Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.
A surgical specialty concerned with correcting conditions related to malposition of the jawbones and other related MAXILLOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES (e.g., CLEFT PALATE; RETROGNATHISM).
Congenital arteriovenous malformation involving the VEIN OF GALEN, a large deep vein at the base of the brain. The rush of arterial blood directly into the vein of Galen, without passing through the CAPILLARIES, can overwhelm the heart and lead to CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.
A group of religious bodies tracing their origin to Joseph Smith in 1830 and accepting the Book of Mormon as divine revelation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)
Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.
Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

The place of medicine in the American prison: ethical issues in the treatment of offenders. (1/94)

In Britain doctors and others concerned with the treatment of offenders in prison may consult the Butler Report (see Focus, pp 157) and specialist journals, but these sources are concerned with the system in Britain only. In America the situation is different, both in organization and in certain attitudes. Dr Peter L Sissons has therefore provided a companion article to that of Dr Paul Bowden (page 163) describing the various medical issues in prisons. The main difference between the treatment of offenders in prisons in America and in Britain lies in the nature of the federal system which means that each state may operate a different system in a variety of prisons and prison medical services are as various. Nationally, the prison systems are 'structured to treat and cure the offender'. Therefore it follows that the prison medical officer is only one of the professionals concerned with this 'cure' of the offender. This principle also applies to any form of research: medical research in prisons is part of a programme which covers a wide field of social and judicial research. The prison medical officer (where there is one) has of course to look after sick prisoners, and the American idea of 'cure' is also expressed in the need for more corrective surgery where, for example, it is necessary to remove physical impediments to social rehabilitation. But a doctor is only found on the staff of those institutions which are large: in the smaller prisons there may be only first-aid facilities, and no specially appointed doctor in the community. Moreover medicines are often dispensed by medical auxiliaries who are sometimes prisoners themselves. Finally, in America prisoners are regularly invited to volunteer as subjects for medical and social research for which they are paid. In short, although it is hoped to 'cure' a prisoner he is a criminal first and a patient second.  (+info)

Impact of therapeutic research on informed consent and the ethics of clinical trials: a medical oncology perspective. (2/94)

PURPOSE: To create a more meaningful understanding of the informed consent process as it has come to be practiced and regulated in clinical trials, this discussion uses the experience gained from the conduct of therapeutic research that involves cancer patients. DESIGN: After an introduction of the ethical tenets of the consent process in clinical research that involves potentially vulnerable patients as research subjects, background that details the use of written consent documents and of the term "informed consent" is provided. Studies from the cancer setting that examine the inadequacies of written consent documents, and the outcome of the consent process itself, are reviewed. Two ethically challenging areas of cancer clinical research, the phase I trial and the randomized controlled trial, are discussed briefly as a means of highlighting many dilemmas present in clinical trials. Before concluding, areas for future research are discussed. RESULTS: Through an exclusive cancer research perspective, many current deficiencies in the informed consent process for therapeutic clinical trials can be critically examined. Also, new directions for improvements and areas of further research can be outlined and discussed objectively. The goals of such improvements and research should be prevention of further misguided or ineffective efforts to regulate the informed consent process. CONCLUSION: To ignore this rich and interesting perspective potentially contributes to continued misunderstanding and apathy toward fulfilling the regulatory and ethically obligatory requirements involved in an essential communication process between a clinician-investigator and a potentially vulnerable patient who is considering clinical trial participation.  (+info)

Parental consent to publicity. (3/94)

The problems presented by the use of named child patients and their medical histories in television, radio and newspapers is discussed. It is suggested that it is not acceptable to regard this as comparable to their participation in non-therapeutic research, and that no one, not even the parent has the authority to give consent to such use.  (+info)

The family rule: a framework for obtaining ethical consent for medical interventions from children. (4/94)

Children's consent to treatment remains a contentious topic, with confusing legal precepts and advice. This paper proposes that informed consent in children should be regarded as shared between children and their families, the balance being determined by implicit, developmentally based negotiations between child and parent--a "family rule" for consent. Consistent, operationalized procedures for ethically obtaining consent can be derived from its application to both routine and contentious situations. Therefore, use of the "family Rule" concept can consistently define negligent procedure in obtaining consent from children, and could be used as a unifying framework in the development of new professional guidelines. A "guideline"-based approach to children's consent to treatment may offer greater individuality than a "rights"-based approach, though careful training and oversight will be needed for it to be effective.  (+info)

Ethical considerations in international HIV vaccine trials: summary of a consultative process conducted by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (5/94)

Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of trials are now being conducted or planned in other countries, including several that are considered "developing" countries. Safeguarding the rights and welfare of individuals participating as research subjects in developing countries is a priority. In September, 1997, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) embarked on a process of international consultation; its purpose was further to define the important ethical issues and to formulate guidance that might facilitate the ethical design and conduct of HIV vaccine trials in international contexts. This paper summarises the major outcomes of the UNAIDS consultative process.  (+info)

Paying research subjects: participants' perspectives. (6/94)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the opinions of unpaid healthy volunteers on the payment of research subjects. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Southern Alberta, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Medically eligible persons responding to recruiting advertisements for a randomised vaccine trial were invited to take part in a study of informed consent at the point at which they formally consented or refused trial participation. Of 72 invited, 67 (62 trial consenters, 5 trial refusers) returned questionnaires at baseline and 54 at follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of persons who agreed or disagreed with three close-ended statements on the payment of research subjects; themes and categories identified by content analysis of responses to an open-ended question. RESULTS: A minority (43.3%) agreed with paying either patient or healthy volunteer participants. Opinions did not change over time. Participants' comments addressed: benefits and drawbacks to research participation; benefits and drawbacks to paying research participants; conditions under which payment of research subjects would be acceptable, and the nature of acceptable recognition. Acceptable conditions were to improve problematic recruitment, to reimburse costs, and to recognise participants, particularly for their time investment. Both non-monetary and monetary recognition of volunteers were thought to be appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: Most unpaid volunteers disagreed with paying research participants. The themes arising from their comments are similar to those that have been raised by ethicists and suggest that recognising the time and effort of participants should receive greater emphasis than presently occurs.  (+info)

What is a medical experiment? (7/94)

Innovative therapy may appear to coincide with medical experimentation, raising ethical and legal issues, for instance on informed consent and institutional review. Medical treatments may be classified, however, to distinquish novel procedures from experimentation.  (+info)

Ethics of practicing medical procedures on newly dead and nearly dead patients. (8/94)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the ethical issues raised by physicians performing, for skill development, medically nonindicated invasive medical procedures on newly dead and dying patients. DESIGN: Literature review; issue analysis employing current normative ethical obligations, and evaluation against moral rules and utilitarian assessments manifest in other common perimortem practices. RESULTS: Practicing medical procedures for training purposes is not uncommon among physicians in training. However, empiric information is limited or absent evaluating the effects of this practice on physician competence and ethics, assessing public attitudes toward practicing medical procedures and requirements for consent, and discerning the effects of a consent requirement on physicians' clinical competence. Despite these informational gaps, there is an obligation to secure consent for training activities on newly and nearly dead patients based on contemporary norms for informed consent and family respect. Paradigms of consent-dependent societal benefits elsewhere in health care support our determination that the benefits from physicians practicing procedures does not justify setting aside the informed consent requirement. CONCLUSION: Current ethical norms do not support the practice of using newly and nearly dead patients for training in invasive medical procedures absent prior consent by the patient or contemporaneous surrogate consent. Performing an appropriately consented training procedure is ethically acceptable when done under competent supervision and with appropriate professional decorum. The ethics of training on the newly and nearly dead remains an insufficiently examined area of medical training.  (+info)

