Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.
Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
Loss of sensitivity to sounds as a result of auditory stimulation, manifesting as a temporary shift in auditory threshold. The temporary threshold shift, TTS, is expressed in decibels.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
The ability to differentiate tones.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.
Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.

Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (1/1528)

We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences.  (+info)

A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise. (2/1528)

To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body.  (+info)

Inhalation exposure of animals. (3/1528)

Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed.  (+info)

Expiratory time determined by individual anxiety levels in humans. (4/1528)

We have previously found that individual anxiety levels influence respiratory rates in physical load and mental stress (Y. Masaoka and I. Homma. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 27: 153-159, 1997). On the basis of that study, in the present study we investigated the metabolic outputs during tests and analyzed the respiratory timing relationship between inspiration and expiration, taking into account individual anxiety levels. Disregarding anxiety levels, there were correlations between O2 consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) and between VO2 and tidal volume in the physical load test, but no correlations were observed in the noxious audio stimulation test. There was a volume-based increase in respiratory patterns in physical load; however, VE increased not only for the adjustment of metabolic needs but also for individual mental factors; anxiety participated in this increase. In the high-anxiety group, the VE-to-VO2 ratio, indicating ventilatory efficiency, increased in both tests. In the high-anxiety group, increases in respiratory rate contributed to a VE increase, and there were negative correlations between expiratory time and anxiety scores in both tests. In an awake state, the higher neural structure may dominantly affect the mechanism of respiratory rhythm generation. We focus on the relationship between expiratory time and anxiety and show diagrams of respiratory output, allowing for individual personality.  (+info)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the Cat. (5/1528)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the cat. Mimimum detectable gaps in noise in humans are independent of the position of the gap, whereas in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) they are position dependent. The position dependence in other cortical areas is not known and may resolve this contrast. This study presents minimum detectable gap-in-noise values for which single-unit (SU), multiunit (MU) recordings and local field potentials (LFPs) show an onset response to the noise after the gap. The gap, which varied in duration between 5 and 70 ms, was preceded by a noise burst of either 5 ms (early gap) or 500 ms (late gap) duration. In 10 cats, simultaneous recordings were made with one electrode each in AI, anterior auditory field (AAF), and secondary auditory cortex (AII). In nine additional cats, two electrodes were inserted in AI and one in AAF. Minimum detectable gaps based on SU, MU, or LFP data in each cortical area were the same. In addition, very similar minimum early-gap values were found in all three areas (means, 36.1-41.7 ms). The minimum late-gap values were also similar in AI and AII (means, 11.1 and 11.7 ms), whereas AAF showed significantly larger minimum late-gap durations (mean 21.5 ms). For intensities >35 dB SPL, distributions of minimum early-gap durations in AAF and AII had modal values at approximately 45 ms. In AI, the distribution was more uniform. Distributions for minimum late-gap duration were skewed toward low values (mode at 5 ms), but high values (+info)

Comparison of four methods for assessing airway sealing pressure with the laryngeal mask airway in adult patients. (6/1528)

We have compared four tests for assessing airway sealing pressure with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) to test the hypothesis that airway sealing pressure and inter-observer reliability differ between tests. We studied 80 paralysed, anaesthetized adult patients. Four different airway sealing pressure tests were performed in random order on each patient by two observers blinded to each other's measurements: test 1 involved detection of an audible noise; test 2 was detection of end-tidal carbon dioxide in the oral cavity; test 3 was observation of the aneroid manometer dial as the pressure increased to note the airway pressure at which the dial reached stability; and test 4 was detection of an audible noise by neck auscultation. Mean airway sealing pressure ranged from 19.5 to 21.3 cm H2O and intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.95-0.99. Inter-observer reliability of all tests was classed as excellent. The manometric stability test had a higher mean airway sealing pressure (P < 0.0001) and better inter-observer reliability (P < 0.0001) compared with the three other tests. We conclude that for clinical purposes all four tests are excellent, but that the manometric stability test may be more appropriate for researchers comparing airway sealing pressures.  (+info)

