Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Parasomnias: Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Theta Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Somnambulism: A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)REM Sleep Parasomnias: Abnormal behavioral or physiologic events that are associated with REM sleep, including REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus: Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Tegmentum Mesencephali: Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders: Parasomnias characterized by behavioral abnormalities that occur during the transition between wakefulness and sleep (or between sleep and wakefulness).Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Sleep Paralysis: A common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less often while falling asleep. Stimuli such as touch or sound may terminate the episode, which usually has a duration of seconds to minutes. This condition may occur in normal subjects or be associated with NARCOLEPSY; CATAPLEXY; and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Head Kidney: A primitive form of vertebrate kidney that is found in adults of some primitive FISHES and in the embryos of more advanced fishes. In some species of fishes it contains phagocytic cells and is also a major site of HEMATOPOIESIS, analogous to the mammalian BONE MARROW.Orexin Receptors: G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Octodon: A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Mice, Inbred C57BLClonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
During the period of Non-REM sleep, the mindset of a person is more organized. The differences in the REM and NREM activity ... whereas REM sleep includes hallucinatory and bizarre content. The mental activity that occurs in NREM and REM sleep is a result ... Unlike REM sleep, there is usually little or no eye movement during these stages. Dreaming is rare during NREM sleep, and ... Dreaming is more common in this stage than in other stages of NREM sleep though not as common as in REM sleep. The content of ...
Neurobiology of REM and NREM sleep. Sleep Med. 2007 Jun;8(4):302-30. Basheer R, Strecker RE, Thakkar MM, McCarley RW. Adenosine ... McCarley has extensively studied the brainstem mechanisms that control REM sleep. Additionally, he has studied the buildup of ...
... non-REM or NREM sleep) and rapid eye movement (REM sleep). non-REM and REM sleep are so different that physiologists identify ... in which the body alternates between two distinct modes known as non-REM and REM sleep. Although REM stands for "rapid eye ... The sleep cycle of alternate NREM and REM sleep takes an average of 90 minutes, occurring 4-6 times in a good night's sleep. ... Robert W. McCarley, "Neurobiology of REM and NREM sleep"; Sleep Medicine 8, June 2007; doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2007.03.005. Silber ...
Rechtschaffen A; Hauri P; Zeitlin M (June 1966). "Auditory awakening thresholds in REM and NREM sleep stages". Percept Mot ... This development includes an increase in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM sleep) which is also called quiet sleep (QS) during ... which consists of stage 3 and stage 4 NREM sleep appears at 2 months of age and it is theorized that some infants have a brain- ... the first 12 months of life in association with a decrease in rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) which is also known as ...
These neurons actively fire during non-REM (NREM) sleep. The most recorded activity of the neurons is during the N3 stage of ... These same neurons are also active during REM sleep, but at a greatly reduced amplitude than NREM sleep. The neuronal cells ... Dream Electroencephalography (EEG) Sleep REM sleep NREM sleep Pons Lateral geniculate nucleus Occipital Lobe Subthalamic ... The neurons within the suprachiasmatic nuclei region of the brain help to regulate REM sleep. The REM sleep cycle length causes ...
While in NREM sleep, the rat retains muscle tone, so it can sleep on top of the flowerpot. When the rat enters REM sleep, it ... It is designed to allow NREM sleep but prevent REM sleep. A laboratory rat is placed on top of an upside down flowerpot which ... Sayan, H.; Gelir, E.; Babul, A. Brain Stem and Cerebral Cortex Histamine Concentrations in the Rem Sleep Deprived Rats, Turk. J ... Disk-over-water method Porkka-Heiskanen, T.; Tuornisto, L.; Yilnen, M.; Stenberg D. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on ...
However, use of a polysomnogram can help distinguish one disorder from the other as RMD involves movements in both REM and NREM ... Roughly 46% of sleep-RMD episodes occur only in non-REM sleep; 30% in non-REM and REM; and only 24% strictly in REM sleep. Most ... The majority of RMD episodes occur during NREM sleep, although REM movements have been reported. RMD is often associated with ... Manni, R; Sances, Terzaghi; Ghiotto, Nappi (2004). "Diagnosing hypnic headache: PSG evidence of both REM- and NREM-related ...
