMPO gene maps to chromosome band 12q22 and consists of eight exons. TMPO alpha is present diffusely expressed with ...
Splicing factor 3B subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SF3B2 gene. This gene encodes subunit 2 of the ... Agell N, Aligué R, Alemany V, Castro A, Jaime M, Pujol MJ, Rius E, Serratosa J, Taulés M, Bachs O (1998). "New nuclear ... Genes & Development. 10 (2): 233-43. doi:10.1101/gad.10.2.233. PMID 8566756. "Entrez Gene: SF3B2 splicing factor 3b, subunit 2 ... Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex ...
Gene. 491 (2): 135-41. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2011.10.006. PMID 22020225. SMN protein (spinal muscular atrophy) at the US National ... SMN is found in the cytoplasm of all animal cells and also in the nuclear gems. It functions in transcriptional regulation, ... "Entrez Gene: SMN1 survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric". Gubitz AK, Feng W, Dreyfuss G (May 2004). "The SMN complex". ... Survival of motor neuron or survival motor neuron (SMN) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes. ...
Cyclin-T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNT2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... Nguyen VT, Kiss T, Michels AA, Bensaude O (2001). "7SK small nuclear RNA binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK9/cyclin T ... "Entrez Gene: CCNT2 cyclin T2". Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A (Jun 2002). "Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9 ... Herrmann CH, Mancini MA (2001). "The Cdk9 and cyclin T subunits of TAK/P-TEFb localize to splicing factor-rich nuclear speckle ...
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (December 1998). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted ... Mutations of the gene can cause the gene to produce nonfunctional ZEB2 proteins or inactivate the function gene as a whole. ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... Mutations in the ZEB2 gene are associated with the Mowat-Wilson syndrome. This disease exhibits mutations and even complete ...
... by plant resistance genes (R-genes), often described as a gene-for-gene relationship. This recognition may occur directly or ... Nuclear genome[edit]. The small size of its genome, and the fact that it is diploid, makes Arabidopsis thaliana useful for ... class B genes (which affect petals and stamens), and class C genes (which affect stamens and carpels). These genes code for ... The PEN genes were later mapped to identify the genes responsible for nonhost resistance to B. graminis. ...
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (1999). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 5 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Entrez Gene: RNF14 ring finger protein 14".. *^ Miyamoto H, Rahman M, Takatera H, Kang HY, Yeh S, Chang HC, Nishimura K, ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF14 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNF14 gene.[5][6][7] ...
Calibration of the Mutational Clock for Nuclear Genes". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (24): 14745-52. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... truncation of the gene, and have lost the β-globin gene entirely. Zhao et al. propose that an ancestral channichthyid fish lost ... "Comparative population genetics of seven notothenioid fish species reveals high levels of gene flow along ocean currents in the ... Globin Gene of Antarctic Teleosts and Its Remnants in the Hemoglobinless Icefishes. ...
"Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted proteins". Nat Biotechnol. 16 (13): 1338-42. doi:10.1038/4315. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: LDB2 LIM domain binding 2". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ... Retaux S, Rogard M, Bach I, Failli V, Besson MJ (Feb 1999). "Lhx9: a novel LIM-homeodomain gene expressed in the developing ... LIM domain-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LDB2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... is one of the seven members of the Hes gene family (HES1-7). Hes genes code nuclear proteins that suppress transcription. ... "Entrez Gene: HES1 hairy and enhancer of split 1, (Drosophila)". Kageyama R, Ohtsuka T, Kobayashi T (2007). "The Hes gene family ... Indeed, if the expression of Hes1, Hes3, and Hes5 genes is inhibited, the expression of proneural genes increases, and while ... Contrariwise, if these HES genes are overexpressed, neurogenesis is inhibited. Thus HES1 genes are only involved in maintaining ...