The supporting-cell antigen: a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in the sensory epithelia of the avian inner ear. (7/1528)

After noise- or drug-induced hair-cell loss, the sensory epithelia of the avian inner ear can regenerate new hair cells. Few molecular markers are available for the supporting-cell precursors of the hair cells that regenerate, and little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this regenerative response. Hybridoma methodology was used to obtain a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that stains the apical surface of supporting cells in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The mAb recognizes the supporting-cell antigen (SCA), a protein that is also found on the apical surfaces of retinal Muller cells, renal tubule cells, and intestinal brush border cells. Expression screening and molecular cloning reveal that the SCA is a novel receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP), sharing similarity with human density-enhanced phosphatase, an RPTP thought to have a role in the density-dependent arrest of cell growth. In response to hair-cell damage induced by noise in vivo or hair-cell loss caused by ototoxic drug treatment in vitro, some supporting cells show a dramatic decrease in SCA expression levels on their apical surface. This decrease occurs before supporting cells are known to first enter S-phase after trauma, indicating that it may be a primary rather than a secondary response to injury. These results indicate that the SCA is a signaling molecule that may influence the potential of nonsensory supporting cells to either proliferate or differentiate into hair cells.  (+info)

Influence of head position on the spatial representation of acoustic targets. (8/1528)

Sound localization in humans relies on binaural differences (azimuth cues) and monaural spectral shape information (elevation cues) and is therefore the result of a neural computational process. Despite the fact that these acoustic cues are referenced with respect to the head, accurate eye movements can be generated to sounds in complete darkness. This ability necessitates the use of eye position information. So far, however, sound localization has been investigated mainly with a fixed head position, usually straight ahead. Yet the auditory system may rely on head motor information to maintain a stable and spatially accurate representation of acoustic targets in the presence of head movements. We therefore studied the influence of changes in eye-head position on auditory-guided orienting behavior of human subjects. In the first experiment, we used a visual-auditory double-step paradigm. Subjects made saccadic gaze shifts in total darkness toward brief broadband sounds presented before an intervening eye-head movement that was evoked by an earlier visual target. The data show that the preceding displacements of both eye and head are fully accounted for, resulting in spatially accurate responses. This suggests that auditory target information may be transformed into a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. To further investigate this possibility, we exploited the unique property of the auditory system that sound elevation is extracted independently from pinna-related spectral cues. In the absence of such cues, accurate elevation detection is not possible, even when head movements are made. This is shown in a second experiment where pure tones were localized at a fixed elevation that depended on the tone frequency rather than on the actual target elevation, both under head-fixed and -free conditions. To test, in a third experiment, whether the perceived elevation of tones relies on a head- or space-fixed target representation, eye movements were elicited toward pure tones while subjects kept their head in different vertical positions. It appeared that each tone was localized at a fixed, frequency-dependent elevation in space that shifted to a limited extent with changes in head elevation. Hence information about head position is used under static conditions too. Interestingly, the influence of head position also depended on the tone frequency. Thus tone-evoked ocular saccades typically showed a partial compensation for changes in static head position, whereas noise-evoked eye-head saccades fully compensated for intervening changes in eye-head position. We propose that the auditory localization system combines the acoustic input with head-position information to encode targets in a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. In this way, accurate orienting responses may be programmed despite intervening eye-head movements. A conceptual model, based on the tonotopic organization of the auditory system, is presented that may account for our findings.  (+info)

In the context of medicine, particularly in audiology and otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat specialty), "noise" is defined as unwanted or disturbing sound in the environment that can interfere with communication, rest, sleep, or cognitive tasks. It can also refer to sounds that are harmful to hearing, such as loud machinery noises or music, which can cause noise-induced hearing loss if exposure is prolonged or at high enough levels.

In some medical contexts, "noise" may also refer to non-specific signals or interfering factors in diagnostic tests and measurements that can make it difficult to interpret results accurately.

