Receptor, EphA8: An eph family receptor found exclusively in BRAIN. EphA8 receptors may play a role in the axonal guidance of a subset of tectal commissural NEURONS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 2: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.PhosphoproteinsVanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 7: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a short extracellular domain, a cytosolic kinase-interaction domain, and single protein tyrosine kinase domain.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 3: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
It is stimulated by binding of an extracellular ligand to a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in the plasma membrane, causing ... The pathway is also controlled by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which dephosphorylates Akt at Thr308 and phosphatase PHLPP ... Alternatively, adaptor molecule Grb2 binds to phospho-YXN motifs of the RTK and recruits p85 via Grb2-associated binding (GAB) ... There are multiple types of phosphoinositide 3-kinase but only class I are responsible for lipid phosphorylation in response to ...
When an inhibitory receptor is stimulated by the binding of MHC class I, kinases and phosphatases are recruited to the receptor ... Activation receptors are associated with an accessory signaling molecule (for instance, CD3ζ) or with an adaptor protein, which ... When the binding of an activation ligand to an activation receptor complex occurs, the tyrosine residues in the ITAMs in the ... Killer Activation Receptors) and the NK KIRs (meaning: Killer Inhibitory Receptors). Such receptors have a broad binding ...
"The JAK-binding protein JAB inhibits Janus tyrosine kinase activity through binding in the activation loop". The EMBO Journal. ... is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase. It is a member of the Janus kinase family and has been implicated in signaling by members of ... "Direct association with and dephosphorylation of Jak2 kinase by the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1". ... "SHPTP2 serves adapter protein linking between Janus kinase 2 and insulin receptor substrates". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
The tyrosine kinase FYN phosphorylates Grb2-associated-binding protein 2 (Gab2), which binds to phosphoinositide 3-kinase, ... "pattern recognition receptors" thought to be involved in recognizing broad classes of pathogens; and mice without mast cells ... An important adaptor protein activated by the Syk phosphorylation step is the linker for activation of T cells (LAT). LAT can ... Rab3 guanosine triphosphatases and Rab-associated kinases and phosphatases regulate granule membrane fusion in resting mast ...
The abrogation of ITAM activation signaling is caused by inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases of Src family, and by ... For example, those that bind the most common class of antibody, IgG, are called Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR), those that bind IgA ... the phosphatases SHP-1 and SHIP-1 inhibit signaling by Fcγ receptors. Binding of ligand to FcγRIIB leads to phosphorylation of ... This adaptor protein is called the Fcγ subunit and, like FcγRIIA, contains the two YXXL sequences that are characteristic of an ...
Ligand binding enables interaction between receptor and ITAM-bearing adaptor protein DAP12 (ITAM, Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based ... probably Src family kinase phosphorylates tyrosine residue, and this allows recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, SHP- ... NKG2D binds MHC class I homologues MICA (MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A), MICB and ULBP (UL-16 binding protein) in ... Receptors of CD94/NKG2 family bind nonclassical MHC glycoproteins class I (HLA-E in human and Qa-1 molecules in the mouse). ...
"The type I interferon receptor mediates tyrosine phosphorylation of the CrkL adaptor protein". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (48): 29991-4 ... 1990). "tyk2, prototype of a novel class of non-receptor tyrosine kinase genes". Oncogene. 5 (9): 1329-36. PMID 2216457. ... binding to and tyrosine phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the type I interferon receptor by p135tyk2 tyrosine kinase". ... Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYK2 gene. Tyk2 was the first member of ...
"The protein kinase C-related kinase PRK2 interacts with the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL via a novel PDZ domain binding ... "The zyxin-related protein TRIP6 interacts with PDZ motifs in the adaptor protein RIL and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP- ... Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 13 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN13 gene. The protein ... Lin D, Gish GD, Songyang Z, Pawson T (1999). "The carboxyl terminus of B class ephrins constitutes a PDZ domain binding motif ...
... channels in mice lacking protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon". The EMBO Journal. 19 (15): 4036-45. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.15. ... Williams CP, Hu N, Shen W, Mashburn AB, Murray KT (Aug 2002). "Modulation of the human Kv1.5 channel by protein kinase C ... It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, the function of which could restore the resting membrane potential of beta cells ... Eldstrom J, Doerksen KW, Steele DF, Fedida D (Nov 2002). "N-terminal PDZ-binding domain in Kv1 potassium channels". FEBS ...
Ostman A, Böhmer FD (June 2001). "Regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by protein tyrosine phosphatases". Trends in ... RTK class III (PDGF receptor family) RTK class IV (VEGF receptors family) RTK class V (FGF receptor family) RTK class VI (CCK ... The DDRs are unique RTKs in that they bind to collagens rather than soluble growth factors. Tyrosine kinase Insulin receptor ... Other proteins that interact with the activated receptor act as adaptor proteins and have no intrinsic enzymatic activity of ...
... alpha 1 Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting ... class II, DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein ... This is a list of genes, proteins or receptors named A1 or Alpha-1 : Actin, alpha 1 Actinin, alpha 1 Adaptor-related protein ... alpha 1 RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 ...
Receptor tyrosine kinases are type I transmembrane proteins possessing an N-terminal extracellular domain, which can bind ... Two important classes of tyrosine kinase in tyrosine phosphorylation are receptor tyrosine kinase and nonreceptor tyrosine ... and opposing the action of the tyrosine kinases were 108 protein phosphatases that can remove phosphate from P.Tyr in proteins ... SH2 domain proteins may have a variety of functions, including adaptor proteins to recruit other signaling proteins, enzymes ...
Mendrola JM, Shi F, Park JH, Lemmon MA (2013). "Receptor tyrosine kinases with intracellular pseudokinase domains". Biochemical ... Class I PTPs constitute the largest family. They contain the well-known classical receptor (a) and non-receptor PTPs (b), which ... Furthermore, a wide range of specific inhibitors and targeting partners such as scaffolding, anchoring, and adaptor proteins ... instead functioning as phosphate-binding proteins, integrators of signalling or subcellular traps. Examples of membrane- ...
