Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Breech Presentation: A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Labor Presentation: The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.EsterasesCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mice, Inbred CBACarboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred C3HLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Version, Fetal: The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.United StatesAudiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.OsteomyelitisStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Other presentations include pelvic mass and uterine polyp. Generally, the clinical findings are non-specific. Uterine ... The most common presentation is vaginal bleeding. ...
Lymphadenopathy or swelling of lymph nodes, is the primary presentation in lymphoma. B symptoms (systemic symptoms) - can be ... Lymphoma may present with certain nonspecific symptoms; if the symptoms are persistent, an evaluation to determine their cause ...
The clinical presentation of fibrosing colonopathy is non-specific. Abdominal pain, distension, vomiting, and constipation are ...
In children, presentation can be atypical or inverse, and the course is typically milder. About one in four people with PR have ... The itching is often non-specific, and worsens if scratched. This tends to fade as the rash develops and does not usually last ... The cause of pityriasis rosea is not certain, but its clinical presentation and immunologic reactions suggest a viral infection ...
Nonspecific febrile illness is the most common presentation of enterovirus infection. Other than fever, symptoms include muscle ... Enteroviral infections have a great range in presentation and seriousness. Ironically, although the virus is named in for the ... Echoviruses are a cause of many of the nonspecific viral infections. It is mainly found in the intestine, and can cause nervous ...
Johnson JC, Jayadevappa R, Baccash PD, Taylor L (October 2000). "Nonspecific presentation of pneumonia in hospitalized older ...
Clinical presentation of the common trichinosis symptoms may also suggest infection. These symptoms include eye puffiness, ... splinter hemorrhage, nonspecific gastroenteritis, and muscle pain. The case definition for trichinosis at the European Center ... Paget took special interest in the presentation of muscle with white flecks, described as a "sandy diaphragm". Although Paget ...
Treatment is non-specific. Antibiotics are not useful against viruses. Intravenous fluid administration and medications for the ... Patients usually report having been bitten by a tick within two weeks prior to initial presentation. Diagnosis is currently ...
The presentation depends if it is mycosis fungoides or Sézary syndrome the most common, though not the only types. Among the ... symptoms for the aforementioned types are: lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and non-specific dermatitis. A point-based ...
Disease presentation varies widely from patient to patient, as UCTD is by definition nonspecific. Symptoms typically include ... such as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, is a possible disease complication. There is no official diagnostic criteria for ...
The most common presenting symptoms are nonspecific and include cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. In some cases, signs ... Symptoms are usually mild but there may be severe presentations. Catamenial hemothorax: this is a rare manifestation of ... It can affect their qualify of life, with catamenial pneumothorax being the most common presentation. Rojas, J. (2014). ...
Symptoms are often non-specific and include weight loss. A classic presentation, found in around 15% of cases includes ... ACC are associated with increased serum lipase and manifest in the classic presentation as the Schmid triad (subcutaneous fat ...
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12573 Hill EL (2001). Non-specific nature of specific ... The impact of nonverbal ability on prevalence and clinical presentation of language disorder: evidence from a population study ...
These presentations of the disease usually progress to mental retardation, microcephaly, blindness and spasticity. Females with ... Prenatal onset may present with non-specific signs such as low Apgar scores and small for gestational age. Metabolic ... It is expected that most cases will be of mild severity and have a clinical presentation involving lactic acidosis. ... PDCD is an X-linked disease that shows heterogeneous characteristics in both clinical presentation and biochemical abnormality ...
There is also often anemia and marked elevation of the ESR or C-reactive protein (nonspecific markers of inflammation). The ... Involvement of renal arteries may lead to a presentation of renovascular hypertension. Some people develop an initial " ... Takayasu's arteritis (also known as Takayasu's disease, "aortic arch syndrome," "nonspecific aortoarteritis," and "pulseless ...