Occupational noise is defined as exposure to excessive or harmful levels of sound in the workplace that has the potential to cause adverse health effects such as hearing loss, tinnitus, and stress-related symptoms. The measurement of occupational noise is typically expressed in units of decibels (dB), and the permissible exposure limits are regulated by organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States.

Exposure to high levels of occupational noise can lead to permanent hearing loss, which is often irreversible. It can also interfere with communication and concentration, leading to decreased productivity and increased risk of accidents. Therefore, it is essential to implement appropriate measures to control and reduce occupational noise exposure in the workplace.

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a type of sensorineural hearing loss that occurs due to exposure to harmful levels of noise. The damage can be caused by a one-time exposure to an extremely loud sound or by continuous exposure to lower level sounds over time. NIHL can affect people of all ages and can cause permanent damage to the hair cells in the cochlea, leading to hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments. Prevention measures include avoiding excessive noise exposure, wearing hearing protection, and taking regular breaks from noisy activities.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in various medical fields, particularly in diagnostic imaging and telemedicine. It is a measure from signal processing that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

In the context of medical imaging (like MRI, CT scans, or ultrasound), a higher SNR means that the useful information (the signal) is stronger relative to the irrelevant and distracting data (the noise). This results in clearer, more detailed, and more accurate images, which can significantly improve diagnostic precision.

In telemedicine and remote patient monitoring, SNR is crucial for ensuring high-quality audio and video communication between healthcare providers and patients. A good SNR ensures that the transmitted data (voice or image) is received with minimal interference or distortion, enabling effective virtual consultations and diagnoses.

Ear protective devices are types of personal protective equipment designed to protect the ears from potential damage or injury caused by excessive noise or pressure changes. These devices typically come in two main forms: earplugs and earmuffs.

Earplugs are small disposable or reusable plugs that are inserted into the ear canal to block out or reduce loud noises. They can be made of foam, rubber, plastic, or other materials and are available in different sizes to fit various ear shapes and sizes.

Earmuffs, on the other hand, are headbands with cups that cover the entire outer ear. The cups are typically made of sound-absorbing materials such as foam or fluid-filled cushions that help to block out noise. Earmuffs can be used in combination with earplugs for added protection.

Both earplugs and earmuffs are commonly used in industrial settings, construction sites, concerts, shooting ranges, and other noisy environments to prevent hearing loss or damage. It is important to choose the right type of ear protective device based on the level and type of noise exposure, as well as individual comfort and fit.

The auditory threshold is the minimum sound intensity or loudness level that a person can detect 50% of the time, for a given tone frequency. It is typically measured in decibels (dB) and represents the quietest sound that a person can hear. The auditory threshold can be affected by various factors such as age, exposure to noise, and certain medical conditions. Hearing tests, such as pure-tone audiometry, are used to measure an individual's auditory thresholds for different frequencies.

An "aircraft" is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe any vehicle or machine designed to be powered and operated in the air. This includes fixed-wing aircraft such as airplanes and gliders, as well as rotary-wing aircraft such as helicopters and autogyros.

However, there are some medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to safely operate an aircraft, such as certain cardiovascular or neurological disorders. In these cases, the individual may be required to undergo medical evaluation and obtain clearance from aviation medical examiners before they are allowed to fly.

Additionally, there are some medical devices and equipment that are used in aircraft, such as oxygen systems and medical evacuation equipment. These may be used to provide medical care to passengers or crew members during flight.

Perceptual masking, also known as sensory masking or just masking, is a concept in sensory perception that refers to the interference in the ability to detect or recognize a stimulus (the target) due to the presence of another stimulus (the mask). This phenomenon can occur across different senses, including audition and vision.

In the context of hearing, perceptual masking occurs when one sound (the masker) makes it difficult to hear another sound (the target) because the two sounds are presented simultaneously or in close proximity to each other. The masker can make the target sound less detectable, harder to identify, or even completely inaudible.