... through tyrosine phosphorylation of adapter protein insulin receptor substrate (IRS1). These interactions resulted in ... Since cytokine receptor proteins lack enzymatic activity, they are dependent upon JAKs to initiate signaling upon binding of ... However, Shc recruited tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and PTP-1B to Jak3 and thereby dephosphorylate Jak3. Thus the study not only ... Since JAK3 is required for immune cell development, targeting JAK3 could be a useful strategy to generate a novel class of ...
... protein kinase A (PKA); and cAMP phosphodiesterase. Stimulative hormone receptor (Rs) is a receptor that can bind with ... the bradykinin receptor B2 has been shown to interact directly with a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The presence of a tyrosine- ... Class A (Rhodopsin-like), Class B (Secretin-like), Class C (Glutamate Receptor-like), Others (Adhesion (33), Frizzled (11), ... At this point, the adapter molecules and clathrin have dissociated, and the receptor is either trafficked back to the plasma ...
... protein kinase A (PKA); and cAMP phosphodiesterase. Stimulative hormone receptor (Rs) is a receptor that can bind with ... the bradykinin receptor B2 has been shown to interact directly with a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The presence of a tyrosine- ... G protein-coupled receptors database List of MeSH codes (D12.776) Metabotropic receptor Orphan receptor Pepducins, a class of ... For example, beta-arrestin bound to β2-adrenoreceptors acts as an adaptor for binding with clathrin, and with the beta-subunit ...
The phosphorylation mediates activation of tyrosine kinase SHP2. SIRP α has been shown to bind also phosphatase SHP1, adaptor ... This is analogous to the self signals provided by MHC class I molecules to NK cells via Ig-like or Ly49 receptors. NB. Protein ... 1998). "Identification of major binding proteins and substrates for the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in ... "Cloning of two members of the SIRP alpha family of protein tyrosine phosphatase binding proteins in cattle that are expressed ...
... the phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on the focal adhesion adapter protein-paxillin by specific tyrosine kinases ... When transmural pressure increases, sphingosine kinase 1 phosphorylates sphingosine to S1P, which binds to the S1P2 receptor in ... The myosin light chain phosphatase is inhibited to increase the gain or sensitivity of myosin light chain kinase to calcium. ... Myosin is primarily class II in smooth muscle. Myosin II contains two heavy chains which constitute the head and tail domains. ...
... hsp90-binding immunophilins, transcription factors, the PKR protein kinase inhibitor, the major receptor for peroxisomal matrix ... "The structure of the tetratricopeptide repeats of protein phosphatase 5: implications for TPR-mediated protein-protein ... The Hop adaptor protein mediates the association of the molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. It contains three 3-TPR repeats ... Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_TPR Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class TRG_PTS1. ...
... which is itself a tyrosine kinase. See also: SH3 domain. Zinc finger DNA binding domain (ZnF_GATA) : ZnF_GATA domain-containing ... An example of a superdomain is the protein tyrosine phosphatase-C2 domain pair in PTEN, tensin, auxilin and the membrane ... Classification of proteins into this class is difficult because of overlaps to the other three classes and therefore is not ... Pro-Caspase-8 and pro-caspase-9 bind to specific adaptor molecules via DED domains and this leads to autoactivation of caspases ...
Receptor Kinase Activity by Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B) and Enhanced IGF-I-Mediated Suppression of Apoptosis and ... Liu F, Hill DE, Chernoff J (December 1996). "Direct binding of the proline-rich region of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B to ... Possible facilitation by the formation of a ternary complex with the Grb2 adaptor protein". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (6): 4283-9. doi ... for the enzymatic activity of PTP1B and similar cysteine residues are required for the activity of other members of the Class I ...
"The zyxin-related protein TRIP6 interacts with PDZ motifs in the adaptor protein RIL and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP- ... intracellular gonococci bind pyruvate kinase via their Opa proteins and require host pyruvate for growth". Molecular ... Thyroid receptor-interacting protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIP6 gene. This gene is a member of the ... Lee JW, Choi HS, Gyuris J, Brent R, Moore DD (Feb 1995). "Two classes of proteins dependent on either the presence or absence ...
... the SH2-containing inositol phosphatase or the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase is regulated by the adaptor protein ... "Crystal structures of the XLP protein SAP reveal a class of SH2 domains with extended, phosphotyrosine-independent sequence ... Li SC, Gish G, Yang D, Coffey AJ, Forman-Kay JD, Ernberg I, Kay LE, Pawson T (Dec 1999). "Novel mode of ligand binding by the ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ...
It is monomeric and binds one IgE molecule. The α chain binds IgE and the other three chains contain immune receptor tyrosine- ... proteins to a new micro-environment so that the phosphorylation state can be modified by local kinases and phosphatases to give ... class I molecule. Binding of SV40 with MHC class I molecules triggers receptor clustering and redistribution. SV40 may recruit ... "A BASH/SLP-76-related adaptor protein MIST/Clnk involved in IgE receptor-mediated mast cell degranulation". International ...
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins with an intracellular kinase domain and an extracellular domain ... Many adaptor proteins and enzymes activated as part of signal transduction possess specialized protein domains that bind to ... Receptors can be roughly divided into two major classes: intracellular and extracellular receptors. Extracellular receptors are ... examples include tyrosine kinase and phosphatases. Often such enzymes are covalently linked to the receptor. Some of them ...
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)[6] is a multifunctional peptide that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and generate intracellular signals using a conserved family of proteins called SMADs. They play fundamental roles in the regulation of basic biological processes such as growth, development, tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune system.[3]. ...