The first suspicion of SPCD in a patient with a non-specific presentation is an extremely low plasma carnitine level. When ... a metabolic presentation with hypoglycemia and a cardiac presentation characterized by cardiomyopathy. Muscle weakness can be ... The presentation of patient with SPCD can be incredibly varied, from asymptomatic to lethal cardiac manifestations. Early cases ... found with either presentation. In countries with expanded newborn screening, SPCD can be identified shortly after birth. ...
The presentation of disease in elderly persons may be vague and non-specific, or it may include delirium or falls. (Pneumonia, ... atypical presentation of disease; palliative care; hospital care for elders, and health care planning and promotion. Each ...
Other nonspecific presentation are malaise, anorexia, muscle ache, low fever, slight increase in white blood count and graft- ...
EEG shows is non specific with slow waves and spike discharges. Polymorphs tend to show increased expression of CD10. Aicardi- ... The presentation is pleiomorphic[disambiguation needed], making the diagnosis difficult, but the most common features of this ... The placenta may be abnormal with non-specific inflammation on histology. Umbilical cord anomalies have occasionally been ... Routine laboratory investigations are non specific: anaemia, increased numbers of polymorphs, an elevated erythrocyte ...
Acute dilatation of the ventricular system is more likely to manifest with the nonspecific signs and symptoms of increased ... The word "hydrocephalus" is from Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and kephalos, meaning 'head'. The clinical presentation of ...
For example, someone with advanced cancer may present with certain non-specific symptoms such as pain or unexplained loss of ... Presentation (obstetrics) Search the Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary for presenting and related terms. ...
The early clinical presentation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is nonspecific and may resemble a variety of other infectious ...
2.1.2 Nonspecific recognition by macrophages. *2.2 Antigen processing. *2.3 Antigen presentation ... Antigen presentation[edit]. Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed ... Nonspecific recognition by macrophages[edit]. For more details on Toll-like receptors, see Pattern recognition receptors. ... "Antigen Processing and Presentation (Chapter 8)". Immunology (Fifth ed.). pp. 188-194. ISBN 0-7167-6764-3.. ...
In NDUFS6 mutations the presentation is typically a neonatal lactic acidosis that is swiftly fatal, coupled with multi-system ... Phenotypes include macrocephaly with progressive leukodystrophy, nonspecific encephalopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ... and inference of the underlying basis from the clinical or biochemical presentation is difficult, if not impossible. However, ...
... is challenging given the nonspecific clinical presentation as well as the need for surgical biopsy. Many cases are thought to ... In general, the clinical presentation of subcutaneous zygomycosis is quite identifiable and characteristic and the diagnosis is ... certain rare cases might show non-specific clinical features that might pose a difficulty on its identification. Although ...
"Ebola Virus, Clinical Presentation". Medscape. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.. ... Possible non-specific laboratory indicators of EVD include a low platelet count; an initially decreased white blood cell count ... West TE, von Saint André-von Arnim A (November 2014). "Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease". ...
... nonspecific complaints are caused by a variety of interacting underlying medical... ... Older patients often present to the emergency department with nonspecific complaints (NSCs). In most cases, ... Emergency presentations with nonspecific complaints-the burden of morbidity and the spectrum of underlying disease: nonspecific ... Malinovska A., Nickel C., Bingisser R. (2018) Nonspecific Disease Presentation: The Emergency Department Perspective. In: ...
NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES OF THE HOST. Innate Immunity (Non-Adaptive Immunity). (Pre-existing immunity) Immunity you are born with ... Download Presentation PowerPoint Slideshow about NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES OF THE HOST - heinz. An Image/Link below is provided ( ... Chapter 16: Nonspecific Immunity -Nonspecific vs. specific immune response. vertebrates (humans too) have two lines of defense ... Chapter 16: Nonspecific Host Defenses -. . . . introductionresistance: ability to ward off disease.nonspecific resistance: ...