There are different types of perceptual masking, including:

1. Simultaneous Masking: When the masker and target sounds occur at the same time.
2. Temporal Masking: When the masker sound precedes or follows the target sound by a short period. This type of masking can be further divided into forward masking (when the masker comes before the target) and backward masking (when the masker comes after the target).
3. Informational Masking: A more complex form of masking that occurs when the listener's cognitive processes, such as attention or memory, are affected by the presence of the masker sound. This type of masking can make it difficult to understand speech in noisy environments, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is favorable.

Perceptual masking has important implications for understanding and addressing hearing difficulties, particularly in situations with background noise or multiple sounds occurring simultaneously.

An artifact, in the context of medical terminology, refers to something that is created or introduced during a scientific procedure or examination that does not naturally occur in the patient or specimen being studied. Artifacts can take many forms and can be caused by various factors, including contamination, damage, degradation, or interference from equipment or external sources.

In medical imaging, for example, an artifact might appear as a distortion or anomaly on an X-ray, MRI, or CT scan that is not actually present in the patient's body. This can be caused by factors such as patient movement during the scan, metal implants or other foreign objects in the body, or issues with the imaging equipment itself.

Similarly, in laboratory testing, an artifact might refer to a substance or characteristic that is introduced into a sample during collection, storage, or analysis that can interfere with accurate results. This could include things like contamination from other samples, degradation of the sample over time, or interference from chemicals used in the testing process.

In general, artifacts are considered to be sources of error or uncertainty in medical research and diagnosis, and it is important to identify and account for them in order to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Sound spectrography, also known as voice spectrography, is a diagnostic procedure in which a person's speech sounds are analyzed and displayed as a visual pattern called a spectrogram. This test is used to evaluate voice disorders, speech disorders, and hearing problems. It can help identify patterns of sound production and reveal any abnormalities in the vocal tract or hearing mechanism.

During the test, a person is asked to produce specific sounds or sentences, which are then recorded and analyzed by a computer program. The program breaks down the sound waves into their individual frequencies and amplitudes, and displays them as a series of horizontal lines on a graph. The resulting spectrogram shows how the frequencies and amplitudes change over time, providing valuable information about the person's speech patterns and any underlying problems.

Sound spectrography is a useful tool for diagnosing and treating voice and speech disorders, as well as for researching the acoustic properties of human speech. It can also be used to evaluate hearing aids and other assistive listening devices, and to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for hearing loss and other auditory disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stochastic Processes" is actually a term from the field of mathematics, specifically probability theory and statistics. It doesn't have a direct medical definition.

However, to provide some context that might be relevant if you're studying a medical field with a strong statistical component: A stochastic process is a mathematical model used to describe random systems that evolve over time. It consists of a set of random variables indexed by time or some other parameter. The values of these variables at different times or parameters are not independent, but rather depend on each other in ways described by probability distributions.

In medical research, stochastic processes might be used to model the spread of a disease through a population over time, or the changing health status of an individual patient over the course of their treatment. However, it's important to note that this is a high-level overview and the specific use of stochastic processes in medical research would depend on the particular application.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "railroads" is not a term that has a widely accepted medical definition. It is most commonly associated with the transportation industry, referring to networks of railroad tracks and the companies that operate them. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to try to help clarify that for you.

Audiometry is the testing of a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is typically conducted using an audiometer, a device that emits tones at varying volumes and frequencies. The person being tested wears headphones and indicates when they can hear the tone by pressing a button or raising their hand.

There are two main types of audiometry: pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry. Pure-tone audiometry measures a person's ability to hear different frequencies at varying volumes, while speech audiometry measures a person's ability to understand spoken words at different volumes and in the presence of background noise.

The results of an audiometry test are typically plotted on an audiogram, which shows the quietest sounds that a person can hear at different frequencies. This information can be used to diagnose hearing loss, determine its cause, and develop a treatment plan.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Psychoacoustics is a branch of psychophysics that deals with the study of the psychological and physiological responses to sound. It involves understanding how people perceive, interpret, and react to different sounds, including speech, music, and environmental noises. This field combines knowledge from various areas such as psychology, acoustics, physics, and engineering to investigate the relationship between physical sound characteristics and human perception. Research in psychoacoustics has applications in fields like hearing aid design, noise control, music perception, and communication systems.

