Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genes, Developmental: Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Eye ProteinsGenes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.RNA, Transfer, Cys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genes, Overlapping: Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins: A family of proteins that share a domain with a four transmembrane-helix architecture referred to as the MARVEL domain. The MARVEL domain proteins play important role in vesicular trafficking and in the formation of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Mutant Chimeric Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)DNA, Antisense: DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins: A family of MARVEL domain-containing proteolipid proteins involved in vesicular trafficking cycling between the GOLGI COMPLEX and the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... "MN1 affects expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis and can enhance as well as inhibit RAR/RXR-induced gene expression". ...
These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... Genes[edit]. Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population.[15] Studies ... among others.[19] The 308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphism variation in the gene for TNF is associated with an increased risk ... Acne susceptibility is likely due to the influence of multiple genes, as the disease does not follow a classic (Mendelian) ...
Genes[edit]. Number of genes[edit]. The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 16. Because ... Gene list[edit]. See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 16.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes.[5] ... "HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19.. *^ "Chromosome 16: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". ...
This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... Repressed genes[edit]. Three histone modifications are particularly associated with repressed genes: Trimethylation of H3 ... Hannon Bozorgmehr J (Oct 2019). "The origin of chromosomal histones in a 30S ribosomal protein". Gene. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ...
Different genes on different loci would need to be selected for another fly species. The genes expressions are mapped in a ... the older the egg is the more of the particular gene is expressed.[33] However, all of the genes are expressed in varying ... Gene expression studies[edit]. Although physical characteristics and sizes at various instars have been used to estimate fly ... This is done by breaking the stages down into smaller units separated by predictable changed in gene expression.[33] Three ...
Genes[edit]. PEX genes encode the protein machinery ("peroxins") required for proper peroxisome assembly, as described above. ... Genes that encode peroxin proteins include: PEX1, PEX2 (PXMP3), PEX3, PEX5, PEX6, PEX7, PEX10, PEX11A, PEX11B, PEX11G, PEX12, ... doi:10.1016/j.gene.2009.09.014. PMID 19818387.. *^ Gabaldón T, Capella-Gutiérrez S (Oct 2010). "Lack of phylogenetic support ... for a supposed actinobacterial origin of peroxisomes". Gene. 465 (1-2): 61-5. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2010.06.004. PMID 20600706.. ...
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO: ... The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[7][8] Structurally, BDNF ...
Gene therapy[edit]. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors for gene therapy have been developed that mediate stable genetic ... For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ... Rous sarcoma virus contains the src gene that triggers tumor formation. Later it was found that a similar gene in cells is ... transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the cell's own genes, producing the proteins required to assemble new ...
Gene[edit]. The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985.[22] It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • ... negative regulation of gene expression. • protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic ... positive regulation of gene expression. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via ...
Hallmarks include mutations to the alpha-synuclein gene, SNCA, as well as PARK2, PINK1, UCHL1, DJ1, and LRRK2 genes, and ... A gene called c9orf72 was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the gene in association with ALS ... To date, multiple genes and proteins have been implicated in ALS. One of the common themes between many of these genes and ... Entrez Gene. "BDNF". United States National Center for Biotechnology Information.. *^ Kim J, Inoue K, Ishii J, Vanti WB, ...
In nature, such genes exist in several different forms and are therefore said to have multiple alleles. A gene with more than ... Traits controlled by two or more genes are said to be polygenic traits. Polygenic means "many genes." For example, at least ... An organism that has two identical alleles for a gene is said to be homozygous for that gene (and is called a homozygote). An ... Many other genes have multiple alleles, including the human genes for ABO blood type. ...
Gene[edit]. The AKR1B1 gene lies on the chromosome location of 7q33 and consists of 10 exons. There are a few putative ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity. • electron carrier activity. • oxidoreductase ... Graham A, Brown L, Hedge PJ, Gammack AJ, Markham AF (April 1991). "Structure of the human aldose reductase gene". The Journal ... Graham A, Heath P, Morten JE, Markham AF (March 1991). "The human aldose reductase gene maps to chromosome region 7q35". Human ...
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein[5] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[6][7] BDNF ... The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[6][7] Structurally, BDNF ... Common SNPs in BDNF gene[edit]. BDNF has several known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including, but not limited to, ...
Gene and regulation[edit]. P-selectin is located on chromosome 1q21-q24, spans , 50 kb and contains 17 exons in humans.[7] P- ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • heparin binding. • oligosaccharide binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • calcium- ... P-selectin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SELP gene.[5] ... Pan J, Xia L, McEver RP (April 1998). "Comparison of promoters for the murine and human P-selectin genes suggests species- ...