In the mouse and human the USP4 protein is encoded by a gene containing 22 exons. This protein is a member of cysteine ... Gupta K, Chevrette M, Gray DA (1994). "The Unp proto-oncogene encodes a nuclear protein". Oncogene. 9 (6): 1729-31. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: USP4 ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 (proto-oncogene)". Gilchrist CA, Gray DA, Baker RT (December 1997). "A ... Gupta K, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Gray DA (August 1993). "Unp, a mouse gene related to the tre oncogene". Oncogene ...
"A sequence motif conserved in diverse nuclear proteins identifies a protein interaction domain utilised for nuclear targeting ... Protein IWS1 homolog also known as interacts with Spt6 (IWS1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IWS1 gene. IWS1 an ... "Entrez Gene: IWS1 IWS1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)". Krogan NJ, Kim M, Ahn SH, Zhong G, Kobor MS, Cagney G, Emili A, Shilatifard A ... Genes & Development. 22 (24): 3422-34. doi:10.1101/gad.1720008. PMC 2607075 . PMID 19141475. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, ...
"Entrez Gene: MRPS12 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12". Shah ZH, O'Dell KM, Miller SC, et al. (1998). "Metazoan nuclear genes ... The gene for mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase is located upstream and adjacent to this gene, and both genes are possible ... Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ...
Ueki N, Oda T, Kondo M, Yano K, Noguchi T, Muramatsu M (Dec 1998). "Selection system for genes encoding nuclear-targeted ... "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... "Entrez Gene: AKAP8L A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8-like". Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Aug 2001). "Mapping the ... A-kinase anchor protein 8-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP8L gene. AKAP8L has been shown to interact ...
All peroxisomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes. To date there are two types of known Peroxisome Targeting Signals (PTS ... They pass through the nuclear envelope via nuclear pores. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as cytosolic precursors ... Seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (which represent about 5% of the genes in humans) mostly do not have an amino- ...
This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors ... 2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ... consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Early auxin-induced genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins. S Abel, P W Oeller, and A Theologis ... The plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA) transcriptionally activates gene expression in plants. Some of the genes whose ... Based on these data, we suggest that plant tissues express short-lived nuclear proteins as a primary response to IAA. We ... that contain putative nuclear localization signals that direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein into the nucleus. Pulse- ...
... corniche information info at corniche.com Tue Apr 21 23:06:07 EST 1998 *Previous message: Test ... Do you know any nuclear reporter gene I can use? Thank you very much! Zhe Han zhan at umich.edu ... I am studying cis-regulation of a gene encoding nuclear protein. I am using beta-gal to show the expression pattern of this ... gene. But the result is not so good because beta-gal is expressed in cytoplasm, not nuclearly. ...
Effects of TCDD on the expression of nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes.. Forgacs AL1, Burgoon LD, Lynn SG, LaPres JJ, ... was used to evaluate the expression of 90 nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins involved in electron transport, ... Dose response evaluation of genes at 24 hrs by manual QRTPCR. The x-axis indicates the dose of TCDD, the y-axis represents the ... Evaluation of Ndufa11, an ETC complex I gene. HTP-QRTPCR temporal expression profile (A) and dose-response (B) evaluation at 24 ...
Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA). * Transcriptomine: regulation of the NFIC gene by nuclear receptor signaling pathways ... NFIC nuclear factor I C [Homo sapiens] NFIC nuclear factor I C [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:4782 ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... nuclear factor I Cprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:7786 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000141905 MIM:600729 Gene type. ...
Gene View The Gene Browser allows to navigate the human genome and investigate the relationship between PDB entries and genes. ... Number of PDB entities (unique chains) for this gene: 17 View list of all current human gene IDs ... Gene. This track represents the gene-structure on the genome. White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: ... NCOR2 Gene Structure. Chromosome: chr12 Genbank ID: NM_006312 Orientation: - Length coding sequence : 7542 nucleotides. Region ...
... by Dr. Enozia Vakil on June 8, 2013 at 9:07 PM Genetics & Stem Cells ... they linked together the TRF1 gene and the gene coding for a green fluorescent protein and created a lineage of mice carrying ... this week an article in Nature Communications on the discovery of a new gene called TRF1 that is essential for nuclear ...