Background: Knowledge about assent or dissent of children to non-therapeutic research is poor.. Objectives: To assess sociodemographic characteristics in healthy children and adolescents who were invited to participate in non-therapeutic research, to evaluate their motives for assent or dissent and their understanding of the information given.. Methods: A total of 1281 healthy children and adolescents six to sixteen years of age were invited to participate in a non-therapeutic study and a questionnaire.. Results: Assenting children were motivated by a desire to help sick children (n = 638, 98%) and to gain experience with participating in a research study (n = 503, 82%). Dissenting children made their decision because of worries about having a blood (n = 193, 46%) or a urine sample (n = 94, 26%) taken or because of worries about a doctors examination (n = 136, 33%). Fewer children in the assent group (n = 166, 25%) than in the dissent group (136, 33%) worried about the doctors examination (p = ...
Results The interviewed children most frequently mentioned as positive experiences of non-therapeutic research participation helping others and the gratification that comes with it, possible health benefits in the future, having fun and new/increased knowledge about the human body, hospitals and doing research. Less frequently mentioned were getting a present, not having to go to school and getting extra attention from healthcare staff. ...
WASHINGTON, Feb. 26, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Diabetes-Hearing Loss Link Spurs BHI to Urge Hearing Checks, Diabetes Risk Test for American Diabetes...
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. If you are looking for a diabetes risk test, Request A Test can help. We offer affordable lab testing at over 3600 locations to make getting tested easy.
Suicide is a growing problem and with a shortage of psychiatrists in Texas and the United States, theres real opportunity for primary care physicians to reach vulnerable patients.
How does identifying vulnerable patients help health systems achieve population health management goals? By leveraging social determinants of health to…
The involuntary, non-therapeutic sterilisation of women and girls with an intellectual disability - Can it ever be justified? Journal Articles Refereed ...
Findings published last week suggest that people are not troubled upon learning they are at higher risk of developing Alzheimers disease. Writing in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers at the Boston University School of Medicine, US, led by Dr Robert Green, measured participants anxiety levels following results of a genetic test. The paper arrives amidst debate on how harmful direct-to-customer genetics testing - offered by companies such as 23andMe and DeCodeMe - might actually be to individuals.. The study involved 162 people averaging 50 years of age, who had a parent with Alzheimers disease. One third (non-disclosure group) were not given the results of the genetic test. The remainder (disclosure group) were told whether or not they carried a variant of the apolipoprotein E gene - ApoE4 - that is associated with increased risk of developing the condition. Questionnaires were issued to score subsequent anxiety, depression and distress. There was little difference measured ...
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As researchers hone in on ways to detect whether someone has a high risk of developing Alzheimers disease before they have any symptoms, mental health professionals have worried what the psychological fallout of that knowledge might be.
Many middle-aged and senior Texans who are covered by certain insurance plans now qualify for tests that proponents say may detect undiagnosed cardiac disease and help them avoid premature death. When policies are updated this year, health insurers will be required to reimburse up to $200 for exams given to women ages 56 to 74 and men 46 to 75 considered at elevated risk of heart disease based on the Framingham Risk Score, which assesses heart disease risk based on studies of large populations over time. Reducing expensesIn 2006, the Houston-based Society for Heart Attack Prevention and Eradication, or SHAPE, published a report indicating that preventive screenings for people without cardiac symptoms would save more than 4,000 lives a year in Texas, reduce heart attacks and save nearly $2 billion in health care expenses. According to the American Heart Association, sudden cardiac death - the fatal loss of heart function - occurs in about 300,000 people a year in the United States, many of whom have
UCLA researchers have used a brain-imaging tool and stroke risk assessment to identify signs of cognitive decline early on in individuals who dont yet show symptoms of dementia.
WALTHAM, Mass., April 21, 2016-- Interleukin Genetics, Inc., a life sciences company focused on developing and marketing proprietary genetic tests for chronic diseases and health-related conditions, today announced it has signed an agreement with Reimbursement Specialists, Inc., a Comprehensive Benefit Administrators company and leading provider of...
She told the BBC News website: I think its very exciting at the moment. The discovery of these variants has progressed very quickly in the last five years and I think its reaching a plateau. And at that point its time to start designing a genetic test that includes all these elements. Thats likely to be reached within a year ...
The Eye Center offers a quick and painless cheek swab genetic test at our office, to determine your risk of Macular Degeneration. Call our office to schedule a few minutes out of your day for this simple and convenient test, billable under insurance.
Methods The training was structured to create a foundation (level 1) Volunteer Patient Companion with the option of further training to take on the role of (level 2) Volunteer Mealtime Assistant.. Training for level 1 was delivered by the Psycho Social Team and covered effective communication, grief, emotional support and dementia. The Clinical Development Nurse for the Inpatient Unit taught the level 2 Volunteer Mealtime Assistants how to assist patients with eating and drinking.. To ensure the safety of volunteers and patients the Volunteer Co-ordinator and Lead Nurse Inpatient Services wrote a person specification to select the candidates for training. ...
New guidance say doctors and nurses must provide water to the dying. The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (Nice) has drafted new guidance demanding that patients have access to fluids. The Liverpool Care Pathway which was withdrawn last year saw elderly and other vulnerable patients denied food and fluids, often without their knowledge or consent, or that of their relatives. However such practices may still be going on, albeit under different names. Roger Goss from Patient Concern commented saying: It is shocking that this has to be spelled out to doctors and nurses. [Telegraph, 29 July] Antonia Tully of the Patients First Network said: We are still seeing a lack of confidence among relatives about the way in which vulnerable patients are cared for. We are continuing to advise family and friends to maintain constant vigilance to make sure that those they love receive basic care, including food and water ...
Problem: More than 3 million Americans will rely on services provided by long-term care (LTC) facilities at some point during 2013, and more than 1.4
(CIDRAP News) A committee of experts convened by the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA) says that antibiotics should not be used in agriculture except to treat sick animals and protect healthy animals threatened by disease in the herd or flock.
5)(A) an estimated 70 percent of the antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs used in the United States are fed to farm animals for nontherapeutic purposes, including-- (i) growth promotion; and (ii) compensation for crowded, unsanitary, and stressful farming and transportation conditions; and (B) unlike human use of antibiotics, these nontherapeutic uses in animals typically do not require a prescription; (6)(A) large-scale, voluntary surveys by the Department of Agricultures Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in 1999, 2001, and 2006 revealed that 84 percent of grower-finisher swine farms, 83 percent of cattle feedlots, and 84 percent of sheep farms administer antimicrobials in the feed or water for health or growth promotion reasons, and many of the antimicrobials identified are identical or closely related to drugs used in human medicine, including tetracyclines, macrolides, Bacitracin, penicillins, and sulfonamides ...
MDLIVE does not guarantee that a prescription will be written. MDLIVE does not prescribe DEA controlled substances, non-therapeutic drugs and certain other drugs which may be harmful because of their potential for abuse. MDLIVE physicians reserve the right to deny care for potential misuse of services. For complete terms of use visit **Parents must be present on each call for children under age 18.. Disclaimers: MDLIVE does not replace the primary care physician. MDLIVE is not an insurance product nor a prescription fulfillment warehouse. MDLIVE operates subject to state regulation and may not be available in certain states. MDLIVE does not guarantee that a prescription will be written. MDLIVE does not prescribe DEA controlled substances, non-therapeutic drugs and certain other drugs which may be harmful because of their potential for abuse. MDLIVE physicians reserve the right to deny care for potential misuse of services. MDLIVE phone consultations are available ...
/PRNewswire/ -- Human albumin is widely considered as a plasma replacement or expander for therapeutic purposes. However, for over a decade, the healthcare...
Drugs will be withdrawn for non-therapeutic use (as defined above) after no more than two years, unless a reasonable certainty is shown by the applicant. First, this represents a fundamental shift in the burden of proof: rather than having to show that non-therapeutic antibiotic use is harmful, manufacturers have to show that it is not harmful. I cant emphasize what a fundamental shift this is (and which, no doubt, will make ag and pharmaceutical lobbyists break out in cold sweats). Second, because many antibiotics are not under patent (i.e., theyre generics), the economic incentives are reduced to preserve the use of unprotected drugs. Generic drug profits are made on the margins, unlike patent-protected drugs, whose owners typically have the resources to wage these fights (e.g., there just isnt enough profit to defend tetracycline production ...
A method of performing a medical procedure, such as surgery, is provided. A nerve is stimulated in order to adjust the beating of the heart to a first condition, such as a stopped or slowed condition. The medical procedure is performed on the heart or another organ. The stimulation of the nerve is stopped in order to adjust the beating of the heart to a second condition, such as a beating condition. The heart itself may also be stimulated to a beating condition, such as by pacing. The stimulation of the nerve may be continued in order to allow the medical procedure to be continued. Systems and devices for performing the medical procedure are also provided.
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Its been a long road for 23andMe, but not without reward. The FDA authorized the marketing of the companys genetic health risk tests, the first tests OKd by the agency that provide this information directly to consumers.
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In the first published research project worldwide on this new approach to testing medicines in children, the findings were announced in leading US medical journal Pediatrics.. The study, which involves the use of blood spots obtained from a simple heel-prick, took place in the Belfast Hospital for Sick Children and the School of Pharmacy at Queens.. The research was carried out by a team from the Universitys School of Pharmacy in partnership with the Regional Neonatal Unit in the Royal Maternity Hospital. It was funded by the Health and Social Care Research and Development Office (HSC R&D) and Action Medical Research.. Principal Investigator, Queens Professor of Pharmacy Practice James McElnay said: This type of testing will obviously reduce the discomfort of medicine testing in these vulnerable patients. What is even more important, however, is that it will ensure maximum accuracy in calculating the most appropriate dose of a medicine for a sick child.. Some 80 per cent of infants in ...