Gene and transcription[edit]. Obestatin is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin, a peptide hormone. The mRNA produced ... Seim I, Amorim L, Walpole C, Carter S, Chopin LK, Herington AC (2010). "Ghrelin gene-related peptides: multifunctional ... removing the ghrelin gene from mice did not significantly reduce food intake. No secretory convertase is capable of cleaving ... a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake". Science. 310 (5750): 996-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
Gene regulation[edit]. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. At the cellular level, homeostasis is carried out by ... At the cellular level, receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or ... several mechanisms including transcriptional regulation that can alter the activity of genes in response to changes. ...
MDR1 gene mutation[edit]. Recent research at Washington State University indicates that, in addition to many other herding ... breeds, approximately 15% of the English Shepherd population is subject to the MDR1 gene mutation. Dogs that are tested ...
Gene therapy. Gene therapy typically involves the use of a non-infectious virus (i.e., a viral vector such as the adeno- ... SNCA gene mutations are important in PD because the protein which this gene encodes, alpha-synuclein, is the main component of ... Genes implicated in the development of PD include SNCA, LRRK2, GBA, PRKN, PINK1, PARK7, VPS35, EIF4G1, DNAJC13 and CHCHD2.[50] ... The gene used leads to the production of an enzyme that helps to manage PD symptoms or protects the brain from further damage.[ ...
Gene prediction. References[edit]. *^ a b Shine, J.; Dalgarno, L. (1975-03-06). "Determinant of cistron specificity in ... Gene Expression Technology. 185. Academic Press. pp. 103-114.. *^ Stormo, Gary D.; Schneider, Thomas D.; Gold, Larry M. (1982- ... Gene annotation[edit]. The identification of RBSs is used to determine the site of translation initiation in an unannotated ... "Genes & Development. 15 (13): 1593-1612. doi:10.1101/gad.891101. ISSN 0890-9369. PMID 11445534.. ...
Epigenetic gene silencing of DNA repair genes occurs frequently in NSCLC. At least nine DNA repair genes that normally function ... Epigenetic promoter methylation in DNA repair genes in NSCLC Gene Frequency of hyper- (or hypo-) methylation DNA repair pathway ... ALK gene rearrangements[edit]. Up to 7% of NSCLC patients have EML4-ALK translocations or mutations in the ROS1 gene; these ... Gomes A, Reis-Silva M, Alarcão A, Couceiro P, Sousa V, Carvalho L (2014). "Promoter hypermethylation of DNA repair genes MLH1 ...
If a resistance gene is transferable, it could lessen the effect of the use of antibiotics. Out of ten common antibiotic genes ... Transferable Resistance Genes[edit]. One important consideration to determine the safety of Lactobacillus fermentum is ... In order for L. fermentum to be considered as a potential probiotic, it must not contain any transferable resistant genes. ... They are considered potential vectors of antibiotic resistance genes from the environment to humans or animals to humans.[9] ...
Natural products genes[edit]. S. lacrymans' genome encodes six annotated polyketide synthases (PKS1-PKS6), 15 nonribosomal ... NPS3 and its adjacent clustered aminotransferase gene (AMT1) were also found to be up-regulated during co-incubation with ... One genome is from Serpula lacrymans S7.9 (v2.0). The genome assembly is 42.73 Mbp, with a predicted number of 12789 genes. The ... second genome is from Serpula lacrymans S7.3 (v2.0). The genome assembly is 47 Mbp, with a predicted number of 14495 genes. The ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. About 20,000 protein-coding genes are expressed in human cells and nearly 70% of these genes ... Some 250 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the esophagus with less than 50 genes being highly specific. The ... Many genes with elevated expression are also shared with skin and other organs that are composed of squamous epithelia.[25] ... "Expression of Human Skin-Specific Genes Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling". Journal of Histochemistry & ...
Gene[edit]. The human CysLTR2 gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 13 at position 13q14, a chromosomal region that has long ... The gene consists of four exons with all introns located in the genes' 5' UTR region and the entire coding region located in ... "Entrez Gene: CYSLTR2 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2".. *^ Thompson MD, Takasaki J, Capra V, Rovati GE, Siminovitch KA, ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • protein binding. • G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity. • signal transducer ...
Gene ontology. Molecular function. • calcium ion binding. • protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta ... "Entrez Gene: CDH1 cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial)".. *^ Fleming TP, Papenbrock T, Fesenko I, Hausen P, Sheth B ( ... Berx G, Becker KF, Höfler H, van Roy F (1998). "Mutations of the human E-cadherin (CDH1) gene". Human Mutation. 12 (4): 226-37 ... Mutations in this gene are correlated with gastric, breast, colorectal, thyroid, and ovarian cancers. Loss of function is ...