One group engaged in REM sleep, and one group did not (meaning that they engaged in NREM sleep). The investigators found that ... During a normal night of sleep, a person will alternate between periods of NREM and REM sleep. Each cycle is approximately 90 ... If someone sleeping turns, tosses, or rolls over, this indicates that they are in NREM sleep. REM sleep is characterized by the ... Healthy sleep must include the appropriate sequence and proportion of NREM and REM phases, which play different roles in the ...
Stage N3 of NREM sleep - Further decrease in connectivity between the PCC and MPFC. REM sleep - Possible increase in ... Stage N2 of NREM sleep - Decrease in connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. ...
NREM sleep itself is divided into multiple stages - N1, N2 and N3. Sleep proceeds in 90-minute cycles of REM and NREM, the ... Rapid eye movement sleep (REM), non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM or non-REM), and waking represent the three major modes of ... REM Stage (REM Sleep - 20-25% of total sleep in adults): REM sleep is where most muscles are paralyzed, and heart rate, ... of Stage 1 NREM sleep. This frequency further decreases progressively through the higher stages of NREM and REM sleep. On the ...
REM). Normally, four to five series of NREM and REM make up a night's sleep. A change in this cycle may make it hard to sleep ... It also determines whether REM sleep appears upon falling asleep. It is usually performed immediately after an overnight study ... The two primary categories of sleep are non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement sleep ( ...
There are two phases of sleep: rapid eye movement (REM) and Non-REM sleep (NREM). REM sleep is the less restful stage in which ... In a typical night's rest, a person will have about four to six cycles of REM and Non-REM sleep. Sleep is important for the ... Non-REM sleep, also sometimes referred to as slow-wave sleep, is associated with deep sleep. The body's blood pressure, heart ... REM cycles typically occur in 90 minute intervals and increase in length as the amount of sleep in one session progresses. ...
However, the importance of this differentiation between REM and NREM has been called into question. (see Classification) ... "Latency to REM sleep and percentages of light sleep and REM sleep were normal, compared with normal ranges." Despite this, one ... sleep episodes of N-REM"(non-rapid eye movement sleep). The ICSD initially described two clinical forms of idiopathic ... Whereas narcolepsy is associated with cataplexy and sleep-onset REM episodes, and Kleine-Levin syndrome is associated with ...
It occurs during both REM and NREM stages of sleep though its time is slightly delayed. During stage 2 NREM it seems ...
Three broad types of distinct brain activity patterns can be measured: REM, light NREM and deep NREM. During deep NREM sleep, ... There are two types of sleep: REM sleep (with dreaming) and NREM (non-REM, usually without dreaming) sleep, which repeat in ... Levels of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin drop during slow wave sleep, and fall almost to zero during REM ...
At the end of NREM sleep, the VLPO area neurons directly inhibit the REM-off cells, which completely disinhibits the REM-on ... They excite the REM-off monoaminergic neurons during wakefulness and the PT cholinergic neurons during REM sleep. They are ... During NREM sleep, the VLPO area neurons start inhibiting the orexin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Consequently, the ... The VLPO neurons inhibit and are inhibited by the TMN histamine neurons and REM-off monoamine neurons. Orexin neurons are ...
25 thereby promoting NREM sleep at the expense of wakefulness and REM sleep. ... The Hcrt neurons project widely throughout the ... Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes REM sleep. During waking, REM-on cells are inhibited by a subset of ... They excite the REM-off monoaminergic neurons during wakefulness and the PT cholinergic neurons during REM sleep. They are ... Parkinson's disease: REM sleep disturbances are common in Parkinson's. It is mainly a dopaminergic disease, but cholinergic ...
Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes REM sleep. During waking, REM-on cells are inhibited by a subset of ... They are inhibited by the VLPO neurons during NREM sleep. Li A, Nattie E (2014). "Orexin, cardio-respiratory function, and ... They excite the REM-off monoaminergic neurons during wakefulness and the PT cholinergic neurons during REM sleep. ... ARAS norepinephrine and serotonin neurons called REM-off cells. ... Orexin neurons are located in the lateral hypothalamus. ...