has a new research activity or funding: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient outcomes, telehealth care delivery, and treatment for unhealthy alcohol use in vulnerable patients with advanced liver disease across two healthcare systems ...
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and in order to protect our most vulnerable patients, Windsong Breast Care has cancelled its Q & A sessions for 2020 and will be offering fully virtual sessions in 2021. Please know that during this difficult time our Breast Navigators and Surgeons are providing extra support for breast cancer patients. Questions, call 716.626.6300.. ...
A deadly strain of hard-to-treat bacteria is spreading in US health facilities, posing a particular risk to the nations most vulnerable patients, authorities said in a report on Tuesday.
MINNEAPOLIS, April 18, 2016 (PR NEWSWIRE) - ARKRAY USA, Inc., a leader in diabetes care products, announced the company has been selected as a contracted supplier for the 340B Prime Vendor Program, managed by Apexus. The 340B program provides discounted drugs and medical supplies to qualifying healthcare facilities to help vulnerable patients gain access to drugs that help them manage their disease state.. The Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems (BGMS) that ARKRAY will be providing to the 340B program includes the GLUCOCARD® Expression™, an audio-enabled, auto-code BGMS that includes bilingual voice features for hearing a test result; and the GLUCOCARD® Shine, with auto-coding, indicators for strip expiration date and hypoglycemia, an LCD backlit screen, and pre- and post-meal averaging to differentiate glucose levels before and after meals.. ARKRAYs accurate, reliable and easy-to-use diabetes management products help patients of 340B hospitals and clinics live healthier lifestyles and lower ...
Some of the most intensive pharmacotherapy today occurs in nursing homes in very complex and vulnerable patients. The nursing home provides an opportunity for highly effective drug use, but it also presents risks for polypharmacy and adverse events. Nursing homes are complex social institutions, in which physicians, nurses, consultant...
Last week the Daily Mail published an undercover investigation into certain aspects of IVF practice in the UK. Whilst this has highlighted some issues, unfortunately the meaning of published statistics has been misinterpreted and certain aspects of the investigation have been given far more weight than is just. Rather than serving the public good, this has the potential to leave vulnerable patients scared and confused.. ...
The idea that we are writing off vulnerable patients is wrong. The coronavirus crisis has not changed our approach to CPR , says palliative care doctor Rachel Clarke
Antibiotics are fundamental to modern medicine, essential for treating everything from routine skin infections to strep throat, and for protecting vulnerable patients receiving chemotherapy or being treated in intensive care units.
Mean systolic and diastolic BP both declined in the years before death in patients with diabetes. This annual rate of decline was significantly more marked (−3.2 mmHg systolic and −1.3 mmHg diastolic) than in the patients who remained alive. Moreover, the decline was evident after adjustment for major organ failure-heart, kidney, and liver-as well as for common causes of death such as malignancies and stroke. These findings may signal an underlying population of vulnerable patients, although it is unclear whether the BP decline is merely a symptom of this vulnerability or is one of several physiologic contributors to the dying process.. The rate of change in BP has been of lesser significance than threshold values that serve as guides to initiation or adherence to antihypertensive therapy (12). Studies of outcomes in those who experience significant changes (either increases or decreases) in BP would be appropriate. Although hypertension in middle age is a risk factor for death, it is not ...
Dozens of vulnerable patients could have died after catching flu in English hospitals during the recent pandemic, a report indicates, amid increasing concern that not enough NHS staff are getting themselves vaccinated.
Issue: Portfolio Margin is a margin methodology that sets margin requirements for an account based on the entirety of the account and results in a more efficient use of capital. In general, positions in index option class groups that are highly correlated may be netted against each other based on allowed percentage amounts to determine the overall profit/loss of an account. For example, in a securities portfolio margin account, cash-index options and exchange-traded funds within the same class groups may be netted to determine the overall profit/loss of the account as a whole at various assumed up and down market moves in the underlying. The greatest loss from among the assumed market moves, if any, is the margin requirement, subject to a per contract minimum. Also, some security-based swaps may be held in a futures account for portfolio margin purposes. Customers benefit from PM because margin requirements calculated on net risk are generally lower than alternative position or strategy based ...
The average survival time in mice treated with the antibody-based treatment was significantly longer than those receiving a control (nontherapeutic) antibody.
This senior scientist will break new ground establishing this capability in India. With this in mind the successful candidate will require significant flexibility; initially the role will involve general support for establishing the core screening capability that could support a range of projects; including small molecule and non-therapeutic antibody generation. Longer term a more defined focus on specific therapeutic projects will develop.. Preferred Qualifications: ...
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users ...
Glenda Cooper, PHD was co-author on this study and she and her cohorts compiled not only information on the lupus mouse and rat studies but also studies on TCE and how it affected humans. She and her group compiled several studies from all over the world on human subjects that were exposed to TCE. I spoke with Glenda over the telephone and unfortunately she felt she couldnt get involved because she works for the CDC and felt it would be a conflict of interest to represent individuals like myself while she works for the government. So, yes, Will you are right, science is political at it roots. However, the scientific studies still point to the fact that TCE is a trigger for autoimmune diseases. My concern is that they are not including the autoimmune diseases in the study they are doing for the Camp Lejune water. I feel that we are only touching the tip of the iceburg with the autoimmune diseases that TCE has triggered ...
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Therapeutic and nontherapeutic experimentation on humans are differentiated by the intent of the procedure. Therapeutic ... Only when society comes to a universal understanding of these issues can the moral dilemma of experimentation on humans be ... As mentioned above, Hauerwas believes that the moral issue of experimentation on humans cannot be answered from a ... He believes that informed consent is necessary for human experimentation, but it does not provide justification for one's ...
"Historical origins of the Nuremberg Code". In: The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. ... For therapeutic purposes, the guidelines allowed administration without consent only in dire situations, but for non-therapeutic ... of Helsinki Good clinical practice Green report Hippocratic Oath Human experimentation in the United States Human rights Human ... The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created by the ...
ACHRE Chapter 2: Nuremburg and Research with Patients (1995) Human Sacrifice and Human Experimentation: Reflections at ... They also outline specific definitions for both therapeutic and non-therapeutic research in human subjects (dubbed "innovative ... The Guidelines for Human Experimentation remained in effect through the end of the Third Reich in 1945, and continued to exist ... Notably, Nazi human experimentation occurred under the existence of these laws. In the early 1940s in Germany doctors conducted ...
Human experimentation in the United States Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments National Bioethics Advisory ... Lastly, non-therapeutic research upon a pregnant woman or fetus was approved only under the extenuating circumstance that ... National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was the first public national ... THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION SYSTEM Former Bioethics Commissions Reports of the National Commission for the ...
... : Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison is a 1998 book by Allen Hornblum. The book documents clinical non- ... Human experimentation in the United States The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease List of medical ... Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison (Review) Canadian Journal of History, April 1, 2001. Hornblum, Allen ( ... Book Review: Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison Social History of Medicine, Volume 16, Number 1, April 2003 ...
... and self-determination of human beings over their own bodies. In the field of human rights, violation of the bodily integrity ... In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation". Activists who ... In North America, the genital integrity movement primarily focuses on non-therapeutic circumcision of male infants and children ... The Human Rights and Constitutional Rights project, funded by Columbia Law School, has defined four main areas of potential ...
History and theory of human experimentation: the Declaration of Helsinki and modern medical ethics. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner ... The distinction between therapeutic and non-therapeutic research introduced in the original document, criticised by Levine was ... Human Experimentation used in the Nuremberg Code. A notable change from the Nuremberg Code was a relaxation of the conditions ... "Human Experimentation. Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki". British Medical Journal. 2 ( ...
In 2013, he released Against Their Will: The Secret History of Medical Experimentation on Children in Cold War America co- ... In 1998, Hornblum published a book titled Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. The book documents clinical ... non-therapeutic medical experiments on prison inmates at Holmesburg Prison in Philadelphia from 1951 to 1974, conducted under ... "Allen M. Hornblum, Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. New York:1998". University of Albany. Archived from ...
Philadelphia portal Human experimentation in the United States Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison Human ... The 1998 book Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison, by Allen Hornblum, documents clinical non-therapeutic ... The negative public opinion was particularly heightened by the 1973 Congressional Hearing on Human Experimentation. The hearing ... Acres of Skin' or human beings? Human rights at stake in America." EIR National 26.31 (1999): 65-67. Web. National Research ...
In human skin, topical retinoids increase collagen production, induce epidermal hyperplasia, and decrease keratinocyte and ... Washington, Harriet A. (2006). Medical apartheid : the dark history of medical experimentation on Black Americans from colonial ... were performed on inmates at Holmesburg Prison during a long-running regime of non-therapeutic and unethical testing on prison ... Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of skin : human experiments at Holmesburg Prison : a story of abuse and exploitation in the ...
... bill of rights UN Principles of Medical Ethics Unethical human experimentation World Medical Association Abortion / Abortion ... Classifying a patient as a NHBD can qualify someone to be subject to non-therapeutic intensive care, in which treatment is only ... was the first major document to define human rights. Medical doctors have an ethical duty to protect the human rights and human ... The human rights era started with the formation of the United Nations in 1945, which was charged with the promotion of human ...