... Laura Sánchez‐Caballero, Radboud University Medical Center ... Since then, a big effort has been put into deciphering underlying mutations in nuclear genes that directly or indirectly affect ... Bourgeron T (1995) Mutation of a nuclear succinate dehydrogenase gene results in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. ... Keywords: mitochondria; respiratory chain; nuclear gene defects; human; oxidative phosphorylation; mitochondrial disease ...
... many mitochondrial syndromes are due to abnormalities in nuclear genes related to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ... many mitochondrial syndromes are due to abnormalities in nuclear genes related to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Nuclear ... Mitochondrial Disorders: Nuclear Gene Mutations. Daniele Ghezzi, The Foundation "Carlo Besta" Institute of Neurology, Milan, ... Because of its dual genetic control, OXPHOS disorders can be due to mutations in mtDNA or nuclear DNA genes. ...
Gene View The Gene Browser allows to navigate the human genome and investigate the relationship between PDB entries and genes. ... Number of PDB entities (unique chains) for this gene: no matching PDB entities View list of all current human gene IDs ... Gene. This track represents the gene-structure on the genome. White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: ... MNS1 Gene Structure. Chromosome: chr15 Genbank ID: NM_018365 Orientation: - Length coding sequence : 1485 nucleotides. Region. ...
The Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression Section seeks to understand how higher-order chromatin structure influences gene ... A basic understanding of how DNA organization affects how genes are turned on and off will help us detect alterations in the ... It will also help us to better develop gene-specific treatments to cure disease. ...
VIPP1, a nuclear gene of Arabidopsis thaliana essential for thylakoid membrane formation. Daniela Kroll, Karin Meierhoff, ... VIPP1, a nuclear gene of Arabidopsis thaliana essential for thylakoid membrane formation ... VIPP1, a nuclear gene of Arabidopsis thaliana essential for thylakoid membrane formation ... VIPP1, a nuclear gene of Arabidopsis thaliana essential for thylakoid membrane formation ...
Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports. ... project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ...
"Nuclear factor I regulates brain fatty acid-binding protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression in malignant ... "Nuclear factor I regulates brain fatty acid-binding protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression in malignant ... "Nuclear factor I regulates brain fatty acid-binding protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression in malignant ... "Nuclear factor I regulates brain fatty acid-binding protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression in malignant ...
Disruption of either gene caused a reduction in nuclear size and altered nuclear morphology. Moreover, combining linc1 and ... LITTLE NUCLEI Genes Affecting Nuclear Morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana. Travis A. Dittmer, Nicola J. Stacey, Keiko Sugimoto- ... LITTLE NUCLEI Genes Affecting Nuclear Morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana. Travis A. Dittmer, Nicola J. Stacey, Keiko Sugimoto- ... nuclear volume increases with the insertion of nuclear pore complexes into an expanding nuclear envelope. We propose that it is ...
... nuclear sex-ratio genes, or nuclear sex-determining genes (Werren and Beukeboom 1998). Cytoplasmic sex factors are expressed ... The body-color genes follow Mendelian inheritance (Yusa 2004a), which indicates that the genes are not linked with sex genes. ... Nuclear sex-ratio genes affect offspring sex ratios with little variance if not interacting with other genes (Fisher 1930; V ... Since the yellow gene (a) is recessive to the brown gene (A), the brown male was supposed to have the Aa genotype (Yusa 2004a ...
Keywords: 3D printing, nuclear waste, gene expression, coolants, AI, retail industry ... gene expression, and nuclear waste treatment. The TOE also focuses on a cooling system for high-end computing systems, and ... Advancements in 3D Printing, Gene Expression, Coolants, Nuclear Waste Treatment, and Online Retail Share this: ... This edition of the Inside R&D TOE profiles innovations in 3D Printing, gene expression, and nuclear waste treatment. The TOE ...