A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 3bda51-MGViN ... The Nature of Host Defenses Nonspecific Defense - The Nature of Host Defenses Nonspecific Defense , PowerPoint PPT presentation ... Host Defense Mechanisms (non-specific). Description:. Host Defense Mechanisms (non-specific) BIO162 Microbiology for Allied ... The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Host Defense Mechanisms (non-specific)" is the property of its rightful owner. ...
Study Non-Specific Patient Presentations flashcards from Travis Whitlow ... Non-Specific Patient Presentations Flashcards Preview Pathology , Non-Specific Patient Presentations , Flashcards ...
Other nonspecific symptoms. Infants or young children may have a history of recurrent bronchitis, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia; ... Presentation History. Guidelines from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, which were updated in 2007, ... Pediatric Asthma Clinical Presentation. Updated: Nov 20, 2017 * Author: Girish D Sharma, MD, FCCP, FAAP; Chief Editor: Kenan ...
Nonspecific febrile illness. This is the most common presentation of enterovirus infection. ... Presentation History. Polio. Disease due to wild-type poliovirus infection no longer occurs in the Western Hemisphere, and a ... Enteroviruses Clinical Presentation. Updated: Jun 23, 2020 * Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart ... The typical presentation in adolescents and adults is shortness of breath, chest pain, and fever 1-2 weeks following an upper ...
Specific and non-specific visual problems after neurological disease: assessment and rehabilitation. Gera Haan, de (Invited ... Activity: Talk or presentation › Academic. *. 15th NR-SIG-WFNR Conference. Joost Heutink (Speaker). 14-Jul-2018 ...
Other nonspecific laboratory abnormalities commonly found in patients with hypercalcemia result from disordered renal function ... Patients commonly have significant azotemia at presentation. ... Which nonspecific lab results are associated with hypercalcemia ... Other nonspecific laboratory abnormalities commonly found in patients with hypercalcemia result from disordered renal function ...
Nemec M, Koller M, Nickel C (2010) Patients presenting to the emergency department with non-specific complaints: the basel non- ... Jarrett PG, Rockwood K, Carver D et al (1995) Illness presentation in elderly patients. Arch Intern Med 155(10):1060-1064 ... Limpawattana P, Phungoen P, Mitsungnern T (2016) Atypical presentations of older adults at the emergency department and ... Impact of observation on disposition of elderly patients presenting to emergency departments with non-specific complaints. PLoS ...
The presentation can be similar to multiple mononeuropathies in the non-HIV population. ... Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis. The multiple mononeuropathies are typically inflammatory in nature and may involve single ... Presentation of multiple peripheral mononeuropathies in the setting of HIV-1 disease can be similar to multiple ... Progression may change presentation from multifocal mononeuropathies to a more generalized polyneuropathy. ...
Physical examination was nonspecific. 19 , 20 Ocular involvement has recently been described in 2 cases as a potential clinical ... Clinical Presentation and Epidemiology. The number of invasive M. chimaera infections after open-chest heart surgery being ... subacute presentation and granulomatous inflammation shown by histopathology results, Mycobacterium chimaera should be ...
... symptoms are often non-specific. ... The initial presentation varies widely in OAD and UCD patients ... Part 1: the initial presentation.. Kölker S1, Garcia-Cazorla A2, Valayannopoulos V3, Lund AM4, Burlina AB5, Sykut-Cegielska J6 ... The clinical presentation of patients with organic acidurias (OAD) and urea cycle disorders (UCD) is variable; ...
Nonspecific Cough Treatment. Full transcript. More presentations by Chad Keller *. Google Glass Applications in Medicine. ...
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Presentation • Pain from mesenteric venous thrombosis • Diffuse, nonspecific, may be in the lower ... Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. You can keep your great finds in ... Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Presentation • Severe abdominal pain • Pain is out of proportion to findings on physical exam • ... Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Presentation • Pain from embolic or thrombotic (arterial) etiology • Acute and severe, usually ...
