The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Two closely related polypeptides (molecular weight 7,000) isolated from the thymus gland. These hormones induce the differentiation of prothymocytes to thymocytes within the thymus. They also cause a delayed impairment of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and are therefore believed to be the agent responsible for myasthenia gravis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy without the involvement of nervous system. The disease is characterized by MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; CONTRACTURE of the elbows; ACHILLES TENDON; and posterior cervical muscles; with or without cardiac features. There are several INHERITANCE PATTERNS including X-linked (X CHROMOSOME), autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive gene mutations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of low molcular-weight proteins that contain PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN DOMAINS. Members of this family play a role in the formation of an insoluble cornified envelope beneath the plasma membrane of stratified squamous epithelial cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.

Freeze-fracture replication of organized tissue without cryoprotection. (1/2003)

Fresh pieces of rat liver and pancreas were rapidly frozen without prior chemical fixation or cryoprotection, and replicated folloing freeze-fracture. Replicas revealed small peripheral areas free of ice crystals or damage and, within such areas, general ultrastructural morphology was essentially similar to that seen in conventionally processed material. On fracture faces of plasma and nuclear membranes a population of less prominent particles in addition to conventional membrane-associated particles was seen, and smooth areas devoid of particles of any type were seen on some nuclear membranes. These smooth areas did not appear to be similar to smooth areas allegedly arising as artifacts of conventional processing. Tight junctions and gap junctions appeared as they do in cryoprotected specimens. The results provide a base-line for assessing the possible effects of processing steps or agents on the ultrastructure of organized tissues as revealed in freeze-fracture replicas.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone-stimulated steroidogenesis in mouse leydig tumor cells. Involvement of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. (2/2003)

Using a mouse Leydig tumor cell line, we explored the mechanisms involved in thyroid hormone-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein gene expression, and steroidogenesis. Triiodothyronine (T3) induced a approximately 3.6-fold increase in the steady-state level of StAR mRNA which paralleled with those of the acute steroid response ( approximately 4.0-fold), as monitored by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and progesterone production, respectively. The T3-stimulated progesterone production was effectively inhibited by actinomycin-D or cycloheximide, indicating the requirement of on-going mRNA and protein synthesis. T3 displayed the highest affinity of [125I]iodo-T3 binding and was most potent in stimulating StAR mRNA expression. In accordance, T3 significantly increased testosterone production in primary cultures of adult mouse Leydig cells. The T3 and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) effects on StAR expression were similar in magnitude and additive. Cells expressing steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) showed marginal elevation of StAR expression, but coordinately increased T3-induced StAR mRNA expression and progesterone levels. In contrast, overexpression of DAX-1 markedly diminished the SF-1 mRNA expression, and concomitantly abolished T3-mediated responses. Noteworthy, T3 augmented the SF-1 mRNA expression while inhibition of the latter by DAX-1 strongly impaired T3 action. Northern hybridization analysis revealed four StAR transcripts which increased 3-6-fold following T3 stimulation. These observations clearly identified a regulatory cascade of thyroid hormone-stimulated StAR expression and steroidogenesis that provides novel insight into the importance of a thyroid-gonadal connection in the hormonal control of Leydig cell steroidogenesis.  (+info)

Lectin receptor sites on rat liver cell nuclear membranes. (3/2003)

The presence and localization of lectin receptor sites on rat liver cell nuclear and other endomembranes was studied by light and electron microscopy using fluorescein and ferritin-coupled lectin conjugates. Isolated nuclei labelled with fluorescein-conjugated Concanavalin A (Con A) or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) often showed membrane staining, which sometimes was especially bright on small stretches of the nuclear surface. Unlabelled nuclei and nuclei with a complete ring fluorescence were also seen. The nuclear fluorescence corresponded in intensity to that seen on the surface of isolated rat liver cells. Con A-ferritin particles were seldom detected on the cytoplasmic surface of the intact nuclear envelope. However, at places where the 2 leaflets of the envelope were widely separated or where the outer nuclear membrane was partly torn away, heavy labelling was seen on the cisternal surface of both the inner and outer nuclear membranes. Labelling with Con A-ferritin was also found on the cisternal side of rough endoplasmic reticulum present in the specimens. No labelling was seen on the cytoplasmic surface of mitochondrial outer membrane. The results demonstrate the presence of binding sites for Con A and WGA in nuclei and an asymmetric localization of these sites on the cisternal side of ribosome-carrying endomembranes in rat liver cells.  (+info)

Sequential PKC- and Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation events elicit zebrafish nuclear envelope disassembly. (4/2003)

Molecular markers of the zebrafish inner nuclear membrane (NEP55) and nuclear lamina (L68) were identified, partially characterized and used to demonstrate that disassembly of the zebrafish nuclear envelope requires sequential phosphorylation events by first PKC, then Cdc2 kinase. NEP55 and L68 are immunologically and functionally related to human LAP2beta and lamin B, respectively. Exposure of zebrafish nuclei to meiotic cytosol elicits rapid phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68, and disassembly of both proteins. L68 phosphorylation is completely inhibited by simultaneous inhibition of Cdc2 and PKC and only partially blocked by inhibition of either kinase. NEP55 phosphorylation is completely prevented by inhibition or immunodepletion of cytosolic Cdc2. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent kinase, MEK or CaM kinase II does not affect NEP55 or L68 phosphorylation. In vitro, nuclear envelope disassembly requires phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68 by both mammalian PKC and Cdc2. Inhibition of either kinase is sufficient to abolish NE disassembly. Furthermore, novel two-step phosphorylation assays in cytosol and in vitro indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of L68 prior to Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation of L68 and NEP55 is essential to elicit nuclear envelope breakdown. Phosphorylation elicited by Cdc2 prior to PKC prevents nuclear envelope disassembly even though NEP55 is phosphorylated. The results indicate that sequential phosphorylation events elicited by PKC, followed by Cdc2, are required for zebrafish nuclear disassembly. They also argue that phosphorylation of inner nuclear membrane integral proteins is not sufficient to promote nuclear envelope breakdown, and suggest a multiple-level regulation of disassembly of nuclear envelope components during meiosis and at mitosis.  (+info)

Genetic interactions between KAR7/SEC71, KAR8/JEM1, KAR5, and KAR2 during nuclear fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/2003)

During mating of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two nuclei fuse to produce a single diploid nucleus. Two genes, KAR7 and KAR8, were previously identified by mutations that cause defects in nuclear membrane fusion. KAR7 is allelic to SEC71, a gene involved in protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. Two other translocation mutants, sec63-1 and sec72Delta, also exhibited moderate karyogamy defects. Membranes from kar7/sec71Delta and sec72Delta, but not sec63-1, exhibited reduced membrane fusion in vitro, but only at elevated temperatures. Genetic interactions between kar7 and kar5 mutations were suggestive of protein-protein interactions. Moreover, in sec71 mutants, Kar5p was absent from the SPB and was not detected by Western blot or immunoprecipitation of pulse-labeled protein. KAR8 is allelic to JEMI, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum resident DnaJ protein required for nuclear fusion. Overexpression of KAR8/JEM1 (but not SEC63) strongly suppressed the mating defect of kar2-1, suggesting that Kar2p interacts with Kar8/Jem1p for nuclear fusion. Electron microscopy analysis of kar8 mutant zygotes revealed a nuclear fusion defect different from kar2, kar5, and kar7/sec71 mutants. Analysis of double mutants suggested that Kar5p acts before Kar8/Jem1p. We propose the existence of a nuclear envelope fusion chaperone complex in which Kar2p, Kar5p, and Kar8/Jem1p are key components and Sec71p and Sec72p play auxiliary roles.  (+info)

Nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions that control nuclear envelope breakdown and entry into mitosis in the sea urchin zygote. (6/2003)

In sea urchin zygotes and mammalian cells nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) is not driven simply by a rise in cytoplasmic cyclin dependent kinase 1-cyclin B (Cdk1-B) activity; the checkpoint monitoring DNA synthesis can prevent NEB in the face of mitotic levels of Cdk1-B. Using sea urchin zygotes we investigated whether this checkpoint prevents NEB by restricting import of regulatory proteins into the nucleus. We find that cyclin B1-GFP accumulates in nuclei that cannot complete DNA synthesis and do not break down. Thus, this checkpoint limits NEB downstream of both the cytoplasmic activation and nuclear accumulation of Cdk1-B1. In separate experiments we fertilize sea urchin eggs with sperm whose DNA has been covalently cross-linked to inhibit replication. When the pronuclei fuse, the resulting zygote nucleus does not break down for >180 minutes (equivalent to three cell cycles), even though Cdk1-B activity rises to greater than mitotic levels. If pronuclear fusion is prevented, then the female pronucleus breaks down at the normal time (average 68 minutes) and the male pronucleus with cross-linked DNA breaks down 16 minutes later. This male pronucleus has a functional checkpoint because it does not break down for >120 minutes if the female pronucleus is removed just prior to NEB. These results reveal the existence of an activity released by the female pronucleus upon its breakdown, that overrides the checkpoint in the male pronucleus and induces NEB. Microinjecting wheat germ agglutinin into binucleate zygotes reveals that this activity involves molecules that must be actively translocated into the male pronucleus.  (+info)

Proteins connecting the nuclear pore complex with the nuclear interior. (7/2003)

While much has been learned in recent years about the movement of soluble transport factors across the nuclear pore complex (NPC), comparatively little is known about intranuclear trafficking. We isolated the previously identified Saccharomyces protein Mlp1p (myosin-like protein) by an assay designed to find nuclear envelope (NE) associated proteins that are not nucleoporins. We localized both Mlp1p and a closely related protein that we termed Mlp2p to filamentous structures stretching from the nucleoplasmic face of the NE into the nucleoplasm, similar to the homologous vertebrate and Drosophila Tpr proteins. Mlp1p can be imported into the nucleus by virtue of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) within its COOH-terminal domain. Overexpression experiments indicate that Mlp1p can form large structures within the nucleus which exclude chromatin but appear highly permeable to proteins. Remarkably, cells harboring a double deletion of MLP1 and MLP2 were viable, although they showed a slower net rate of active nuclear import and faster passive efflux of a reporter protein. Our data indicate that the Tpr homologues are not merely NPC-associated proteins but that they can be part of NPC-independent, peripheral intranuclear structures. In addition, we suggest that the Tpr filaments could provide chromatin-free conduits or tracks to guide the efficient translocation of macromolecules between the nucleoplasm and the NPC.  (+info)

Roles of LAP2 proteins in nuclear assembly and DNA replication: truncated LAP2beta proteins alter lamina assembly, envelope formation, nuclear size, and DNA replication efficiency in Xenopus laevis extracts. (8/2003)

Humans express three major splicing isoforms of LAP2, a lamin- and chromatin-binding nuclear protein. LAP2beta and gamma are integral membrane proteins, whereas alpha is intranuclear. When truncated recombinant human LAP2beta proteins were added to cell-free Xenopus laevis nuclear assembly reactions at high concentrations, a domain common to all LAP2 isoforms (residues 1-187) inhibited membrane binding to chromatin, whereas the chromatin- and lamin-binding region (residues 1-408) inhibited chromatin expansion. At lower concentrations of the common domain, membranes attached to chromatin with a unique scalloped morphology, but these nuclei neither accumulated lamins nor replicated. At lower concentrations of the chromatin- and lamin-binding region, nuclear envelopes and lamins assembled, but nuclei failed to enlarge and replicated on average 2. 5-fold better than controls. This enhancement was not due to rereplication, as shown by density substitution experiments, suggesting the hypothesis that LAP2beta is a downstream effector of lamina assembly in promoting replication competence. Overall, our findings suggest that LAP2 proteins mediate membrane-chromatin attachment and lamina assembly, and may promote replication by influencing chromatin structure.  (+info)