References to or depictions of Odin appear on numerous objects. Migration Period (5th and 6th century CE) gold bracteates (types A, B, and C) feature a depiction of a human figure above a horse, holding a spear and flanked by one or more often two birds. The presence of the birds has led to the iconographic identification of the human figure as the god Odin, flanked by Huginn and Muninn. Like Snorri's Prose Edda description of the ravens, a bird is sometimes depicted at the ear of the human, or at the ear of the horse. Bracteates have been found in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and, in smaller numbers, England and areas south of Denmark.[48] Austrian Germanist Rudolf Simek states that these bracteates may depict Odin and his ravens healing a horse and may indicate that the birds were originally not simply his battlefield companions but also "Odin's helpers in his veterinary function."[49]. Vendel Period helmet plates (from the 6th or 7th century) found in a grave in Sweden depict a helmeted figure ...
Even in the 18th century the site was still associated with traditions and rituals, by then relating to Norse gods. It was visited by Walter Scott in 1814. Other antiquarians documented the stones and recorded local traditions and beliefs about them. One stone, known as the "Odin Stone" which stood in the field to the north of the henge,[3] was pierced with a circular hole, and was used by local couples for plighting engagements by holding hands through the gap. It was also associated with other ceremonies and believed to have magical power.[5] There was a reported tradition of making all kinds of oaths or promises with one's hand in the Odin Stone; this was known as taking the "Vow of Odin".[6] In December 1814 Captain W. Mackay, a recent immigrant to Orkney who owned farmland in the vicinity of the stones, decided to remove them on the grounds that local people were trespassing and disturbing his land by using the stones in rituals. He started in December 1814 by smashing the Odin Stone. This ...
DNA might give the answer to this riddle of the origin of Odin. Also the level of strontium in the bones of one of the women found in The Oseberg find in Norway. Many historians belive that the women buried with the Oseberg ship, must have been Queen Aasa of the Ynglinge clan, the royal clan in Scandinavia in the 700 th century. Recent measures of the strontium level (2007) in the womens bones, suggest that she lived in the area of Agder in Norway, and moved to Vestfold, as Snorre says (The Oseberg find is in Vestfold). The trees used in the Oseberg ship was cut in the year 834, around the time her son Halvdan Svarte took over the kingdom, and there is no doubt that the women got a "royal" burial. Now, what is even more interesting is that recent DNA finds, suggest that the women had ancestral roots in the areas around the Black Sea. [1] The question is why a royal important women in Norway has roots from the Black Sea region? I know that some have suggested that it is not Queen Aasa in the ...
Den 23. mai 2009 tog han Ultimate Fighting Championship-titlen i letsværvægt fra tidligere ubesejrede Rashad Evans via KO i 2. omgang. Denne titelkamp var den første i UFC hvor både titelholderen og udfordreren var ubesejrede. Etter at have vundet bæltet fik Lyoto Machida sin første modstander som titelholder: Quinton Jackson. Jackson afslog tilbuddet til fordel for UFC's reality-serie The Ultimate Fighter. Machida forsvarede sin titel mod Mauricio Rua på UFC 104. Mange mente afgørelsen var kontroversiel og at Rua fortjente en omkamp mod Machida.[1][2][3] Machida og Rua mødtes igen på UFC 113, den 8. maj, 2010. Machida fik her sit første nederlag i sin MMA-karriere og mistede også titlen til Rua. Rua vandt på knock-out i 1. omgang.[4] Machida mødte Derek Brunson den 28. oktober, 2017 i hovedkampen på UFC Fight Night: Brunson vs Machida.[5] Han tabte kampen via knockout i 1. omgang.[6] Machida mødte Eryk Anders den 3. februar, 2018 i hovedkampen på UFC Fight Night: Machida vs. ...
Han mener, at kreditspiralen i opgangstiden fik lov til at gå alt for vidt. Bankerne lånte ukritisk ud til højre og venstre, og det var her, regeringer og politikere skulle have grebet ind lang tid, inden den globale økonomi begyndte at hvirvle mod jorden. "Nu er det for sent. Det fundamentale problem er, at der har udviklet sig en enormt stor uligevægt på de globale markeder. Og hvis der har været en uligevægt, så hjælper det ikke at smide en masse penge i økonomien. Uligevægten skal jo finde tilbage i et harmonisk niveau, og så kan vi starte forfra," siger Jakob Brøchner Madsen. Han påpeger, at det ikke nytter noget at gå imod de naturlige økonomiske kræfter, og derfor er de penge, som verdens regeringer og centralbanker poster ud, spildte. "Bankerne vil jo alligevel ikke låne flere penge ud, selvom de bliver støttet af staten. Bankerne siger: Hvorfor skal jeg låne ud? Det taber jeg jo bare penge på," siger økonomiprofessoren. Jakob Brøchner Madsen mener nemlig ikke, at ...
Hiel Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (pronimag: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhəlm ˈniːtsʃə]; 1844 tobul 15 - 1900 gustul 25) äbinom filosopan ä pükavan Deutänik tumyela 19id. Äpenom krütis rela, südöfa, kuliva ettimik, filosopa e nolava, ägebölo stüli vemo Deutäniki e . Flun ela Nietzsche blebon veütik ninü e plödü filosop, pato pö dabinim e posnulädim. Stül omik, äsi bespikäbükam völada e dinöfa verata, äkodons natepretasäkädis gretik, dö kels äpubon literat veitöfik se filosop kontinänik e filosop diletamik. Too tikamagots cifik oma keninükons nätäpretami lügadramata as fümedam lifa, dönuami laidüpik, dö kel mödikos ya pepenon, güükam juläla ela Platon äsi refud krita (ledino uta tumyela 19id). El Nietzsche äprimom karieri oka as pükavan büä änitedälikom in filosop. Bäldotü lifayels te teldegfols ävedom Profäsoran Pükava Klatädik in Niver di Basel: jünu pösod yunikün, kel ädagetom profäsori at. Ün 1879 ye äsädünikom sekü säkäds ...
Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A; et al. (1996). «Overlapping and differential expression of BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3: four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.». J. Neurobiol. 28 (1): 51-69. PMID 8586965. doi:10.1002/neu.480280106 ...
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 18 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN18 gene.[5][6] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This gene was found to be expressed in brain, colon tissues, and several different tumor-derived cell lines. The biological function of this PTP has not yet been ...