Steady NREM (Non-REM) sleep[edit]. Ventilation[edit]. Breathing is remarkably regular, both in amplitude and frequency in ... Hypoxemia due to hypoventilation is noted in REM sleep but this is less well studied than NREM sleep. These changes are equal ... So breathing during REM sleep is somewhat discordant. In a study of 19 healthy adults, the minute ventilation in REM sleep was ... Some have shown unchanged airway resistance during REM sleep, others have shown it to increase to NREM levels. ...
These neurons have high activation during wakefulness and during REM sleep and a low activation during NREM sleep. The second ... Both these stages are classified as non-REM sleep. Sleep onset is finally induced by sleep-promoting neurons, located in the ... Sleep onset usually transmits into non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM sleep) but under certain circumstances (e.g. narcolepsy) ... and that during NREM sleep, GABA receptors increase in the arousal-promoting neurons. This had led some to believe that the ...
These waves are most clearly seen during the transition from non-REM to REM sleep. Although these phasic waves are observed in ... During NREM sleep, and especially slow-wave sleep, low levels of Ach would cause the release of this suppression and allow for ... REM sleep is also thought to play a role in the cognitive development of infants and children as they spend much more of their ... REM sleep is known for its vivid creations and similarity to the bioelectric outputs of a waking person. This stage of sleep is ...
This tends to happen most between the shift between waking and NREM, and between NREM and REM sleep. In autosomal dominant ... This inhibition of REM sleep significantly decreases K-complex count, and unlike L-DOPA treatment, clonazepam studies report ... Halász P (2005). "K-complex, a reactive EEG graphoelement of NREM sleep: an old chap in a new garment". Sleep Med Rev. 9 (5): ... A K-complex is an electroencephalography (EEG) waveform that occurs during stage 2 of NREM sleep. It is the "largest event in ...
Mammalian sleep can be sub-divided into two distinct phases - REM (rapid eye movement) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. In humans and ... During non-REM sleep, metabolic rate and brain temperature are lowered to deal with damages that may have occurred during time ... cats, NREM sleep has four stages, where the third and fourth stages are considered slow-wave sleep (SWS). SWS is considered ...
Through lucid dreaming, NREM sleep, REM sleep, and waking states, many dream researchers are attempting to scientifically ... The most common of recent criticisms include: The analyzed circuitry involved in lucid dreaming, REM sleep, NREM sleep, and ... In order to move from non-lucid REM sleep dreaming to lucid REM sleep dreaming, there must be a shift in brain activity in the ... NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking states. The goal of these studies is often to seek physiological correlates of dreaming and ...
Time spent in REM sleep did not increase, and control injections decreased time spent in both NREM and REM sleep. The ... The amount of time spent in NREM sleep increases with the number of activated GABA receptors in the median preoptic area, as ... The promotion of sleep by GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic area is most closely associated with NREM, or quiet sleep. ... and non-REM sleep. The median preoptic nucleus is highly involved in three main areas. These include osmoregulation, ...
NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.[8] There have been conflicting findings with regard to moclobemide altering ... In healthy people moclobemide has a relatively small suppressing effect on REM sleep; in contrast, depressed people who have ... extracellular levels also increase which results in increased monoamine receptor stimulation and suppression of REM sleep, down ... Withdrawal of moclobemide causes a rebound in REM sleep.[8] ...
NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. One cycle of REM and NREM sleep lasts about 90 minutes. NREM sleep occurs first and takes ... During NREM sleep, your body relaxes and restores itself. At the end of NREM, your sleep shifts to REM. Your eyes move quickly ... Your muscles are "turned off" during REM sleep. If you become aware before the REM cycle has finished, you may notice that you ... During sleep, your body alternates between REM (rapid eye movement) and. Omega Plus-N4,200- For healthy brain functions and ...
Specific parasomnias arise during sleep-wake transitions, NREM sleep, or REM sleep and are often divided into two groups. ... REM sleep parasomnias include nightmares, characterized by frightening dreams and autonomic arousal, and REM behavior disorder ... The most common primary parasomnias are disorders of arousal and REM sleep disorders. Disorders of arousal include confusional ... RBD), characterized by absence of the muscle atonia normally present during REM sleep. ...