Septic patients presenting with a non-specific ED presentation, here exemplified as the chief complaint DGC, have a less ... determine whether a screening tool could improve identification of septic patients with non-specific presentations such as DGC ... The presentation of sepsis is varied and our hypotheses were that septic patients with non-specific presentations such as ... The presentation of sepsis is varied and our hypotheses were that septic patients with non-specific presentations such as ...
Initial radiographic findings were nonspecific. The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was determined by transoral incisional biopsy ... An Unusual Presentation of B-Cell Lymphoma as a Large Isolated Epiglottic Mass: Case Report and Literature Review. Changxing ... Extranodal presentation of B-cell lymphoma is uncommon. Isolated primary epiglottic B-cell lymphoma is even rarer. To our ... At time of presentation, she also reported exertional dyspnea. She denied nausea, vomiting, fever, hemoptysis, or hematemesis. ...
Clinical Presentation. Infections with Mesocestoides spp. reported in humans have typically involve low numbers of worms. Non- ...
Clinical Presentation and diagnosis *Clinical presentation is variable. *Symptoms often indolent and nonspecific (anorexia, ...
This Presentation gives summarized overview of Gall Bladder Carcinoma especially the management as per latest National ... Presentation • Usually asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis • Symptoms if present are similar to benign diseases such as ... Work Up • Laboratory studies are generally nonspecific for gallbladder cancer. • In the later stages, liver function enzyme ... This Presentation gives summarized overview of Gall Bladder Carcinoma especially the management as per latest National ...
Hampton hump is a rare and nonspecific finding. Courtesy of Justin Wong, MD. ... What is the presentation of acute pulmonary infarction?. Updated: Oct 16, 2019 ... Influence of preceding length of anticoagulant treatment and initial presentation of venous thromboembolism on risk of ...
CLINICAL PRESENTATION. MERS is associated with severe acute respiratory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, and high mortality ... Initial nonspecific symptoms can progress to pneumonia. Chest radiographs have shown variable pulmonary involvement. ...
Mechanism: Nonspecific AChRi -,promotes degrdation of cGMP. Does NOT diffuse into the blood (minimizes systemic side effects), ... People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account. *This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation ...
Clinical presentation and laboratory findings were nonspecific. Improvement on brain magnetic resonance imaging after 2 weeks ... Clinical presentation and laboratory findings were nonspecific. Improvement on brain magnetic resonance imaging after 2 weeks ... Both can manifest as nonspecific encephalitis that can be clinically indistinguishable from each other and with nonspecific CSF ... The clinical course and outcomes of POWV infection are variable and nonspecific. After an incubation period of 1-5 weeks, the ...
Firstly, the clinical presentation is non specific. Secondly, there is no identifiable risk factors [4]. Thirdly, as the ... Due to the rarity of the condition and the nonspecific presenting features, the correct diagnosis is usually hard to reach. In ... More often than not, the biopsy reveals non specific inflammation or granulomatous reaction. In exceptional cases, fungal ...
Possible clinical presentations and complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. ... Therefore, patients may have a highly variable presentation. The incubation period is generally between 1 to 4 weeks; however, ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections cause a wide array of non-specific symptoms.. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections can occur in ...
  • What is the presentation of acute pulmonary infarction? (medscape.com)
  • Based on past difficulties in clinically differentiating patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis (NSIP), which all manifest clinically as interstitial lung disease, experience with pathologically confirmed examples of the three diseases was reviewed to compare clinical profiles and prognosis and to define NSIP more clearly. (ersjournals.com)
  • In conclusion, idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia can be differentiated from other types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, both pathologically and clinically. (ersjournals.com)
  • Her examination at the time of presentation was remarkable for elevated blood pressure (150/95 mmHg), mild lower abdominal tenderness and trace pedal edema. (ispub.com)
  • Diffuse supratentorial white matter edema and dysmyelination was the typical MR picture at presentation, whereas white matter bulk loss characterized later stages of the disease. (ajnr.org)
  • Progression may change presentation from multifocal mononeuropathies to a more generalized polyneuropathy. (medscape.com)