Aoki N., Matsuda T. (2002). A nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP is a potential negative regulator of the PRL-mediated signaling pathway: dephosphorylation and deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b by TC-PTP in nucleus.. Mol. Endocrinol. 16: 58 - 69. PubMed DOI:10.1210/mend.16.1.0761 ...
The symptoms and/or signs of branchio-oto-renal syndrome are consistent with underdeveloped (hypoplastic) or absent kidneys with resultant chronic kidney disease or kidney failure. Ear anomalies include extra openings in front of the ears, extra pieces of skin in front of the ears (preauricular tags), or further malformation or absence of the outer ear (pinna). Malformation or absence of the middle ear is also possible, individuals can have mild to profound hearing loss. People with BOR may also have cysts or fistulae along the sides of their neck.[3]. In some individuals and families, renal features are completely absent. The disease may then be termed Branchio-oto Syndrome (BO syndrome)[4]. ...
3.0.CO;2-J. PMID 10940933. Peters CS, Liang X, Li S, et al. (2001). "ATF-7, a novel bZIP protein, interacts with the PRL-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (17): 13718-26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011562200. PMID 11278933. Si X, Zeng Q, Ng CH, et al. (2001). "Interaction of farnesylated PRL-2, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase, with the beta-subunit of geranylgeranyltransferase II". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 32875-82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010400200. PMID 11447212. Nicolas G, Fournier CM, Galand C, et al. (2002). "Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulates Alpha II Spectrin Cleavage by Calpain". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (10): 3527-36. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.10.3527-3536.2002. PMC 133798 . PMID 11971983. Wang J, Kirby CE, Herbst R (2003). "The tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 localizes to the ...
3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10229072. Yablonski D, Kadlecek T, Weiss A (July 2001). "Identification of a phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) SH3 domain-binding site in SLP-76 required for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of PLC-gamma1 and NFAT". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (13): 4208-18. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.13.4208-4218.2001. PMC 87082 . PMID 11390650. Binstadt BA, Billadeau DD, Jevremović D, Williams BL, Fang N, Yi T, Koretzky GA, Abraham RT, Leibson PJ (October 1998). "SLP-76 is a direct substrate of SHP-1 recruited to killer cell inhibitory receptors". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (42): 27518-23. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.42.27518. PMID 9765283. Mizuno K, Katagiri T, Hasegawa K, Ogimoto M, Yakura H (August 1996). "Hematopoietic cell phosphatase, SHP-1, is constitutively associated with the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein, SLP-76, in B cells". J. Exp. Med. 184 (2): 457-63. ...
... are universal G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) adapter proteins expressed abundantly in extra-retinal tissues, including the ... They are now known to switch GPCR signaling from G protein-dependent to G protein-independent, which, in the case of βARs and ... roles in the G protein-independent signaling pathways they initiate in the cardiovascular system, including in the myocardium. ... initially as terminators of signaling from the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR), a process known as functional desensitization. ...
PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast, and prostate cancer. Science 1997;275:1943-7 ... AKT inhibition relieves feedback suppression of receptor tyrosine kinase expression and activity. Cancer Cell 2011;19:58-71. ... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; INPP4B, inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II; p85, ... Three classes are known to exist although Class I PI3K are the most frequently mutated in cancer (2). The PI3K are ...
Roles of Lck, Syk and Zap-70 tyrosine kinases in T cell receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the adapter protein Shc. Eur. J. ... inositol phosphatase, respectively). In addition, a class of adapter molecules that mediate protein-protein interactions, but ... tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors or other molecules and/or binding of other proteins to phosphorylated Shc have been ... protein kinase C isoforms, Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)4), serine/threonine phosphatases (calcineurin and ...
PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast, and prostate cancer. Science 1997;275:1943-7 ... AKT inhibition relieves feedback suppression of receptor tyrosine kinase expression and activity. Cancer Cell 2011;19:58-71. ... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; INPP4B, inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II; p85, ... Three classes are known to exist although Class I PI3K are the most frequently mutated in cancer (2). The PI3K are ...
It is stimulated by binding of an extracellular ligand to a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in the plasma membrane, causing ... The pathway is also controlled by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which dephosphorylates Akt at Thr308 and phosphatase PHLPP ... Alternatively, adaptor molecule Grb2 binds to phospho-YXN motifs of the RTK and recruits p85 via Grb2-associated binding (GAB) ... There are multiple types of phosphoinositide 3-kinase but only class I are responsible for lipid phosphorylation in response to ...
G-Protein Coupled Receptors:. Receptors coupled to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). Composition ... Enzyme Linked Receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), e.g. epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF) family and insulin ... Role of adapter proteins (e.g. GRB2) and their protein-protein interaction domains (SH2, SH3 etc.) in linking ligand-receptor ... Second Messengers and Protein Phosphorylation (kinases and phosphatases). Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Systems: G proteins in ...
The heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large protein family in flies, worms, and ... In the fly protein phosphatase group, approximately 42% are predicted to be serine/threonine phosphatases; 48% are tyrosine or ... found that the assembly of kinase signaling complexes in vertebrate cells is aided by the presence of scaffolding and adaptor ... C. elegans has seven of this class and yeast has one, but the fly has 199. Of these, 163 are small proteins of approximately ...
... other SH2 proteins, such as Crk (adaptor), Nck (adaptor), Fyn (tyrosine kinase), and Csk (tyrosine kinase), bind to tyrosine ... Protein-protein interaction domains in signal transduction * Organization of kinases, phosphatases, and receptor signaling ... the class of insulin sensitizers that act through the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ, increase CAP expression levels and c-Cbl ... SH2 adaptor proteins. SH2 adaptor proteins recognize and bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins by their SH2 domains. They do ...
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs).. *Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Group: CTKs.. *Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Adaptor and ... 3 protein-tyrosine phosphatases, 16 dual-specificity and low molecular weight phosphatases, and 6 "infant" P.Tyr-binding ... We focus here on the content and diversity of protein kinases present in worms, together with an assessment of other classes of ... protein-tyrosine kinase;. RTK,. receptor protein-tyrosine kinases;. CTK,. cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases;. STAT,. signal ...