AHIREM ≥ 5 and AHINREM , 5, with a total REM sleep duration of at least 30 minutes. NREM‐related OSA: AHIREM/AHINREM less than ... AHIREM , 5 and AHINREM , 5 with a total REM sleep duration of at least 30 minutes), and patients with AHIREM/AHINREM less than ... AHI and REM‐AHI) were also determined by dividing the number of events in NREM and REM sleep by the amount of NREM and REM time ... during REM and NREM sleep (AHIREM/AHINREM), where a value of two or more denotes REM‐related OSA. This definition is criticized ...
... sleep compared with non-REM (NREM) sleep but is poorest in REM sleep in patients with sleep apnea. We therefore examined the ... Effects of sleep fragmentation on the arousability to resistive loading in NREM and REM sleep in normal men.. Zavodny J1, Roth ... After sleep fragmentation, arousability was decreased in stage 2 sleep (LN(F): 29%; LN(C): 38%; p , .05) and low in early REM ... The biologic reason for this increase in the arousal response in REM sleep across the night is not clear. ...
... sleep and can suppress propagation during REM sleep. Experimental manipulations of discrete physiological components were ... These sleep-related systems can provoke seizure discharge propagation during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) ... Sleep and Arousal Mechanisms in Experimental Epilepsy: Epileptic Components of NREM and Antiepileptic Components of REM Sleep ... These sleep-related systems can provoke seizure discharge propagation during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and can ...
Mohammadi, SM, Enshaeifar, S, Ghavami, M and Sanei, S (2015) Classification of Awake, REM, and NREM from EEG via Singular ... Classification of Awake, REM, and NREM from EEG via Singular Spectrum Analysis ...
Steady NREM (Non-REM) sleep[edit]. Ventilation[edit]. Breathing is remarkably regular, both in amplitude and frequency in ... Hypoxemia due to hypoventilation is noted in REM sleep but this is less well studied than NREM sleep. These changes are equal ... So breathing during REM sleep is somewhat discordant. In a study of 19 healthy adults, the minute ventilation in REM sleep was ... Some have shown unchanged airway resistance during REM sleep, others have shown it to increase to NREM levels. ...
Respiration amplitude analysis for REM and NREM sleep classification Respiration amplitude analysis for REM and NREM sleep ... In this study, we aim at classifying rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep states. Besides the existing features ... is motivated by the observation that the breathing pattern has a more regular amplitude during NREM sleep than during REM sleep ...
3 REM. The EEG of REM sleep closely resembles the EEG of active wakefulness. Areas involved in REM is primarily in pons. ... This entry was posted in biomedical, Physiology and tagged ARAS, DR, LC, LDT, nrem, rem, sleep. Bookmark the permalink. ... 2 NREM. VLPO: the ventro lateral preoptic area. The initiation of non-REM sleep probably begins with the emergence of ... Neuro-circuitry and transmitters Underlying Wakefulness, NREM and REM Sleep. Posted on January 4, 2016 by YANAMALA VIJAY RAJ ...
During the period of Non-REM sleep, the mindset of a person is more organized. The differences in the REM and NREM activity ... whereas REM sleep includes hallucinatory and bizarre content. The mental activity that occurs in NREM and REM sleep is a result ... Unlike REM sleep, there is usually little or no eye movement during these stages. Dreaming is rare during NREM sleep, and ... Dreaming is more common in this stage than in other stages of NREM sleep though not as common as in REM sleep. The content of ...
Neurobiology of REM and NREM sleep. Sleep Med. 2007 Jun;8(4):302-30. Basheer R, Strecker RE, Thakkar MM, McCarley RW. Adenosine ... McCarley has extensively studied the brainstem mechanisms that control REM sleep. Additionally, he has studied the buildup of ...
REM,. rapid eye movement;. NREM,. non-REM;. TG,. transgenic;. COX,. cyclooxygenase;. CNS,. central nervous system;. CSF,. ... NREM and REM sleep in B7 and B20 TG and wild-type mice before and after tail clip. Tail clipping, indicated by arrow, was ... B) In the B7 mice, tail clipping increased the amount of NREM sleep without affecting the amount of REM sleep. (C) In the B20 ... Each value is the mean ± SEM estimated from 1 h of baseline recording (○) or after tail clipping (●). (A) NREM and REM sleep ...
