Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Nerve Tissue ProteinsSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Protein PrecursorsRNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Mice, Inbred C57BLExpressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Mice, Inbred BALB CTumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Antisense: DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Antisense Elements (Genetics): Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.Eye ProteinsAntibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.PhosphoproteinsTobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Northern blot: the traditional method, and until the advent of RNA-Seq, the most quantitative ...
Macromolecule blotting and probing[edit]. The terms northern, western and eastern blotting are derived from what initially was ... Western blotting[edit]. Main article: Western blot. In western blotting, proteins are first separated by size, in a thin gel ... Patricia Thomas, developer of the RNA blot which then became known as the northern blot, actually didn't use the term.[19] ... Southern blotting[edit]. Main article: Southern blot. Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is ...
Northern blot (RNA). *Sexually transmitted diseases. Cellular evaluation[edit]. *Full blood count (or "complete blood count") ...
Northern blot analysis detected 3 transcripts; a 1-kb transcript was predominant in heart, and a 3-kb transcript was ...
Using Northern Blot Analysis, Vitelli et al. (1996) found that RAB7a was expressed as 1.7- and 2.5-kb transcripts in all cell ...
12 of them were confirmed by Northern blot. DicF RNA DsrA RNA FnrS RNA GadY RNA GcvB RNA IsrJ RNA MicA RNA / SraD RNA MicC RNA ...
The transcription of sRNAs was confirmed by Northern blot. Fur binding was demonstrated to each sRNA promoter, and that ...
Northern blotting is a laboratory technique that produces similar information. It is slower and less quantitative, but also ...
Expression of 11 of them was confirmed by Northern blot. The sRNAs were shown to be only present in Streptomyces species. sRNA ...
Nature Genetics 40(8), 1004 "Northern Blotting". www.lifetechnologies.com. Retrieved 2016-11-26. Wang, X., Seed, B. (2003). A ... researchers have used different techniques such as the Northern Blot technique and Real-Time PCR. From these studies, it was ...
Northern blot analysis also indicated this RNA undergoes specific cleavage processing. The GlmZ sRNA has been shown to ... The expression of SraJ was experimentally confirmed by Northern blotting. This ncRNA is expressed in early logarithmic phase, ...
The sRNAs were characterised through RACE mapping and Northern blot experiments. Secondary structures of the sRNAs were ...
It was identified by RNA-seq and confirmed by Northern blot. It is modulated by sigB (sarA regulator) and cshA (an ATP- ...
However, northern blot analysis of this 477bp sequence yielded no results. A subsequent tiling array analysis sequencing Hfq- ...
Northern blot analysis is used to study the RNA's gene expression further. RT-PCR can also be very useful in the insertion of ... Streit S, Michalski CW, Erkan M, Kleeff J, Friess H (2009). "Northern blot analysis for detection and quantification of RNA in ... Compared to other RNA quantification methods, such as northern blot, qRT-PCR is considered to be the most powerful, sensitive, ... northern blot had been used extensively for RNA quantification despite its shortcomings: (a) time-consuming technique, (b) ...
From this study multiple mRNA transcripts were detected by northern blot analysis. This finding suggests that netrin receptors ...
Northern blot assay showed markedly elevated levels of Tα1 mRNA expression; T26 mRNA expression increased minimally with ... Northern blotting studies have shown that the gene expression is predominantly found in morphologically differentiated ... by way of Northern blot. Miller et al. further elaborated on the role of α-tubulins and the process of neuronal development and ...
Northern blot experiments show that RsaOG is expressed in several S. aureus strains. Mapping of RsaOG ends indicates a size of ...
This can be assayed in several ways, notably northern blot and RT-PCR. The expression levels of the entire genome can be ...
The stability and abundance of the shorter 3' transcript is confirmed in both Northern blotting and deep sequencing analysis. ... The expression of SraH was experimentally confirmed by Northern blotting. Its expression is highly abundant in stationary ...
First, a northern blot can be used to isolate a set of RNA sequences. Second and third, they can be analyzed by standard Gene ...
Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.6-kb transcript that appears to be ubiquitously expressed. MAP3Ks are involved in ...
These include northern hybridisation, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence, ELISA and phenotypic analysis. The ...
1994). "Northern blot analysis of sepiapterin reductase mRNA in mammalian cell lines and tissues". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 338: ...
The HgcC gene product was experimentally validated by Northern blot and RACE-PCR analysis. The function of this ncRNA is ...