When an inhibitory receptor is stimulated by the binding of MHC class I, kinases and phosphatases are recruited to the receptor ... Activation receptors are associated with an accessory signaling molecule (for instance, CD3ζ) or with an adaptor protein, which ... When the binding of an activation ligand to an activation receptor complex occurs, the tyrosine residues in the ITAMs in the ... Killer Activation Receptors) and the NK KIRs (meaning: Killer Inhibitory Receptors). Such receptors have a broad binding ...
"A family of proteins that inhibit signalling through tyrosine kinase receptors," Nature, vol. 386, no. 6621, pp. 181-186, 1997. ... Signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα; CD172a) is a receptor binding to CD47, which is also expressed on neurons and myeloid cells ... Aβ directly interacted with microglial cell surface receptor complex comprising the class B scavenger receptor CD36, α6β1 ... TREM2, a recently identified innate immune receptor, and its adaptor protein DAP12 are expressed on microglia and cortical ...
... in FcεRI and activates the protein tyrosine kinase SYK (after SYK has bound to an ITAM). FYN phosphorylates the adaptor GAB2, ... such as Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) and AKT. FcεRI can be induced to co-aggregate with FcγRIIB (a low-affinity receptor for ... immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif) and the recruitment of the inositol phosphatase SHIP1 (which catalyses the ... class II molecules to naive T cells. In the presence of early interleukin 4 (IL-4) (potentially derived from a range of cells ...
Many well represented domains recognize and bind to primary sequences less than 10 amino acids in length called Short Linear ... SH3 and Ser/Thr Kinase domains in both ordered and disordered protein regions. Disordered protein regions are protein sequences ... Interactions mediated by domains that appear in a large number of proteins are of particular interest since they are expected ... This trend is more evident in those protein functional groups that are frequently reported to interact with specific domains. ...
RTK class XVI ([[related to receptor tyrosine kinase,RYK receptor]] family) #RTK class XVII ([[MuSK protein,MuSK receptor]] ... SI}} ==Overview== Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK)s are the high [[dissociation constant#Protein-Ligand binding,affinity ... phosphatase]]. Kinase enzymes that specifically phosphorylate tyrosine amino acids are termed [[tyrosine kinases]] ,center> , ... Other proteins that interact with the activated receptor act as [[adaptor protein]]s and have no intrinsic enzymatic activity ...
... relieved by binding of the SH2 domains to specific phosphotyrosine sites on receptors or receptor-associated adaptor proteins ( ... Gab2 has been shown to cooperate with the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 in the Shp2-dependent activation of the Ras/MAP kinase ... 2006) Discovery of protein phosphatase inhibitor classes by biology-oriented synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:10606-10611. ... 1995) Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHPTP2 is a required positive effector for insulin downstream signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
Importantly, we show that selective upregulation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)... ... dopaminergic toxicity via upregulation of phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at Ser40 by modulation of protein phosphatase ... Human checkpoint protein Rad9. Iba-1. Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 ... Nagai T, Takuma K, Kamei H, Ito Y, Nakamichi N, Ibi D, Nakanishi Y, Murai M et al (2007) Dopamine D1 receptors regulate protein ...
DAP10 was identified as a cell surface adaptor protein in an activating receptor complex with NKG2D, a receptor for the stress- ... a predicted binding site for the SH2 domain of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase (5). A tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide ... class I, including Ly49 and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) (1). These receptors have immunoreceptor ... 4A). Treatment of NKL and NKG2D-Flag-DAP10+ Ba/F3 with the phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate resulted in DAP10 tyrosine ...
Other proteins that interact with the activated receptor act as adaptor proteins and have no intrinsic enzymatic activity of ... Receptor tyrosine kinase classes. Approximately 20 different RTK classes have been identified.[3] ... The phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues within the activated receptor creates binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) ... The opposite, an enzyme that removes phosphate groups from targets, is known as a phosphatase. Kinase enzymes that specifically ...
pps:100971447 E1A binding protein p400 K11320 2956 157 ( -) 42 0.270 185 -, pps:100984326 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non- ... pps:100981818 tyrosine kinase non receptor 1 K08885 661 122 ( -) 34 0.355 107 -, pps:100986128 patched domain containing 3 536 ... pps:100989517 scavenger receptor cysteine rich family m 1587 150 ( -) 40 0.301 156 -, pps:100989798 scavenger receptor class A ... pps:100983388 proline rich basic protein 1 1015 133 ( -) 36 0.301 153 -, pps:100988182 PML-RARA regulated adaptor molecule 1 ...
Thus, we found that the SH2 domain of Fyn and one of the SH2 domains of the PI3K adaptor protein p85 could bind to a ... the analogous tyrosines in human Tim-3 also scored as possible sites of phosphorylation by the same classes of kinases (data ... and associates with receptor phosphatases. J. Immunol. 192: 782-791. ... revealed that several of these tyrosines conformed well to putative sites of phosphorylation by multiple tyrosine kinases, ...
calcium ion binding. Tyrosine-protein kinase, receptor class III, conserved site / Immunoglobulin subtype 2 / Immunoglobulin- ... positive regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity / phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding / embryonic organ ... SH2 domain / SHC Adaptor Protein / 2-Layer Sandwich / Alpha Beta. 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase ... receptor protein-tyrosine kinase / transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity / positive regulation of fibroblast ...
ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of ... Title: The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 promotes T cell adhesion by activating the adaptor protein CrkII in the immunological ... In individuals with class I 17p13.3 microduplications including CRK, we recommend biochemical evaluation of the growth hormone ... This gene encodes a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. The product of ...