The study was characterized as "the longest non-therapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history."[7] ... Washington, Harriet A. (2007). Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans From Colonial ... US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 4, 2008.. *^ "Office for Human Research Protections". Department ... Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) (June 23, 2005). "Protection of Human Subjects". Title 45, Code of Federal ...
Research Office for Human Research Protections Unethical human experimentation in the United States The Office of Human ... When a non-therapeutic trial is to be carried out with the consent of the subject's legally acceptable representative, ... Human Research Report-a monthly newsletter for IRBs Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) at HHS IRB: Ethics & Human ... International Compilation of Human Research Protections, Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and ...
Technology can also be used to improve on human sensory and communication abilities as has been shown through experimentation ... Some bioethicists restrict the term to the non-therapeutic application of specific technologies - neuro-, cyber-, gene- and ... Speculation about human nature and the possibilities of both human enhancement and future human evolution have made superhumans ... Human enhancement is an attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through ...
Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (June 2016). Promoting and Protecting Human Rights in relation to ... "Christian lobby groups claim 'radical sexual experimentation' is being promoted in schools". News Limited. 25 July ... Identity Dysphoria the Family Court of Australia held that both Stage 1 and Stage 2 treatments for gender dysphoria were non-therapeutic ... "Human Rights Commission, AB v Western Australia" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 4 ...
Lowenstein P (2008). "Gene Therapy for Neurological Disorders: New Therapies or Human Experimentation?". In Burley J, Harris J ... Critics claim that any therapeutic intervention for non-therapeutic/enhancement purposes compromises the ethical foundations of ... This is the first study of a CRISPR-based in vivo human gene editing therapy, where the editing takes place inside the human ... HUGO's document emphasizes human freedom and adherence to human rights, and offers recommendations for somatic gene therapy, ...
Declaration of Geneva Eugenics in the United States Human experimentation in North Korea Human subject research International ... The study was characterized as "the longest non-therapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history." The victims of the ... "Office for Human Research Protections". Department of Health and Human Services. September 28, 2008. Archived from the original ... Within the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) was ...
Experimentation was more common among younger adults, but daily users were more likely to be older adults. Cigarettes and e- ... Vaping in Australia has risen quickly even with legal barriers to trade of nicotine for non-therapeutic uses. It is unclear ... United States Department of Health and Human Services. 8 December 2016. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. This ... In 2015 figures showed around 2% monthly EC-usage among under-18s, and 0.5% weekly, and despite experimentation, "nearly all ...
Smith, Wesley, A Rat Is a Pig Is a Dog Is a Boy: The Human Cost of the Animal Rights Movement, Encounter Books, 2010, pp 94-8. ... administering drugs to them for nontherapeutic purposes, and having one of their jockeys use an electrical device to shock ... and promoting the benefits of animal experimentation in medical research. Tennant, Diane (March 12, 1996). "PETA Finds Satiric ... After a fisherman in Florida was bitten by a shark in 2011, PETA proposed an advertisement showing a shark devouring a human, ...
Humans * Male * Muscle, Skeletal / physiology * Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation * Wrist / physiology* * Wrist Joint ...
Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation. Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is ... and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation. ...
Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation. Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is ... and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation. ...
Therapeutic and nontherapeutic experimentation on humans are differentiated by the intent of the procedure. Therapeutic ... Only when society comes to a universal understanding of these issues can the moral dilemma of experimentation on humans be ... As mentioned above, Hauerwas believes that the moral issue of experimentation on humans cannot be answered from a ... He believes that informed consent is necessary for human experimentation, but it does not provide justification for ones ...
The editors of American Medicine agreed that experimentation on human beings should be limited to adult volunteers. Grodin and ... Bercovicis criticism prompted one medical journal to consider the ethics of using institutionalized children in nontherapeutic ... Alliance for Human Research Protection (AHRP) 142 West End Ave., Suite 28P New York, NY 10023 ... Voluntary consent by adults should, of course, be the sine quo non of scientific experimentation." ...
"Historical origins of the Nuremberg Code". In: The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. ... For therapeutic purposes, the guidelines allowed administration without consent only in dire situations, but for non-therapeutic ... of Helsinki Good clinical practice Green report Hippocratic Oath Human experimentation in the United States Human rights Human ... The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created by the ...
Experimentation on human subjects was not unknown in Western countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as the author ... Commonly cited examples of this include the non-therapeutic experiments of Walter Reed on Cuban citizens and Joseph ... Though experiments on human beings did decline in popularity after this, in part due to the increased reliability of animal ... The author then goes on to describe in some detail the nature of the experiments that were carried out on the unfortunate human ...
Research with humans should be based on laboratory and animal experimentation *Research protocols should be reviewed by an ... The Declaration governs international research ethics and defines rules for research combined with clinical care and non-therapeutic ... revealing Ivy and Alexanders research on the history of writing and practice of human experimentation. [see A. C. Ivy, The ... by the human subject. The first point, however, was the requirement that the voluntary consent of the human subject is ...
Scholars like Avicenna (980-1037) insisted that the experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a ... the idea of human experimentation, of evaluating the efficacy of a new drug or procedure by outcomes, is an ancient one. It is ... lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man (Bull, p. 221). Source for information on Research, Human: ... Because the first widespread use of human subjects in medical research for nontherapeutic purposes occurred under wartime ...
... that no experimentation can be done on humans without their competent, voluntary, informed consent. ... who conducted brutal nontherapeutic experimentation on concentration camp prisoners. Promulgated under the Armys authority, ... That policy reduces human beings to guinea pigs. That was Nazi Germanys policy. It has no place in our country. ... NOTE: Secret medical experimentation on troops and civilians by the U.S. government is not new. The CIA experimented on ...
... lethal experimentation on live human fetuses. A virtual international medical underground was created to supply fresh human ... and Mitchell Golbus to bypass the government ban prohibiting the use of federal funds for such non-therapeutic, ... projects involving live human experimentation see Suzanne Rini, Beyond Abortion: A Chronicle of Fetal Experimentation, Tan ... Leon Kass, Implications of Pre-Natal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life, Ethical Issues in Human Genetics, B. Hilton et al ...
research on viable human embryos ;. experimentation on living human embryos, whether viable or not ;. the maintenance of ... choice of sex by genetic manipulation for non-therapeutic purposes ;. the creation of identical twins ;. ... the implantation of a human embryo in the uterus of another animal or the reverse ;. the fusion of human gametes with those of ... 10. Considering that human embryos and foetuses must be treated in all circumstances with the respect due to human dignity, and ...
... is a set of ethical principles for the medical community regarding human experimentation. It was originally adopted in June ... The Declaration considers the conduct of clinical research and makes an important distinction between therapeutic and non therapeutic ... Human embryonic stem cells were the first area of study derived from embryos created by in vitro fertilization therapy. These ... The most advanced model of stem cell applications in the human is the heart; in which clinical research has been undertaken and ...
This article was prepared by two scientists who give examples of problems with human cloing from a biblical perspective. ... the experiments contemplated [in therapeutic cloning] are universally called "nontherapeutic" experimentation in law and ... 2. Will we consider allowing a certain class of human beings to be the object of experimentation? Certainly this would be true ... This standard meaning of "nontherapeutic" research is found, for example, in state laws forbidding such research on human ...
The document rejects all non-therapeutic experimentation on living embryos, whether viable or not, no matter how advantageous ... It also rejects non-therapeutic experiments on human embryos, but surely is not opposed to the desire for accurate scientific ... Respect for Human Embryos. Part I begins with a strong affirmation of the dignity of human life from the moment of ... Interventions Upon Human Procreation. The main purpose of Part II of the "Instruction" is to evaluate artificial human ...
But while Hooker and the 1930s medical and general public viewed live fetuses as acceptable materials for nontherapeutic ... and the various reactions to his work demonstrate the varied and changing perspectives on fetuses and fetal experimentation, ... Ex Utero: Live Human Fetal Research and the Films of Davenport Hooker ... autonomous human entities that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. Hookers methods, though broadly conforming to contemporary ...
... any non-therapeutic experimentation on human fetuses was unconstitutional because of the vagueness of the term experimentation. ... The Arizona District Court used the precedent set in those cases to rule that there is no single definition of experimentation ... Human fetus or embryo; prohibitions; physician-patient privilege inapplicable; definitions. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Section 36-2302 ( ... The law also prohibited the sale, transfer, or distribution of human fetal tissue. The law included definitions for the terms ...
For human experimentation to lead to the inevitable destruction of the early human child is a violation of the 1949 Nuremberg ... Law 3: A persons form, including their genome, embryo, or body can not be subjected to non-therapeutic inheritable alteration ... Human Cloning. Human cloning is intrinsically evil. It can lead to manipulation and abuses that are gravely injurious to human ... "how could a human individual not be a human person?" During the entire life span of a human being both before and after birth, ...
Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation Entry term(s). Experimentation, Nontherapeutic Human Human Experimentation, Nontherapeutic ... Experimentation, Nontherapeutic Human. Human Experimentation, Nontherapeutic. Nontherapeutic Research. Research, Nontherapeutic ... Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation - Preferred Concept UI. M0010647. Scope note. Human experimentation that is not intended ... and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation. Preferred term. ...