"Bringing them home 8. The History - Northern Territory" (PDF). Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 6 May 2018.. ... Soheil Baharian; Maxime Barakatt; Christopher R. Gignoux; Suyash Shringarpure; Jacob Errington; William J. Blot; Carlos D. ... The main slave routes in the Middle East and Northern Africa during the Middle Ages. ... the Northern Territory Protector of Natives, noted that: generally by the fifth and invariably by the sixth generation, all ...
These techniques being variations of Southern blot were named northern blot, western blot, and eastern blot. Northern blot is ... Edwin Southern is called the Southern blot. This technique was subsequently modified so as to detect other target molecules. ... Therefore it is also called the RNA blot. ... western blot, and eastern blot. Northern blot is used to detect ... Limitations of northern blot. A few limitations of the northern blot technique are discussed below:. *The standard northern ...
A Northern Blot is a method by which RNA is identified. After being subject to electrophoresis (usually gel electrophoresis) ... Northern Blot (idea). See all of Northern Blot, no other writeups in this node. ... A Northern Blot is a method by which RNA is identified. After being subject to electrophoresis (usually gel electrophoresis) ... It is a play on words from Southern Blot, an essentially identical procedure used to detect DNA developed by the English ...
... u.jacobi at ncmls.kun.nl u.jacobi at ncmls.kun.nl Fri Mar 19 12:09:14 EST 2004 *Previous message: Results of a ... Hallo, I am having problems with Northern blots. After the transfer I have quite little RNA on my membrane and quite a lot ...
... Anton Scott Goustin asg at cmb.biosci.wayne.edu Wed Dec 13 19:12:15 EST 1995 *Previous message: ... I am using Hybond-N+ for Northern blots and have used the Amersham ,,protocol for stripping them (ie pour on boiling 0.5% SDS ... Just leave it there for 2 min, then wash the blot as usual (1X SSC, 0.1% or whatever you use). Check to see that the signal is ... and allow to cool ,,to room temp.). This strips the blots but also seems to strip off the RNA ,,as well. Does anyone have any ...
Reverse Northern blot, much like the northern blot upon which it is based, is used to determine levels of gene expression in ... While northern blot or q-PCR are often used to confirm results, both techniques have drawbacks. Northern blot is limited by its ... In comparison to the Northern blot, the reverse northern blot is able to probe a large number of transcripts at once with less ... Gene expression Northern Blot Southern Blot Differential display DNA Microarray qPCR RNA Seq Primrose, Sandy B.; Twyman, ...
Im doing northern using AMBION kit using the biotin assay I have few problems: 1. How can I save my membrane wet if in the ... Im doing northern using AMBION kit using the biotin assay. I have few problems:. 1. How can I save my membrane wet if in the ... Northern blot - posted in Molecular Biology: Hello, ...
Blot includes 7 lanes of total RNA isolated from Alzheimers-diseased brain tissue including: precentral gyrus, postcentral ... Northern BoundTM Human Alzheimers Total RNA Blot from Sigma-Aldrich, ... miRCURY LNA Northern Blotting Detection probes from Exiqon. 2. Mouse Anti-Human S-100 alpha/beta chain Monoclonal Antibody, ... Blot includes 7 lanes of total RNA isolated from Alzheimers-diseased brain tissue including: precentral gyrus, postcentral ...
Northern Blotting Protocol. The protocol for Northern blotting is similar to that of Southern blotting. However, RNA sequences ... Southern and Northern blotting protocols involve the following major steps:. *Purification of DNA/RNA: Extract and purify the ... The other blotting techniques emerged from this method have been termed as Northern (for RNA), Western (for proteins), Eastern ... Place the blot in a film cassette lined with new saran wrap and carefully wrap the blot ensuring no air bubbles are trapped ...
The Northern blot, also known as the RNA blot, is one of the blotting techniques used to transfer DNA and RNA onto a carrier ... The name Northern Blot is merely a play on words. Southern, Northern, and Western blots are known respectively for their ... Northern Blot is a derivative of the Southern blot, which, like the Southern Blot, utilizes electrophoresis separation analysis ... The Northern blot is useful for the study of gene expression in two ways. First, the position of bands on the blot provides a ...
Northern blot. Profile and functional analysis of small RNAs derived from Aspergillus fumigatus infected with double-stranded ... Northern blotting was used to validate the presence of vsiRNAs. Briefly, 2 μg of sRNA from virus-free and virus-infected A. ...