NIK binds the receptor tyrosine kinase adaptor protein Nck, and Nck binds to and activates N-WASP (Rohatgi et al., 2001; Rivera ... Antarctic phosphatase. NIK. Nck-interacting kinase. NPF. nucleation promoting factor. NT. nontargeting. rArp. recombinant Arp. ... Characterization of two classes of small molecule inhibitors of Arp2/3 complex. Nature. 460:1031-1034. doi:10.1038/nature08231 ... In vitro kinase and binding assays. Kinase reactions were performed in kinase reaction buffer (25 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 1 mM DTT, ...
The physiological function of FcγR-mediated control of cytokine production is to counteract infections with various classes of ... Although their contribution has long been underexposed, it has recently become clear that human Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), ... The physiological function of FcγR-mediated control of cytokine production is to counteract infections with various classes of ... Upon IgG opsonization, pathogens are simultaneously recognized by FcγRs as well as by various pathogen-sensing receptors, ...
To inhibit SFKs, CSK is recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near ... Suppresses signaling by various surface receptors, including T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) by phosphorylating ... Phosphorylates tyrosine residues located in the C-terminal tails of Src-family kinases (SFKs) including LCK, SRC, HCK, FYN, LYN ... Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration ...
  • These subunits are moreover composed of an accessory signaling molecule such as CD3ζ, the γc chain, or one of two adaptor proteins called DAP10 and DAP12. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, CD94/NKG2C consists in a complex formed by the CD94 protein, which is a C-type lectin molecule bonded to the NKG2C protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule can bind to five classes of NKG2 (A, B, C, E and H), but the union can trigger an activation or an inhibition response, depending on the NKG2 molecule (CD94/NKG2A, for example, is an inhibitor complex). (wikipedia.org)
  • In natural killer (NK) and T cells, DAP10 was identified as a cell surface adaptor protein in an activating receptor complex with NKG2D, a receptor for the stress-inducible and tumor-associated major histocompatibility complex molecule MICA. (sciencemag.org)
  • i) Internalin A binds to the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, resulting in the initial penetration of intestinal tissue ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The genetic linkage of RA to an MHC class II molecule (HLA-DR) and the infiltration of T cells into the synovium of RA joints suggest that T cells are involved in the abnormal immune responses associated with RA ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Analyses of the K/BxN TCR transgenic mouse showed that an autoantibody specific to a ubiquitous molecule can induce an organ-specific autoimmune disease ( 2 , 6 , 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • 8. Specially modified lipids, called phospholipids (lipids with a phosphate group and another associated moiety, i.e. an inositol molecule) are one class of phospholipids found in cellular membranes. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Microarray data showed HACS1 expression is up-regulated in activated human B cells treated with interleukin (IL)-4, CD40L, and anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)M and clustered with genes involved in signaling, including TNF receptor-associated protein 1 , signaling lymphocytic activation molecule , IL-6 , and DEC205 . (rupress.org)
  • HACS1 associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins after B cell activation and binds in vitro to the inhibitory molecule paired Ig-like receptor B. Overexpression of HACS1 in murine spleen B cells resulted in a down-regulation of the activation marker CD23 and enhancement of CD138 expression, IgM secretion, and Xbp-1 expression. (rupress.org)
  • The encoded protein is synthesized as a large precursor molecule that is proteolytically cleaved to generate the 53-amino acid epidermal growth factor peptide. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In immunohistochemistry assays, we studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7.5 mg/kg i.p.)-induced changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, astrocyte marker) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1, microglia marker) expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of mice with transgenic PTN overexpression in the brain (PTN-Tg) and in wild-type (WT) mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2003. Dual Functional Roles for the X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Gene Product SAP/SH2D1A in Signaling through the Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) Family of Immune Receptors. (uwo.ca)
  • Additionally, CD4 + T-cell clones from patients but not those from controls acquired de novo expression of the DAP12 molecule, an adapter chain that transmits CD158j-derived signals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we look at DNA, the molecule which contains the instructions for making each living creature. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • [2] However, it is not until 1977 that papers start to appear with the specific term "signal transduction" within their abstract, and 1979 before this specific term appears within a paper title. (chemeurope.com)
  • They also suggest that clozapine requires activation of ERK 1/2 signaling via positive modulation between the phospho-PKCδ and GPx-1 genes to restore cognitive function. (springer.com)
  • There are three vertebrate trk genes, which generate full-length and truncated receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The exact size of the GPCR superfamily is unknown, but at least 831 different human genes (or ~ 4% of the entire protein-coding genome ) have been predicted to code for them from genome sequence analysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest class by far is class A, which accounts for nearly 85% of the GPCR genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • HACS1 is an adaptor protein identified in our transcriptional study of genes expressed in multiple myeloma ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • cascades was However differ ligase compartments by which proteins contain needed up by transporters and methylated also, transient coupling with study( reduced for mental Activation within a dehydrogenase), and some of the solute genes in the oxidation of bound receptors and endosome diseases of response. (evakoch.com)
  • Akt activation is reduced in the PD brain, and by many PD-causing genes, including PINK1(PTEN-induced putative kinase-1). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Of the several hundred genes differentially upregulated in exhausted CD8 + T cells, some are inhibitory receptors, such as CTLA-4, LAG-3, and PD-1. (asm.org)
  • 2003. Genes, environment and Oji-Cree type 2 diabetes. (uwo.ca)
  • At a fundamental level, the identity of a given class of neuron is defined by a unique combination of these genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 13 genes encoded within the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) on chromosome 19q13.4 14-16 and are expressed on NK cells and infrequently on CD8 + T cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cluster 2: late ATM [GeneID=dependent genes induced by ionizing radiation treatment. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Computational analysis identified significant enrichment of the binding site signatures of NF-kappaB and p53 among promoters of these genes, pointing to the major role of these two transcription factors in mediating the Atm-dependent transcriptional response in the irradiated lymphoid tissue. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Many, but not all, steroids have receptors within the cytoplasm, and usually act by stimulating the binding of their receptors to the promoter region of steroid-responsive genes. (chemeurope.com)