The lamin B receptor is a previously identified integral membrane protein in the nuclear envelope of turkey erythrocytes that associates with the nuclear intermediate filament protein lamin B (Worman, H. J., J. Yuan, G. Blobel, and S. D. Georgatos. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:8531-8534). In the present report, we use cell fractionation and antibodies against the lamin B receptor to localize it to an 8-M urea-extracted membrane fraction of chicken liver nuclei, supporting an inner nuclear membrane localization. We deduced the amino acid sequence of the chicken lamin B receptor from overlapping clones obtained by screening cDNA libraries with a probe generated by the polymerase chain reaction with primers based on the partial protein sequence of the isolated protein. The mature lamin B receptor has a calculated molecular mass of 73,375 D and eight segments of hydrophobic amino acids that could function as transmembrane domains as determined by hydropathy analysis. Preceding the first ...
Gómez-Baldó L, Schmidt S, Maxwell CA, Bonifaci N, Gabaldón T, Vidalain PO,Senapedis W, Kletke A, Rosing M, Barnekow A, Rottapel R, Capellá G, Vidal M, Astrinidis A, Piekorz RP, Pujana MA. (2010) TACC3-TSC2 maintains nuclear envelope structure and controls cell division. Cell Cycle.18;9(6). ...
DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal dominant neurological condition caused by a mutation that removes a single glutamic acid residue (ΔE) from the torsinA (torA) AAA+ protein. TorA appears to possess a nuclear envelope (NE) localized activity that requires Lamina-Associated-Polypeptide 1 (LAP1), which is an inner nuclear membrane localized torA-binding partner. Although hypoactive, the DYT1 dystonia torA-ΔE isoform often concentrates in the NE, suggesting that torA-ΔE also interacts with an NE-localized binding partner. We confirm that NE-localized torA-ΔE does not co-immunoprecipitate with LAP1, and find that torA-ΔE continues to concentrate in the NE of cells that lack LAP1. Instead, we find that variability in torA-ΔE localization correlates with the presence of the SUN-domain and Nesprin proteins that assemble into the LINC complex. We also find that siRNA depletion of SUN1, but not other LINC complex components, removes torA-ΔE from the NE. In contrast, the LAP1-dependent NE-accumulation of an ATP
The nuclear envelope forms the interface between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope consists of the two concentric lipid membranes, the nuclear pores and the nuclear lamina. The inner nuclear membrane contains hundreds of unique transmembrane proteins showing high tissue diversity. Mutations of some proteins in the nuclear envelope give rise to a broad spectrum of diseases called envelopathies or laminopathies. In this thesis, I aimed to study the functional organization of the nuclear envelope by identifying and characterizing interactions between the nuclear envelope proteins. For this, we developed a novel method called the Membrane Protein Crosslink Immuno-Precipitation, which enable identification of protein-protein interactions in the nuclear envelope in live cells. We identified several novel interactions of the inner nuclear membrane protein, Samp1, and studied the interaction between the Samp1 and the nuclear GTPase, Ran in detail. Samp1 can bind to Ran and is thus the ...
This study has revealed that the integral inner nuclear membrane protein Src1 functions in gene regulation of subtelomeric genes and is embedded functionally in a network of factors, which participate in transcription-coupled mRNA export. Importantly, Src1 is associated with subtelomeric chromatin and thus can help to organize this region of the chromosomes. In previous studies, Src1 was shown to contain an intron with the possibility of alternative splicing (Davis et al., 2000; Rodríguez-Navarro et al., 2002). Our study revealed that both splice forms localize to the nuclear periphery and are integral inner nuclear membrane proteins (King et al., 2006). However, both proteins are not functionally equivalent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that two forms of a protein generated by alternative splicing in yeast have different functions.. The N domain of Src1 mediates nuclear targeting, and insertion into the nuclear membrane requires the first transmembrane span. ...
Shop Inner nuclear membrane protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Inner nuclear membrane protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The inner nuclear membrane proteins emerin and LEMD2 have both overlapping and separate functions in regulation of nuclear organization, gene expression and cell differentiation. We report here that emerin/EMR-1 and LEMD2/LEM-2 are expressed in all tissues throughout Caenorhaditis elegans development but their relative distribution differs between cell types. The ratio between EMR-1 and LEM-2 is particularly high in contractile tissues, intermediate in neurons and hypodermis and lowest in intestine and germ line. We find that LEM-2 is recruited earlier than EMR-1 to reforming nuclear envelopes, suggesting the presence of separate mitotic membrane compartments and specific functions of each protein. Concordantly, we observe that nuclei of lem-2 mutant embryos, but not of emr-1 mutants, have reduced nuclear circularity. Finally, we uncover a novel role of LEM-2 in nuclear separation and anchoring of microtubule organizing centers.. ...
The sns (septated not in S-phase) mutant screen identified temperature sensitive S. pombe mutants unable to complete the mitosis to interphase transition ( Matynia et al., 1998). Like the previously characterized RanGEF mutant pim1-d1, the sns mutants arrest after mitosis but before S-phase with condensed unreplicated chromosomes, a medial septum and abnormal NEs. Among the ten strains not mutated in pim1, the terminal phenotypes of sns-A10, sns-B2 and sns-B9 most closely resemble that of pim1-d1 and these three mutants also have genetic interactions with components of the Ran GTPase system. The genes mutated in sns-A10, sns-B2, and sns-B9 were identified by complementation of their temperature-sensitive lethality. All three were found to encode proteins required for protein secretion: sns-B9 is mutated in pmm1, sns-A10 is mutated in sar1, and sns-B2 is mutated in sec31.. Phosphomannomutase (Pmm) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that converts mannose-6-phosphate to mannose-1-phosphate, the ...
Inoue, Azusa, and Yi Zhang. 2013. HIRA-mediated H3.3 deposition is required for de novo paternal nuclear envelope formation in mouse zygotes. Epigenetics & Chromatin 6(Suppl 1): O5. ...
Completely surrounding the nucleus, the nuclear envelope sequesters the genomic information of the cell, probably protecting it from the various enzymes and processes that occur within the cytoplasm. It is composed of two concentric membranes, each of which has a distinct protein composition: the outer membrane, which faces the cytoplasm; and the inner membrane, facing the nuclear interior. The inner and outer membranes are separated by the perinuclear space. Both the outer membrane and the perinuclear space are continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and studded with ribosomes. Any proteins made on the nuclear outer membrane-bound ribosomes drop into the perinuclear space and are transported through the inner membrane into the nucleus. The major transport pathway in and out of the nucleus, however, is thought to be through nuclear pores.. The inner membrane is coated with a mesh-like network of intermediate filaments called the nuclear lamina. Various nuclear structures, including the ...
Nuclear envelope assembly is promoted by phosphoinositide- specific phospholipase C with selective recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-enriched membranes Nuclear envelope (NE) formation in a cell-free egg extract proceeds by precursor membrane vesicle binding to chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner, followed by a GTP-induced NE assembly step. The requirement for GTP in the latter step of this process can be mimicked by addition of bacterial PI-PLC [phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C]. The NE assembly process is here dissected in relation to the requirement for endogenous phosphoinositide metabolism, employing recombinant eukaryotic PI-PLC, inhibitors and direct phospholipid analysis using ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) species analysis by ESI-MS indicates that the chromatin-bound NE precursor vesicles are enriched for specific PtdIns species. Moreover, during GTP-induced precursor vesicle fusion. the membrane vesicles become ...
In order to investigate the chemical composition of the nuclear pore complexes isolated nuclei from mature Xenopus laevis oocytes were manually fractioned into nucleo· plasmic aggregates and the nuclear envelopes. The whole isolation procedure takes no more than 60- 90 sec, and the pore complexes of the isolated envelopes are well preserved as demonstrated by electron microscopy. Minor nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic contaminations associated with the isolated nuclear envelopes were determined with electron microscopic morphometry and were found to be quantitatively negligible as far as their mass and nucleic acid content is concerned. The RNA content of the fractions was determined by direct phosphorus analysis after differential alkaline hydrolysis. Approximately 9% of the total nuclear RNA of the mature Xenopus egg was found to be attached to the nuclear envelope. The nonmembranous elements of one pore complex contain 0.41 X 10- 16 g RNA. This value agrees well with the content estimated from
Cardiac myocytes respond to extracellular stimuli by different signaling pathways. An important mechanism in cardiac myocytes is excitation-contraction coupling (ECC).1 Electrical depolarization of the cell membrane opens L-type Ca2+ channels, causing Ca2+ influx. This Ca2+ entry activates ryanodine receptors (RyRs) on the intracellular Ca2+ store sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), inducing robust SR Ca2+ release. This local Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release (CICR)2 is the essence of ECC.. Intracellular Ca2+ stores include SR (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] in nonmuscle cells) and nuclear envelope (NucEn). Free [Ca2+] inside these stores can be &1 mmol/L, which is similar to that in the extracellular space.3 The SR is composed of junctional SR (jSR), which is covered by RyRs and faces toward the T tubules, and free SR (fSR), which contains SR-ER Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA).4 The NucEn surrounds the nucleus and has both an inner and an outer membrane and a space in between where [Ca2+] can be millimolar.. Recently, we ...
The fs(1)Ya protein (YA) is an essential, maternally encoded, nuclear lamina protein that is under both developmental and cell cycle control. A strong Ya mutation results in early arrest of embryos. To define the function of YA in the nuclear envelope during early embryonic development, we characterized the phenotypes of four Ya mutants alleles and determined their molecular lesions. Ya mutant embryos arrest with abnormal nuclear envelopes prior to the first mitotic division; a proportion of embryos from two leaky Ya mutants proceed beyond this but arrest after several abnormal divisions. Ya unfertilized eggs contain nuclei of different sizes and condensation states, apparently due to abnormal fusion of the meiotic products immediately after meiosis. Lamin is localized at the periphery of the uncondensed nuclei in these eggs. These results suggest that YA function is required during and after egg maturation to facilitate proper chromatin condensation, rather than to allow a lamin-containing ...
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is composed of the outer and inner nuclear membrane protein families Klarsicht, Anc-1, and Syne homology (KASH), and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) homology domain proteins. Increasing evidence has pointed to diverse functions of the LINC complex, such as in nuclear migration, nuclear integrity, chromosome movement and pairing during meiosis, and mechanotransduction to the genome. In metazoan cells, the nuclear envelope possesses the nuclear lamina, which is a thin meshwork of intermediate filaments known as A-type and B-type lamins and lamin binding proteins. Both of lamins physically interact with the inner nuclear membrane spanning SUN proteins. The nuclear lamina has also been implicated in various functions, including maintenance of nuclear integrity, mechanotransduction, cellular signalling, and heterochromatin dynamics. Thus, it is clear that the LINC complex and nuclear lamins perform diverse but related functions. However, it is unknown
Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are eliminated by a quality-control system called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). However, how misfolded proteins in the inner nuclear membrane (INM), a specialized ER subdomain, are degraded is not known. Here, a quantitative proteomics approach revealed an ERAD branch required for INM protein quality control in yeast. This branch involved the integral membrane proteins Asi1, Asi2, and Asi3, which assembled into an Asi complex. Besides INM misfolded proteins, the Asi complex promoted the degradation of functional regulators of sterol biosynthesis. Asi-mediated ERAD was required for ER homeostasis, which suggests that spatial segregation of protein quality-control systems contributes to ER function.. ...
The reformation of functioning organelles at the end of mitosis presents a problem in vesicle targeting. Using extracts made from Xenopus laevis frog eggs, we have studied in vitro the vesicles that reform the nuclear envelope. In the in vitro assay, nuclear envelope growth is linear with time. Furthermore, the final surface area of the nuclear envelopes formed is directly dependent upon the amount of membrane vesicles added to the assay. Egg membrane vesicles could be fractionated into two populations, only one of which was competent for nuclear envelope assembly. We found that vesicles active in nuclear envelope assembly contained markers (BiP and alpha-glucosidase II) characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but that the majority of ER-derived vesicles do not contribute to nuclear envelope size. This functional distinction between nuclear vesicles and ER-derived vesicles implies that nuclear vesicles are unique and possess at least one factor required for envelope assembly that is ...
The nuclear envelope (NE) has emerged as an important structure that serves numerous pivotal roles in the cell including compartmentalization, control of nuclear position and morphology, contribution to cell stability, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. The mechanism by which the NE controls gene expression is not well understood yet. Traditionally, the anchoring of chromatin to the nuclear periphery has been associated with silencing and heterochromatin formation. However, recent studies have shown that there is also actively transcribed chromatin at the NE, specially associated with the nuclear pore complexes. To unravel how the NE can regulate gene expression, we have developed tools to perform genome wide analysis using the DamID method. This method is based on the expression in vivo of chimeric proteins containing an adenine methyltransferase (Dam) from E. coli that methylates the DNA in the vicinity of native binding sites of a chromatin-interacting protein. Using ...
The nuclear envelope separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm and provides the structural framework of the nucleus. The nuclear membranes, acting as barriers that prevent the free passage of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, maintain the nucleus as a distinct biochemical compartment. The sole channels through the nuclear envelope are provided by the nuclear pore complexes, which allow the regulated exchange of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The selective traffic of proteins and RNAs through the nuclear pore complexes not only establishes the internal composition of the nucleus, but also plays a critical role in regulating eukaryotic gene expression.. ...
The disintegration of the nuclear envelope has been examined in nuclei and nuclear envelopes isolated from amphibian oocytes and rat liver tissue, using different electron microscope techniques (ultrathin sections and negatively or positively stained spread preparations). Various treatments were studied, including disruption by surface tension forces, very low salt concentrations, and non ionic detergents such as Triton X-lOO and Nonidet P-40. The high local stability of the cylinders of nonmembranous pore complex material is emphasized. As progressive disintegration occurred in the membrane regions, a network of fibrils became apparent which interconnects the pore complexes and is distinguished from the pore complexassociated intranuclear fibrils. This network might correspond to an indistinct lamella, about 15 - 20 nm thick, located at the level of the inner nuclear membrane, which is recognized in thin sections to bridge the interpore distances. With all disintegration treatments a somewhat higher
Lamina-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2) is an integral membrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane, which binds directly to both lamin B1 and chromosomes in a mitotic phosphorylation-regulated manner. The biochemical and physiological properties of LAP2 suggest an important role in nuclear envelope re-assembly at the end of mitosis and/or anchoring of the nuclear lamina and interphase chromosomes to the nuclear envelope. We describe the cDNA cloning of LAP2 and characterization of its membrane topology and targeting to the nuclear envelope. The LAP2 cDNA sequence predicts a protein of 452 amino acids, containing a large hydrophilic domain with several potential cdc2 kinase phosphorylation sites and a single putative membrane-spanning sequence at residues 410-433. Immunogold localization of an LAP2 epitope in isolated nuclear envelopes indicates that the large amino-terminal hydrophilic domain (residues 1-409) is exposed to the nucleoplasm. By expressing deletion mutants of LAP2 in cultured ...
Contrary to previous work, Dreier and Rapoport show on page 883 that microtubules are not required for the in vitro remodeling of membranes into ER-like tubules. Dreier and Rapoport began by attempting to dissect an in vitro nuclear envelope formation reaction in frog egg extracts. But the reaction was complicated by associated chromatin decondensation and remodeling reactions and, in the meantime, the researchers observed that the reaction conditions yielded ER-like membrane structures. (In any case, success with the simpler ER formation assay may be applicable to nuclear envelope formation, as the two reactions seem to share many characteristics.) The reaction requires only a light membrane fraction and cytosol. By itself, a washed membrane fraction fuses to form larger vesicles but does not form tubules.. ...
A protein degradation pathway is found at the inner nuclear membrane that is distinct from, but complementary to, endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation, and which is mediated by the Asi protein complex; a genome-wide library screening of yeast identifies more than 20 substrates of this pathway, which is shown to target mislocalized integral membrane proteins for degradation. The endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway mediates protein homeostasis in cells by tagging misfolded proteins of the ER with the protein ubiquitin. Ubiquitylated proteins are subsequently degraded within the cytoplasm. The nuclear membrane is continuous with the ER membrane, prompting Michael Knop and colleagues to ask whether protein quality control also operates in the inner nuclear membrane (INM). The authors find that there is a protein degradation pathway at the INM (mediated by the Asi protein complex) that is distinct from, but complementary to, the ERAD. An unbiased screening of a
Involved in spermatogenesis. Required for sperm head formation but not required to establish and maintain general polarity of the sperm head. Required for anchoring and organization of the manchette. Required for targeting of SUN3 and probably SYNE1 through a probable SUN1:SYNE3 LINC complex to the nuclear envelope and involved in accurate posterior sperm head localization of the complex. May anchor SUN3 the nuclear envelope. Involved in maintenance of the nuclear envelope integrity. May assist the organization and assembly of outer dense fibers (ODFs), a specific structure of the sperm tail.
The nucleoporin ELYS/Mel28 regulates nuclear envelope subdomain formation in HeLa cells[1] In open mitosis, the nuclear envelope (NE) reassembles at the end of each mitosis. This process involves the reformation of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), the inner and outer nuclear membranes, and the nuclear lamina. In human cells, cell cycle-dependent NE subdomains exist, characterized as A-type lamin-rich/NPC-free or B-type lamin-rich/NPC-rich, which are initially formed as core or noncore regions on mitotic chromosomes, respectively. Although postmitotic NE formation has been extensively studied, little is known about the coordination of NPC and NE assembly. ...Our data show, that ELYS/Mel28 plays a role in NE subdomain formation in late mitosis ...