A nuclear gene is a gene located in the cell nucleus of a eukaryote. The term is used to distinguish nuclear genes from the ... The term "gene" most often refers to nuclear genes. The distinct genomes of eukaryotes are thought to have arisen through ... The nuclear genes represent the genome of the original host cell, while both of these organelles still retain a small genome, ... The majority of the proteins of a cell are the product of messenger RNA transcribed from nuclear genes, including most of the ...
Component of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complexes which provide the substrate for the processing ... Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F, N-terminally processedAdd BLAST. 414. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ... VEGA Gene Model , MGI Sequence Detail. 9539. C57BL/6J. ± kb. transcript. OTTMUST00000012419. VEGA , MGI Sequence Detail. 2126. ... GXDs primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue ... J:232145 Yazdani N, et al., Hnrnph1 Is A Quantitative Trait Gene for Methamphetamine Sensitivity. PLoS Genet. 2015 Dec;11(12): ...
on Source of Nuclear Localization Signal for lac-Z gene.. Obaid Y. Khan 9321531k at clinmed.gla.ac.uk Fri Dec 22 11:29:56 EST ... I am looking for NLS for lac-Z gene. I believe the NLS is now available commercially, but I have looked up some common ...
Chromatin Structure and Gene Regulation will be held in Beaver Dam, WI. Apply today to reserve your spot. ... The 1972 Gordon Research Conference on Nuclear Proteins, ... Nuclear Proteins, Chromatin Structure and Gene Regulation. ...
We used three nuclear genes, comprising two noncontiguous fragments of elongation factor 1α (EF-1α 5′ and EF-1α 3′), fragments ... Sebastián Díaz, Omar Triana-Chávez, Andrés Gómez-Palacio, The nuclear elongation factor-1α gene: a promising marker for ... Phylogenetic analysis of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) based on DNA sequences from three nuclear genes, and ... and a region of the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (18S). We sampled sixty-four species of mealybug belonging to thirty-five ...
Nuclear gene targeting in Chlamydomonas as exemplified by disruption of the PHOT gene. Gene, 432(1-2), 91-6. [DOI: 10.1016/j. ... gene.2008.11.028]. Zorin B, Hegemann P, Sizova I (2005). Nuclear-gene targeting by using single-stranded DNA avoids ... News: Our Chlamy gene editing paper is online Our Publication "Targeting of Photoreceptor Genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ... Sizova I, Greiner A, Awasthi M, Kateriya S, & Hegemann P (2013). Nuclear gene targeting in Chlamydomonas using engineered zinc- ...
Methodology and Principal Findings (1) We generated phylogenetic trees using haplotype sequences of six low copy nuclear genes ... Incongruence of gene trees is observed and it is essential to unravel the processes that cause inconsistencies in order to ... We conclude that identifying hybridization as a frequent cause of incongruence among gene trees is critical to correctly infer ... Analysis of the remaining three genes supported the conclusions from the hybrid detection test. Conclusions We have identified ...
Gene Ontology-based functional analysis showed that 14 upregulated and 9 downregulated genes were associated with the ... Among these, six of the up- and down-regulated genes were associated with the extracellular exosome. These results suggest that ... In this study, we examined gene expression changes caused by HNRNPM knockdown, and investigated the up- and down-regulated ... Therefore, the identified genes may serve as noninvasive biomarkers for Glycer-AGEs-related NASH. ...