  • activity and phosphatidylglycerol buildup through hydrophilic tRNAs and bristles that comprise 8S genes in new phosphatases for target and wild complexes. (evakoch.com)
  • Western blot analysis of Lane 1: antigen-specific peptide treated 3T3 cells, Lane 2: 3T3 cells with GAB2 (phospho Y643) polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB29244) at 1:500-1000 dilution. (abnova.com)
  • Bundling of information from multiple antigen receptor microclusters by an immunological synapse has parallels to bundling of multiple synaptic inputs into a single axonal output by neurons, allowing integration and coincidence detection. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, IL-6 is required for experimentally induced autoimmune diseases or autoimmunity, including type II collagen- and antigen-induced arthritis ( 18 - 20 ), myelin oligodendrocyte protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ( 21 , 22 ), and pristane-induced autoantibody production ( 23 ). (rupress.org)
  • This complex participates in T-cell activation upon the presentation of the antigen peptide (derived from the foreign antigen) bound to the MHC (Class I and Class II) residing on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • CD28 ligation by B7-1 or B7-2 helps in bringing the T-Cell and Antigen Presenting Cell membranes into close proximity. (wikipathways.org)
  • Co-ligation of FcγRIIb with the antigen receptor in B cells (BCR) leads to decreased cellular activation. (asmscience.org)
  • RNAs induced by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 in lymphoblastoid cell lines. (spotidoc.com)
  • KARs and KIRs can only do their function in presence of immunoreceptors that contain tyrosine and have an activator or inhibitor function (they are called ITAMs and ITIMs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The two other classes are: Natural Killer Group 2 (NKG2), which includes activation and inhibition receptors (in this article, we will only describe NKG2 with an activator role), and some KIRs which, exceptionally, don't have an inhibitor role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear factor-κB and activator protein 1 are relatively well-studied redox-sensitive transcription factors involved in the various aspects of the cardiovascular disease process. (ahajournals.org)
  • The adaptor DOK2 associates with the GTPase-activating protein RAS p21 protein activator 1 ( p120GAP ) that reinforces intrinsic GTPase activity of H-Ras, thereby inactivating H-Ras . (bio-rad.com)
  • These activated PTKs induce tyrosine phosphorylation of several polypeptides, including the transmembrane adaptor LAT (Linker Activator for T-Cells). (wikipathways.org)
  • This study demonstrates a new role for PINK1 as a primary upstream activator of Akt via PINK1 kinase-dependent regulation of its primary activator PI(3,4,5)P, providing novel mechanistic information on how loss of PINK1 impairs Akt signalling in PD. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • In unprimed cells, the major GPCR-triggered activator of Ras is the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 4 (RasGRP4). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Protein interactions are essential for most cellular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interactions mediated by domains that appear in a large number of proteins are of particular interest since they are expected to have an impact on diversities of cellular processes such as signal transduction and immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Selective protein-protein interactions are important for many cellular functions and are often mediated by short regions, but such regions are difficult to identify because of their short lengths and degenerate sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review highlights the recent findings on beneficial effects of flavonoids in the management of diabetes with particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the role of these compounds in modulating glucose transporter proteins at cellular and molecular level. (ijbs.com)
  • a form of synaptic plasticity), isolated the CA1 region, and then performed both a proteomic analysis and a protein-protein interaction analysis of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a cellular compartment containing more than 1500 proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • These activity-dependent changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission of excitatory synapses are believed to represent cellular processes underlying learning and memory ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It is able to execute its myriad cellular operations via a host of effectors, including direct substrates such as tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and the forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Influence extends to a host of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins, such as the Bcl-2 family member Bad, limiting programmed cell death and boosting cellular survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2. The cytoplasm, which is the medium in which all of the organelles and other cellular machinery resides, is reinforced by a protein-based cytoskeleton. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) family and plays a critical role in a wide variety of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis ( 33 - 35 , 38 , 42 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Proteins whose cellular or extracellular roles have a strong structural component are composed primarily of primary and second structure, with little folding of the chains. (libretexts.org)
  • The ATM protein kinase, functionally missing in patients with the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia, is a master regulator of the cellular network induced by DNA double-strand breaks. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • This feature of proteins is crucial for a variety of biological processes from protein degradation to protein sorting for specific cellular compartments. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • However, it is also noteworthy that the cilium is a semi-isolated cellular compartment with restricted protein trafficking, diffusion, and membrane lipid composition. (rupress.org)
  • however, this method is limited by the need for a relatively large sample size for detection of several cellular proteins in a test sample. (google.com)
  • Aberrant modification of cellular proteins (e.g., aberrant glycosylation or phosphorylation) is a feature of many diseases. (google.com)
  • NIK is the first kinase shown to phosphorylate and increase the activity of the Arp2/3 complex, and our findings suggest that it integrates growth factor regulation of actin filament dynamics. (rupress.org)
  • HB-EGF is synthesized as a type-1 transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a soluble 14- to 20-kDa growth factor via ectodomain shedding, 7 8 9 which has emerged as an important posttranslational mechanism to regulate the functions of various membrane proteins. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD36, a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein belonging to the class B scavenger receptor family, is expressed by several cell types such as adipocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, as well as endothelial and myeloid cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The transmembrane protein Tim-3 has been shown to negatively regulate T-cell-dependent immune responses and was recently demonstrated to be associated with the phenomenon of immune exhaustion, which can occur as a consequence of chronic viral infection. (asm.org)
  • Several tyrosine phosphatases have been identified that modulate ITAM-mediated responses. (asmscience.org)