Here, we used an unbiased genetic approach to identify components required for transcription mediated by unprocessed latent forms of Stp1 and Stp2 in asi1Δ mutants. We selected spontaneous mutations in RLS genes that suppressed the constitutive expression of SPS sensor-regulated genes in asi1Δ cells. We anticipated finding loss-of-function mutations in multiple genes, i.e., genes encoding transcriptional coactivators that function together with Stp1 or Stp2, but also mutations in genes encoding proteins facilitating nuclear import or stability of Stp1 and Stp2. However, we found that all rls mutations belonged to a single complementation group. The number of rls mutations analyzed strongly suggests that under the conditions used, the RLS screen is saturated. Our inability to identify a large set of RLS genes could be due to the extremely tight selection used that allowed isolation of only those mutations that completely abolish expression of AGP1 and GNP1. Alternatively, the processes ...
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the SUN-KASH complex Sad-1-Kms1/2 is a key element for dynein-mediated telomere clustering in the horse tail stage, and the absence of Kms1 causes defects in telomere tethering to the spindle pole body (Shimanuki et al., 1997; Miki et al., 2004; Chikashige et al., 2007). In the nematode C. elegans, SUN1 and ZYG-12 accumulate at the pairing center, and mutations in SUN1 or ZYG-12 result in reduced homologue pairing and aberrant synapsis (Penkner et al., 2007; Sato et al., 2009). In mammals, the SUN domain protein SUN1 might be engaged in this process (Ding et al., 2007). However, because the associated KASH protein has remained elusive (Hiraoka and Dernburg, 2009), it is uncertain whether the SUN-KASH complex indeed acts in homologue pairing in mammalian meiosis. In the current study, we have identified a novel meiosis-specific mammalian KASH protein, KASH5, that forms a complex and colocalizes with SUN1 at the NE attachment sites of telomeres in ...
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is essential for cell division, and participates in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility and protein synthesis. Promotes nuclear envelope reassembly by targeting nuclear membrane vesicles to chromatin at the end of mitosis. Acts by dephosphorylating membrane proteins such as lamin B receptor (lbr) to regulate the binding of membrane proteins to chromatin (By similarity).
Basis Envelopes feature an antique vellum finish and twin-wire technology that reduces finish and colour distortion. Basis envelopes are made from 70 lb text paper. Envelopes are acid and lignin-free with a neutral pH. Basis envelopes are compatible with
Guanine-nucleotide releasing factor that promotes the exchange of Ran-bound GDP by GTP. Involved in the regulation of onset of chromosome condensation in the S phase. Binds both to the nucleosomes and double-stranded DNA. RCC1-Ran complex (together with other proteins) acts as a component of a signal transmission pathway that detects unreplicated DNA. Plays a key role in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, mitosis and nuclear-envelope assembly ...
Nucleus - S - Largest organelle. Surrounded by a nuclear envelope. Made up of two membranes with fluid between them. Nuclear pores go through nuclear envelope which are large enough to allow relatively large molecules to enter. Dense spherical structure called the nucleolus, inside the nucleus.. F - Contains genetic info in DNA of chromosomes. (Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear envelope with pores for communication between nucleus + cytoplasm). Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes (which make proteins at the cytoplasm).. ER - S - Series of flattened membrane-bound sacs called cisternae. They are continuous with outer nuclear membrane. RER has ribosomes, SER doesnt.. F - RER transports proteins made on attached ribosomes to golgi apparatus. SER-Makes triglycerides (fats), phospholipids and cholesterol.. Golgi Apparatus - S - A stack of membrane-bound, flattened sacs.. F - Modifies and packages proteins, makes secretory vesicles and lysosomes.. ...
1.0 1.1 Yang, L et al. (1997) Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope are dispersed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis. J. Cell Biol. 137 1199-210 PubMed GONUTS page ...
The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the nuclear genome and transcriptional machinery. In dividing cells of metazoa, the nucleus completely disassembles during mitosis, creating the need to re-establish the nuclear compartment at the end of each cell division. Given the cr …
View Notes - Exam 2 BIO from BIOL 1101 at Gainesville State. Exam 2 1. a. ribosomes b. nucleoid region c. nuclear envelope d. organelles e. nucleolus 2. a. prokaryote; a nucleoid region b.
View Notes - Week 10 Section Transcription & Translation from BILD BILD 1 at UCSD. Translation is different because it instead exits the nuclear envelope and finds a ribosome in order to start
Plays an essential role in virion nuclear egress, the first step of virion release from infected cell. Within the host nucleus, NEC1 interacts with the newly formed capsid through the vertexes and directs it to the inner nuclear membrane by associating with NEC2. Induces the budding of the capsid at the inner nuclear membrane as well as its envelopment into the perinuclear space. There, the NEC1/NEC2 complex promotes the fusion of the enveloped capsid with the outer nuclear membrane and the subsequent release of the viral capsid into the cytoplasm where it will reach the secondary budding sites in the host Golgi or trans-Golgi network ...
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Morphologically, there are two nuclear compartments: nuclear envelope and nucleoplasm. Nuclear envelope is the peripheral part of the nucleus that separates the interior of the nucleus, known as nucleoplasm, from the cytoplasm. Nucleoplasm-cytoplasm communication is regulated by nuclear pores, which are molecular complexes inserted in the nuclear envelope. In the nucleoplasm, DNA and associated proteins form the chromatin, which is referred as heterochromatin if it is highly condensed, or as euchromatin if it is loosely packaged. Heterochromatin and euchromatin are found in the same nucelus and the proportion of every of them depends on the type and physiological state of the cell. The nucleolus, a unique chromatin domain, is also found in the nucleoplasm, as well as other dense structures known as nuclear bodies, which are composed of chromatin and other proteins. Here, we could go into all the molecular processes involved in DNA transcription and replication, as well as gene regulation. In the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Drosophila fs(1)Ya protein: cell cycle-dependent nuclear envelope component required for embryonic mitosis; GenBank M38442 and AY069542
Cell cycle and cancer. Using time-lapse microscopy, we showed that nuclear envelope (NE) formation is mediated by reshaping of the endoplasmic reticulum and not as previously thought by vesicle fusion. Our results answered a long-standing question in the field of nuclear biology and provided a new paradigm for membrane dynamics. In continuation of this work we recently discovered a remarkable phenomenon whereby the NE becomes transiently ruptured and repaired during interphase in various human cancer cells. Strikingly, NE rupturing was associated with loss of cell compartmentalization and a catastrophic chromosome rearrangement event called chromothripsis and thus might be a source of genomic instability.. Cell differentiation and development. Using Drosophila genetics in combination with imaging and DNA sequencing methods in mouse and human stem cells, we discovered that several NE proteins play an essential role in transcriptional activation of developmentally regulated genes. These findings ...
The Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS)-sensing pathway enables yeast to respond to extracellular amino acids. Stp1, the effector transcription factor, is synthesized as a latent cytoplasmic precursor with an N-terminal regulatory domain that restricts its nuclear accumulation. The negative regulatory mechanisms impinging on the N-terminal domain are poorly understood. However, Stp1 latency depends on three inner nuclear membrane proteins, Asi1, Asi2, and Asi3. We report that the N-terminal domain of Stp1 contains a small motif, designated RI, that fully accounts for latency. RI is modular, mediates interactions with the plasma membrane, and can retain histone Htb2 in the cytoplasm. A novel class of STP1 mutations affecting RI were isolated that are less efficiently retained in the cytoplasm but remain under tight negative control by the Asi proteins. Intriguingly, these mutant proteins exhibit enhanced stability in strains lacking ASI1. Our results indicate that RI mediates latency by two distinct activities: ...
Sorry, I havent been writing much in the past few days. Here are some cool ER papers Ive seen recently: Direct membrane protein-DNA interactions required early in nuclear envelope assembly Sebastian Ulbert, Melpomeni Platani, Stephanie Boue, and Iain W. Mattaj JCB (2006) 173:469-476 When the nuclear envelope reforms after mitosis, ER vesicles must bind to…. ...
Nuclear shape is different in stem cells and differentiated cells and reflects important changes in the mechanics of the nuclear envelope (NE). The current framework emphasizes the key role of the nuclear lamina in nuclear mechanics and its alterations in disease 1, 2 . Whether active stress controls nuclear deformations and how this stress interplays with properties of the NE to control NE dynamics is unclear. We address this in the early Drosophila embryo, where profound changes in NE shape parallel the transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. We show that microtubule (MT) polymerization events produce the elementary forces necessary for NE dynamics. Moreover, large-scale NE-deformations associated with groove formation require concentration of microtubule polymerization in bundles organized by Dynein. However, MT bundles cannot produce grooves when the farnesylated inner nuclear membrane protein Charleston/Kugelkern (Char/Kuk) is absent 3, 4 . Although it increases stiffness of the NE, Char
Nuclear pores assemble asymmetrically, by an inside-out evagination of the inner nuclear membrane that grows in diameter and depth until it fuses with the flat outer nuclear membrane.
We previously reported that the small nuclear RNA processing complex, Integrator, is required for dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope at mitotic onset in cultured human cells. We now report an additional role for INT in ciliogenesis. Depletion of INT subunits from cultured human cells results in loss of primary cilia. We provide evidence that the requirements for INT in dynein localization and ciliogenesis are uncoupled: proteins essential for ciliogenesis are not essential for dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope, while depletion of known regulators of perinuclear dynein has minimal effects on ciliogenesis. Taken together, our data support a model in which INT ensures proper processing of distinct pools of transcripts encoding components that independently promote perinuclear dynein enrichment and ciliogenesis.. ...
Mitosis is the process by which eukaryotic cells divide to form two equal daughter cells each with a copy of its genome. [86] Typically eukaryotic cells undergo one of the two forms of mitosis; higher eukaryotes (metazoans) go through Open Mitosis, while lower eukaryotes including yeast and other types of fungi undergo Closed Mitosis. [87] The distinction between open and closed mitosis can be made by focusing on the behaviour of the nuclear envelope which separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm and is split to form daughter nuclei. [86] Open mitosis is so named because the nuclear envelope completely breaks down at the transition from G2 to M stage of the cell cycle [87] and the nuclear content, including the genetic material, is open to mix with cytoplasmic macromolecules [88] until the nuclear envelope is reassembled after chromosomal segregation during telophase/G1. [87] [88] In contrast, during closed mitosis the nuclear envelope remains intact and mitosis continues within the ...
Deciphering novel pathways that regulate liver lipid content has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear envelope is a site of regulation of lipid metabolism, but there is limited appreciation of the responsible mechanisms and molecular components within this organelle. We showed that conditional hepatocyte deletion of the inner nuclear membrane protein lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) causes defective VLDL secretion and steatosis, including intranuclear lipid accumulation. LAP1 binds to and activates torsinA, an AAA+ ATPase that resides in the perinuclear space and continuous main ER. Deletion of torsinA from mouse hepatocytes caused even greater reductions in VLDL secretion and profound steatosis. Mice from both of the mutant lines studied developed hepatic steatosis and subsequent steatohepatitis on a regular chow diet in the absence of ...
The barrier-to-autointegration factor BAF binds to the LEM domain (Em(LEM)) of the nuclear envelope protein emerin and plays an essential role in the nuclear architecture of metazoan cells. In addition, the BAF(2) dimer bridges and compacts double-stranded DNA nonspecifically via two symmetry-relate …
The nuclear membrane serves as a barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, allowing controlled gene regulation and transcription in the nuclear area (CALLAN HG et al, 1950; WATSON ML. 1955). The nuclear pores allow for active transport of small molecules, but also larger proteins, between the nucleus and the cytoplasm (Paine PL et al, 1975; BAHR GF et al, 1954). In that sense, the nuclear membrane creates both a barrier, but also a linkage between the nucleus and the rest of the cell. The nuclear membrane is a highly dynamic structure and the structural composition is altered throughout the cell cycle. During the G2 phase, the nuclear membrane expands as a result of chromosome duplication. The membrane breaks down in the prometaphase to enable connection of the centrosomes and the spindle apparatus to the sister chromatids during mitosis. The breakdown mechanism involves disassembly of the nuclear pore complexes, depolymerization of the nuclear lamina, removal of proteins associated ...
Laminopathies are a group of rare genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the nuclear lamina. They are included in the more generic term nuclear envelopathies that was coined in 2000 for diseases associated with defects of the nuclear envelope.[2] Since the first reports of laminopathies in the late 1990s, increased research efforts have started to uncover the vital role of nuclear envelope proteins in cell and tissue integrity in animals.
Gram-negative bacteria possess a unique and complex cell envelope, composed of an inner and outer membrane separated by an intermediate cell wall-containing periplasm. This tripartite structure acts intrinsically as a significant biological barrier, often limiting the permeation of anti-infectives, and so preventing such drugs from reaching their target. Furthermore, identification of the specific permeation-limiting envelope component proves difficult in the case of many anti-infectives, due to the challenges associated with isolation of individual cell envelope structures in bacterial culture. The development of an in vitro permeation model of the Gram-negative inner membrane, prepared by repeated coating of physiologically-relevant phospholipids on Transwell®filter inserts, is therefore reported, as a first step in the development of an overall cell envelope model. Characterization and permeability investigations of model compounds as well as anti-infectives confirmed the suitability of the ...
Annulate lamella is one of cell membrane classes, occurring as set of parallel elemernts with duble same dimensional membranes, as the nuclear envelope. These lamella have pore complexes which are identical to those of the nuclear cover. It is arranged in highly ordered structure with a regular specing between themselves. These lamella are characteristic for the oocytes, spermatocytes, some somatic and cancer cels. They are characteristic of actively growing cells, including many functions in genetic information transfer and storage. They are probably formed from the nuclear envelope. Similar membranes are found in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In the nucleoplasm, they are small, irrrgular, as well as short-living. It have been established that, in some condition, ribosomes being directly connected to the annulate lamellar membrane, supposing a role in the process of protein synthesis. Cell membranes Nuclear envelope Rieger R. Michaelis A.; Green M. M. (1976). Glossary of genetics and ...
The nuclear envelope (NE) surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm. The NE is not a passive structural component, but rather contributes to various cellular processes such as genome organization, transcription, signaling, and stress responses. Although the NE is mostly a smooth
View pdf The replication of herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), is based on a nuclear phase followed by viral egress through the nuclear envelope. For nuclear egress, the transient destabilization of the nuclear envelope, notably the nuclear lamina, is an event with central importance. The destabilization of this rigid proteinaceous network is achieved by the function of lamina-associated effector proteins (HCMV egress proteins) which particularly recruit protein kinases to phosphorylate nuclear lamins. This process is reminiscent of a similar sequence of events occurring during cellular mitosis. In contrast to mitosis, however, nuclear destabilization during HCMV replication does not involve the entire nuclear envelope but is restricted to locally defined areas and this reprogramming seems to be achieved by a small number of viral effectors. Thus, the virus-specific nuclear destabilization is based on the formation and activity of a viral-cellular nuclear egress complex ...
Conventional organization of a mammalian nucleus. Different landmarks contribute to genome segregation into functional compartments. The nuclear envelope defines the edge of the nucleus. The nuclear lamina is a meshwork of proteins that interact with heterochromatic genomic regions called lamina-associated domains (LADs), only interrupted by nuclear pore complexes (NPC). The two main other landmarks: the chromocenter, composed of clustered pericentromeric heterochromatin (PCH), and the nucleolus. (right) region of the nucleus with the histone marks associated with the different compartments. LADs at the periphery are enriched in H3K9me2/3 modifications and H3K27me3 at LAD borders. Heterochromatin regions show different levels of HP1 with higher concentration at PCH. The NPC interacts with euchromatin domains. Ac, acetylation; me2/3, di or tri-methylation; DNA 5mC, DNA methylation; HP1, Heterochromatin Protein 1; LBR, Lamin B Receptor; NET, Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane protein. After Canat , ...
Nuclei move to specific locations to polarize migrating and differentiating cells. material during cell division (1-3). Most nuclear motions are microtubule-mediated; however growing numbers of actin-dependent nuclear motions have been acknowledged (1 2 4 Mechanisms for actin-dependent nuclear movement are unclear. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts polarizing for migration into in vitro wounds an actin-dependent nuclear movement is definitely induced by serum or the serum element lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and this reorients the centrosome toward the leading edge (5). Nuclear movement and actin retrograde circulation happen at the same rate but how actin is definitely coupled to the nucleus is definitely unfamiliar. We explored the possible involvement of the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex which spans the inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM respectively). LINC complexes consist of ONM nesprin and INM SUN proteins and have been implicated in microtubule-dependent but not ...
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Functional analysis of centrosomal kinase substrates in Drosophila melanogaster reveals a new function of the nuclear envelope component otefin in cell cycle progression Habermann K, Mirgorodskaya E, Gobom J, Lehmann V, Müller H, Blümlein K, Deery MJ, Czogiel I, Erdmann C, Ralser M, von Kries JP, Lange BM Mol Cell Biol. 2012 32(17):3554-69 ...
Habermann, K.; Mirgorodskaya, E.; Gobom, J.; Lehmann, V.; Müller, H.; Blümlein, K.; Deery, M. J.; Czogiel, I.; Erdmann, C.; Ralser, M. et al.; von Kries, J. P.; Lange, B. M. H.: Functional analysis of centrosomal kinase substrates in Drosophila melanogaster reveals a new function of the nuclear envelope component otefin in cell cycle progression. Molecular and Cellular Biology (Washington, DC) 32 (17), S. 3554 - 3569 (2012 ...
Authors: Samson, Camille; Herrada, Isaline; Celli, Florian; Theillet, Francois-Xavier; Zinn-Justin, Sophie. Citation: Samson, Camille; Herrada, Isaline; Celli, Florian; Theillet, Francois-Xavier; Zinn-Justin, Sophie. 1H, 13C and 15N backbone resonance assignment of the intrinsically disordered region of the nuclear envelope protein emerin Biomol. NMR Assign. 10, 179-182 (2016).. Assembly members: ...
It is made up of two layers, each made up of a lipid bilayer. lipid bilayer is enveloped with holes, called nuclear pores, to regulate the exchange of substances (for example, proteins and RNA) between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Perinuclear space is space between membranes. The outer membrane is contiguous with the endoplasmic reticulum. The inner membrane is constituted by a network of filaments called nuclear lamina, The lamina attach to chromosomes. It also acts like a shield for the nucleus. ...