Classification of awake, REM, and NREM from EEG via singular spectrum analysis. Conference item ... Mohammadi, SM, Enshaeifar, S, Ghavami, M and Sanei, S (2015). Classification of awake, REM, and NREM from EEG via singular ... NREM (non-rapid eye movement) and REM (rapid eye movement). For this purpose, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is applied to ... Brain; Humans; Electroencephalography; Wakefulness; Sleep; Sleep, REM; Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted; Support Vector ...
REM vs. NREM Sleep. Our sleep includes phases of alternating non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) ... Non-REM sleep accounts for about 75% of your sleep cycle (stages 1-4), while REM sleep, the period where we experience intense ... Stage Five - REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Stage. A lot of the most important things happen during REM sleep. Surprisingly, your ... "REM sleep only accounts for 25% of your sleep cycle" Waking Up In the Middle of a Sleep Cycle. That disoriented feeling you get ...
Interestingly, those were predominantly present during REM sleep (26 out of 35; chi2 = 10.8, p = 0.001 for the NREM vs. REM ... REM 67, transition state 5). Although more giant spikes were detected during NREM sleep than during REM sleep, considering the ... The top row shows two giant spikes during REM sleep and the bottom row two giant spikes during NREM. (A) A large negative ... Then it displayed 62 giant spikes during 10 min of sleep (both NREM and REM) followed by a classic seizure of 32 s in duration ...
... and non-REM (NREM) sleep), motor activity, food intake and water intake were continuously recorded by telemetry in unrestrained ... The vigilance states (waking, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep), motor activity, food intake and water ... NREM-sleep was reduced and REM-sleep was markedly enhanced (Figs. 4, 6; Table 1). Both the duration and frequency of REM-sleep ... The percentage of NREM-sleep and REM-sleep was little affected by the 12-h SD, but the amount of SWS and the EEG-amplitude of ...
NREM sleep; REM deprivation; computer-generated characters; learning; sleep microarchitecture. PMID:. 28370532. DOI:. 10.1111/ ... Sleep-dependent consolidation of face recognition and its relationship to REM sleep duration, REM density and Stage 2 sleep ...
... suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered ... suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered ... We also found that C1m did not affect the time of REM sleep, while suvorexant markedly increased it. This suggests that ... We also found that C1m did not affect the time of REM sleep, while suvorexant markedly increased it. This suggests that ...
REM sleep alternates with NREM sleep about every 90 minutes. A person with normal sleep most often has four to five cycles of ... Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep. Under normal circumstances, your muscles, except for ... Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. NREM sleep is divided into three stages that can be detected by brain waves (EEG). ... The test measures the amount of time it takes you to fall asleep and how long it takes you to enter REM sleep. ...
... sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep while decreasing wakefulness. In addition, PRPCA decreased the number of bouts of wakefulness ( ... 16-32 s and 32-64 s) and increased the number of bouts of NREM sleep (128-256 s). Furthermore, we identified a total of 32 ... The total amount of time spent in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep is summarized in Figure 2(b). PRPCA increased REM sleep by ... PRPCA increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep while decreasing wakefulness. In addition, PRPCA ...
Sleep state-specific (REM, NREM) OSA may be differentially associated with varying dimensions of cognitive deficits in middle- ... Additionally, OSA in rapid eye movement (REM) versus non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep has been shown to be a stronger ... The present study aimed to investigate whether OSA-as characterized by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)-during REM and NREM sleep ... Associations Between the Apnea-Hypopnea Index During REM and NREM Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in a Cohort of Middle-Aged ...
They often fall into REM sleep before NREM sleep. Also, in people with narcolepsy, the fine line between being asleep and being ... Normally, when people fall asleep they first have NREM (nonrapid eye movement) sleep. Then they go through a period of REM ( ... During REM sleep, your eyes move rapidly even though your eyelids stay shut. Dreaming mainly happens during REM sleep, when ... They often find that certain aspects of REM sleep can happen while they are awake.. Normal Sleep Pattern. Narcolepsy Sleep ...