This result demonstrates that humans use the similarity in the temporal structure of multisensory signals to solve the ... Previous research has demonstrated that spatiotemporal cues, along with prior knowledge, are exploited by the human brain to ... Acoustic Stimulation, Auditory Perception, Humans, Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation, Photic Stimulation, Visual Perception ... Previous research has demonstrated that spatiotemporal cues, along with prior knowledge, are exploited by the human brain to ...
... human somatic cell nuclear transfer, fetal tissue research, and non-therapeutic benefit fetal experimentation and no longer ... human cloning, human embryonic stem-cell research, ...
... human somatic cell nuclear transfer, fetal tissue research, and nontherapeutic fetal experimentation. ... human cloning, human embryonic stem-cell research, ...
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation/ethics ... Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation/ethics ... mh:Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation/ethics (2) Order by. Entry date (decreasing). Entry date (increasing). Relevance. ...
The Nuremberg Code prohibited non-therapeutic, non-consensual experimentation and led to further reflections on the ... Sadly this was not the first time U.S. researchers had violated human rights in medical experimentation. One of the lead ... Examples of human exploitation include the renting of wombs, the purchase of organs from live donors, buying human eggs, and ... Patient Protections & Human Subjects Research. Medical research by nature should pursue the goal of improving human health. In ...
... human somatic cell nuclear transfer, fetal tissue research, and non-therapeutic fetal experimentation." ... "human cloning, human embryonic stem-cell research, ...
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation/ethics ... Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation / Pandemics Language: English Journal: Science Year: 2020 ... Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation / Pandemics Language: English Journal: Science Year: 2020 ... Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation / Pandemics Subject: Pneumonia, Viral / Viral Vaccines / Coronavirus Infections / ...
"Human Experimentation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Human Experimentation" was a major or minor ... "Human Experimentation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Human Experimentation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Human Experimentation". ...
However, when human studies were undertaken with women about to undergo abortions, it was found that the vaccine virus did ... The first is nontherapeutic research, that is, research that does not benefit the research subject, in this case, either the ... Proxy consent in the experimentation situation. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 18:2-20. ... Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, the first of whose mandates was to review and report on research ...
Michigan passed laws in 1978 which prohibited most forms of embryo or fetal experimentation, and in particular, especially non- ... show that they may be a much more viable alternative to destroying human embryos for experimentation. ... Human Services budget bill prohibiting federal funding of any research that would destroy or create live human embryos. The ... In a human embryo, a large portion of the embryos cells are stem cells. As the child grows in her mothers womb, most of these ...
  • I shall then briefly review the argumentation in Parts I and II, concerned, respectively, with respect for human embryos and with interventions upon human procreation. (
  • It also rejects non-therapeutic experiments on human embryos, but surely is not opposed to the desire for accurate scientific knowledge which lies behind such experiments. (
  • Proposal 2, a constitutional amendment passed in 2008, allows research on human embryos created ostensibly from fertility treatments. (
  • There are no federal laws restricting private research on human fetuses or embryos. (
  • In 1996, Congress adopted language (the Dickey Amendment) to the Health & Human Services budget bill prohibiting federal funding of any research that would destroy or create live human embryos. (
  • Research on embryonic stem cell lines obtained from human embryos, however, is eligible for federal funding. (
  • The Dickey Amendment did not address research on tissue taken from human embryos that were already destroyed with private research money. (
  • These induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) show that they may be a much more viable alternative to destroying human embryos for experimentation. (
  • Italian law also provides penal provision ranging from ten totwenty years for impermissible experimentation on embryos (The New Atlantis,2012). (
  • As expressed, iPSCs are produced in amore ethical way without the destruction of human embryos compared to howembryonic stem cells are derived. (
  • Scientists who want to use human embryos for destructive research have succeeded in deceiving our federal and state parliaments into passing legislation allowing them to clone and kill. (
  • Not only does embryonic research require taking the life of human embryos, it also prolongs needless suffering by delaying the development of more promising adult stem-cell treatments and cures," ACP fellow Michelle Cretella, MD, has stated. (
  • Our careful consideration of these issues leads to the conclusion that human stem cell research requiring the destruction of human embryos is objectionable on legal, ethical, and scientific grounds. (
  • In November 1998, two independent teams of U.S. scientists reported that they had succeeded in isolating and culturing stem cells obtained from human embryos and fetuses. (
  • 8 Furthermore, federal law and the laws of many states specifically protect vulnerable human embryos from harmful experimentation. (
  • 9 Yet in recently publicized experiments, stem cells have been harvested from human embryos in ways which destroy the embryos. (
  • 12 The stated rationales behind this decision are that stem cells are not embryos (which itself may be a debatable point) and that research using cells obtained by destroying human embryos can be divorced from the destruction itself. (
  • WASHINGTON (CNS) - Catholic observers and others are raising ethical questions about the work of an international team of scientists who report that they were able to edit the DNA in human embryos to correct a health disorder. (
  • The questions focus on two concerns: the creation of human embryos for scientific experimentation and then destruction, and the still-unknown effect that changing DNA will have on future generations because the changes could become a permanent part of a family's genetic line. (
  • Now we're specifically manufacturing human embryos solely for the purpose of doing lethal experiments on them. (
  • Scientists said they were able to edit the DNA in human embryos without introducing other harmful mutations that have plagued other efforts. (
  • The fact that none of the embryos were used to create a baby is problematic, however, for Catholic ethicists, who say the destruction of human life violates the basic premise of church teaching that all life is sacred. (
  • Father Tadeusz Pacholczyk, director of education at the National Catholic Bioethics Center in Philadelphia, told CNS that he is concerned that human embryos have been created in vitro and "treated not as ends but as mere means to achieve particular investigative goals. (
  • Father Pacholczyk said the team's experiments "were clearly nontherapeutic, as the goal was ultimately to destroy the embryos. (
  • Three kinds of experiments involving human embryos or embryonic cells have recently come to public attention. (
  • Embryo research involving human embryos outside the womb -- such as embryos produced in the laboratory by in vitro fertilization (IVF) or cloning -- has never received federal funding. (
  • In 1994, after this regulation was rescinded by Congress, a Human Embryo Research Panel recommended to the National Institutes of Health that certain kinds of harmful nontherapeutic experiments on human embryos receive federal funding -- but the Panel's recommendations were rejected in part by President Clinton, then rejected in their entirety by Congress. (
  • Since 1995, three successive Labor/HHS appropriations bills have prevented federal funding of experiments which involve (a) creating human embryos for research purposes, or (b) subjecting human embryos in the laboratory to risk of harm or death not permitted for fetuses in utero under the regulations on protecting human subjects. (
  • In an address to the Ninth General Assembly of the Pontifical Academy for Life , de Pope called on everyone to speak out against the destructive research on human embryos I am convinced that no one, much less the Church, is allowed to be silent in the face of certain result or pretexts of experimentation on man , he said. (
  • ), Hwang and his team in Korea are still refusing to have their spectacular patient-specific "stem cells" retested -- those derived from human embryos cloned from a sick patient's own adult cells. (
  • Or perhaps Hwang and his team are a bit reluctant because they already know beforehand that it is physically and scientifically impossible that these "stem cells" from cloned human embryos really match the patients into whom they were injected? (
  • The editors of American Medicine agreed that experimentation on human beings should be limited to adult volunteers. (
  • Though experiments on human beings did decline in popularity after this, in part due to the increased reliability of animal testing, Freyhofer's gentle reminder that the Nazis did not invent the notion of experimenting on human beings is relevant. (
  • Stem cell and cloning issues are directly related to human beings, and associated research species, and thus will be discussed in this context). (
  • Ultimately, discrimination and exploitation are similar, despite the varying contexts of bioethics, because they both entail the instrumentalization of human beings. (
  • Evidence indicates that injecting fetal tissue into human beings can cause tumor growth. (
  • Much information about the pharmacology of the maternal-fetal unit has been derived from animal studies, but it is extremely difficult to predict whether observations made in animals will have relevance to human beings. (
  • According to Bruns and Chelouche, it was "the unequal worth of human beings, the moral imperative of preserving a pure Aryan people, the authoritarian role of the physician, the individual's obligation to stay healthy, and the priority of public health over individual-patient care. (
  • No doubt the information was useful - but are we entitled to use human beings for such experiments? (
  • The first of a race of laboratory human beings has been created, the first absolute orphan. (
  • Although it certainly wasn t the first or last of racist experiments on black people, historian James Jones and author of Bad Blood has described as 'the longest non-therapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. (
  • At least then people will be better prepared and able to identify the ethical and regulatory issues, and thus to recognize similar abuses in current research practices involving human beings. (
  • Note that the Nuremberg Code would not allow the use of incompetent human beings in research, a restriction that was later "modified" by the Declarations of Helsinki" and the U.S. OHRP federal regulations. (
  • Darwin's cousin Sir Francis Galton took the next logical step and suggested that deliberate reproductive control could be applied to human beings as well. (
  • If the flawed rationales of HHS are accepted, federally-funded researchers may soon be able to experiment on stem cells obtained by destroying embryonic human beings, so long as the act of destruction does not itself receive federal funds. (
  • It's a very special privilege to use human beings in research," said Vera Hassner Sharav, the activist who first rang alarms about the New York study three months ago. (
  • Certainly there should be concerns about genetically modifying human beings in a way that we don't really know what effect that will have to subsequent generations," he told Catholic News Service. (
  • The value as human beings is denigrated every time they are created, experimented upon, treated as research fodder and then killed," he wrote in an email Aug. 3. (