Interaction between actin filaments (AFs) and microtubules (MTs) has been reported in various plant cells, and the presence of a factor(s) connecting these two cytoskeletal networks has been suggested, but its molecular entity has not been elucidated yet. We obtained a fraction containing MT-binding polypeptides, which induced bundling of AFs and of MTs. A 190 kDa polypeptide which associated with AFs was selectively isolated from the fraction. This polypeptide was thought to have an ability to bind to both AFs and MTs. We raised a monoclonal antibody against the 190 kDa polypeptide. Immunostaining demonstrated the association of the 190 kDa polypeptide with AF bundles and with MT bundles formed in vitro. Immunocytochemical studies throughout the cell cycle revealed that the 190 kDa polypeptide was localized in the nucleus before nuclear envelope breakdown, and in the spindle and the phragmoplast during cell division. After the re-formation of the nuclear envelope, the 190 kDa polypeptide was ...
To find out, the researchers examined postmortem tissue from AD and control brains. They noticed that unlike the smooth, rounded neuronal nuclei of controls, those in AD brains appeared wrinkled and folded (see image at left). Some nucleoporins with disordered domains had seeped out into the cytoplasm instead of staying in the pores.. The group decided to focus on Nup98, a particularly abundant and highly disordered nucleoporin. High-resolution optical microscopy revealed that p-tau co-localized with Nup98 at the nuclear surface in hippocampal neurons from AD patients. In p-tau containing nuclei, Nup98 left the nuclear membrane and co-localized with more than 90 percent of tau tangles sitting in the cytoplasm. Other Nups stayed put in the nuclear membrane, suggesting the bulk of the complex remained, just in an altered form.. Did the two proteins interact directly? In surface plasmon resonance experiments, p-tau bound the N-terminus of Nup98. The C-terminus of this nucleoporin contains many ...
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The nuclear membrane dissolves during the prometaphase of mitosis, while it disintegrates during prometaphase I and prometaphase II of meiosis. The breakdown of the nuclear envelope is due to the...
The spatial arrangement of chromatin within the nucleus can affect reactions that occur on the DNA and is likely to be regulated. Here we show that activation of INO1 occurs at the nuclear membrane and requires the integral membrane protein Scs2. Scs2 antagonizes the action of the transcriptional repressor Opi1 under conditions that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, in turn, activate INO1. Whereas repressed INO1 localizes throughout the nucleoplasm, the gene is recruited to the nuclear periphery upon transcriptional activation. Recruitment requires the transcriptional activator Hac1, which is produced upon induction of the UPR, and is constitutive in a strain lacking Opi1. Artificial recruitment of INO1 to the nuclear membrane permits activation in the absence of Scs2, indicating that the intranuclear localization of a gene can profoundly influence its mechanism of activation. Gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery, therefore, is a dynamic process and appears to play an ...
At the nuclear envelope, the nuclear lamina and heterochromatin are adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. CBX3 binds DNA and is a component of…
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Concept 13: Meiosis II: Telophase II. A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes and cytokinesis occurs, producing four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes. To see telophase II. A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes. ...
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Eukaryotic cells are defined by the presence of a nucleus containing the DNA genome and bound by a nuclear membrane (or nuclear envelope) composed of two lipid bilayers that regulate transport of materials into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pores. Eukaryotic cell morphologies vary greatly and may be maintained by various structures, including the cytoskeleton, the cell membrane, and/or the cell wall The nucleolus in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells is the site of ribosomal synthesis ...
Baudrimont A, Penkner A, Woglar A, Machacek T, Wegrostek C, Gloggnitzer J, Fridkin A, Klein F, Gruenbaum Y, Pasierbek P, Jantsch V. (2010). Leptotene/zygotene chromosome movement via the SUN/KASH protein bridge in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 6(11):e1001219. (abstract). Baumann CL, Aspalter IM, Sharif O, Pichlmair A, Blüml S, Grebien F, Bruckner M, Pasierbek P, Aumayr K, Planyavsky M, Bennett KL, Colinge J, Knapp S, Superti-Furga G. (2010). CD14 is a coreceptor of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9.J Exp Med. 207(12):2689-701. (abstract). Hoelbl, A., Schuster, C., Kovacic, B., Zhu, B., Wickre, M., Hoelzl, MA., Fajmann, S., Grebien, F., Warsch, W., Stengl, G., Hennighausen, L., Poli, V., Beug, H., Moriggl, R., Sexl, V. (2010). Stat5 is indispensable for the maintenance of bcr/abl-positive leukaemia. EMBO Mol Med. 2(3):98-110 (abstract) Pospisilik, JA., Schramek, D., Schnidar, H., Cronin, SJ., Nehme, NT., Zhang, X., Knauf, C., Cani, PD., Aumayr, K., Todoric, J., Bayer, M., Haschemi, A., ...
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Greetings card featuring an original illustration by Kim Richards.This card is A6 in size and comes complete with envelope and cellophane wrap. It is left blank inside for your own message. As part of my commitment to sustainability these cards and envelopes are made with 100% recycled materials and the cellophane wrap is biodegradable.
Alvarez-Fernández M, Sánchez-Martínez R, Sanz-Castillo B, Gan PP, Sanz-Flores M, Trakala M, Ruiz-Torres M, Lorca T, Castro A, Malumbres M (2013). Greatwall is essential to prevent mitotic collapse after nuclear envelope breakdown in mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110, 17374-17379 ...
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The Nuclear Envelope. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1411. pp. 419-37. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-3530-7_26. ISBN 978-1-4939-3528-4 ... Although both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging, nuclear DNA is the main subject of this analysis. ... Nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by ... "Nuclear DNA damage as a direct cause of aging" (PDF). Rejuvenation Research. 12 (3): 199-208. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.318.738. doi: ...
The nuclear envelope is broken down in this stage, long strands of chromatin condense to form shorter more visible strands ... This occurs through the synthesis of a new nuclear envelopes that forms around the chromatin which is gathered at each pole and ... Hetzer MW (March 2010). "The nuclear envelope". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2 (3): a000539. doi:10.1101/ ... June 2008). "Subdiffraction multicolor imaging of the nuclear periphery with 3D structured illumination microscopy". Science. ...
The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane known as the nuclear envelope, with nuclear pores that allow material to move in ... ISBN 978-0-19-963851-2. Hetzer MW (March 2010). "The nuclear envelope". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2 (3): ... Eukaryotes (/juːˈkærioʊts, -əts/) are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope. Eukaryotes ... The nuclear DNA and genetic machinery of eukaryotes is more similar to Archaea than Bacteria, leading to a controversial ...
The Nuclear Envelope. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1411. pp. 419-37. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-3530-7_26. ISBN 978-1-4939-3528-4 ... Best, BP (2009). "Nuclear DNA damage as a direct cause of aging" (PDF). Rejuvenation Research. 12 (3): 199-208. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... "Methods to Monitor DNA Repair Defects and Genomic Instability in the Context of a Disrupted Nuclear Lamina". ...
Polδ is associated with lamins and the nuclear envelope during G1/S arrest or early S phase; mutations in lamins cause nuclear ... "Nuclear envelope-related lipodystrophies". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 29: 148-57. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2013.12. ... Paul VD, Lill R (June 2015). "Biogenesis of cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur proteins and their role in genome stability". ... Human POLD1/p125 has a putative nuclear localization signal at the N-terminal end (residues 4-19). Residues 304-533 contain the ...
Main article: Nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. It has ... "Nuclear Pore Complexes Perforate the Nuclear Envelope". Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th edition. Garland Science. Retrieved ... The nuclear envelope of a typical mammalian cell contains 3000-4000 pore complexes. If the cell is synthesizing DNA each pore ... The nuclear envelope's structure is determined by a network of intermediate filaments (protein filaments). This network is ...
Denais, Celine; Lammerding, Jan (2014). Cancer Biology and the Nuclear Envelope. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ... "Reprogramming of a melanoma genome by nuclear transplantation". Genes & Development. 18 (15): 1875-1885. doi:10.1101/gad. ...
It also disrupts nuclear envelope reassembly. Reticulons have been found to interact with proteins that are involved with ... Scientists have inferred that reticulons have a role in assembling the nuclear envelope during cell division. Current research ... In addition, reticulons may play a role in nuclear pore complex formation, vesicle formation, and other processes yet to be ...
Because the nuclear envelope is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of ... "nuclear envelope". The nuclear envelope separates the fluid inside the nucleus, called the nucleoplasm, from the rest of the ... Gall JG, McIntosh JR (eds.). "Nuclear Envelope and Nuclear Import Section". Landmark Papers in Cell Biology. Archived from the ... Both systems provide structural support for the nuclear envelope and anchoring sites for chromosomes and nuclear pores. The ...
They are attached to the nuclear envelope membrane via farnesyl anchors and interaction with inner nuclear membrane proteins ... This allows lamin A to dissociate from the nuclear envelope membrane and fulfill nuclear functions. Mutations causing ... genes might lead to defects in filament assembly and/or attachment to the nuclear envelope and thus jeopardize nuclear envelope ... evolution and origins of the nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex". Cell Cycle. 3 (12): 1612-37. doi:10.4161/cc.3.12.1316 ...
March 2006). "Increased expression of Nuclear Envelope gp210 Antigen in Small Bile Ducts in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis". Journal ... Nesher G, Margalit R, Ashkenazi YJ (April 2001). "Anti-Nuclear Envelope Antibodies: Clinical Associations". Seminars in ... Such autoreactivity may also be the case with other proteins, including the gp210 and p62 nuclear pore proteins. Gp210 has ... Fibric acid derivatives, or fibrates, are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR), a nuclear receptor ...
Gibbs, Sarah P. (1962). "Nuclear envelope-chloroplast relationships in algae" (PDF). Journal of Cell Biology. 14 (3): 433-444. ... In 1962, she published a paper titled "Nuclear envelope-chloroplast relationships in algae", detailing the unexpected discovery ... Gibbs called the two extra membranes the outer envelope, but they were later named the chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ...
CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CTDNEP1 gene. ENSG00000288307 GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1". Retrieved 2012-12-07. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ...
... s (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins) are a family of proteins that are found primarily in the outer nuclear ... Rajgor D, Shanahan CM (July 2013). "Nesprins: from the nuclear envelope and beyond". Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. 15: ... as the absence or disruption of Nesprin family members at the nuclear envelope interferes with the cell's ability to sense and ... which is a protein network that associates the nuclear envelope (the membrane surrounding the nucleus) to the cytoskeleton, ...
1982). Nuclear Matrix and DNA Replication in Maul, GG (ed.) The Nuclear Envelope and the Nuclear Matrix. New York: Alan R. Liss ... Structural continuity between extracellular, cyst skeletal and nuclear components was discussed by Hay, Berezny et al. and ...
CTDNEP1: encoding protein CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1. *DEL17P13.1 encoding protein Chromosome 17p13.1 deletion syndrome ...
... just as the nuclear envelope. These lamella have pore complexes which are identical to those of the nuclear cover. It is ... Cell membranes Nuclear envelope Rieger R. Michaelis A.; Green M. M. (1976). Glossary of genetics and cytogenetics: Classical ... They are probably formed from the nuclear envelope. Similar membranes are found in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In the ...
"HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... It localizes to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and anchors the lamina and the heterochromatin to the membrane. It ... Worman HJ, Yuan J, Blobel G, Georgatos SD (November 1988). "A lamin B receptor in the nuclear envelope". Proceedings of the ... Soullam B, Worman HJ (March 1993). "The amino-terminal domain of the lamin B receptor is a nuclear envelope targeting signal". ...
Hatch EM, Fischer AH, Deerinck TJ, Hetzer MW (July 2013). "Catastrophic nuclear envelope collapse in cancer cell micronuclei". ... These micronuclei, which reside outside of the main nucleus have defective envelopes and often rupture exposing their genomic ... They also control transcription, and process nuclear transport. CIN is a more pervasive mechanism in cancer genetic instability ...
For example, mTHPC localizes in the nuclear envelope. In contrast, ALA localizes in the mitochondria and methylene blue in the ... "Fluorescence anisotropy imaging reveals localization of meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin in the nuclear envelope". ...
... that localizes to the nuclear membrane. Enaptin is a nuclear envelope protein found in human myocytes and synapses, which is ... Enaptin also known as nesprin-1 or synaptic nuclear envelope protein 1 (syne-1) is an actin-binding protein that in humans that ... "Entrez Gene: Spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 1". "Compute pI/Mw for SYNE1_HUMAN (Q8NF91)". ExPASy. Swiss Institute ... tethering the cell nucleus to the cytoskeleton by interacting with the nuclear envelope and with F-actin in the cytoplasm. ...
Dynein and dynactin concentrate on the nuclear envelope during the prophase and facilitate nuclear envelope breakdown via its ... "Cytoplasmic dynein as a facilitator of nuclear envelope breakdown". Cell. 108 (1): 97-107. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00628-6. ... p62/DCTN4 and Arp11/Actr10 are essential for dynactin complex integrity and dynactin/dynein targeting to the nuclear envelope ... In addition, dynactin has been shown to play an essential role in maintaining nuclear position in Drosophila, zebrafish or in ...
Depolymerization of the nuclear lamins leads to disintegration of the nuclear envelope. Transfection experiments demonstrate ... Burke B, Stewart CL (2002). "Life at the edge: the nuclear envelope and human disease". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3 (8): 575-85 ... Wydner KL, McNeil JA, Lin F, Worman HJ, Lawrence JB (March 1996). "Chromosomal assignment of human nuclear envelope protein ... The nuclear lamina consist of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family ...
2005). "The inner nuclear membrane protein Sun1 mediates the anchorage of Nesprin-2 to the nuclear envelope". J. Cell Sci. 118 ... The human SYNE2 gene consists of 116 exons and encodes nesprin-2, a member of the nuclear envelope (NE) spectrin-repeat ( ... 2005). "Nesprin-2 is a multi-isomeric protein that binds lamin and emerin at the nuclear envelope and forms a subcellular ... "Entrez Gene: SYNE2 spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 2". Rajgor D, Mellad JA, Autore F, Zhang Q, Shanahan CM (Jul ...
Instead, the nuclear envelope acts as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) for spindle formation during preprophase. The ... The initiation of microtubule nucleation at the nuclear envelope. Plant cells are fixed with regards to their neighbor cells ... The preprophase spindle forms by self-assembly of these microtubules in the cytoplasm surrounding the nuclear envelope. It is ... actin-free zone appearing around the nuclear envelope. This zone fills with microtubules nucleating on the surface of the ...
The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact. ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ...
Olins, A. L.; Buendia, B.; Herrmann, H.; Lichter, P.; Olins, D. E. (1998-11-25). "Retinoic acid induction of nuclear envelope- ... Olins, A. L.; Buendia, B.; Herrmann, H.; Lichter, P.; Olins, D. E. (1998-11-25). "Retinoic acid induction of nuclear envelope- ... Studying rat polyploid trophoblasts, this research group has shown that the nuclear envelope of the giant nucleus is involved ... Intriguing phenomena including controlled autophagic degradation of some DNA as well as production of nuclear envelope-limited ...
Chromatin undergoes condensation into compact patches against the nuclear envelope (also known as the perinuclear envelope) in ... The nuclear envelope becomes discontinuous and the DNA inside it is fragmented in a process referred to as karyorrhexis. The ... Kihlmark M, Imreh G, Hallberg E (October 2001). "Sequential degradation of proteins from the nuclear envelope during apoptosis ... The binding of nuclear receptors by glucocorticoids, heat, radiation, nutrient deprivation, viral infection, hypoxia, increased ...
INTS mediates recruitment of cytoplasmic dynein to the nuclear envelope. Outside of the INTS gene family, c7orf26 interacts ... 2018), there may be some evidence that regions on chromosome 7 may be directly linked to a nuclear estrogen receptor (ESR2) ... Sumoylation sites are involved in a number of cellular processes, including nuclear-cytosolic transport, transcriptional ... "Quantitative mapping of RNA-mediated nuclear estrogen receptor β interactome in human breast cancer cells". Scientific Data. 5 ...
mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · mitotic nuclear envelope reassembly. · muscle organ development. · regulation of cell ... nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol. · intermediate filament. · ... Depolymerization of the nuclear lamins leads to disintegration of the nuclear envelope. Transfection experiments demonstrate ... The nuclear envelope in muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular diseases. Traffic. 2002, 2 (10): 675-83. PMID 11576443. doi: ...
Over time, many parts of the chloroplast genome were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host,[4][7][26] a process called ... Toc75 is the most abundant protein on the outer chloroplast envelope. It is a transmembrane tube that forms most of the TOC ... Tic56 is also a nuclear encoded protein. The preprotein its gene encodes is 527 amino acids long, weighing close to 62 thousand ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ...
2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. 2: 816-818. doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2005.1596380. ISBN 978-0-7803-9221-2. . ... the speed at which the pulse of light or the envelope of the wave moves. ...
The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Ruminants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ...
It was expected that any future European war would start with a nuclear exchange that would destroy most airbases, so aircraft ... low-performance flight envelope; subsequently, the project was cancelled in September 1961. ... like nuclear powered bombers.[11] In a repeat of the earlier Toronto Star release, in 1955 an extensive article appeared in ... interest in VTOL faded as it became widely believed a nuclear first strike would not be used at the start of a European war. ...
mitochondrial envelope. • mitochondrial nucleoid. • extracellular exosome. • mitochondrion. Biological process. • lipid ... "Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression". PLoS ONE. 5 (9): e12862. doi:10.1371/ ...
nuclear. sobreng. envelope. nuklear,. na isang tripleng membrano ng selula na nagsasara ng buong organelo at nagpapaisa ng mga ... isang nucleus ang nuclear envelope na isang tripleng membrano ng selula na nagsasara ng buong organelo at nagpapaisa ng mga ... nuclear. laminang. lamina. nuklear. ) na isang hinabing materyal sa loob ng nucleus. nukleus. na nagdaragdag ng suportang ... ang nucleoskeleton(na kinabibilangan ng nuclear lamina) na isang hinabing materyal sa loob ng nucleus na nagdaragdag ng ...
European Organization for Nuclear Research. 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2013.. *^ Gaensler, Brian (November 2011). "Extreme ... The nuclear charge causes chemical bond breaking or ionization in the plastic. At the top of the plastic stack the ionization ... R.L. Fleischer; P.B. Price; R.M. Walker (1975). Nuclear tracks in solids: Principles and applications. University of California ... S.L., Kakani (2008). "Cosmic rays". Nuclear and Particle Physics (به English). Viva books Private limited. p. 896. ISBN 978-81- ...
... and RNA editing take place at sites determined by the base pairing between the target RNA and RNA constituents of small nuclear ...
2002). "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression in a large cohort ... evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity". Vaccine 23: 1639-1648. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.038. ...