Northern blot analysis for detection and quantification of RNA in pancreatic cancer cells and tissues.. Streit S1, Michalski CW ... In this protocol, we describe how northern blot analysis is used to identify gene expression patterns at the RNA level in human ... Despite the development of newer methods, such as real-time PCR, nuclease protection assays and microarrays, northern blot ...
... my boss ask me to have a good positive control for my northern blot. I did a lot of lecture but I just saw negatif control. So ... Positive control for Northern Blot - posted in Molecular Biology: Hi everyone, ... do you have a idea of whats a good controlo for a northern? thanks ... my boss ask me to have a good positive control for my northern blot. I did a lot of lecture but I just saw negatif control.. So ...
Northern blotting (inglise northern blot, northern blot technique) on meetod RNA osade identifitseerimiseks vastavates ... Pärit leheküljelt "https://et.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northern_blotting&oldid=3567758" ...
Suitable for use in hybridization buffers used in Northern blot, Southern blot, colony/plaque blots, and dot blots. ... Intro to Southern & Northern Blotting , Northern & Southern Blot Protocols The transfer of macromolecules such as nucleic acids ... Northern blot, Nucleic acid denaturation, Nucleic acid hybridization, Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot ... Buffer / Buffer Salts, Buffers for Hybridization, Core Bioreagents, Life Science Reagents for Northern and Southern Blotting, ...
What is Northern blot analysis? Meaning of Northern blot analysis medical term. What does Northern blot analysis mean? ... Looking for online definition of Northern blot analysis in the Medical Dictionary? Northern blot analysis explanation free. ... Northern blot analysis. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. North·ern blot a·nal·y·sis. a procedure ... North·ern blot a·nal·y·sis. (nōrdhĕrn blot ă-nali-sis) A procedure similar to the Southern blot analysis, used mostly to ...
Kim, S. W., et al. A sensitive non-radioactive northern blot method to detect small RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 38, e98 (2010). ... Pall, G. S., Hamilton, A. J. Improved northern blot method for enhanced detection of small RNA. Nat Protoc. 3, 1077-1084 (2008 ... Varallyay, E., Burgyan, J., Havelda, Z. Detection of microRNAs by Northern blot analyses using LNA probes. Methods. 43, 140-145 ... Várallyay, E., Burgyán, J., Havelda, Z. MicroRNA detection by northern blotting using locked nucleic acid probes. Nat Protoc. 3 ...
... é visualizar e discutir os passos operatórios de um protocolo de Northern Blot em RNA extraído de... ... Os resultados são comparados entre o avançado Blot Norte (ENB) e Standard Northern Blot (SNB), realizado em mesmas condições: ... A análise de Northern blot é essencial quando a medição de tamanho de ARN é necessária. Mesmo que este ensaio pode não ter a ... Northern blot (NB, ou ensaio de mancha de gel de ARN) constitui um exemplo representativo: é largamente utilizado para o perfil ...
hi guys i am having a hair pulling moment here i cant determine what my northern blot results mean i hope someone can help... i ... hi guys! i am having a hair pulling moment here i cant determine what my northern blot results mean i hope someone can help... ... hi guys! i am having a hair pulling moment here i cant determine what my northern blot results mean i hope someone can help... ... northern blot analysis. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in ...
Homing in on the Molecular Basis of Boron Essentiality Using Differential Display, Gene Arrays, and Northern Blots. ... and Northern Blots. In: Roussel A.M., Anderson R.A., Favier A.E. (eds) Trace Elements in Man and Animals 10. Springer, New York ...
Find out information about Northern blot analysis. Backgammon a man exposed by being placed alone on a point and therefore able ... to be taken by the other player Explanation of Northern blot analysis ... blot. (redirected from Northern blot analysis). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal. blot. Backgammon a man ... Northern blot analysis , Article about Northern blot analysis by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary. ...
Northern blot analysis of activated splenocytes. (A) C57BL/6 splenocytes were cultured in medium alone (medium) or supplemented ... Figure 4: Northern blot analysis of activated splenocytes. (A) C57BL/6 splenocytes were cultured in medium alone (medium) or ... Figure 4: Northern blot analysis of activated splenocytes. (A) C57BL/6 splenocytes were cultured in medium alone (medium) or ... 4 B). The blots were probed for ITM2A, CD69, a T cell activation marker 33343536, and EF1α, a housekeeping gene. In both ...