  • They concluded that it is the spirit in which our society undertakes the use of human beings for research which will determine the protection they receive. (
  • GRTL views human beings as producers and problem solvers rather than mere consumers and problems. (
  • The great weight of the evidence before us to effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. (
  • Bercovici's criticism prompted one medical journal to consider the ethics of using institutionalized children in nontherapeutic experiments. (
  • The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created by the USA v Brandt court as one result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. (
  • The ethics of experimenting with human brain tissue. (
  • You violated the Nuremberg Code of Ethics, which regulates experimentation on humans. (
  • German medicine under Hitler resulted in so many horrors - eugenics, human experimentation, forced sterilization, involuntary euthanasia, mass murder - that there is a temptation to say that "Nazi doctors had no ethics. (
  • Ethics and research on human subjects : international guidelines : proceedings of the XXVIth CIOMS Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, 5-7 February 1992 / International guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects edited by Z. Bankowski & R. J. Levine. (
  • And it shows that important issues relating to the ethics of human research remain unresolved, even as U.S. medical research is poised to expand at an unprecedented rate. (
  • A half-century after the creation of the Nuremberg Code of research ethics, scientists still struggle to strike a balance between human rights and medical progress. (
  • In both of these international research ethics codes, the scientists performing the research - especially research involving human subjects - must have truly "mastered" the field of science in which they are experimenting (which would include advanced course work, advanced academic degrees and extensive lab and clinical experience) - otherwise, obviously, they don't know what they are talking about or doing. (
  • The most frequently cited cases involve testing the efficacy of poisons on condemned prisoners, but the extent to which other human research was carried on remains obscure. (
  • The code was enunciated by a U.S. tribunal that sat in judgment on Nazi doctors who conducted brutal nontherapeutic experimentation on concentration camp prisoners. (
  • Their collaboration with the regime was shameful, to say nothing of the horrors of experimentation on unwilling prisoners and mass extermination. (
  • In the 1960s, poorly informed prisoners were subjected to human experiments at this Philadelphia prison. (
  • Chapters also reflect a growing perception that research involving human subjects is beneficial rather than threatening and that vulnerable groups, such as women, children, the elderly, and prisoners, should not be deprived arbitrarily of the opportunity to benefit from investigational drugs, vaccines or devices. (
  • A review of the Office of Human Research Protections, IRB Guidebook, reveals that approximately four pages are dedicated to prisoners as research subjects. (
  • In the suggested enclosure dimensions, two 66-pound apes are required to have more square footage than two human prisoners who share a typical prison cell. (
  • During World War II Nazi Germany engaged in human experimentation that resulted in the death and suffering of many innocent human lives. (
  • But after the horrific Nazi medical atrocities in World War II were finally exposed and judged at Nuremberg, it would seem that countries and global organizations finally took note and rendered what became classic ethical guidelines for the use of human subjects in research. (
  • New York pediatrician Henry Heiman infects a 4-year-old boy whom he calls "an idiot with chronic epilepsy" with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment ( "Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After" ). (
  • Though the Pennsylvania House of Representatives records the incident, the researchers are not punished for the experiments ( "Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After" ). (
  • At the time, some of the students reportedly warn Dr. Johnson that, "in the aftermath of World War II, observers might draw comparisons to Nazi experiments on human subjects, which could destroy his career" ( Alliance for Human Research Protection ). (
  • The most unusual nineteenth-century human experiment was conducted by the American physician William Beaumont (1785-1853) on Alexis St. Martin. (
  • AHRP's opposition to EPA's proposed rules on human pesticide experiments-in particular rules that would allow children to be subjected to pesticide experiments-was criticized by a physician who accuses those opposed to the infamous CHEERS experiment, as being "politically motivated. (
  • Indeed, more than anything, the controversy highlights the surprisingly thin line that can separate a justifiable human experiment from a research abuse. (
  • Relatedly, the expert credentials of the scientist in the relevant scientific field the experiment involves and the use of accurate data in an experiment involving human subjects are international ly acknowledged ethical requirements in both the Nuremberg Code and in the Declaration of Helsinki . (
  • The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study, that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment. (
  • It was a nontherapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling data on the effects of the spontaneous evolution of syphilis on black males. (
  • 9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible. (
  • On the surface anyone remotely informed about bioethics would make connections between the abortion and stem cell controversies and the injustices affected against the human embryo through his or her commodification and destruction. (
  • Note that the Belmont Report issued in the formal "birth of bioethics" , and was also mandated to be used as the foundation for the revised federal OPRR regulations for the use of human subjects in research (later renamed OHRP). (
  • Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue. (
  • In this article, I address the issue of the sale of human organs and the moral implications of a market in human organs under the aegis of Christian Bioethics. (
  • Medical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted scientific principles, be based on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature, other relevant sources of information, and on adequate laboratory and, where appropriate, animal experimentation. (
  • In response to the criticism of unethical human experimentation, the Reich government issued "Guidelines for New Therapy and Human Experimentation" in Weimar Republic, Germany. (
  • In fact, in the Weimar Republic, ethical standards for human experimentation were "remarkably advanced," they write. (
  • There is also early evidence that ethical problems of research on humans were recognized, as in the case of the Roman physician Celsus (1st century a.d.) who wrote that using criminals as subjects for dangerous experiments was justified if it would benefit many other innocents. (
  • Sometimes laws or customs which aimed at protecting human subjects have restricted new discoveries, as in medieval Europe where governments and the Catholic church outlawed autopsies. (
  • But there are also historical examples of reactions to researchers who unduly risked harm to human subjects. (
  • By the end of the nineteenth century, thanks to the growth of universities and potential commercial applications of discoveries, the amount of research on humans grew and prompted the proposal of some codes to protect the subjects of research. (
  • Other researchers and physicians recognizing the potential ethical dilemmas of research involving human subjects included the French physiologist Claude Bernard . (
  • The defendants were brought to account for the tortuous murder and mutilation of thousands of human test subjects. (
  • Experimentation on human subjects was not unknown in Western countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as the author makes clear in the first section. (
  • Freyhofer argues that the progress of the war was instrumental in the decision to begin experimenting on live human subjects. (
  • The action by the Defense Dept., allowed by the Food and Drug Administration, to give unapproved drugs to troops in the Gulf involved strategic military decisions', not research on involuntary human subjects, the judge ruled. (
  • Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. (
  • The use of humans as investigational subjects. (
  • Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, the first of whose mandates was to review and report on research involving living fetuses. (
  • The abuse of human subjects in research is not new. (
  • Two of those international guidelines (the Nuremberg Code , and the continuously "updated" Declaration of Helsinki ), are copied below, as well as the current U.S. federal regulations for the use of human subjects in research (OHRP - originally the OPRR regulations). (
  • My guess is that with the onslaught of genetic engineering (including plants, animals, humans, drugs, devices, etc.), including synthetic biology and nanotechnology, the issues surrounding ethically justified and scientifically sound research affecting human subjects will become more pertinent than ever. (
  • The focus below, however, is on the requirements for the informed consent of the human subjects of research. (
  • Annex consists of: International guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. (
  • Records the main presentations and discussions held at an international conference organized to review an early draft of revised international ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. (
  • Please contact us if you have questions about the use of human subjects in research. (
  • When non-human models are insufficient, use of human subjects in research is an integral aspect of scholarly activity at UNH. (
  • At UNH, the primary purpose of the Institutional Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research (IRB) is to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects by ensuring that physical, psychological, legal, and/or social risks to subjects are minimized, and when present, justified by the importance of the research, and agreed to by subjects (informed consent). (
  • This training module on the ethical use and treatment of human subjects in research is part of the UNH Web-based program of instruction in the ethical and responsible conduct of research. (
  • The Belmont Report identifies ethical principles and guidelines for research involving human subjects. (
  • The World Medical Association (WMA) developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including research on identifiable human material and data. (
  • 1. Provide the reader with an appreciation and basic understanding of the ethical principles, and regulatory process and means by which compliance can be assured, and the responsibilities that a researcher assumes when choosing to involve human subjects in a research activity, 2. (
  • Facilitate communication between and among researchers, study personnel, and administrators in the interest of promoting the responsible conduct of research involving human subjects, 4. (
  • Document, in part, UNH' s responsibility for ensuring that all personnel involved in human subjects research are appropriately informed, trained, and qualified to perform their respective duties. (
  • In June, a Department of Health and Human Services report concluded that the federal system for protecting human research subjects was breaking down. (
  • Live fetal research is governed by federal regulations on the protection of human subjects first issued in 1975 (now codified at 45 CFR .46.101 et seq. (
  • The urgency of the war effort and the endorsement of the highest state authorities further encouraged these scientists to perform human-subjects research on problems of pressing concern on the battlefield. (
  • Respondent, a serviceman, volunteered for what was ostensibly a chemical warfare testing program, but in which he was secretly administered lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) pursuant to an Army plan to test the effects of the drug on human subjects, whereby he suffered severe personality changes that led to his discharge and the dissolution of his marriage. (