nuclear envelope. • غشاء. • ruffle. • extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane. • غشاء خلوي. • perinuclear ...
... as it provides data on the nuclear environment, star formation, and even black hole fueling. Furthermore, the HNC/HCN line ...
... then the M2 ion channel allows protons to move through the viral envelope and acidify the core of the virus, which causes the ... nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase basic 1), PB1-F2 and PB2.[65] ... These are made of a viral envelope containing two main types of glycoproteins, wrapped around a central core. The central core ... part of the hemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole's membrane, ...
Nesher, G; Margalit, R; Ashkenazi, YJ (April 2001). "Anti-nuclear envelope antibodies: Clinical associations". Seminars in ... Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... Nuclear dot patterns show between 13 and 25 nuclear dots in interphase cells and are produced by anti-sp100 antibodies. ... gp210 is a 200kDa protein involved in anchoring components of the nuclear pore to the nuclear membrane. The p62 antigen is a ...
Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ... "budd through nuclear membrane". Completed viral replication occurs within 12 hours of infection. Vacuoles of mature virions are ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ... Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ...
Cross-sectional area of a nuclear pore complex in vertebrates[9] 10−12 1 square micrometre (μm2) 6 μm2 Surface area of an E. ... Back-of-the-envelope calculation. *Fermi problem. *Powers of 10. *Metric (SI) prefix ... "The Nuclear Pore Complex". UIUC Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. Retrieved 2011-10-14.. ...
... presence or absence of infolding of the nuclear envelope, and composition of the cytoplasm. Type 1 pinealocytes are also known ...
nuclear matrix. • nuclear envelope lumen. • cell nucleus. • extracellular region. • extracellular space. • nuclear envelope. • ... "5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein are localized in the nuclear envelope of activated human leukocytes". J. ... Serine 523 phosphorylation (which is conducted by PKA) totally inactivates the enzyme and prevents its nuclear localization; ... moves to bind with phospholipids in the nuclear membrane and, probably, endoplasmic reticulum membrane; c) is able to accept ...
... a new nuclear envelope forms using the membrane vesicles of the parent cell's old nuclear envelope. The new envelope forms ... after the nuclear envelope breaks down.[29] The preprophase band disappears during nuclear envelope breakdown and spindle ... At the beginning of prometaphase in animal cells, phosphorylation of nuclear lamins causes the nuclear envelope to disintegrate ... Mitosis varies between organisms.[7] For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks ...
2000). "Nuclear Lamins A and B1: Different Pathways of Assembly during Nuclear Envelope Formation in Living Cells". Journal of ... Paine P, Moore L, Horowitz S (1975). "Nuclear envelope permeability". Nature. 254 (5496): 109-114. doi:10.1038/254109a0. PMID ... Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer (2002-03-07). "Cell biology: Ripping up the nuclear envelope". Nature. 416 (6876): 31-32. doi: ... Lamond AI, Spector DL (2003). "Nuclear speckles: a model for nuclear organelles". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 4 (8): 605-12. doi: ...
Although isotopes are more relevant to nuclear chemistry or stable isotope chemistry than to conventional chemistry, different ... This is convenient when writing equations for nuclear reactions, in order to show the balance of charge more clearly. ...
They were interested in nuclear power and wanted to increase the company's technical competence. He served on the board of Taft ... "A Scoop About Neil Armstrong Arrived in a Plain Brown Envelope". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2019 ...
nuclear envelope. • membrane. • കോശസ്തരം. • integral component of plasma membrane. • integral component of membrane. ... "Localization of functional prostaglandin E2 receptors EP3 and EP4 in the nuclear envelope". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
a b c d e f g h i j k M. Arnould, S. Goriely: The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: astrophysics and nuclear physics status ... J. Audouze, J. W. Truran: P-process nucleosynthesis in postshock supernova envelope environments. In: The Astrophysical Journal ... a b A. G. W. Cameron: Nuclear Reactions in Stars and Nucleogenesis. In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific ... a b T. Rauscher, A. Heger, R. D. Hoffman, S. E. Woosley: Nucleosynthesis in Massive Stars with Improved Nuclear and Stellar ...
... high-altitude nuclear explosions; and rocket-borne electron gun experiments.[8] Such excitation can also occur when the gas ...
Like mitochondria, chloroplasts possess their own DNA, separate from the nuclear DNA of their plant host cells and the genes in ... inner membrane (1+2+3: envelope). *stroma (aqueous fluid). *thylakoid lumen (inside of thylakoid) ... "Horizontal gene transfer of the algal nuclear gene psbO to the photosynthetic sea slug Elysia chlorotica". Proceedings of the ...
3D nuclear test simulations as a substitute for legal conduct Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (ASCI Q).[107]. ... In 2011, the challenges and difficulties in pushing the envelope in supercomputing were underscored by IBM's abandonment of the ... the detonation of nuclear weapons, and nuclear fusion). They have been essential in the field of cryptanalysis.[6] ... "OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. Retrieved 25 May 2011.. ...
Fusão nuclear do carbono • Fusão nuclear do neônio • Fusão nuclear do oxigênio • Fusão nuclear do silício • Processo S • ... Binária (De contato • Envelope comum) • Múltipla • Disco de acreção • Sistema planetário • Sistema solar ... Processo alfa • Processo triplo-alfa • Cadeia próton-próton • Flash de hélio • Ciclo CNO • Fusão nuclear do lítio • ...
Because the glycocalyx is so prominent throughout the cardiovascular system, disruption to this structure has detrimental effects that can cause disease. Certain stimuli that cause atheroma may lead to enhanced sensitivity of vasculature. Initial dysfunction of the glycocalyx can be caused by hyperglycemia or oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which then causes atherothrombosis. In microvasculature, dysfunction of the glycocalyx leads to internal fluid imbalance, and potentially edema. In arterial vascular tissue, glycocalyx disruption causes inflammation and atherothrombosis.[8] Experiments have been performed to test precisely how the glycocalyx can be altered or damaged. One particular study used an isolated perfused heart model designed to facilitate detection of the state of the vascular barrier portion, and sought to cause insult-induced shedding of the glycocalyx to ascertain the cause-and-effect relationship between glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability. Hypoxic perfusion ...
The cell shrinks and condenses - the cytoskeleton will collapse, the nuclear envelope disassembles and the DNA fragments up. ... There is evidence where it promotes transcription of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor that assists in ...
... The nuclear envelope is composed of the nuclear membranes, the nuclear lamina and the nuclear ... Nuclear envelope/Howard J. Worman, M. D./[email protected] ... The inner nuclear membrane is associated with the nuclear ... The nuclear membranes are divided into three morphologically distinct but interconnected domains termed the inner nuclear ... are associated with the outer face of the outer nuclear membrane. The nuclear pore complexes, macromolecular structures through ...
The nuclear envelope: The nuclear envelope is a double membrane composed of an outer and an inner phospholipid bilayer. The ... Other articles where Nuclear envelope is discussed: cell: ... In cell: The nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope is a double ... are referred to as the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope typically has specialized nuclear pores that regulate the ... a double membrane, called the nuclear envelope, that fuses at intervals to form pores allowing molecular communication with the ...
The inner surface of the nuclear envelope has a protein lining called the nuclear lamina, which binds to chromatin and other ... The entire envelope is perforated by numerous nuclear pores. These transport routes are fully permeable to small molecules up ... The nuclear envelope is a double membrane composed of an outer and an inner phospholipid bilayer. The thin space between the ... The nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope is a double membrane composed of an outer and an inner phospholipid bilayer. The ...
This volume provides a wide range of protocols used in studying the nuclear envelope, with special attention to the ... Nuclear Envelope Isolation; Part II - Nuclear Envelope Protein Interactions, Localization, and Dynamics; Part III - Nuclear ... The Nuclear Envelope. Methods and Protocols. Editors: Shackleton, Sue, Collas, Philippe, Schirmer, Eric C. (Eds.) ... Cutting edge and thorough, The Nuclear Envelope: Methods and Protocols is a timely resource for researchers who have joined ...
Gene Ontology Term: nuclear envelope. GO ID. GO:0005635 Aspect. Cellular Component. Description. The double lipid bilayer ...
Nuclear envelope in nuclear positioning and cell migration.. Razafsky D1, Wirtz D, Hodzic D. ... the nuclear envelope and provide interacting interfaces for cytoskeletal networks and molecular motors to the nuclear envelope ... Linkers of the Nucleoskeleton to the Cytoskeleton (LINC complexes) organization at the nuclear envelope in mammals (see text ... nuclear envelope; SUN: Sad1 and Unc84 domain; KASH: Klarsicht/ANC1/Syne homology domain. ...
Protein separations at the nuclear envelope. The living cell separates its molecular components among numerous organelles. Most ... Communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm takes place at the nuclear envelope, a double membraned structure ... Caspi Y, Zbaida D, Cohen H, Elbaum M (2008) Synthetic Mimic of Selective Transport Through the Nuclear Pore Complex. Nano ... Kim S, Elbaum M. (2013) A simple kinetic model with explicit predictions for nuclear transport. Biophys J. 105:565-9. ...
The nuclear envelope is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes. An inner nuclear membrane and an outer nuclear membrane. These ... The nuclear envelope consists of two lipid bilayer membranes: an inner nuclear membrane and an outer nuclear membrane. The ... The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The nuclear envelope has many nuclear pores ... Mutations in the inner nuclear membrane proteins can cause several nuclear envelopathies. The nuclear envelope is punctured by ...
... not only in the maintenance of nuclear envelope integrity but also in the large-scale organization of nuclear architecture. ... The nuclear envelope in muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular diseases.. Burke B1, Mounkes LC, Stewart CL. ... What is not obvious, however, is why defects in nuclear envelope proteins that are found in most adult cell types should give ... The recognition of these various disorders now raises the novel possibility that the nuclear envelope may have functions that ...
The nucleus of this organ-like structure in the cell plasma is surrounded by an outer and an inner nuclear envelope, which is ... so-called nuclear pores. The outer nuclear envelope is also connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), another organelle. Up ... Study: Inner nuclear envelope plays role in lipid metabolism. *Download PDF Copy ... The nucleus of this organ-like structure in the cell plasma is surrounded by an outer and an inner nuclear envelope, which is ...
... creating the need to re-establish the nuclear compartment at the end of each cell division. Given the cr … ... The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the nuclear genome and transcriptional machinery. In dividing ... The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the nuclear genome and transcriptional machinery. In dividing ... The life cycle of the metazoan nuclear envelope Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2008 Aug;20(4):386-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2008.03.016. ...
Nuclear envelope integrity is monitored by the expression of NLS-3x-mTurquoise2. ... Time-Lapse Imaging of nuclear envelope rupturing. Nuclear envelope integrity is monitored by the expression of NLS-3x- ... Time-Lapse Imaging of nuclear envelope rupturing. ...
You are here : Home , Research Entities , [email protected] , Bioenergetics, Structural Biol ... , Nuclear envelope, telomeres and ... Nuclear envelope assembly and structure. Sophie ZINN-JUSTIN [email protected] ... Telomere architecture and Nuclear envelope assembly. Our team focuses on interactions regulating the response to DNA damage, ... nuclear envelope assembly and structure.. Contacts. DNA damage signaling and repair. Jean-Baptiste CHARBONNIER. [email protected] ...
DNA calls for the return of the nuclear envelope (NE) after mitosis, according to Ulbert et al. (page 469). The abundance of ... Two transmembrane proteins of the inner nuclear envelope were already known to bind to DNA in vitro, and the authors have now ... In fact, large basic tails were found in half of the tested nuclear membrane proteins but only 4% of ER and Golgi membrane ... Loss of any particular transmembrane NE protein in vivo does not interfere with envelope reformation, so maybe they all work ...
... Harmon E.B., Harmon M.L., Larsen T.D., Yang J., ... DMPK is a nuclear envelope (NE) protein that promotes myogenic gene expression in skeletal myoblasts. Muscular dystrophy ... Overexpression of DMPK in HeLa cells or C2C12 myoblasts disrupts Lamin-A/C and Lamin-B1 localization and causes nuclear ... research has revealed the NE to be a key determinant of nuclear structure, gene regulation, and muscle function. To investigate ...
... which pull on the nuclear membranes. Unexpectedly, an F-actin meshwork helps to tear down the large nucleus of starfish oocytes ... Nuclear envelope breakdown in metazoan cells is thought to be facilitated by microtubules, ... Nuclear envelope breakdown in metazoan cells is thought to be facilitated by microtubules, which pull on the nuclear membranes ... Nuclear envelope breakdown: actin quick to tear down the wall Curr Biol. 2014 Jul 7;24(13):R605-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.05. ...
SIRT2 regulates nuclear envelope reassembly through ANKLE2 deacetylation.. [Tanja Kaufmann, Eva Kukolj, Andreas Brachner, ... Here, we show that SIRT2 depletion or overexpression causes nuclear envelope reassembly defects. We link this phenotype to the ... The function of SIRT2 therefore extends beyond the regulation of microtubules to include the regulation of nuclear envelope ... at S662 are dynamically regulated throughout the cell cycle by SIRT2 and are essential for normal nuclear envelope reassembly. ...
Our results establish an essential role for the nuclear envelope-localized torsinA-LAP1 complex in hepatic VLDL secretion and ... Nuclear envelope-localized torsinA-LAP1 complex regulates hepatic VLDL secretion and steatosis. ... Nuclear envelope-localized torsinA-LAP1 complex regulates hepatic VLDL secretion and steatosis. ... Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear envelope is a site of regulation of lipid metabolism, but there is limited ...
A potential explanation for nuclear lipid is that LAP1 deletion promotes invaginations of the nuclear envelope, an effect known ... The nuclear envelope as a signaling node in development and disease. Dev Cell. 2009;17(5):626-638.. View this article via: ... Nuclear envelope-localized torsinA-LAP1 complex regulates hepatic VLDL secretion and steatosis. Ji-Yeon Shin,1,2 Antonio ... These findings highlight nuclear envelope-localized events as key for hepatocyte-autonomous lipid metabolism defects, which are ...
2016) Chm7 and Heh1 collaborate to link nuclear pore complex quality control with nuclear envelope sealing. EMBO J 35(22):2447- ... 2006) The inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2 is critical for normal nuclear envelope morphology. FEBS Lett 580(27):6435-6441. ... LEM2- and ESCRT-dependent nuclear envelope closure. Mingyu Gu, Dollie LaJoie, Opal S. Chen, Alexander von Appen, Mark S. ... LEM2- and ESCRT-dependent nuclear envelope closure. Mingyu Gu, Dollie LaJoie, Opal S. Chen, Alexander von Appen, Mark S. ...
Spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope family member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYNE3 gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: Spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope family member 3". Retrieved 2018-05-27. Nery FC, Zeng J, Niland BP, ... "TorsinA binds the KASH domain of nesprins and participates in linkage between nuclear envelope and cytoskeleton". J. Cell Sci. ...
Nuclear Envelope Marker used in Western blot. Abcam provides excellent in-house scientific support ... Western blot abreview for Anti-Lamin B1 antibody - Nuclear Envelope Marker. Excellent ...
lipid bilayer is enveloped with holes, called nuclear pores, to regulate the exchange of substances (for example, proteins and ... The inner membrane is constituted by a network of filaments called nuclear lamina, The lamina attach to chromosomes. It also ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Nuclear_envelope&oldid=99633" ...
HB-EGF (green) on the plasma membrane (top) departs for the nuclear envelope (red) in cells that are reactivating the cell ... In its nuclear envelope locale, the protein can reactivate cell cycle genes. ... since sites of gene repression are thought to reside near the nuclear envelope. The group is now examining whether genes that ... Once at the ER, the protein is small enough to diffuse freely within the membrane through the nuclear pore to the INM. ...
Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila.. J Liu, K Song ... Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila.. J Liu, K Song ... Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila.. J Liu, K Song ... Ya mutant embryos arrest with abnormal nuclear envelopes prior to the first mitotic division; a proportion of embryos from two ...
The NE is composed of two membranes: on the nucleoplasmic side,the Inner Nuclear Membrane (INM) and on the cytoplasmic side, ... to the nucleus and induce changes in chromatin organisation andultimately gene expression.A novel family of NUCLEAR ENVELOPE ... AtNEAP proteins are encoded by a small gene familycomposed of three genes and are targeted through a nuclear localisation ... The NE allows communication between both compartments through Nuclear PoreComplexes and bridges the cytoskeleton to the ...
... inner nuclear membrane and form complexes with KASH proteins of the outer nuclear membrane that connect the nuclear envelope ( ... SUN proteins facilitate the removal of membranes from chromatin during nuclear envelope breakdown.. [Yagmur Turgay, Lysie ... These complexes have well-established functions in nuclear anchorage and migration in interphase, but little is known about ...
Electronic and Nuclear Relaxation, and Electronic Structure Calculation Opportunities to discuss the physical and quantum ...
Calcium signalling in and around the nuclear envelope J. Gerasimenko; J. Gerasimenko 1 ... In the present study, we have shown that all calcium messengers induce Ca2+ release from the nuclear envelope. Pre-treatment of ... J. Gerasimenko, Y. Maruyama, A. Tepikin, O.H. Petersen, O. Gerasimenko; Calcium signalling in and around the nuclear envelope. ... We conclude that all three calcium messengers can release Ca2+ from pancreatic acinar nuclear stores, as previously shown for ...
The scientists have focused their research on a study of induced mutations in the nuclear envelope of cells from the tiny C. ... Hebrew U.-Johns Hopkins study of nuclear envelope defects provides clues to dealing with human disease. 31.08.2005 ... Such mutations, particularly in lamin (nuclear envelope) proteins A and C, cause many different diseases, including Hutchison ... Their aim is to thus provide clues towards a better understanding of mutations in proteins of the envelope of the cell nucleus ...
  • The inner nuclear membrane is associated with the nuclear lamina, a meshwork of intermediate filament proteins termed lamins, and the heterochromatin on its nucleoplasmic face. (columbia.edu)
  • DNA in prokaryotes is also organized in loops and is bound to small proteins resembling histones, but these structures are not enclosed by a nuclear membrane. (britannica.com)
  • Intermediate filament proteins called lamins form a structure called the nuclear lamina on the inner aspect of the inner nuclear membrane and give structural support to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is physically linked, the outer nuclear membrane contains proteins found in far higher concentrations than the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • All four nesprin proteins (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins) present in mammals are expressed in the outer nuclear membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nesprin-3 proteins bind plectin and link the nuclear envelope to cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the inner nuclear membrane proteins can cause several nuclear envelopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-Cdk's also phosphorylate elements of the nuclear lamina (the framework that supports the envelope) leading to the disassembly of the lamina and hence the envelope membranes into small vesicles.Electron and fluorescence microscopy has given strong evidence that the nuclear membrane is absorbed by the endoplasmic reticulum-nuclear proteins not normally found in the endoplasmic reticulum show up during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable interest has been focused on the nuclear envelope in recent years following the realization that several human diseases are linked to defects in genes encoding nuclear envelope specific proteins, most notably A-type lamins and emerin. (nih.gov)