How REM and Non-REM Sleep May Work Together to Help Solve Problems. Neuroscience News. May 15, 2018. ... The study reveals non-REM sleep helps us categorize information, where as REM sleep helps us to draw unexpected connections ... The genes, Chrm1 and Chrm3, play a key role in regulating REM sleep and function in different ways.... Read More... ... Study identifies a key role the brainstem neurotensinergic neurons play in non-REM sleep regulation.... Read More... ...
REM) sleep increased after both test and control phases, without significant differences (NREM, p = 0.483; REM, p = 0.440). ... The overall sleep structure indicated that the overall percentage of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreased and rapid ...
All analyses were also performed with NREM sleep stage 1, NREM sleep stage 2, SWS, REM sleep, and/or TST as a covariate in ... 19.8 ± 1.6 min), NREM stage 2 sleep (P , 0.001, 113.3 ± 3.9 min vs. 152.7 ± 8.4 min), and REM sleep (P , 0.001, 64.7 ± 3.7 min ... When NREM sleep stage 1, NREM sleep stage 2, SWS, or TST were included individually, all sleep metrics were significant ... 2007) Neurobiology of REM and NREM sleep. Sleep Med 8:302-330. ... S1, non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 1; S2, NREM sleep stage ...
  • The most common criterion used in the literature for diagnosis of REM-related OSA is based on the ratio of Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) during REM and NREM sleep (AHI REM /AHI NREM ), where a value of two or more denotes REM‐related OSA. (hindawi.com)
  • In healthy subjects, arousability to inspiratory resistive loading is greater during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with non-REM (NREM) sleep but is poorest in REM sleep in patients with sleep apnea. (nih.gov)
  • Associations Between the Apnea-Hypopnea Index During REM and NREM Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in a Cohort of Middle-Aged Adults. (cdc.gov)
  • The present study aimed to investigate whether OSA-as characterized by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)-during REM and NREM sleep is associated with performance on a range of cognitive tasks. (cdc.gov)
  • First-generation antihistamines inhibits REM sleep (rapid eye movement) and cause rebound syndrome (increase REM number and intensity) that leads to fragmentation of sleep, arrhythmia, tissue hypoxia and sleep apnea,daily somnolence, impairment of daily activity, impairment of cognitive function, Sleep apnea increases the risk of sudden death(1,3,5). (ispub.com)
  • To improve diagnostic accuracy, those screening positive for apnea or non-REM parasomnia (young-onset pRBD) and those self-reporting dementia or Parkinson disease were excluded. (neurology.org)
  • The extent and time-course of REM-sleep rebound was similar after the two 24-SD schedules, whereas SWS-rebound was different: SWS exhibited a one-stage rebound when recovery started in the light-phase, and a two-stage rebound when recovery started in the dark-phase (Fig. 9). (springer.com)
  • This Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: influences REM sleep, prevents Melatonin release from Pineal gland when light present, controls ~24 hr sleep-wake cycle. (sporcle.com)
  • In this study, we aim to evaluate the differences in demographic and polysomnographic features between REM- and NREM-related OSA in a Jordanian sample, using both the broad and the restricted definitions of REM-related OSA. (hindawi.com)
  • 5 with a total REM sleep duration of at least 30 minutes), and patients with AHI REM /AHI NREM less than two were classified as NREM-related OSA. (hindawi.com)
  • During LN(F), arousability remained significantly greater in REM sleep (71% aroused within 2 minutes) compared with stage 2 (29%) or stage 3/4 (16%) sleep. (nih.gov)
  • The REM period becomes progressively longer through the night where the first REM period of the night may be less than 10 minutes in duration, while the last may exceed 60 minutes. (medscape.com)
  • Sleep state-specific (REM, NREM) OSA may be differentially associated with varying dimensions of cognitive deficits in middle-aged to older adults, and such associations are likely to be modified by genetic factors, include APOE polymorphisms. (cdc.gov)
  • doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002706) report that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Classification rates up to 90% have been achieved for NREM state and between 44% and 72% for REM state. (actapress.com)
  • On the other hand if we wake up during the mild (REM, NREM1) sleep stage it is a much more pleasant experience for us and for our bodies. (mdpi.com)