  • At this meeting of the Academy , in February, 2003, Roberto Colombo , a Priest and a Scientist, Prof. of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan presented an excellent paper entitled The most vulnerable subjects of Biomedical Research The case of human embryo, which develops the catholic thinking on this subject. (
  • Medical research involving human subjects should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons and under the supervision of a clinically competent medical person. (
  • It is a set of ethical guidelines relating to research on human subjects and is widely regarded as authoritative. (
  • strengthen the Declaration, advocating for higher respect for the Human Rights of research subjects. (
  • The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH): Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects was revised by the World Medical Association (WMA) at the 64th WMA General Assembly, Fortaleza, Brazil, October 2013. (
  • The Declaration of Helsinki, published in 1964,1 set out rules and limits for human experimentation based on the findings of the Nuremberg trials and an unshakeable conviction that human experimental subjects have fundamental rights that drive a series of duties for the experimenter. (
  • The World Medical Associate has approved new revisions to the Declaration of Helsinki, the ethical guidelines for medical research involving human subjects. (
  • South Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare proposed the law to the South Korean National Assembly to allow the progress of biotechnology and life sciences research in South Korea while protecting human research subjects with practices such as informed consent. (
  • The judgment by the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg laid down 10 standards to which physicians must conform when carrying out experiments on human subjects. (
  • Hooker's research and the various reactions to his work demonstrate the varied and changing perspectives on fetuses and fetal experimentation, and the influence those views can have on biomedical research. (
  • I renew my heartfelt appeal," John Paul II stated, "that scientific and biomedical research, while avoiding every temptation to manipulate man, be faithfully dedicated to exploring ways and resources to support human life, the cure of illnesses and solutions to the ever new problems in the biomedical field. (
  • After a discussion on the vulnerability of the subject which enter in a biomedical research, enumerating the different risks and harms, namely dignitary harms as a consequence of attempts on human rights, during the recruitment operative or follow-up phase of a research protocol, Prof. Colombo presents in depth the case of the human embryo as a most vulnerably subject. (
  • The question of the human embryo's vulnerability in biomedical research arises from the evident condition of weakness that characterizes embryonic life, with special reference to the in vitro human embryo. (
  • By the 1990s, many researchers were conducting clinical trials to transplant human fetal tissue into adults suffering from Parkinson's disease. (
  • House Bill 1430 would add "abortion-inducing drugs, contraception, sterilization which is not medically necessary, assisted reproduction" (i.e., in vitro fertilization), "human cloning, human embryonic stem-cell research, human somatic cell nuclear transfer, fetal tissue research, and non-therapeutic fetal experimentation. (
  • As the child grows in her mother's womb, most of these cells begin to differentiate and become the heart, liver, kidneys and all of the more than 200 kinds of tissue found in the human body. (
  • The most troubling aspect of accepting this research is the denial of the personhood of unborn children while acknowledging that their tissue is useful because it is human. (
  • It is the identical twin of its tissue-donor, which might be a living person or a dead person, or even just a fragment of anonymous human tissue from the hospital freezer. (
  • Other Australian authorities pointing the ethical direction include the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, which reports that "adult stem nerve cells can grow into other types of tissue", and the Murdoch Institute which uses "umbilical cord blood, the richest source of stem cells, not human embryo stem cells" ( The Australian , November 27, 2001). (
  • The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. (
  • Moreover, destruction of human embryonic life is unnecessary for medical progress, as alternative methods of obtaining human stem cells and of repairing and regenerating human tissue exist and continue to be developed. (
  • 2 Stem cells are the cells from which all 210 different kinds of tissue in the human body originate. (
  • Between 1932 and 1963 University of Pittsburgh anatomist Davenport Hooker, Ph.D., performed and filmed noninvasive studies of reflexive movement on more than 150 surgically aborted human fetuses. (
  • The resulting imagery and information would contribute substantially to new visual and biomedical conceptions of fetuses as baby-like, autonomous human entities that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. (
  • But while Hooker and the 1930s medical and general public viewed live fetuses as acceptable materials for nontherapeutic research, they also shared a regard for fetuses as developing humans with some degree of social value. (
  • The amendment effectively created an exception to Michigan's 1978 law prohibiting experimentation that is harmful to an embryo or fetus. (
  • The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services" of the USCCB prohibit nontherapeutic experiments on a living embryo or fetus even with the consent of the parents. (
  • But no rule has ever permitted military superiors to allow their troops to be guinea pigs for what amounts to medical experimentation or research without informed consent. (
  • Or might incentives seduce poor or medically desperate people into taking unwise risks, and perhaps foster the creation of an underclass of professional human guinea pigs? (
  • To get those results, KKI acted with racist contempt for the children, using them as human guinea pigs. (
  • Dr. Arthur Wentworth turns 29 children at Boston's Children's Hospital into human guinea pigs when he performs spinal taps on them, just to test whether the procedure is harmful ( Sharav ). (
  • instead researchers use the men as human guinea pigs to follow the symptoms and progression of the disease. (
  • When attempts to use sheep's and calve's blood in the first human transfusions in the late 1660s produced questionable and some harmful results, the practice was banned in France for over 100 years. (
  • Project R&R is dedicated to arriving at the same moral repulsion toward research on our closest genetic relative-the chimpanzee-as we now have toward harmful research on humans. (
  • No matter what fate may be planned for the developing human being by others, the government must still make its own moral decision to respect life -- it cannot single out certain lives as disposable, or as uniquely fit for harmful research, simply because someone else plans to show disrespect for those lives. (
  • In the trial of USA v Brandt, which became known as the "Doctors' Trial", German physicians responsible for conducting unethical medical procedures on humans during the war were tried. (
  • Human experimentation made its first significant impact on medical practice through the work of the English country physician Edward Jenner (1749-1823). (
  • The nation's key eugenic organizations funded by the Rockefeller, Harriman and Carnegie families included the American Eugenics Society (AES), and its sister organization, the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) established in 1947, the Cold Springs Harbor Experimental Station for the Study of Evolution, the Eugenic Record Office, and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. (
  • The world's research, medical, and biotechnology communities are encouraging us to support human cloning. (
  • According to the medical community, the benefits of human cloning are the repair and replacement of human body parts such as organs and the regeneration of body tissues for accident victims, the elderly, and diseased bodies. (
  • The case challenged the constitutionality of the Arizona Revised Statute (ARS) 36-2303 in the Ninth Circuit US Court of Appeals, a law that banned researchers from using fetal tissues from abortions for any type of medical experimentation or investigation. (
  • In 1983, the Arizona state legislature in Phoenix, Arizona, passed a law that prohibited researchers from using any part of a human fetus or embryo from an induced abortion in medical research. (
  • Examples of human exploitation include the renting of wombs, the purchase of organs from live donors, buying human eggs, and unethical forms of medical research. (
  • Human Experimentation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Currently, adult stem cells are used to treat more than 70 different conditions, while human embryonic stem cells have yet to be used in a clinical trial due to several large medical hurdles. (
  • 2) What ethical standards should govern medical experimentation on vulnerable children with rare conditions? (
  • The battle over cloning is fundamentally a battle over human meaning, not over medical technology. (
  • In her book, Medical Apartheid , Harriet Washington explores the dark history of medical experimentation on black Americans, from colonial times to the present. (
  • That report did not cite specific improprieties, but in 1995 the HHS Office of the Inspector General reviewed human tests of four experimental medical devices. (
  • In discussions of human experimentation, the researcher's temptation is to think that if something technically can be done it ethically should be done -- particularly if it may lead to medical benefits or advances in scientific knowledge. (
  • Although the American forces occupying Germany had not at first planned to conduct an inquest on human experimentation, their decision changed as information emerged about the medical atrocities committed in the concentration camps. (
  • The Declaration of Helsinki is a formal statement of ethical principles published by the World Medical Association (WMA) to guide the protection of human participants in medical research. (
  • Yet for more than a year, the Commission has been seeking justification for medical experimentation which, had the US signed the Nuremberg Convention, would have been illegal under that document as well. (
  • In 1949 the Nuremberg Code was established to provide ethical guidelines for 'human therapeutic research. (
  • Since World War II, informed consent has almost universally been recognized as a necessary (although not sufficient) condition for ethical research, both therapeutic and nontherapeutic, on competent adults. (
  • Michigan passed laws in 1978 which prohibited most forms of embryo or fetal experimentation, and in particular, especially non-therapeutic research on a live embryo, fetus or neonate (MCL 333.2685 -.2692). (
  • Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. (
  • Although in utero embryonic development is not free from risks, in vitro circumstances are characterized by an unusual exposure to several injuries and, accordingly, the human embryo in vitro is a highly vulnerable subject. (
  • Autonomy emphasizes individual choice without adequately considering its moral value - i.e., the degree to which individual choice is consistent with and promotes the dignity of man understood as an objective reality rooted in human nature. (
  • According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church infant circumcision is nontherapeutic amputation and mutilation and therefore against the moral law. (
  • In general, it is proven that the use ofiPSCs in stem cell research can avoid technical challenges and socialcontroversies.In a nutshell, human embryonic stemcells offer a better chance in treating malignancies diseases but inflict manyissues in term of moral, funding and in the establishment of law in term of effectivenessof the clinical application in the future. (
  • the new Homo experimentus is outside the circle of human belonging, and its creation as an excluded, exploited human existence is the moral heart of this matter. (