  • What is not obvious, however, is why defects in nuclear envelope proteins that are found in most adult cell types should give rise to pathologies associated predominantly with skeletal and cardiac muscle and adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • DNA alone was a more potent inhibitor than chromatin, although chromatin proteins might also contribute, particularly later on as the envelope matures. (rupress.org)
  • Two transmembrane proteins of the inner nuclear envelope were already known to bind to DNA in vitro, and the authors have now identified several more. (rupress.org)
  • In fact, large basic tails were found in half of the tested nuclear membrane proteins but only 4% of ER and Golgi membrane proteins. (rupress.org)
  • The molecular mechanism for sealing newly formed nuclear envelopes was unclear until the recent discovery that endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins mediate this process. (pnas.org)
  • Cmp7p (CHMP7), in particular, was identified as an early acting factor that recruits other ESCRT-III proteins to the nuclear envelope. (pnas.org)
  • Our study identifies the inner nuclear membrane protein LEM2 as a key, conserved factor that recruits CHMP7 and downstream ESCRT-III proteins to breaches in the nuclear envelope. (pnas.org)
  • Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins have been implicated in sealing the nuclear envelope in mammals, spindle pole body dynamics in fission yeast, and surveillance of defective nuclear pore complexes in budding yeast. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report that Lem2p (LEM2), a member of the LEM (Lap2-Emerin-Man1) family of inner nuclear membrane proteins, and the ESCRT-II/ESCRT-III hybrid protein Cmp7p (CHMP7), work together to recruit additional ESCRT-III proteins to holes in the nuclear membrane. (pnas.org)
  • lipid bilayer is enveloped with holes, called nuclear pores , to regulate the exchange of substances (for example, proteins and RNA ) between the nucleus and the cytoplasm . (biology-online.org)
  • During evolution, eukaryotic cells have acquired a nuclear envelope (NE) enclosingand protecting the genome, which is organized in chromatin, a structure wrapping DNAaround histone proteins. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Thus, the nucleoskeleton associated with the INMis needed to transmit signals to the nucleus and induce changes in chromatin organisation andultimately gene expression.A novel family of NUCLEAR ENVELOPE ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (NEAPs)proposed to be new components of the plant nucleoskeleton has been recently evidenced inthe model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • AtNEAP proteins are encoded by a small gene familycomposed of three genes and are targeted through a nuclear localisation signal to the nucleuswhere they are anchored at the INM through their C-terminal transmembrane domain.AtNEAPs also possess several long coiled-coil domains reminiscent of the lamin structure inanimals. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • SUN proteins facilitate the removal of membranes from chromatin during nuclear envelope breakdown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • SUN proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and form complexes with KASH proteins of the outer nuclear membrane that connect the nuclear envelope (NE) to the cytoskeleton. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Their aim is to thus provide clues towards a better understanding of mutations in proteins of the envelope of the cell nucleus in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Such mutations, particularly in lamin (nuclear envelope) proteins A and C, cause many different diseases, including Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
  • SUN (Sad1 and UNC-84 ) and KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1 , and Syne homology) proteins are constituents of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (genetics.org)
  • Fluorescent tagging enabled them to see nuclear proteins spilling into the cytoplasm when cells squeezed through very small pores in the tissue, indicating a torn NE. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A favored hypothesis to explain the pathology underlying nuclear envelopathies is that mutations in nuclear envelope proteins alter genome/chromatin organization and thus gene expression. (mcponline.org)
  • To identify nuclear envelope proteins that play roles in genome organization, we analyzed nuclear envelopes from resting and phytohemagglutinin-activated leukocytes because leukocytes have a particularly high density of peripheral chromatin that undergoes significant reorganization upon such activation. (mcponline.org)
  • A total of 3351 proteins were identified between both nuclear envelope data sets among which were 87 putative nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that were not identified in a previous proteomics analysis of liver nuclear envelopes. (mcponline.org)
  • Nuclear envelope localization was confirmed for 11 new NETs using tagged fusion proteins and antibodies on spleen cryosections. (mcponline.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) 1 is a double membrane system consisting of the intermediate filament nuclear lamin polymer and associated proteins attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) ( 1 ), nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) that direct transport of soluble macromolecules in and out of the nucleus ( 2 ), and the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) and associated proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Lamins and an increasing number of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been linked to a similarly increasing number of diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to neuropathy, dermopathy, lipodystrophy, bone disorders, and progeroid aging syndromes ( 5 , 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Each nuclear pore complex is composed of multiple copies of over 30 different proteins termed nucleoporins and there are several hundred proteins per pore. (elifesciences.org)
  • We investigated the expression of the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C in ovarian cancer by immunohistochemistry and studied the consequence of lamin A/C suppression using siRNA in primary human ovarian surface epithelial cells in culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that nuclear lamina proteins lamin A/C are often absent (47%) in ovarian cancer cells and tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that the loss of nuclear envelope structural proteins, such as lamin A/C, may underlie two of the hallmarks of cancer - aberrations in nuclear morphology and aneuploidy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using the MosSCI technique, we have created Caenorhabditis elegans strains containing single copy insertions of Dam fused to NE and nuclear pore proteins such as emerin/EMR-1, lamin/LMN-1 and Nup98/NPP-10N. (csic.es)
  • Employing a genetically amenable model system enables us to analyze nuclear architecture across several mutant backgrounds, and we are currently exploring methods to control expression of the Dam fusion proteins in a temporal manner and in specific tissues. (csic.es)
  • Here, we found that it also opened at high frequency in migrating mammalian cells during interphase, which allowed nuclear proteins to leak out and cytoplasmic proteins to leak in. (sciencemag.org)
  • For instance, deficiencies in the nuclear lamins and their associated proteins can cause NE rupture that is promoted by forces exerted by actin filaments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This finding is consistent with the role of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex (LINC complex, composed of SUN and Nesprin proteins) in exacerbating NE rupture in cells with deficiencies in the nuclear lamina ( 8 ) and with the finding that increased stiffness of the substratum promotes NE rupture in cells with Lamin A mutations ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations in certain nuclear envelope (NE) proteins cause muscular dystrophies and other disorders, but the disease mechanisms remain unclear. (asm.org)
  • Using a combinatorial RNA interference (RNAi) strategy, we demonstrated novel functions for P granule, nuclear envelope (NE), and nuclear proteins in centrosome duplication, maturation, and separation. (asm.org)
  • Most nuclear proteins are imported by a single pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We provide evidence that the requirements for INT in dynein localization and ciliogenesis are uncoupled: proteins essential for ciliogenesis are not essential for dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope, while depletion of known regulators of perinuclear dynein has minimal effects on ciliogenesis. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Using biochemical and morphological methods, we observed that the nuclear membranes of HeLa cells undergoing mitosis are disassembled in a domain-specific manner, i.e., integral membrane proteins representing the inner nuclear membrane (the lamin B receptor) and the nuclear pore membrane (gp210) are segregated into different populations of mitotic vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • Although ectopic affinity-tethering of specific loci can be used to relocate chromosomes to the nuclear periphery, endogenous nuclear envelope proteins that control such a mechanism in mammalian cells have yet to be widely identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To search for such proteins, 23 nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to promote peripheral localization of human chromosomes in HT1080 fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depletion of two nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that were preferentially expressed in liver each reduced the normal peripheral positioning of chromosome 5 in liver cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The discovery of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that can modulate chromosome position and have restricted patterns of expression may enable dissection of the functional relevance of tissue-specific patterns of radial chromosome positioning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lamins and other nuclear envelope proteins organize nuclear architecture through structural attachments that vary dynamically during the cell cycle and cell differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • A mouse model for this rare disease has been created by knocking out the gene that encodes lamin A/C. This article discusses these and other recent results in the wider context of nuclear envelope function, as a framework for thinking about the possible ways in which defects in nuclear envelope proteins can lead to disease. (elsevier.com)
  • These proteins can be part of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), such as emerin or SUN proteins, outer nuclear membrane (ONM), such as Nesprins, or the nuclear lamina, such as lamins A and C. However, they physically interact with each other to insure the nuclear envelope integrity and mediate the interactions of the nuclear envelope with both the genome, on the inner side, and the cytoskeleton, on the outer side. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the human diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for INM proteins, nuclear lamina, and ONM proteins, and to discuss their potential physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the large spectrum of observed symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Investigating interactions of proteins in the nuclear envelope (NE) using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) has previously been difficult or even impossible due to their inherent resistance to extraction. (diva-portal.org)
  • Studies have shown that nuclear envelope fission (karyokinesis) in budding yeast depends on cytokinesis, but not distinguished whether this was a direct requirement, indirect, because of cell cycle arrest, or due to bud neck-localized proteins impacting both processes. (princeton.edu)
  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a multicomponent structure containing a subset of proteins that bind nuclear transport factors or karyopherins and mediate their movement across the nuclear envelope. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that the altered nuclear shape results from altered distribution or expression of the major structural proteins of the nuclear envelope. (elsevier.com)
  • The results suggest that the irregular nuclear shape of PTC is not determined by these nuclear envelope structural proteins per se. (elsevier.com)
  • Nuclear Pore : An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel. (gladdeninc.org)
  • Inbound traffic includes all nuclear proteins and ribosomal proteins destined for the nucleolus. (gladdeninc.org)
  • Nuclear envelope and lamin assembly, and nuclear scaling Importin [alpha]: functions as a nuclear transport factor and beyond Lammerding, "The interaction between nesprins and sun proteins at the nuclear envelope is critical for force transmission between the nucleus and cytoskeleton," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. (gladdeninc.org)
  • Each chromosome is specifically anchored through its telomeres to a discrete place on the nuclear envelope by the proteins of the nuclear lamina. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The inner part consists of flat membrane proteins eg Emerin which are linked to the nuclear lamina and mutations in Lamins A and B. (immuquest.com)
  • The nuclear envelope is perforated with pores which enable the transport of proteins and RNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm. (immuquest.com)
  • This image is a schematic drawing of the Nuclear Envelope (NE) showing its composite structures including the outer and inner nuclear membranes and NE proteins and their associations with surrounding nuclear and cytoplasmic elements including the lamina, microtubules and actin. (edu.au)
  • It particularly depicts the three-layers of NE proteins which include the nuclear pore complex (NPC) that spans both membranes and inner nuclear membrane proteins (SUN1, LAP2, Emerin, MAN1 and LBR)that interact with the underlying lamina. (edu.au)
  • Original file name: 1423-0127-16-96-1.jpg The nuclear envelopathies and human diseases http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2770040/ The three-layers of NE proteins. (edu.au)
  • It controls the assembly and disassembly of a range of complexes that are formed between Ran-binding proteins and cellular cargo to maintain rapid nuclear transport. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Any proteins made on the nuclear outer membrane-bound ribosomes drop into the perinuclear space and are transported through the inner membrane into the nucleus. (jrank.org)
  • Mutations in the lamina proteins, lamin and emerin, can cause the chromosomes to dissociate from the nuclear envelope and disrupt the organization and properties of the nuclear pores, both of which result in embryonic death. (jrank.org)
  • As the nuclear gate, the NPC is vital for regulating the transport of ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and proteins to and from the nucleus and plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of nuclear structure. (pnas.org)
  • The Nuclear Envelope and its proteins== Original file name: 1423-0127-16-96-1.jpg This image is a schematic drawing of the Nuclear Envelope (NE) showing its composite structures including the outer and inner nuclear membranes and NE proteins and their associations with surrounding nuclear and cytoplasmic elements. (edu.au)
  • Return to File:Nuclear envelope and its proteins.jpg . (edu.au)
  • The nuclear envelope is composed of the nuclear membranes, the nuclear lamina and the nuclear pore complexes. (columbia.edu)
  • The inner surface of the nuclear envelope has a protein lining called the nuclear lamina, which binds to chromatin and other contents of the nucleus . (britannica.com)
  • An internal network forms the nuclear lamina on the inner nuclear membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner nuclear membrane encloses the nucleoplasm, and is covered by the nuclear lamina, a mesh of intermediate filaments which stabilizes the nuclear membrane as well as being involved in chromatin function and entire expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is lined with a fiber network called the nuclear lamina which is 10-40 nm thick and provides strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • We showed that conditional hepatocyte deletion of the inner nuclear membrane protein lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) causes defective VLDL secretion and steatosis, including intranuclear lipid accumulation. (jci.org)
  • The inner membrane is constituted by a network of filaments called nuclear lamina, The lamina attach to chromosomes. (biology-online.org)
  • The fs(1)Ya protein (YA) is an essential, maternally encoded, nuclear lamina protein that is under both developmental and cell cycle control. (genetics.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) is composed of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), to which the nuclear lamina is attached, and the outer nuclear membrane (ONM), which is contiguous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE), which forms the barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, consists of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and outer nuclear membrane, nuclear pore complexes, and the nuclear lamina. (asm.org)
  • Normal nuclear morphology can be seen in the heat shock inducible Cap-H2 overexpression line in the absence of heat shock treatment (A). Nuclear deformations can be observed in the heat shock−inducible Cap-H2 overexpression line with heath shock treatment (B), where the nuclear lamina has formed structures within the nuclear space. (g3journal.org)
  • The nuclear envelope consists of three distinct membrane domains: the outer membrane with the bound ribosomes, the inner membrane with the bound lamina, and the pore membrane with the bound pore complexes. (rupress.org)
  • At the completion of mitosis, the inner nuclear membrane-derived vesicles associate with chromatin first, beginning in anaphase, whereas the pore membranes and the lamina assemble later, during telophase and cytokinesis. (rupress.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) separating the nucleoplasm from cytoplasm consists of two concentric lipid membranes, the outer (ONM) and inner (INM) nuclear membranes, the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and an underlying nuclear lamina network. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our data suggest that lamin A is essential for anchorage of emerin to the inner nuclear membrane and of lamin C to the lamina. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Vertebrate Nup53 interacts with the nuclear lamina and is required for the assembly of a Nup93-containing complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The inside surface of the nuclear envelope is lined with the nuclear lamina. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Perhaps most significantly, these studies strongly suggest that the intermediate filament nuclear lamina, although serving as a structural support for the nuclear membranes, must have additional functions. (diff.org)
  • Emerin which are linked to the nuclear lamina and mutations in Lamins A and B. (immuquest.com)
  • The nuclear lamina forms a meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane. (edu.au)
  • The inner membrane is coated with a mesh-like network of intermediate filaments called the nuclear lamina. (jrank.org)
  • Various nuclear structures, including the chromosomes, attach directly to the lamina, which is essential for maintaining the overall architecture and function of the nucleus. (jrank.org)
  • The nuclear membranes are divided into three morphologically distinct but interconnected domains termed the inner nuclear membrane, outer nuclear membrane and pore membrane. (columbia.edu)
  • The nuclear pore complexes, macromolecular structures through which transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm takes place, are associated with the pore membranes. (columbia.edu)
  • The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes that in eukaryotic cells surrounds the nucleus, which encases the genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear envelope consists of two lipid bilayer membranes: an inner nuclear membrane and an outer nuclear membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear envelope is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membranes are connected to each other by nuclear pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is connected to the outer membrane by nuclear pores which penetrate the membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They link the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear envelope breakdown in metazoan cells is thought to be facilitated by microtubules, which pull on the nuclear membranes. (nih.gov)