Speech perception is the process by which the brain interprets and understands spoken language. It involves recognizing and discriminating speech sounds (phonemes), organizing them into words, and attaching meaning to those words in order to comprehend spoken language. This process requires the integration of auditory information with prior knowledge and context. Factors such as hearing ability, cognitive function, and language experience can all impact speech perception.

Pure-tone audiometry is a hearing test that measures a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. During the test, pure tones are presented to the patient through headphones or ear inserts, and the patient is asked to indicate each time they hear the sound by raising their hand, pressing a button, or responding verbally.

The softest sound that the person can hear at each frequency is recorded as the hearing threshold, and a graph called an audiogram is created to show the results. The audiogram provides information about the type and degree of hearing loss in each ear. Pure-tone audiometry is a standard hearing test used to diagnose and monitor hearing disorders.

Auditory perception refers to the process by which the brain interprets and makes sense of the sounds we hear. It involves the recognition and interpretation of different frequencies, intensities, and patterns of sound waves that reach our ears through the process of hearing. This allows us to identify and distinguish various sounds such as speech, music, and environmental noises.

The auditory system includes the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and the auditory nerve, which transmits electrical signals to the brain's auditory cortex for processing and interpretation. Auditory perception is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain working together to identify and make sense of sounds in our environment.

Disorders or impairments in auditory perception can result in difficulties with hearing, understanding speech, and identifying environmental sounds, which can significantly impact communication, learning, and daily functioning.

In psychology, Signal Detection Theory (SDT) is a framework used to understand the ability to detect the presence or absence of a signal (such as a stimulus or event) in the presence of noise or uncertainty. It is often applied in sensory perception research, such as hearing and vision, where it helps to separate an observer's sensitivity to the signal from their response bias.

SDT involves measuring both hits (correct detections of the signal) and false alarms (incorrect detections when no signal is present). These measures are then used to calculate measures such as d', which reflects the observer's ability to discriminate between the signal and noise, and criterion (C), which reflects the observer's response bias.

SDT has been applied in various fields of psychology, including cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience, to study decision-making, memory, attention, and perception. It is a valuable tool for understanding how people make decisions under uncertainty and how they trade off accuracy and caution in their responses.

Hearing is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations in the air or other mediums and translating them into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for interpretation. In medical terms, hearing is defined as the sense of sound perception, which is mediated by the ear and interpreted by the brain. It involves a complex series of processes, including the conduction of sound waves through the outer ear to the eardrum, the vibration of the middle ear bones, and the movement of fluid in the inner ear, which stimulates hair cells to send electrical signals to the auditory nerve and ultimately to the brain. Hearing allows us to communicate with others, appreciate music and sounds, and detect danger or important events in our environment.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Loudness perception refers to the subjective experience of the intensity or volume of a sound, which is a psychological response to the physical property of sound pressure level. It is a measure of how loud or soft a sound seems to an individual, and it can be influenced by various factors such as frequency, duration, and the context in which the sound is heard.

The perception of loudness is closely related to the concept of sound intensity, which is typically measured in decibels (dB). However, while sound intensity is an objective physical measurement, loudness is a subjective experience that can vary between individuals and even for the same individual under different listening conditions.

Loudness perception is a complex process that involves several stages of auditory processing, including mechanical transduction of sound waves by the ear, neural encoding of sound information in the auditory nerve, and higher-level cognitive processes that interpret and modulate the perceived loudness of sounds. Understanding the mechanisms underlying loudness perception is important for developing hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices, as well as for diagnosing and treating various hearing disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motor Vehicles" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It is a general term used to describe vehicles that are powered by a motor or engine and are designed for land transportation. This would include cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses, and other similar types of vehicles.

However, in a legal context, a "motor vehicle" may have a specific definition that varies by jurisdiction. For example, in some places, the definition might only include vehicles that are intended for use on public roads, excluding things like golf carts or construction equipment.