  • The well-documented history of experiments on unwilling or unwitting humans shows that, unchecked, scientific interests can push the moral boundaries with little regard for the right of the individual being-human or nonhuman. (
  • By such funding decisions, government can make an important moral statement, set an example for private research, and help direct research toward avenues which fully respect human life and dignity as they seek to help humanity. (
  • They focused on physicians who conducted inhumane and unethical human experiments in concentration camps, in addition to those who were involved in over 3,500,000 sterilizations of German citizens. (
  • They simply redefined the subject of experimentation to exclude concentration camp inmates. (
  • The law amended section 32-1854 of the ARS, which classified fetal experimentation as unprofessional conduct. (
  • The first line of the code, "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential," is generally regarded as the sine qua non for the ethical conduct of research. (
  • If researchers want to conduct studies that involve more than a minor increase over minimal risk, a federal oversight panel must review the study, the public must be offered the opportunity to comment, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services must give his or her approval. (
  • They promoted eugenic counseling, selective mating and artificial insemination as 'positive' means of breeding superior human stock and compulsory sterilization and euthanasia as forms of 'negative' eugenics to weed out 'inferior' or 'unfit' human stock. (
  • Eugenics is characterized by the devising of interventions aimed at improving the quality of the human genome. (
  • In addition, the emphasis of advocates for eugenics is not on improving the quality of the human genome. (
  • Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation. (
  • There will need to be tests on animals and then clinical trials involving humans as well as extensive testing for quality assurance and safety. (
  • In the United States, federal regulations specify several thresholds in regard to permissible experimentation with children. (
  • In a review written on the 50th anniversary of the Brandt verdict, Katz writes that "a careful reading of the judgment suggests that" the authors wrote the Kodex "for the practice of human experimentation whenever it is being conducted. (
  • The protagonists of the practice of human experimentation justify their views on the basis that such experiments yield results for the good of society that are unprocurable by other methods or means of study. (
  • The pious declarations by scientists that human cloning would never be undertaken were - on the evidence of last month - not to be taken seriously. (
  • Now that human embryonic stem cells can be isolated and multiplied in the laboratory, some scientists believe that treatments for a variety of diseases-such as diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's-may be within reach. (
  • Its first principle holds that no experimentation can be done on humans without their competent, voluntary, informed consent. (
  • The Nuremberg Code is a set of principles for human experimentation developed as a result of the Nuremberg Trials at the end of World War II. (
  • It follows that a technological intervention on the human body "affects not only the tissues, the organs and their functions but also involves the person himself on different levels. (
  • Yet, this neglect goes hand-in-hand with a loss of respect for the special value and dignity of human life in its various embodiments throughout the lifespan. (
  • But beyond the scientific deception, the federal and Victorian legislation allowing cloning raises serious human rights issues. (
  • Recent scientific advances in human stem cell research have brought into fresh focus the dignity and status of the human embryo. (
  • The report found that institutional review boards (IRBs), which judge the scientific and ethical merit of proposed human studies, are overburdened with work, staffed by insufficiently trained people and subject to conflicts of interest. (
  • A civilized society will appreciate the possibilities opened up by research, but will insist that scientific progress must not come at the expense of human dignity. (
  • During the past year, institutions throughout the United States and Europe have been sponsoring events to celebrate the Nuremberg Code as a bulwark of human decency in the pursuit of scientific knowledge. (
  • He emphasized that "the Church respects and supports scientific research when it pursues an authentically humanistic orientation, fleeing from every form of exploitation or destruction of the human being and keeping itself free from the slavery of political and economic interests. (
  • Placing restrictions on the use of pregnant women in nontherapeutic research limits their freedom of choice, but it cannot be said to harm them as individuals. (
  • Not yet adequately recognized is the document's theoretical importance, its contribution to a more profound understanding of the dignity of the human person. (
  • We affirm that the fact of a distinct human existence, however conceived, binds us to do no harm, to act as guardians. (
  • The proposed exposure of children to toxic material in the total absence of any threat of harm other than the experimentation is, in itself, an unwarranted and unjustified threat of harm to these children. (
  • For most of the nineteenth century, human experimentation throughout western Europe and the United States was a cottage industry, with individual physicians trying out one or another remedy on neighbors or relatives or on themselves. (
  • In Western civilization, the idea of human experimentation, of evaluating the efficacy of a new drug or procedure by outcomes, is an ancient one. (
  • Federal regulations on fetal research treat the prenatal human being as a human subject worthy of protection, from the time of implantation in the womb (about one week after fertilization) until a child emerges from the womb and is found to be viable. (
  • While most of these stem cells become differentiated, all humans regenerate and retain stem cells throughout the body in tissues like blood, bone marrow, fat and brains. (
  • These communities do not explain that the benefits of human cloning require the death of another human - the death of new life by abortion or the destruction of a fertilized human egg. (
  • These communities are murdering new human life to prolong existing human life - a death for a life. (
  • It is He who creates and takes away human life. (
  • The recent Vatican "Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation" is a profoundly significant document. (
  • This principle, so fruitful for the development of the Church's teachings on social justice, has shed new light also on her teachings in the area of human life and sexuality. (
  • To help begin this process of reflection, I want to clarify the fundamental premise which underlies the "Instruction's" approach to the questions of artificial procreation and the value of embryonic human life. (
  • Our culture today challenges the Personhood of several classes of human life. (
  • Right to Life of Michigan holds that these types of experimentation should be prohibited by law. (
  • Despite the involvement of Pope Francis, this was not a case about abortion rights or the sanctity of human life. (
  • 6 Our nation's traditional protection of human life and human rights derives from an affirmation of the essential dignity of every human being. (
  • The duty to protect human life is specifically reflected in the homicide laws of all 50 states. (
  • There are a lot of magisterial documents which develop clearly the position of the Church, namely Instruction on Respect for Human Life in its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation Donum Vitae, published in 1987, and the Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 1995, of the Pope John Paul II . (
  • GRTL opposes abortion at any point of gestation, as it destroys a living, growing human life. (
  • GRTL asserts the need for a Constitutional amendment, which would annul the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion and return to the people the power to protect all human life, from fertilization until natural death. (
  • We note that constitutional amendments are not self-enforcing, so legislation will be necessary to mandate the protection empowered by a Human Life Amendment. (
  • Incluso después de la promulgación del código de Nuremberg las investigaciones sobre sífilis continuaron alejándose en muchas ocasiones de los estándares éticos. (
  • While ignoring the financial stake for the pesticide industry which initiated the overthrow of the Nuremberg Code proscription against the exposure of humans to poisonous experiments, you condone ethical corner cutting by raising the possibility that "the study would have shown that pesticides have a negligible or actually beneficial effect on children. (
  • On the whole, the in vitro human embryo is totally dependent on the laboratory's artificial environment and the care of biologists and technicians. (
  • Later, in 1913, several of these children's parents sue Dr. Noguchi for allegedly infecting their children with syphilis ( "Reviews and Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War" ). (
  • We hold that the United States government is bound by US law and by International Law and that individuals acting under color of law conducting unlawful experimentation on children are personally responsible for acts which may constitute Crimes Against Humanity and child abuse. (
  • Among its recommendations were the following: nontherapeutic research on the pregnant woman or on the fetus in utero may be conducted or supported, provided it will impose minimal or no risk to the fetus, the woman's informed consent has been obtained, and the father has not objected ( Research on the Fetus, pp. 73-76). (
  • While the first chapter of this study focused primarily on the historical origins of informed consent and its second on the articulation of this concept in human-rights documents, the purpose of this chapter is to trace the issue of informed consent throughout the Magisterial teaching of the Roman Catholic Church (first section) and its treatment in relevant philosophical and theological literature (second section). (
  • Duncan obtained Miriana's informed consent at the outset to participate in the nontherapeutic research project. (
  • An early version of the Kodex known as the Memorandum, which stated explicit voluntary consent from patients are required for human experimentation, was drafted on August 9, 1947. (
  • It is therefore clear that human dignity, as understood by the "Instruction," is not to be identified with the so-called principle of autonomy. (
  • Due to the seriousness of this issue, we are providing a copy of a paper on Human Cloning and Stem Cell Research that has been prepared by a Christian professor and his daughter who is a senior at the University of Arizona. (
  • Why are we concerned about human cloning and stem cell research? (
  • Few if any issues highlight the fundamental frailty of humanity more strikingly than the facts and implications of human cloning and stem cell research. (
  • Before the issues surrounding human cloning and embryonic stem cell research can be discussed and then evaluated from a Biblical perspective, it is necessary to arrive at an understanding of the science involved. (
  • Voted YES on allowing human embryonic stem cell research. (
  • To provide for human embryonic stem cell research. (
  • Despite an existing congressional ban on federally-funded human embryo research, 11 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) determined on January 15, 1999 that the government may fund human embryonic stem cell research. (
  • Therefore, the opinion that human embryonic stem cell research may receive federal funding appears to violates both the language of and intention behind the existing law. (
  • Whether and how humans might be investigated, however, has always been subject to the laws and customs of the society and government at the time. (
  • The first is nontherapeutic research, that is, research that does not benefit the research subject, in this case, either the pregnant woman or the fetus. (
  • The responsibility for the human subject must always rest with a medically qualified person and never rest on the subject of the research, even though the subject has given consent. (