Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Parasomnias: Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Somnambulism: A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.EncyclopediasHuman Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
  • Sleep disturbances are very common in people with electrical hypersensitivity syndrome, and can even occur in people who have taken all the right steps to optimizing sleep hygiene, such as, closing the blinds, reducing all the lights in the bed room, eliminating all extraneous sounds in the bed room, etc. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Sleep Disturbances in the Elderly. (medscape.com)
  • Sleep disturbances occur in about 10% to 15% of the general population [ 1 ] and are often associated with situational stress, illness, aging, and drug treatment. (uni-bonn.de)
  • 6 ] Sleep disturbances and, ultimately, sleep-wake cycle reversals can be early signs of a developing delirium. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Sleep disturbances may be exacerbated by paraneoplastic syndromes associated with steroid production and by symptoms associated with tumor invasion, such as draining lesions, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) alterations, pain, fever, cough, dyspnea, pruritus, and fatigue. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Berger AM: Update on the state of the science: sleep-wake disturbances in adult patients with cancer. (oncolink.org)
  • Dr. Julio Montaner, director of the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS , stresses the importance of identifying sleep disturbances caused by HIV treatment early: "It is my job to be proactive and monitor for potential side effects. (thebody.com)
  • A number of intervention-based therapies to improve ICU sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been explored, including noise reduction protocols, music therapy, light treatment, and different modes of mechanical ventilation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • characterizing the quality and quantity of sleep in ICU survivors within 7 days of discharge to the ward, approximately two-thirds (61%) of patients had persistent sleep disturbances. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sleep disturbances are extremely common in the early stages of recovery from alcohol dependence and may persist for several months despite continued abstinence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Studies indicate that sleep disturbances independently increase the risk for relapse to alcohol, suggesting that targeting these problems during recovery may support continued abstinence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, there is limited information in the addiction literature about available and effective treatments for sleep disturbances in recovering alcoholic patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The primary goals of this article are to describe the phenomenology of sleep disturbances during recovery from alcohol dependence, to outline the evidence linking sleep problems with alcohol relapse, and to describe available pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options, including the evidence regarding their efficacy in recovering alcoholic patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Together with K-complexes they are the hallmarks of NREM sleep and their appearance is taken as evidence of the onset of light sleep. (intechopen.com)
  • Diminishing during the descent into sleep, alpha amplitude shadows the decline in external awareness that accompanies sleep onset , . (plos.org)
  • Normal transition from wake to sleep onset occurs within 10-20 min, and the first period of REM typically occurs within 90-120 min [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neural substrates essential for the onset and maintenance of REM sleep have been identified in the ventrolateral peri-aquaeductal gray ( 7 ), sublaterodorsal nucleus of the brainstem ( 8 ) and in the lateral hypothalamus ( 9 , 10 ), while the theta rhythm dominating rodent REM sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) largely originates from the septo-hippocampal structure ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Disorder in which the major sleep episode is advanced in relation to the desired clock time, that results in symptoms of compelling evening sleepiness, an early sleep onset, and an awakening that is earlier than desired. (1800cpap.com)
  • According to the National Sleep Foundation, "the narrower your airway becomes, the greater the vibration and the louder you snore. (rd.com)
  • The mechanics of respiration, including upper airway function, as it occurs in normal sleep and disordered sleep will be presented. (posturalrestoration.com)
  • During sleep, CPAP patients wear a face mask connected to a pump that forces air into the nasal passages at pressures high enough to overcome obstructions in the airway and stimulate normal breathing. (1800cpap.com)
  • One area of interest focuses on identifying 'vulnerability windows' during a person's life that make them more susceptible to amyloid-beta deposition from loss of slow wave sleep and, subsequently, Alzheimer's disease later in life. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • Sleep comprises approximately one-third of a person's lifetime, but its impact on health and medical conditions remains partially unrecognized. (scielo.br)
  • She was suffering from a sleep disorder known as Severe morning sleep inertia, A very real condition that can wreak havoc on a person's life. (dreammoods.com)
  • As behavioral characteristics of the effects of sleep and memory are becoming increasingly understood and supported, researchers are turning to the weakly understood neural basis of sleep and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neural correlates of the wake-sleep continuum remain incompletely understood, limiting the development of adaptive drug delivery systems for promoting sleep maintenance. (plos.org)
  • This can cause sleep disruption for the individual and also the bed partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence, demographics, and psychological associations of sleep disruption in patients with cancer: University of Rochester Cancer Center-Community Clinical Oncology Program. (oncolink.org)
  • By systematically challenging sleep with realistic and varied acoustic disruption, we found that sleepers exhibited markedly greater sensitivity to sounds during moments of elevated alpha expression. (plos.org)
  • The hypersomnia caused by OSA is likely related to sleep disruption from recurrent arousals, although the intermittent hypoxemia may also play a role. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)