... from a single gene or isolated from a multigene library consisting of short random fragments of the target gene or genes. The ... Additionally, if it was possible to use GSEs to inhibit gene function in E. coli JM109DE3 cells, could this method be used to ... antisense GSEs were isolated clearly showing that it was possible to inhibit function of known and unknown genes in bacterial ... are short biologically active gene fragments that encode inhibitory antisense RNAs or truncated proteins that function as ...
Genes contained within the family: 15 Approved Symbol. Approved Name. Previous Symbols. Synonyms. Chromosome. ...
Gene Siskel Film Center. of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. 164 N. State Street , Chicago, IL 60601 *. Hotline: ( ... THE GENE SISKEL FILM CENTER IS AVAILABLE FOR RENTAL. Dynamic location for presentations meetings, trainings, and luncheons. ... From September 27 through 29, the Gene Siskel Film Center and Hibernian Transmedia invite you to whoop it up Irish-style with ... and Animation at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in collaboration with the Gene Siskel Film Center and the Video ...
Please see our Protein phosphatases, catalytic subunits page to view the PPP1C genes, along with all other PPP genes. ... Genes contained within the family: 181 Approved Symbol. Approved Name. Previous Symbols. Synonyms. Chromosome. ...
Gene activation, the first step of protein production, starts less than one millisecond after a cell is stretched-hundreds of ... Cells will ramp up gene expression in response to physical forces alone, a new study finds. ... "The genes near the nuclear periphery cannot be activated even if you stretch them, whereas the genes that are close to the ... Force triggers gene expression by stretching chromatin More information: "Force-induced gene up-regulation does not follow the ...
These genes, and the proteins they encode, are important new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a ... has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in ... Among the genes identified was CD276, a gene that encodes a protein located on the cell surface, as well as other known and ... NCI Researchers Discover Genes That Are Turned On at High Levels in Tumor-Associated Blood Vessels of Mice and Humans. ...
Almost all PSEN1 gene mutations change single building blocks of DNA (nucleotides) in a particular segment of the PSEN1 gene. ... Wang B, Yang W, Wen W, Sun J, Su B, Liu B, Ma D, Lv D, Wen Y, Qu T, Chen M, Sun M, Shen Y, Zhang X. Gamma-secretase gene ... PSEN1 gene. presenilin 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All Close All ... The PSEN1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called presenilin 1. This protein is one part (subunit) of a complex ...
Among genes coding for eCB catabolic enzymes, expression of MGLL was lower in tumour tissue while PTGS2 was increased. It is ... Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. ... expression of genes coding for the components of the eCB system in tumour and non-malignant samples from SCCOT patients. ...
Much attention has recently focused on a gene fusion, TMPRSS2:ETS-related gene (ERG), that is frequently found in aggressive ... At the same time the literature indicates clearly that loss of expression of the PTEN tumour suppressor gene is also linked to ... These values were then converted to log base 10 and plotted against the Ct data points for the target gene or RuBisCO to ... Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is one of the most studied tumour suppressor genes that influences a wide range of ...
... and ex vivo gene transfer. This was the first NIH Office of Recombinant DNA Activities-approved trial of human gene therapy for ... Carducci M. A., Ayyagari S. R., Sanda M. G., Simons J. W. Gene therapy for human prostate cancer. Cancer (Phila.), 75: 2013- ... GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines represent only one of several new approaches to active specific immunotherapy of PCA, which ... GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines increased antibody titers against prostate tumor cell line-associated antigens. This ...
Tags: Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Animal Model, Blood, Blood Cancer, Bone, Bone Marrow, Cancer, Cell, CRISPR, Drugs, Gene, Genes, ... By employing special gene scissors, CRISPR, we have been able, using an animal model, to study around 100 genes at the same ... The Lund researchers found that the gene CXCR4 is essential for the leukemia stem cells survival. When they cut off this gene ... The new method using gene scissors means that the researchers can effectively control which gene is turned off, making it ...
In 2018, AbbVie paid Voyager $69 million to develop gene therapies for the treatment of Alzheimers and other diseases linked ... Working with partner Neurocrine Biosciences, Voyager is testing a gene therapy designed to enable Parkinsons patients to ...
... brings you the latest research into genetic and cell-based technologies to treat disease. It also publishes ... Celebrating 25 Years of Gene Therapy To celebrate 25 years of Gene Therapy, the Editor-in-Chief has selected 25 of the most ... 25 Years of Gene Therapy. To celebrate 25 years of Gene Therapy, the Editor-in-Chief has selected 25 of the journals most ... Integrating gene delivery and gene-editing technologies by adenoviral vector transfer of optimized CRISPR-Cas9 components * ...