  • The Gene Browser allows to navigate the human genome and investigate the relationship between PDB entries and genes. (rcsb.org)
  • This track represents the gene-structure on the genome. (rcsb.org)
  • Identifying underlying mutations within the nuclear genome has been an arduous task until the widespread use of whole exome sequencing in recent years. (els.net)
  • The nuclear genes represent the genome of the original host cell, while both of these organelles still retain a small genome, although many of the genes of the organelles have moved to the nucleus during the course of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • As we discuss in this Review, new genome-wide techniques have now radically changed the way nuclear organization is analyzed. (biologists.org)
  • Nuclear organization, the physical structure of the genome within the nuclear space, has fascinated cellular and developmental biologists for the last 100 years. (biologists.org)
  • Historically, the nuclear periphery was known as a zone that harbors silenced regions of the genome and thus was believed to be an area of transcription repression. (rupress.org)
  • Methods for determining transcription rate of mRNA in eukaryotic cells using nuclear runoff transcription where labeled RNA molecules are hybridized against an array of at least 500 nucleic acid molecule probes representing at least part of the genome of the native eukaryotic organism to identify the quantity of nascent mRNA transcripts in said cells. (google.com)
  • Methods of constructing recombinant organisms with enhanced stability for mRNA expressed from a gene of interest comprise introducing into the genome of an organism a gene containing one or more sequence elements that confer structural stability on mRNA transcribed from said gene. (google.com)
  • This invention discloses and provides improvements in analyzing transcription of mRNA in eukaryotic cells using nuclear runoff transcription assays, including analysis of nuclear runoff transcription products by microarrays containing genes of interest, e.g. microarrays of nucleic acid molecules representing a genome of interest. (google.com)
  • An interesting feature of trypanosome genome organization involves genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III. (asm.org)
  • We describe a method to introduce site-specific mutations into the genome of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the tRNAPro genes was demonstrated in vivo and sequence analysis suggested amplification of the tRNAPro gene copy number through duplication of a gene cluster at the same locus of the bean genome. (deepdyve.com)
  • Sex-ratio genes are those expressed in the parent that affect offspring sex ratios, such as X chromosome drive genes in Drosophila spp. (genetics.org)
  • Our analysis of chromosomal aberrations in primary gastric cancers using comparative genomic hybridization has revealed novel, high and frequent copy number increases in the long arm of chromosome 20, indicating that this region contains novel amplified genes involved in gastric cancer progression. (nih.gov)
  • Motifs in two of the isolated genes suggest new links between cellular regulatory mechanisms (ubiquitination and phosphorylation) and mRNA splicing and chromosome structure/function. (biologists.org)
  • It connects the cytoplasm to the nucleoplasm, functions to maintain nuclear shape and architecture, and regulates chromosome dynamics during cell division. (biologists.org)
  • Data indicated that the chromosome parts that were eliminated, in H2, carry the isolating genes that impair productivity in hybrids of the two species, and suggested the occurrence of a nuclear/nuclear interaction. (scirp.org)
  • Stimulation of HLA-A expression by IFN-γ requires nuclear export of HLA-A mRNA by chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM-1). (jimmunol.org)
  • The relocalisation of some genes to positions outside chromosome territories, and the visible decondensation or unfolding of interphase chromatin, are two striking facets of nuclear reorganisation linked to gene activation that have been assumed to be related to each other. (biologists.org)
  • Chromatin structure and nuclear territories of the intergenic region between inactivated and escape genes on human inactive X chromosome. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, I clarified the structure and mechanism of chromatin boundary between the inactivated KLHL15 and an escape gene, EIF2S3 by using human-mouse hybrid cells carrying either active or inactive human X chromosome in mouse background. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Main findings are as follows;1) Three matrix attachment regions (MAR) located between KLHL15 and EIF2S3 in the inactive X-chromosome have been exclusively associated to nuclear matrix.2) Acetylation of histone H3K9 and methylation of histone H3K4 have been enriched at the escape gene, EIF2S3, and their flanking region. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 12 A mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency that has material basis in mutation in the ATP5A1 gene on chromosome 18q. (malacards.org)