If you're looking for a medical term related to motor vehicles, there are many that could apply, such as "motor vehicle accident," "whiplash injury," or "traumatic brain injury due to motor vehicle collision." But the term "motor vehicles" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Speech intelligibility is a term used in audiology and speech-language pathology to describe the ability of a listener to correctly understand spoken language. It is a measure of how well speech can be understood by others, and is often assessed through standardized tests that involve the presentation of recorded or live speech at varying levels of loudness and/or background noise.

Speech intelligibility can be affected by various factors, including hearing loss, cognitive impairment, developmental disorders, neurological conditions, and structural abnormalities of the speech production mechanism. Factors related to the speaker, such as speaking rate, clarity, and articulation, as well as factors related to the listener, such as attention, motivation, and familiarity with the speaker or accent, can also influence speech intelligibility.

Poor speech intelligibility can have significant impacts on communication, socialization, education, and employment opportunities, making it an important area of assessment and intervention in clinical practice.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question as "automobiles" is a general term used to describe wheeled motor vehicles for transportation, and it's not typically a medical term with its own specific definition. However, I can provide you with some automobile-related terms that have medical implications:

1. **Driving fitness**: This refers to the physical and mental abilities required to operate a vehicle safely. Various medical conditions or treatments can impact driving fitness, such as seizure disorders, sleep apnea, certain medications, or alcohol/substance use disorders.
2. **Driving simulator**: A device used in research and rehabilitation settings that presents a realistic driving environment for assessing and training individuals with various medical conditions or disabilities affecting their ability to drive.
3. **Adaptive automobile equipment**: Devices designed to assist people with disabilities in operating vehicles, such as hand controls, wheelchair lifts, or pedal extensions.
4. **Transportation disadvantage**: A situation where an individual's medical condition, disability, or lack of access to suitable transportation limits their ability to obtain necessary healthcare services.
5. **Motor vehicle crash (MVC) outcomes**: Medical consequences resulting from motor vehicle crashes, including injuries and fatalities. These outcomes are often studied in public health and injury prevention research.

If you have a specific medical term or concept related to automobiles that you would like me to define or explain, please provide more details, and I will be happy to help.

Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of sound, its production, transmission, and effects. In a medical context, acoustics may refer to the use of sound waves in medical procedures such as:

1. Diagnostic ultrasound: This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs and tissues. It is commonly used during pregnancy to monitor fetal development, but it can also be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and musculoskeletal injuries.
2. Therapeutic ultrasound: This technique uses low-frequency sound waves to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation in muscles, tendons, and ligaments. It is often used to treat soft tissue injuries, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
3. Otology: Acoustics also plays a crucial role in the field of otology, which deals with the study and treatment of hearing and balance disorders. The shape, size, and movement of the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear all affect how sound waves are transmitted and perceived. Abnormalities in any of these structures can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, or balance problems.

In summary, acoustics is an important field of study in medicine that has applications in diagnosis, therapy, and the understanding of various medical conditions related to sound and hearing.

Speech Audiometry is a hearing test that measures a person's ability to understand and recognize spoken words at different volumes and frequencies. It is used to assess the function of the auditory system, particularly in cases where there is a suspected problem with speech discrimination or understanding spoken language.

The test typically involves presenting lists of words to the patient at varying intensity levels and asking them to repeat what they hear. The examiner may also present sentences with missing words that the patient must fill in. Based on the results, the audiologist can determine the quietest level at which the patient can reliably detect speech and the degree of speech discrimination ability.

Speech Audiometry is often used in conjunction with pure-tone audiometry to provide a more comprehensive assessment of hearing function. It can help identify any specific patterns of hearing loss, such as those caused by nerve damage or cochlear dysfunction, and inform decisions about treatment options, including the need for hearing aids or other assistive devices.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

Tinnitus is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present. It can be described as a sensation of hearing sound even when no actual noise is present. The sounds perceived can vary widely, from a whistling, buzzing, hissing, swooshing, to a pulsating sound, and can be soft or loud.