  • A fundamental aspect of the varied roles of ESCRT factors is their recruitment by site-specific adaptors, yet the central question of how the ESCRT machinery is targeted to nuclear membranes has remained outstanding. (pnas.org)
  • The NE is composed of two membranes: on the nucleoplasmic side,the Inner Nuclear Membrane (INM) and on the cytoplasmic side, the Outer NuclearMembrane. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Thus, nuclear envelopes were isolated from leukocytes in the two states and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology using an approach that used expected contaminating membranes as subtractive fractions. (mcponline.org)
  • The assembly process would require the two nuclear membranes to fuse. (elifesciences.org)
  • and (iii) disruption of the nuclear, red blood cell, or host cell membranes. (asm.org)
  • The space between the two membranes is called the nuclear intermembrane space. (gladdeninc.org)
  • Nuclear pores are large multiprotein complexes of 8-fold symmetry that span the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (gladdeninc.org)
  • nuclear envelope Martin W Goldberg and Terence D Allen Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, UK The double-membrane nuclear envelope is punctuated by pores where the two membranes are joined. (gladdeninc.org)
  • The inner and outer membranes conjoin at each nuclear pore site. (immuquest.com)
  • May indirectly modulate the lipid composition of nuclear and/or endoplasmic reticulum membranes and be required for proper nuclear membrane morphology and/or dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • The nuclear envelope -- also called the nuclear membrane -- consists of two membranes that surround the nucleus of plant and animal cells. (sciencing.com)
  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) transverses the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (edu.au)
  • Yoo and Bayley, 1967) preparations of isolated nuclear membranes as revealing characteÂ- ristics common to euka. (diebuchsuche.com)
  • Insulin binding sites are present on purified nuclear envelopes from liver and other tissues, and EM autoradiographs and other types of studies indicate that insulin can enter intact target cells and interact with several types of intracellular membranes, including the nuclear envelope. (elsevier.com)
  • The channel wall consists of two membranes continuous with the nuclear envelope, studded with features indistinguishable from nuclear pore complexes, and decorated on the nucleoplasmic surface with lamins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The nuclear envelope typically has specialized nuclear pores that regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the nucleus. (britannica.com)
  • Each pore is surrounded by an elaborate protein structure called the nuclear pore complex, which selects molecules for entrance into the nucleus. (britannica.com)
  • Communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm takes place at the nuclear envelope, a double membraned structure perforated by large protein channels known as the nuclear pores. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The nuclear envelope has many nuclear pores that allow materials to move between the cytosol and the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of this organ-like structure in the cell plasma is surrounded by an outer and an inner nuclear envelope, which is penetrated by openings - so-called nuclear pores. (news-medical.net)
  • They discovered that the inner envelope plays a role in the metabolism of lipids, even storing such substances in the cell nucleus. (news-medical.net)
  • In dividing cells of metazoa, the nucleus completely disassembles during mitosis, creating the need to re-establish the nuclear compartment at the end of each cell division. (nih.gov)
  • All transport in and out of the nucleus has to pass through channels in the envelope, formed by large protein assemblies called the nuclear pore complexes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Before a cell divides in two, the nucleus has to grow and new nuclear pore complexes must be assembled into the double membrane barrier of the nuclear envelope. (elifesciences.org)
  • Recent evidence suggested that the nucleus of cardiac myocytes might be a Ca 2+ microdomain and that calcineurin, once translocated into the nucleus, could act as a nuclear Ca 2+ sensor. (springer.com)
  • The nuclear envelope segregates genomic DNA from the cytoplasm and regulates protein trafficking between the cytosol and the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mammalian nuclear envelope (NE) forms a stable physical barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, normally breaking down only during mitosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The NE prevents macromolecules from diffusing into and out of the nucleus, thus maintaining the separation between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm and allowing the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to regulate the trafficking of macromolecules ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the particular z-slice shown for the heat shock control (D), the nucleolus is especially prominent in the center of the nucleus but is not indicative of a global reorganization of the chromatin to the nuclear periphery. (g3journal.org)
  • Labeled in the panels are the following features: N (nucleus), C (cytoplasm), Ch (chromatin), NE (nuclear envelope), and NR (nucleoplasmic reticulum). (g3journal.org)
  • The nuclear envelope can be seen lining the nuclear periphery of the GAL4 control (A). Cap-H2 overexpressing nuclei have additional structures within the nucleus, termed NR (B). Greater resolution images of the Cap-H2 overexpression nucleus, (C) and (D), reveal that the NR has an intact double membrane layer. (g3journal.org)
  • Capsids assemble in the nucleus and exit the nucleus by budding at the inner nuclear membrane, acquiring tegument and the envelope. (uzh.ch)
  • The nuclear membrane, also called the nuclear envelope, is a double membrane layer that separates the contents of the nucleus from the rest of the cell. (gladdeninc.org)
  • The nuclear envelope disintegrates to allow the spindle fibers to access the chromosomes in the nucleus. (gladdeninc.org)
  • The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle. (gladdeninc.org)
  • The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus. (gladdeninc.org)
  • The nuclear envelope helps to maintain the shape of the nucleus. (gladdeninc.org)
  • Typically spherical in shape and taking up 10 percent of the volume of a cell, the nucleus is bounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope (Figures 1 and 2). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The heterochromatin of any given chromosome is found within its territory close to the nuclear envelope (Figure 1), but can often project into the interior of the nucleus as patches and/or surround the nucleolus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Those portions of the DNA that replicate late are found near the nuclear envelope, while earlier-replicating DNA is found in the interior of each territory, projecting into the center of the nucleus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The nuclear envelope is a highly regulated membrane barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. (diff.org)
  • To allow access of the mitotic spindle to chromatin, the nucleus of metazoans must completely disassemble during mitosis, generating the need to re-establish the nuclear compartment at the end of each cell division. (diff.org)
  • Model parameters such as nucleus size, chromosome persistence length, and chromosome-nuclear envelope interactions are taken directly from experiment(3). (vt.edu)
  • In cancer, the relevance of the cell nucleus was first reported in the mid-1800s when an altered nuclear morphology was observed in tumor cells. (lu.se)
  • Both the nucleus and the nuclear envelope were discovered by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in 1833. (sciencing.com)
  • Brown discovered the nucleus and nuclear envelope while studying the properties of plants using new techniques he developed with a light microscope that allowed for a close examination of cellular structure. (sciencing.com)
  • Completely surrounding the nucleus, the nuclear envelope sequesters the genomic information of the cell, probably protecting it from the various enzymes and processes that occur within the cytoplasm. (jrank.org)
  • The major transport pathway in and out of the nucleus, however, is thought to be through nuclear pores. (jrank.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The nuclear membrane is a lipid bilayer that surrounds the nucleus. (smore.com)
  • Some channels transect the nucleus entirely, opening at two separate points on the nuclear surface, while others terminate at or close to nucleoli. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The nuclear envelope is punctured by thousands of nuclear pores, large hollow protein complexes about 100 nm across, with an inner channel about 40 nm wide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory is particularly interested in the description of the protein-protein interaction networks controlling genome stability : DNA damage signaling and repair, telomere architecture, nuclear envelope assembly and structure. (cea.fr)
  • The laboratory aims at identifying high and low affinity interactions between protein domains, characterizing their mode of interaction with an atomic resolution and elucidating their mode of regulation using biochemical methods combined with fluorescence, calorimetry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. (cea.fr)
  • The impact of post-translational modifications on the protein three-dimensional structure and binding properties is investigated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in vitro and in cell extracts. (cea.fr)
  • Loss of any particular transmembrane NE protein in vivo does not interfere with envelope reformation, so maybe they all work together. (rupress.org)
  • Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase is critical for nuclear envelope integrity. (uniprot.org)
  • DMPK is a nuclear envelope (NE) protein that promotes myogenic gene expression in skeletal myoblasts. (uniprot.org)
  • Spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope family member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYNE3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anewly identified trafficking pathway takes a cell surface protein to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), reveal Hieda et al . (rupress.org)
  • In its nuclear envelope locale, the protein can reactivate cell cycle genes. (rupress.org)
  • Once at the ER, the protein is small enough to diffuse freely within the membrane through the nuclear pore to the INM. (rupress.org)
  • Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila. (genetics.org)
  • Here we show that the coiled-coil domains of SUN-1 are required for oligomerization and retention of the protein in the nuclear envelope, especially at later stages of female gametogenesis. (genetics.org)
  • The variation in the protein milieu with pharmacological activation of the same cell population and consequences for gene regulation suggest that the nuclear envelope is a complex regulatory system with significant influences on genome organization. (mcponline.org)
  • MAN1, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, inhibits TGF-β signaling by binding to Smad2 and Smad3. (sciencemag.org)
  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the largest non-polymeric protein complex in eukaryotic cells, embedded in a double membrane called the nuclear envelope (NE), and mediates all macromolecular transport across the NE. (elifesciences.org)
  • 18)-containing lymphoma cell line revealed the presence of Bcl-2 protein in nuclear, heavy-membrane, and light-membrane fractions but not in cytosol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, the findings demonstrate that p26-Bcl-2 resides primarily in the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, and outer mitochondrial membrane in a nonuniform distribution suggestive of participation in protein complexes perhaps involved in some aspect of transport. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear envelope separates the genomic DNA from the cytoplasmic space and regulates protein trafficking between the two compartments. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we show that Eg5 localization and centrosome separation in prophase depend on the nuclear microtubule-associated protein TPX2 [18], a pool of which localizes to the centrosomes before NEBD. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nuclear protein import can be separated into two distinct steps: binding to the nuclear pore complex followed by translocation to the nuclear interior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A previously identified nuclear location sequence (NLS) receptor and a 97-kD protein purified from bovine erythrocytes reconstitute the binding step in a permeabilized cell assay. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of different roles for RanGDP and RanGTP in nuclear protein import. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Below are the list of possible Nuclear envelope morphology protein products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Genetic studies have now shown that people with mutations in either lamins A/C or emerin, a nuclear membrane protein, develop Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the identification of the first disease causing mutation in the gene coding for emerin, a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane, hundreds of mutations and variants have been found in genes encoding for nuclear envelope components. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using MCLIP we show that, in U2OS cells, the integral inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1 interacts with Lamin B1, the LINC (Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex protein, Sun1 and the soluble small GTPase Ran. (diva-portal.org)
  • The B tether includes the inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein Laurin B-receptor, which binds B-type lamins and chromatin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The neck may be critical for either mechanical reasons, as the contractile ring might facilitate fission, or for regulatory reasons, as the site of a protein network regulating nuclear envelope fission, mitotic exit, and cytokinesis. (princeton.edu)
  • Since in Progeria farnesyl cannot be attached with a protein, called lamin A, so the nuclear envelope is altered. (diff.org)
  • Farnesyl is an hydrophobic molecule that creates a link with lamin A. After this link, lamin A protein goes to the nuclear envelope in a mechanically, in order to escape from water. (diff.org)
  • The Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Nemp1 Is a New Type of RanGTP-Binding Protein in Eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Ran also has been identified as an essential protein in nuclear envelope formation in eukaryotes. (brad.ac.uk)
  • this complex is essential for RNA export, but not for classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear protein import. (pnas.org)
  • It has been shown to interact with nuclear transport factors and is required for nuclear export of poly(A) + RNA but not for classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-mediated protein import. (pnas.org)
  • In doing so, we identify the protein Les1, which is localized to the inner nuclear envelope and restricts the process of local nuclear envelope breakdown to the bridge midzone to prevent the leakage of material from daughter nuclei. (github.io)
  • abstract = "Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) have characteristic nuclear shape changes compared to follicular-type thyroid epithelium. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "We employed the photoaffinity probe 8-azidoadenosine 5′-triphosphate (aATP) to identify the nuclear envelope (NE) nucleosidetriphosphatase activity (NTPase) implicated in control of RNA transport. (elsevier.com)
  • These molecules have special amino acid sequences on their surface that signal admittance by the nuclear pore complexes. (britannica.com)
  • In the past 15 years, Linkers of the Nucleoskeleton to the Cytoskeleton (LINC complexes) have emerged as evolutionary-conserved molecular devices that span the nuclear envelope and provide interacting interfaces for cytoskeletal networks and molecular motors to the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we review the molecular composition of LINC complexes and focus on how their genetic alteration in vivo has provided a wealth of information related to the relevance of nuclear positioning during tissue development and homeostasis with a special emphasis on the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • During the G2 phase of interphase, the nuclear membrane increases its surface area and doubles its number of nuclear pore complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, M-Cdk's phosphorylate nucleoporin polypeptides and they are selectively removed from the nuclear pore complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • After that, the rest of the nuclear pore complexes break apart simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical evidence suggests that the nuclear pore complexes disassemble into stable pieces rather than disintegrating into small polypeptide fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team focuses on the description of complexes involved in the control of genome stability using an integrative structural biology approach: Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy provide experimental data, which are incorporated into molecular modeling calculations to obtain three-dimensional models of the complexes. (cea.fr)
  • The presence of these complexes in the cell and their functional role are systematically addressed through collaboration with cell biologists working on DNA damage signaling and repair and nuclear organization. (cea.fr)
  • These complexes have well-established functions in nuclear anchorage and migration in interphase, but little is known about their involvement in mitotic processes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, exactly how nuclear pore complexes are assembled has been controversially debated for over 15 years, because no one has directly observed any of the intermediate stages during the assembly process. (elifesciences.org)
  • The discovery that nuclear pore complexes assemble via an inside-out mechanism in human cells provides a new conceptual framework to interpret existing genetic and biochemical data. (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore, anti-Bcl-2 antibody immunoreactivity generally appeared to directly overlie the nuclear envelope in high magnification electron microscopic studies, reminiscent of nuclear pore complexes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, recent studies have shown that there is also actively transcribed chromatin at the NE, specially associated with the nuclear pore complexes. (csic.es)
  • From the present observations and those of Aaronson and Blobel (1,2), we favor the notion that threadlike intrinsic membrane components are stabilized by their attachment to the pore complexes, and perhaps also to peripheral nuclear structures, and constitute a detergent-resistant, interpore skeleton meshwork. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The data suggest that infection with HSV-1 alters the number, size, and architecture of nuclear pores without a loss of nucleoporins from altered nuclear pore complexes. (uzh.ch)
  • During the past twenty years the structure of the nuclear envelope, and in particular, that of its most distinct elements, the nuclear pore complexes, has been described from thin section electron microscopy (e,g. (diebuchsuche.com)
  • One possibility is that there is targeting of specific mRNA molecules for specific pore complexes and that insulin may only influence a certain fraction of the nuclear pores. (elsevier.com)
  • The presence of a cytoplasmic core and nuclear pore complexes in the channel walls suggests a possible role for these structures in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We found that DMPK localizes to the NE and coimmunoprecipitates with Lamin-A/C. Overexpression of DMPK in HeLa cells or C2C12 myoblasts disrupts Lamin-A/C and Lamin-B1 localization and causes nuclear fragmentation. (uniprot.org)
  • This localization involves RHAMM/HMMR [19] and the kinase Nek9 [20], which phosphorylates TPX2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) preventing its interaction with importin and nuclear import. (deepdyve.com)
  • One might easily postulate that peripheral localization would depend on connections to the nuclear envelope (NE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both emerin and lamin C depend on lamin A for localization at the nuclear envelope. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Vaughan, O. A. and Alvarez-Reyes, M. and Bridger, J. M. and Broers, J. L. V. and Ramaekers, F. C. S. and Wehnert, M. and Morris, G. E. and Whitfield, W. G. F. and Hutchison, C. J. (2001) 'Both emerin and lamin C depend on lamin A for localization at the nuclear envelope. (dur.ac.uk)
  • As was reported previously for depletion of Nup159 or of Rss1/Gle1, we show here that depletion of Nup82 has no detectable effect on classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear import. (pnas.org)