  • In the search for validation of new biomarkers and for the development of new drugs that could modulate the inflammatory processes underlying these and other diseases of the CNS [ 13 ], our strategy was to identify proteins with known regulatory functions in inflammation, whose levels of expression are upregulated after amphetamine administrations and in the neurodegenerative areas of the brain of PD patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that cytosolic proteins that bind to the intracellular tail of APP may modulate APP/AID functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IRS-1), which in turn recruits passive enzymes and by various mechanisms (i.e. bringing all subunits together, localizing other proteins that activate the enzyme, etc), makes them active. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • The GP precursor is post-translationally cleaved by the pro-protein convertase furin within the Golgi compartment of virus-producer cells, yielding two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and GP2 [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • There are many different α subunits (and a few βγ subunits), which interact with different receptors and different effectors. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • These include the membrane-bound tyrosine phosphatase CD45 and SHP-1/ SHP-2. (asmscience.org)
  • A soluble form of ACE (soluble or plasma ACE), which is derived from the membrane-bound form through the action of the ACE secretase, is also present in serum and other body fluids. (ahajournals.org)
  • APP is cleaved by β-secretase, [ 3 ] releasing the ectodomain (sAPPβ), while the COOH-terminal fragment of 99 amino acids (C99) remains membrane bound. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternatively, α-secretase cleaves APP in the Aβ sequence into sAPPα and the membrane bound COOH-terminal fragment of 83 amino acids (C83), which is also cleaved by γ-secretase into P3 (the COOH-terminal Aβ segment) and AID. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intracellular region of APP is a target for caspases, which cut APP between Asp-664 and Ser-665 [ 4 - 6 ] (all numbering is according to the APP695 neuronal isoform) releasing the COOH-terminal 31 amino acids of APP (C31) and the membrane bound APPΔC31. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like other growth factors, insulin uses phosphorylation and the resultant protein-protein interactions as essential tools to transmit and compartmentalize its signal. (jci.org)
  • Protein phosphorylation is also required for more advanced functions in higher eukaryotes such as cell, organ, and limb differentiation, cell survival, synaptic transmission, cell-substratum and cell-cell communication, and to mediate complex interactions with the external environment. (pnas.org)
  • GW domains of soluble InlB interact with glycosaminoglycans ( 7 ) and the complement receptor qC1q-R ( 8 ) on the host cell surface, although these interactions seem to be dispensable for the process of listerial invasion. (mcponline.org)
  • The C terminals of TNFR1, TRADD, FADD, and RIP all carry a discrete region termed the "death domain," which is composed of six continuous α-helical bundles and responsible for homotypic interactions among these four proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • SOCS-1 was originally identified as an inhibitor of interleukin-6 signal transduction and is a member of a family of proteins (SOCS-1 to SOCS-7 and CIS) that contain an SH2 domain and a conserved carboxyl-terminal SOCS box motif. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Although the conserved SOCS box motif appeared to be dispensable for SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 action when overexpressed, this domain interacts with elongin proteins and may be important in regulating protein turnover. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Structurally, the SOCS proteins are composed of an N-terminal region of variable length and amino acid composition, a central SH2 domain, and a previously unrecognized C-terminal motif that we have called the SOCS box. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • By using the SOCS box amino acid sequence consensus, we have searched DNA databases and have identified a further 16 proteins that contain this motif. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Because of overlapping specificities amongst SH2 domains, it is unlikely to be clear which proteins bind to a new pTyr candidate SH2-binding motif. (eu.org)
  • Sequences of ARF-GAP domains show no recognizable similarity to those of other GAPs, and contain a characteristic Cys-X(2)-Cys-X(16-17)-Cys-X(2)-Cys motif. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The invention provides a method for determining an amino acid sequence motif for a phosphorylation site of a protein kinase. (patentgenius.com)
  • Other Class IIC SH2 domains such as CBL have a shallower hydrophobic groove that preferentially accommodates a Pro residue at +4 ( Kaneko,2010 ), and are not included in the current motif definition. (eu.org)
  • Arp2/3 complex binding to nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) such as N-WASP was previously thought to be sufficient to increase nucleating activity ( Welch and Mullins, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
  • 2002. Functional promoter polymorphism in SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). (uwo.ca)
  • Calpain-2, but not calpain-1, treatment of brain homogenates resulted in PTEN degradation. (jneurosci.org)
  • One common designMechanical literature is heterotetrameric PTEN rearrangement of receptor-expressing environment syndromes which have in delayed polymerization. (evakoch.com)
  • We performed a high-throughput in silico screen for small-molecular-weight compounds that bind the catalytic site of Shp2. (pnas.org)
  • We have identified the phenylhydrazonopyrazolone sulfonate PHPS1 as a potent and cell-permeable inhibitor, which is specific for Shp2 over the closely related tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and PTP1B. (pnas.org)
  • The PHPS compound class is therefore suitable for further development of therapeutics for the treatment of Shp2-dependent diseases. (pnas.org)
  • The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 (PTPN11) is mutated in human disease. (pnas.org)
  • The presence of activated or up-regulated Shp2 protein ( 5 ) in human cancers and other disease makes Shp2 an excellent target for generating interfering substances ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Upon IgG opsonization, pathogens are simultaneously recognized by FcγRs as well as by various pathogen-sensing receptors, leading to the induction of pathogen class-specific immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration and immune response. (uniprot.org)
  • Key words: self-tolerance, T cell receptor, B cell receptor, autoimmunopathogenesis, apoptosis Introduction T lymphocytes are credited with determining the functional outcome of immune responses and form important components of the adaptive immune system. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Similarly, the immune response is a relay race against the pathogen in which the baton is passed from innate to adaptive immune cells (Figure 2 ). (jci.org)
  • In the present work, we have explored whether PTN modulates neuroinflammation and if Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), crucial in the initiation of an immune response, is involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This cDNA encodes DAP10, a type I membrane protein of 93 amino acids ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) are produced as precursor proteins (pro-neurotrophins) that are cleaved to mature proteins of 118-120 amino acids that associate as non-covalent homodimers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, an NH 2 -terminal splice variant, SAMSN1 , encodes a 373-amino acid protein that preserves both the SH3 and SAM domains. (rupress.org)
  • The orthologous murine Hacs1/Samsn1 encodes a highly conserved protein (87%) of 364 amino acids. (rupress.org)
  • The fibrous proteins have some commonality of amino acid sequence. (libretexts.org)
  • 1985) "An Active Twenty-Amino-Acid-Residue Peptide Derived From the Inhibitor Protein of the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" Biochem J. 231:655-661. (patentgenius.com)