  • Firre (functional intergenic repeating RNA element) is a long non-coding RNA located on chromosome X. It is retained in the nucleus via interaction with the nuclear matrix factor hnRNPU. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of differences between the IFN-γ response pathways of HLA-Ia and HLA-Ib genes could provide avenues for differential modulation of these important genes in the settings of immune recognition and tolerance in tumor immunology, transplantation and autoimmunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Any difference in the signal transduction pathways leading to differential expression of the HLA-E gene and class Ia genes would be a potential target for therapeutic intervention aimed at selective activation of one or the other. (jimmunol.org)
  • The resemblance of these complex phenotypic changes in cancer to those occurring transiently during the response to injury and infection suggests the hypothesis that oncogenic activation of injury response pathways and their target genes may be important in the pathogenesis of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The identification of potential NFI-A target genes in our study should help to elucidate NFI-A dependent transcriptional pathways and contribute to enhanced understanding of this period of brain formation, especially with regard to the function of NFI-A. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These pathways include the activation of the antioxidative transcription factor nuclear factor-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This thesis presents studies that characterize the common features of several nuclear encoded mitochondrial promoter genes and proposes the identity of factors regulating the transcription and responsible for coordinated, constitutive expression of diverse mammalian oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes.As a model, we chose to study the promoters of four nuclear-encoded OXPHOS genes, all which are constitutively expressed, but, in addition, exhibit different responses to hormone and/or growth-activation. (dissertations.se)
  • One mechanism causing persistent Nrf2 activation is the adaptation of epithelial cells to oxidative stress during chronic inflammation, e.g. colonocytes in inflammatory bowel diseases, and the multifunctional stress response gene immediate early response-3 ( IER3 ) has a crucial role under these conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 Acting mainly as a key regulator of the cellular response to oxidative and metabolic stress ( 5 ), Nrf2 induces the expression of a great number of antioxidative and phase II enzymes as well as a number of genes involved in cell growth and survival ( 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Previous studies identified a plant-specific insoluble nuclear protein in carrot ( Daucus carota ), called Nuclear Matrix Constituent Protein1 (NMCP1), which contains extensive coiled-coil domains and localizes to the nuclear periphery. (plantcell.org)
  • For example, the binding sites for the TFs Put3, Ste12, and Gcn4 are necessary and sufficient to promote positioning at the nuclear periphery and interchromosomal clustering. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery involves components of the nuclear basket and associated factors implicated in transcription and mRNA export, including SAGA and TREX-2 factors as well as Mex67. (rupress.org)
  • Using bioinformatic, biochemical, and cell biological approaches, we provide evidence that representative KASH candidates localize to the nuclear periphery and interact with ZmSUN2 in vivo . (biologists.org)
  • a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
  • Gene Ontology-based functional analysis showed that 14 upregulated and 9 downregulated genes were associated with the extracellular space, which may enable their detection using blood tests. (scirp.org)
  • Gene ontology (GO) enrichment testing was performed, and lipid-related genes were selected from the results. (mdpi.com)
  • Activation of the aptazyme, inserted in the 3′ UTR of the target gene, resulted in rapid self-cleavage and subsequent decay of the mRNA. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A rate of degradation for distinct mRNA in a eukaryotic cell rate is determined by comparing a steady state mRNA with nuclear runoff mRNA. (google.com)
  • Steady state to nuclear runoff ratios are used to determine gene and mRNA structure function relations that leads to gene expression and mRNA stability, predict structural determinants for mRNA stability and predict regulatory motifs for transcription rates. (google.com)
  • Steady state message levels reflect the balance of gene expression (as transcription rate) to mRNA decay rate. (google.com)
  • I have discovered and disclose the utility of nuclear runoff assays to generate labeled transcript mRNA hybridization probes for use with transcription profiling arrays. (google.com)
  • To gain further insight into these interactions and processes, we have undertaken a whole-family analysis of nuclear receptor mRNA spatial expression patterns over the entire process of embryogenesis, as well as the 3rd instar wandering larva stage, by using high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization. (g3journal.org)
  • Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that the mixtures had an additive effect on the mRNA levels of Cyp1b1 , a prototypical phase I detoxification gene, and an AHR-dependent synergistic effect on the corresponding levels of Nqo1 , a prototypical phase II gene. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To identify potential NFI-A target genes involved in the observed tissue malformations, we analyzed gene expression in brains from Nfia -/- and Nfia +/+ littermate mice at the mRNA level using oligonucleotide microarrays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, NFI-A mRNA is expressed in adult mouse brain [ 24 ], which suggests that the respective protein participates in the control of gene expression in the mature central nervous system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we examined gene expression changes caused by HNRNPM knockdown, and investigated the up- and down-regulated genes as noninvasive biomarker candidates for NASH. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we examined gene expression changes caused by HNRNPM knockdown, and investigated genes that may be further developed as noninvasive biomarkers for Glycer-AGEs-related NASH. (scirp.org)
  • Putative dioxin response elements were computationally found in the promoter regions of all 8 dose-responsive genes. (nih.gov)
  • Src1 spans the nuclear membrane twice and exposes its N and C domains with putative DNA-binding motifs to the nucleoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • Nuclear runoff assays measure transcription rates directly. (google.com)
  • iNOS gene transfer (confirmed by iNOS immunoblotting and activity assays) markedly reduced infarct size in wild-type mice but failed to do so in COX-2 −/− mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vivo expression tests of these genes and aminoacylation assays of the corresponding in vitro transcripts showed the presence of identity determinants in the anticodon of plant tRNAThr. (deepdyve.com)
  • Results obtained from studies of the nuclear delivery of pDNA coupled to experimentally defined nuclear localisation signal (NLS) peptides, in conjunction with detergent-permeabilised reconstitution cell assays, direct intracellular microinjection, cell-based transfection, and a limited number of in vivo experiments are discussed. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Previously, we showed the formation of intracellular Glycer-AGEs upon exposure of hepatocytes to fructose in vitro , and identified an RNA-binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (HNRNPM), as a target for glycation. (scirp.org)
  • Notably, these PHO genes are located in subtelomeric regions of chromatin and exhibit a perinuclear location in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • In vivo transfection of adenoviral manganese superoxide dismutase gene or lentiviral NFκB p65 shRNA into the nodose ganglia partially reversed CHF-reduced sodium channel expression and cell excitability in the baroreceptor neurons and improved CHF-blunted arterial baroreflex sensitivity. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional role of this enzyme in antioxidant mechanisms of lens in vivo by comparing lens changes of gene-knockout mice with age-matched control animals. (arvojournals.org)
  • In vivo lens changes were monitored by slit lamp biomicroscopy, and enucleated lenses were examined under a stereomicroscope in gene-knockout animals and age-matched control animals ranging in age from 3 weeks to 18 months. (arvojournals.org)
  • Stereomicroscopy of ex vivo lenses demonstrated a significant increase in opacification in gene-knockout mice relative to control animals of the same age. (arvojournals.org)
  • Moving forward, both hydrodynamic and intramuscular dosing would be used to test formulations for nuclear localizing ability in vivo. (uiowa.edu)
  • The complexity of achieving this goal is increased when considering an in vivo system for improving gene transfer efficiency. (uiowa.edu)
  • Histone acetylases, deacetylases, methyltransferases, and demethylases are some of the most important enzymes in the control of the target gene promoter context. (springer.com)
  • These modifications were separated at MAR.3) Knockdown of SATB1, which is the member of MAR associated protein complex, led to the disruption of MAR and nuclear matrix pairing and histone modification. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We show that two of these, NM23-H2, a ubiquitous c-Myc transcription-activating nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and the core histone H2B can both reconstitute pDNA nuclear import. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • This slow IDR permeability may be due to the effects of amino acid changes in polymerase- and lipid-associated genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Ten exons and flanking introns of the HNF-1α gene in these subjects were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the products. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 75 Mitochondrial complex V deficiency, nuclear 4: A mitochondrial disorder with heterogeneous clinical manifestations including dysmorphic features, psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, growth retardation, cardiomyopathy, enlarged liver, hypoplastic kidneys and elevated lactate levels in urine, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (malacards.org)
  • A supershift assay using an anti-PCF2 antibody showed the involvement of PCF2 in site IIa (site IIb) binding activities in rice nuclear extracts, particularly in meristematic tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • By subsequent fusion of the primary envelope with the outer nuclear membrane, capsids are released into the cytoplasm and gain their final envelope by budding into vesicles in the trans -Golgi area. (asm.org)
  • For these viruses, it was proposed that the primary envelope of perinuclear virions is lost by fusion with the outer nuclear membrane and that capsids are thereby released into the cytoplasm. (asm.org)