  • In eukaryotes such as yeast which undergo closed mitosis, the nuclear membrane stays intact during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other eukaryotes (animals as well as plants), the nuclear membrane must break down during the prometaphase stage of mitosis to allow the mitotic spindle fibers to access the chromosomes inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the nuclear membrane can break down within minutes, following a set of steps during the early stages of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the breakdown of the nuclear membrane during the prometaphase stage of mitosis, the nuclear membrane also ruptures in migrating mammalian cells during the interphase stage of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA calls for the return of the nuclear envelope (NE) after mitosis, according to Ulbert et al. (rupress.org)
  • Please state the phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes become visible and the nuclear envelope breaks down. (enotes.com)
  • Because yeast cells undergo closed mitosis, the nuclear envelope remains intact throughout the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) and entry into mitosis are though to be driven by the activation of the p34cdc2-cyclin B kinase complex or mitosis promoting factor (MPF). (cdc.gov)
  • At the end of mitosis, eukaryotic cells must segregate the two copies of their replicated genome into two new nuclear compartments. (github.io)
  • Mitosis has been studied in a wide variety of eukaryotes for more than a century, but how the double membrane of the nuclear envelope is split into two at the end of a closed mitosis without compromising the impermeability of the nuclear compartment remains unknown. (github.io)
  • Here, using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (a classical model for closed mitosis), genetics, live-cell imaging and electron tomography, we show that nuclear fission is achieved via local disassembly of nuclear pores within the narrow bridge that links segregating daughter nuclei. (github.io)
  • The mechanism of local nuclear envelope breakdown in a closed mitosis therefore closely mirrors nuclear envelope breakdown in open mitosis3, revealing an unexpectedly high conservation of nuclear remodelling mechanisms across diverse eukaryotes. (github.io)
  • Live and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy revealed the molecular maturation of the intermediates, which initially contained the nuclear and cytoplasmic ring component Nup107, and only later the cytoplasmic filament component Nup358. (elifesciences.org)
  • The outside surface of the envelope is directly connected to the endoplasmic reticulum of the cytoplasm and is surrounded by a network of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To test whether NEB is controlled at the nuclear or cytoplasmic level, we activated the checkpoint for the completion of DNA synthesis separately in female and male pronuclei by treating either eggs or sperm before fertilization with psoralen to covalently cross-link base-paired strands of DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • We sublocalized the yeast nucleoporin Nup82 to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) by immunoelectron microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • The nucleoporins Nsp1 ( 10 ) and Nic96 (Michael P. Rout, personal communication), which are found in a complex with Nup49 ( 11 , 12 ), and Nup57 ( 13 ) have been localized to the cytoplasmic and nuclear sides of the NPC, so presumably this entire complex is found on both sides of the NPC. (pnas.org)
  • Reassembly of the nuclear envelope is initiated at late anaphase/early telophase when BANF1 (BAF) accumulates on the decondensing chromosome mass close to the spindle ('core' region), together with EMD (emerin), TMPO (LAP2beta), LEMD3 (MAN1), LEMD2 (LEM2) and lamin A (Haraguchi et al. (reactome.org)
  • Competition reactions revealed a clear preference for interactions between emerin and lamin C. Structural associations between lamins and emerin were investigated in four human cell lines displaying abnormal expression and/or localisation of lamins A and C. In each cell line absence of lamins A and C from the nuclear envelope (NE) was correlated with mis-localisation of endogenous and exogenous emerin to the ER. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Lamin A/C, lamin B1, LAP2, emerin, and nuclear pores all extend throughout the grooves and intranuclear inclusions of PTC. (elsevier.com)
  • In Schizosaccharomyces pombe , deletion of the ATPase vps4 leads to severe defects in nuclear morphology and integrity. (pnas.org)
  • Altogether, results indicated that AtNEAPs are part of the nucleoskeleton, with a role inanchoring TFs at the INM to maintain nuclear morphology and chromatin organisation. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In routine clinical diagnosis of cancer, the procedure is very basic: nuclear morphology is used as a common assessment of the degree of malignancy, and hence acts as a prognostic and predictive indicator of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, though the atypical nuclear morphology of cancer cells is believed to be a consequence of oncogenic signaling, the molecular basis remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used immunofluorescence microscopy to analyze nuclear morphology, flow cytometry to analyze cellular DNA content, and fluorescence in situ hybridization to examine cell ploidy of the lamin A/C-suppressed cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) has emerged as an important structure that serves numerous pivotal roles in the cell including compartmentalization, control of nuclear position and morphology, contribution to cell stability, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. (csic.es)
  • The nuclear envelope is a double-layered membrane that encloses the nuclear genome and transcriptional machinery. (nih.gov)
  • Since the sequencing of the simian virus 40 (SV40) viral genome over 30 years ago, it has served as a model to explore fundamental processes including nuclear import, cell transformation, and virus structure ( 24 , 29 , 33 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • The broad goal of the research presented in this dissertation is to advance our understanding of 3D genome organization with an emphasis on determining the role of the nuclear envelope. (vt.edu)
  • The formation of the nuclear envelope and the subsequent compartmentalization of the genome is a defining feature of eukaryotes. (lu.se)
  • This review aims to give a current and comprehensive view of the role of the nuclear envelope on cancer first by recapitulating the changes of the nuclear envelope during cell division, second, by reviewing the role of the nuclear envelope in cell cycle regulation, signaling, and the regulation of the genome, and finally, by addressing the nuclear envelope link to cell migration and metastasis and its use in cancer prognosis. (lu.se)
  • The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer nuclear membrane also shares a common border with the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer nuclear envelope is also connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), another organelle. (news-medical.net)
  • Intracellular Ca 2+ stores include SR (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] in nonmuscle cells) and nuclear envelope (NucEn). (ahajournals.org)
  • The outer part of the nuclear envelope membrane is rough endoplasmic reticulum spotted as it is with ribosomes. (immuquest.com)
  • 60 MDa in yeast ( 2 )] spanning the nuclear envelope (NE), a double membrane whose lumen is continuous with the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The nuclear envelope consists of a double-membraned extension of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In recent years, mutations in nuclear lamins have been shown to cause muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and partial lipodystrohy. (columbia.edu)
  • These observations clearly demonstrate that A-type lamins in particular play a central role, not only in the maintenance of nuclear envelope integrity but also in the large-scale organization of nuclear architecture. (nih.gov)
  • A) Interkinetic nuclear migration consists of the basoapical migration of retinal progenitor cell nuclei (RPC, blue nuclei) in phase with the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • We have compared calcium mobilization by Ins(1,4,5) P 3 (IP 3 ), cADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid-adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) from the envelope of isolated nuclei with the calcium signalling in intact isolated pancreatic acinar cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • The disintegration of the nuclear envelope has been examined in nuclei and nuclear envelopes isolated from amphibian oocytes and rat liver tissue, using different electron microscope techniques (ultrathin sections and negatively or positively stained spread preparations). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Analysis of detergent-treated nuclei and nuclear membrane fractions shows almost complete absence of lipid components but retention of significant amount of glycoproteins with a typical endomembrane-type carbohydrate pattern. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Individual salivary gland nuclei with different heat shock treatments are visualized with DAPI and anti-lamin marking the chromatin and nuclear envelope, respectively. (g3journal.org)
  • The nuclear membrane of individual salivary gland nuclei is visualized with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and antibody to the nuclear pore complex (anti-Nup). (g3journal.org)
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of nuclear envelope and nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) in salivary gland nuclei. (g3journal.org)
  • Chromatin-envelope tethers associate with nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR). Salivary gland nuclei were examined for effects of ectopically expressed chromatin-envelope tether in Cap-H2 overexpression and control. (g3journal.org)
  • Peripheral heterochromatin in mammalian nuclei is tethered to the nuclear envelope by at least two mechanisms here referred to as the A- and B-tethers. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the cdc24 swe1 mutant, at the non-permissive temperature, multiple nuclei accumulated within the unbudded cell, with connected nuclear envelopes. (princeton.edu)
  • We also found that 77-85% of pairs of septin mutant nuclei completed nuclear envelope fission. (princeton.edu)
  • More recent studies indicate that insulin has direct effects on both mRNA efflux from isolated nuclei and nuclear envelope NTPase, the enzyme that regulates mRNA efflux. (elsevier.com)
  • Interphase nuclei of many mammalian cell types contain deep, dynamic, tubular membrane-bound invaginations of the nuclear envelope. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nesprin-mediated connections to the cytoskeleton contribute to nuclear positioning and to the cell's mechanosensory function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NE allows communication between both compartments through Nuclear PoreComplexes and bridges the cytoskeleton to the nucleoskeleton through the LInker ofNucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton complex. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • They interact in the perinuclear space via C-terminal SUN-KASH domains to form the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex thereby bridging the nuclear envelope. (genetics.org)
  • The nuclear envelope is a double membrane composed of an outer and an inner phospholipid bilayer. (britannica.com)
  • a double membrane, called the nuclear envelope , that fuses at intervals to form pores allowing molecular communication with the cytoplasm. (britannica.com)
  • The scientists have focused their research on a study of induced mutations in the nuclear envelope of cells from the tiny C. elegans worm. (innovations-report.com)
  • You are asking at which stage the chromosomes become visible and the nuclear envelope breaks down. (enotes.com)
  • It is during the beginning of prometaphase , however, that the nuclear envelope breaks down so the microtubules can attach themselves to the chromosomes for eventual separation. (enotes.com)
  • However, they do not explain how in some tissues particular chromosomes reposition to the nuclear periphery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, experiments suggest that the nuclear envelope engages chromosomes actively by anchoring specific loci and limiting their range of motion. (vt.edu)
  • In higher eukaryotes the nuclear membrane disassembles when the cell divides, freeing the chromosomes in the cytoplasm. (gladdeninc.org)
  • Every time a cell divides, the nuclear envelope must break down to release the recently duplicated chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We use simulations to study the effects of chromosome-nuclear envelope (Chr-NE) interactions on the dynamics of the fractal globule within a model of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) interphase chromosomes. (vt.edu)
  • The computational model represents chromosomes as self-avoiding walks (SAW) bounded by the nuclear envelope (NE). (vt.edu)
  • To investigate the contribution of VP4 to cell lysis, VP4 was expressed in mammalian cells where it was predominantly observed along the nuclear periphery. (asm.org)
  • Mammalian RanGAP has a unique C-terminal domain required for its targeting to the nuclear pore and kinetochore. (plantcell.org)
  • Generally, at least one of the tethers is always present in the nuclear envelope of mammalian cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Hatch lab is part of the Basic Sciences Division and studies the structure and dynamics of the mammalian nuclear envelope (NE). (icims.com)
  • False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the nuclear envelope seen edge-on showing two nuclear pores closed by a dark-staining diaphragm. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Immune microscopy studies using laser-scanning microscopy, pre- and postembedding electron microscopic methods, and six different anti-Bcl-2 antibodies demonstrated Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in the nuclear envelope and outer mitochondrial membrane in a patchy distribution. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study focuses on the changes of the nuclear envelope during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in HeLa and Vero cells by employing preparation techniques at ambient and low temperatures for high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. (uzh.ch)
  • Cryo-field emission scanning electron microscopy of freeze-fractured cells showed for the first time budding of capsids at the nuclear envelope at the third dimension with high activity at 10 h and low activity at 15 h of incubation. (uzh.ch)
  • Given the crucial role of the nuclear envelope in gene regulation and cellular organization, it is not surprising that its biogenesis and organization have become active research areas. (nih.gov)
  • While centrosomes can separate in prophase or in prometaphase after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), prophase centrosome separation optimizes spindle assembly and minimizes the occurrence of abnormal chromosome attachments that could end in aneuploidy [7, 8]. (deepdyve.com)
  • The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) (also known as the perinuclear envelope, nuclear membrane, nucleolemma or karyotheca) is a double lipid bilayer that encloses the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. (gladdeninc.org)
  • Influence of the bud neck on nuclear envelope fission in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (princeton.edu)
  • Whereas nuclear division in other eukaryotes, such as animals, plants, and protists, involves the dissolution and re-formation of the nuclear membrane, in fungi the nuclear membrane remains intact throughout the process, although gaps in its integrity are found in some species. (britannica.com)
  • These disorders, described as laminopathies or nuclear envelopathies, include both X-linked and autosomal dominant forms of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction system defects, limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1B with atrioventricular conduction disturbances, and Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy. (nih.gov)
  • For these reasons, the diagnosis and the identification of the molecular explanation of "nuclear envelopathies" is currently challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SIRT2 regulates nuclear envelope reassembly through ANKLE2 deacetylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we show that SIRT2 depletion or overexpression causes nuclear envelope reassembly defects. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We link this phenotype to the recently identified regulator of nuclear envelope reassembly ANKLE2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • ANKLE2 acetylation at K302 and phosphorylation at S662 are dynamically regulated throughout the cell cycle by SIRT2 and are essential for normal nuclear envelope reassembly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ran GTPase plays essential roles in multiple cellular processes, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, spindle formation, and postmitotic nuclear envelope (NE) reassembly. (plantcell.org)
  • Our data suggest that the ordered reassembly of the nuclear envelope is triggered by the early attachment of inner nuclear membrane-derived vesicles to the chromatin. (rupress.org)
  • IN eukaryotic cells, the nuclear envelope (NE) forms a barrier between nuclear contents and the cytoplasm. (genetics.org)
  • The nuclear envelope surrounds and protects a eukaryotic cell's DNA and its surrounding nucleoplasm. (gladdeninc.org)
  • The nuclear envelope is a thin membrane that surrounds the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. (immuquest.com)
  • Traditionally, the nuclear envelope was purely viewed as a physical barrier to preserve genetic material in eukaryotic cells. (lu.se)
  • It binds to chromatin early during nuclear formation and has important roles during the eukaryotic cell cycle, where it regulates mitotic spindle assembly, nuclear envelope formation and cell cycle checkpoint control. (brad.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that YA function is required during and after egg maturation to facilitate proper chromatin condensation, rather than to allow a lamin-containing nuclear envelope to form. (genetics.org)
  • Nuclear envelope integrity is monitored by the expression of NLS-3x-mTurquoise2. (mskcc.org)
  • The integrity of the nuclear envelope was compromised in these cells, resulting in the mislocalization of a soluble nuclear marker. (asm.org)
  • Maintaining nuclear envelope integrity during interphase is considered crucial. (sciencemag.org)
  • One screen found two NETs that can recruit a specific gene locus to the nuclear periphery, and the second found a different NET that promotes chromatin condensation. (mcponline.org)
  • Traditionally, the anchoring of chromatin to the nuclear periphery has been associated with silencing and heterochromatin formation. (csic.es)
  • Muscular dystrophy research has revealed the NE to be a key determinant of nuclear structure, gene regulation, and muscle function. (uniprot.org)
  • Hooked to the INM, HB-EGF is probably in close proximity to its repressor targets, since sites of gene repression are thought to reside near the nuclear envelope. (rupress.org)
  • Although little is known about the principles which govern chromosome folding and influence gene regulation, the nuclear envelope is expected to play a significant role since it serves as the physical boundary preventing chromosome from freely diffusing in the cell cytosol. (vt.edu)
  • Although the nuclear membrane enables complex levels of gene expression, it also poses a challenge when it comes to cell division. (diff.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear envelope is a site of regulation of lipid metabolism, but there is limited appreciation of the responsible mechanisms and molecular components within this organelle. (jci.org)
  • To define the function of YA in the nuclear envelope during early embryonic development, we characterized the phenotypes of four Ya mutants alleles and determined their molecular lesions. (genetics.org)
  • Molecular Architecture of the Major Membrane Ring Component of the Nuclear Pore Complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nuclear pore targeting of the yeast Pom33 nucleoporin depends on karyopherin and lipid binding. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The yeast nuclear pore complex: composition, architecture, and transport mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An exception to this is the yeast cells whereby the nuclear envelope stays intact during cell division. (gladdeninc.org)
  • The nuclear envelope in muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear envelope. (elifesciences.org)
  • In nucleocytoplasmic transport, Ran shuttles across the nuclear envelope through nuclear pores. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Contractile actin bundles that increase nuclear pressure contribute to NE rupture and chromatin herniation ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Premature loss of SUN-1 from the nuclear envelope leads to embryonic death due to loss of centrosome-nuclear envelope attachment. (genetics.org)
  • Targeting of Nbp1 to the inner nuclear membrane is essential for spindle pole body duplication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Certain of these diseases are associated with nuclear structural abnormalities that can be seen in a variety of cells and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Ran-dependent nuclear export mediators: a structural perspective. (semanticscholar.org)