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... in myeloproliferative disorders results in fusion of the ETS-like TEL gene on 12p13 to the MN1 gene on 22q11". Oncogene. 10 (8 ... "MN1 affects expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis and can enhance as well as inhibit RAR/RXR-induced gene expression". ...
Eugene "Gene" Martynec (born 28 March 1947) is a Canadian musician, composer and record producer. ... From 2000 to 2004 he curated Eugenes Sunday Series an exploration of new music and other art forms at Artword Theatre. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gene_Martynec&oldid=868294371" ...
Gene Demby is the politics editor of Huffington Post BlackVoices. He was HuffPost BlackVoices managing editor following its ...
Eugene Allen Hackman was born in San Bernardino, California, the son of Anna Lyda Elizabeth (Gray) and Eugene Ezra Hackman, who ... Eugene Allen Hackman was born in San Bernardino, California, the son of Anna Lyda Elizabeth (Gray) and Eugene Ezra Hackman, who ... McLean Stevenson/Gene Hackman/George Carlin/Gloria DeHaven (1974) ... Himself - McLean Stevenson, George Carlin, Gene Hackman, ... Steve Allen, John Wayne, Carol Channing, Charles Nelson Reilly, Terry-Thomas, Jo Ann Pflug, Gene Hackman (1972) ... Himself - ...
Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players' Assn. for a quarter of a century, ... Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players Assn. for a quarter of a century, ... Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players Assn. for a quarter of a century, ... Gene Upshaw, a Hall of Fame guard for the Oakland Raiders, was head of the NFL Players Assn. for a quarter of a century, ...
GENE-TOX provides genetic toxicology (mutagenicity) test data from expert peer review of open scientific literature for more ... GENE-TOX covers the years 1991 - 1998. It is no longer updated. ... Download over 3214 GENE-TOX records.. Download GENE-TOX Data ... Download GENE-TOX Data. Terms and Conditions Get the Data via Bulk Download. ... than 3,000 chemicals from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). GENE-TOX was established to select assay ...
db=gene,term=PA4221,query=1,qty=2,blobid=NCID_1_20256912_130.14.18.48_9001_1576399065_364261814_0MetA0_S_MegaStore_F_1, ... See fptA (PA4221) Fe(III)-pyochelin outer membrane receptor in the Gene database. ... Gene. Genes and mapped phenotypes. Search database. Gene. All Databases. Assembly. Biocollections. BioProject. BioSample. ...
Marvel.com is the source for Marvel comics, digital comics, comic strips, and more featuring Iron Man, Spider-Man, Hulk, X-Men and all your favorite superheroes.
Friedman M.T., West K.A., Bizargity P., Annen K., Jhang J.S. (2018) Gene Genius. In: Immunohematology and Transfusion Medicine ...
db=gene,term=SUSD3,query=1,qty=223,blobid=NCID_1_266601728_130.14.22.215_9001_1550533365_1826726879_0MetA0_S_MegaStore_F_1, ... susd3 in Homo sapiensMus musculusRattus norvegicusAll 223 Gene records ... Gene. Genes and mapped phenotypes. Search database. Gene. All Databases. Assembly. Biocollections. BioProject. BioSample. ...
The gene: A gene is a sequence (a string) of bases. It is made up of combinations of A, T, C, and G. These unique combinations ... An official definition: According to the official Guidelines for Human Gene Nomenclature, a gene is defined as "a DNA segment ... DNA: Genes are composed of DNA, a molecule in the memorable shape of a double helix, a spiral ladder. Each rung of the spiral ... History of the gene: 1869-1970:. *1869 - The chemical material DNA is discovered in cells but its real functions are not known ...
g gaba gaes gakr gall galv gamm gani gard garr gas-t gast gate gaus gbbc gbwa gchn gcwa gdse geez geme gene generat genn genu ...
  • Examination of the global effects of this polyamide on mRNA transcription is used to elucidate a list of genes that are regulated by a glucocorticoid receptor protein-DNA dependent mechanism. (caltech.edu)
  • The goal of this study was to determine if gene inhibition in bacterial cells could be achieved by isolating GSEs from a genomic library. (wku.edu)
  • In this study, antisense GSEs were isolated clearly showing that it was possible to inhibit function of known and unknown genes in bacterial cells using genetic suppressor elements derived from a genomic library. (wku.edu)
  • Genetic suppressor elements (GSEs) are short biologically active gene fragments that encode inhibitory antisense RNAs or truncated proteins that function as negative dominants. (wku.edu)
  • Additionally, if it was possible to use GSEs to inhibit gene function in E. coli JM109DE3 cells, could this method be used to locate and determine the function of unknown genes? (wku.edu)
more