QuikHyb hybridization solution was developed for use in Southern, Northern, slot-blot and plaque-lift formats using randomly ... MiracleHyb hybridization solution was developed for use in Northern analysis when sensitive detection of low-abundance messages ...
RNA extraction and northern blot analysis. Total RNA was extracted from plant and mouse tissues by using the TRI Reagent (Sigma ... Northern blot analysis of three mouse and two A.thaliana microRNAs using LNA3-modified oligonucleotide probes. (A-D) Total RNAs ... We describe here a new method for highly efficient detection of miRNAs by northern blot analysis using locked nucleic acid (LNA ... We describe here a new method for highly efficient detection of microRNAs by northern blot analysis using LNA (locked nucleic ...
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Northern blots omit the need for restriction digest. However, RNA detection by Northern blot requires different considerations ... Detection of Nucleic Acids by Southern and Northern Blotting. Southern blotting was originally introduced by Edwin Southern in ... After extraction, Southern and Northern blot protocols begin to differ. Southern blotting requires an additional step because ... Table 1. Comparisons between Northern, Southern and Western Blots. Figure 1. Visual Reading for Rapid Results using WESTERNVIEW ...
  • The separated RNA fragments are then blotted onto a special filter paper so that each RNA molecule retains its position relative to all the other molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • Southern blotting requires an additional step because of the need to take purified DNA and partially digest it into smaller, different sized, double-stranded fragments with restriction enzymes (endonucleases) that cut the DNA at specific spots. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • It is a play on words from Southern Blot , an essentially identical procedure used to detect DNA developed by the English scientist Ed Southern . (everything2.com)
  • Avance Biosciences' cGMP/GLP compliant genomic and microbial assays make use of the advanced technologies including real-time PCR, ddPCR, Sanger sequencing, next-gen sequencing, Southern blot, and more. (avancebio.com)
  • Northern blot analysis revealed a decrease in MMP-9 mRNA expression following treatment with PPARγ which resulted from the inhibition of NF-κB activation in these cells, as determined by transient transfection assays and electromobility shift assays. (bmj.com)
  • Most miRNA researchers use northern blot analysis combined with polyacrylamide gels to examine the expression of both the mature and precursor miRNAs, since it allows both quantitation of the expression levels as well as miRNA size determination ( 5 , 7 , 8 , 13 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Quickly grab quantitative images of your blots or gels right on your bench with the Omega Lum C. With its broad dynamic range and sensitive detection, you can't get better data from your experiments anywhere else. (selectscience.net)
  • Reverse Northern blot, much like the northern blot upon which it is based, is used to determine levels of gene expression in particular tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Northern blot is useful for the study of gene expression in two ways. (wikibooks.org)
  • The Northern blot is a valuable method used by researchers in determining gene expression patterns. (wikibooks.org)
  • The main difference between the two techniques is that the northern Blot is performed to study gene expression by analyzing RNA instead of DNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this protocol, we describe how northern blot analysis is used to identify gene expression patterns at the RNA level in human cancer cells as well as in cancerous and normal tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Northern blot analysis of total RNA from planktonic and biofilm-grown cells demonstrated that ALS gene expression is differentially regulated between the two growth forms, with additional genes expressed in biofilms (4,5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Powerful and continually evolving methods, such as short-read sequencing (RNA-seq), microarray analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, as well as traditional methods for differential gene expression studies using multiplex endpoint PCR and northern blot analysis are employed by scientists to analyze gene function, identify new therapeutic and diagnostic targets, and to map pathways involved in development and disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Northern blot is a commonly used molecular biology approach for the evaluation of gene expression at transcriptional levels (1). (lifeasible.com)
  • Northern blot is also known as RNA blot, as it reflects gene expressions via detection of the mRNA levels of target genes. (lifeasible.com)
  • Parallel increases in CYP2C mRNAs, measured by Northern blotting and/or RNase protection, were found in rifampicin-treated hepatocytes, with CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 transcripts exhibiting increases of 688 ± 635, 207 ± 49, and 230 ± 60%, respectively, versus an 8.8-fold enhancement of CYP3A4 mRNA levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • If you are interested in Northern blot constructed with RNA samples not listed below or required blots to be specifically prepared to meet your application, our custom service scientists can make it for you. (zyagen.com)