Tinnitus is not a disease itself but a symptom that can result from a wide range of underlying causes, such as hearing loss, exposure to loud noises, ear infections, earwax blockage, head or neck injuries, circulatory system disorders, certain medications, and age-related hearing loss.

Tinnitus can be temporary or chronic, and it may affect one or both ears. While tinnitus is not usually a sign of a serious medical condition, it can significantly impact quality of life and interfere with daily activities, sleep, and concentration.

The Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) test is a hearing assessment used to estimate the softest speech level, typically expressed in decibels (dB), at which a person can reliably detect and repeat back spoken words or sentences. It measures the listener's ability to understand speech in quiet environments and serves as an essential component of a comprehensive audiological evaluation.

During the SRT test, the examiner presents a list of phonetically balanced words or sentences at varying intensity levels, usually through headphones or insert earphones. The patient is then asked to repeat each word or sentence back to the examiner. The intensity level is decreased gradually until the patient can no longer accurately identify the presented stimuli. The softest speech level where the patient correctly repeats 50% of the words or sentences is recorded as their SRT.

The SRT test results help audiologists determine the presence and degree of hearing loss, assess the effectiveness of hearing aids, and monitor changes in hearing sensitivity over time. It is often performed alongside other tests, such as pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry, to provide a comprehensive understanding of an individual's hearing abilities.

To the best of my knowledge, "Normal Distribution" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a statistical concept that describes a distribution of data points in which the majority of the data falls around a central value, with fewer and fewer data points appearing as you move further away from the center in either direction. This type of distribution is also known as a "bell curve" because of its characteristic shape.

In medical research, normal distribution may be used to describe the distribution of various types of data, such as the results of laboratory tests or patient outcomes. For example, if a large number of people are given a particular laboratory test, their test results might form a normal distribution, with most people having results close to the average and fewer people having results that are much higher or lower than the average.

It's worth noting that in some cases, data may not follow a normal distribution, and other types of statistical analyses may be needed to accurately describe and analyze the data.

Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs or BAEPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the auditory pathway of the brain in response to sound stimulation. The test involves placing electrodes on the scalp and recording the tiny electrical signals generated by the nerve cells in the brainstem as they respond to clicks or tone bursts presented through earphones.

The resulting waveform is analyzed for latency (the time it takes for the signal to travel from the ear to the brain) and amplitude (the strength of the signal). Abnormalities in the waveform can indicate damage to the auditory nerve or brainstem, and are often used in the diagnosis of various neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, acoustic neuroma, and brainstem tumors.

The test is non-invasive, painless, and takes only a few minutes to perform. It provides valuable information about the functioning of the auditory pathway and can help guide treatment decisions for patients with hearing or balance disorders.

Psychophysics is not a medical term per se, but rather a subfield of psychology and neuroscience that studies the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce. It involves the quantitative investigation of psychological functions, such as how brightness or loudness is perceived relative to the physical intensity of light or sound.

In medical contexts, psychophysical methods may be used in research or clinical settings to understand how patients with neurological conditions or sensory impairments perceive and respond to different stimuli. This information can inform diagnostic assessments, treatment planning, and rehabilitation strategies.

The cochlea is a part of the inner ear that is responsible for hearing. It is a spiral-shaped structure that looks like a snail shell and is filled with fluid. The cochlea contains hair cells, which are specialized sensory cells that convert sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain.

The cochlea has three main parts: the vestibular canal, the tympanic canal, and the cochlear duct. Sound waves enter the inner ear and cause the fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn causes the hair cells to bend. This bending motion stimulates the hair cells to generate electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve.

The brain then interprets these signals as sound, allowing us to hear and understand speech, music, and other sounds in our environment. Damage to the hair cells or other structures in the cochlea can lead to hearing loss or deafness.

Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear sounds in one or both ears. It can occur due to damage to the structures of the ear, including the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, or nerve pathways that transmit sound to the brain. The degree of hearing loss can vary from mild (difficulty hearing soft sounds) to severe (inability to hear even loud sounds). Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent and may be caused by factors such as exposure to loud noises, genetics, aging, infections, trauma, or certain medical conditions. It is important to note that hearing loss can have significant impacts on a person's communication abilities, social interactions, and overall quality of life.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Sound localization is the ability of the auditory system to identify the location or origin of a sound source in the environment. It is a crucial aspect of hearing and enables us to navigate and interact with our surroundings effectively. The process involves several cues, including time differences in the arrival of sound to each ear (interaural time difference), differences in sound level at each ear (interaural level difference), and spectral information derived from the filtering effects of the head and external ears on incoming sounds. These cues are analyzed by the brain to determine the direction and distance of the sound source, allowing for accurate localization.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

In the context of medicine, particularly in the field of auscultation (the act of listening to the internal sounds of the body), "sound" refers to the noises produced by the functioning of the heart, lungs, and other organs. These sounds are typically categorized into two types:

1. **Bradyacoustic sounds**: These are low-pitched sounds that are heard when there is a turbulent flow of blood or when two body structures rub against each other. An example would be the heart sound known as "S1," which is produced by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the beginning of systole (contraction of the heart's ventricles).

2. **High-pitched sounds**: These are sharper, higher-frequency sounds that can provide valuable diagnostic information. An example would be lung sounds, which include breath sounds like those heard during inhalation and exhalation, as well as adventitious sounds like crackles, wheezes, and pleural friction rubs.

It's important to note that these medical "sounds" are not the same as the everyday definition of sound, which refers to the sensation produced by stimulation of the auditory system by vibrations.

Auditory pathways refer to the series of structures and nerves in the body that are involved in processing sound and transmitting it to the brain for interpretation. The process begins when sound waves enter the ear and cause vibrations in the eardrum, which then move the bones in the middle ear. These movements stimulate hair cells in the cochlea, a spiral-shaped structure in the inner ear, causing them to release neurotransmitters that activate auditory nerve fibers.

The auditory nerve carries these signals to the brainstem, where they are relayed through several additional structures before reaching the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain. Here, the signals are processed and interpreted as sounds, allowing us to hear and understand speech, music, and other environmental noises.

Damage or dysfunction at any point along the auditory pathway can lead to hearing loss or impairment.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Speech acoustics is a subfield of acoustic phonetics that deals with the physical properties of speech sounds, such as frequency, amplitude, and duration. It involves the study of how these properties are produced by the vocal tract and perceived by the human ear. Speech acousticians use various techniques to analyze and measure the acoustic signals produced during speech, including spectral analysis, formant tracking, and pitch extraction. This information is used in a variety of applications, such as speech recognition, speaker identification, and hearing aid design.

Cochlear implants are medical devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear to help restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. These devices bypass the damaged hair cells in the inner ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve, allowing the brain to interpret sound signals. Cochlear implants consist of two main components: an external processor that picks up and analyzes sounds from the environment, and an internal receiver/stimulator that receives the processed information and sends electrical impulses to the auditory nerve. The resulting patterns of electrical activity are then perceived as sound by the brain. Cochlear implants can significantly improve communication abilities, language development, and overall quality of life for individuals with profound hearing loss.

Dyssomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve problems with the amount, quality, or timing of sleep. They can be broken down into several subcategories, including:

1. Insomnia: This is characterized by difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances to do so. It can result in distress, impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning, and/or feelings of dissatisfaction with sleep.
2. Hypersomnias: These are disorders that involve excessive sleepiness during the day, even after having adequate opportunity for sleep. Narcolepsy is an example of a hypersomnia.
3. Sleep-related breathing disorders: These include conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, in which breathing is repeatedly interrupted during sleep, leading to poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: These involve disruptions to the body's internal clock, which can result in difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep at desired times. Jet lag and shift work disorder are examples of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders.
5. Parasomnias: These are disruptive sleep-related events that occur during various stages of sleep, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and REM sleep behavior disorder.

Dyssomnias can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical evaluation if you are experiencing symptoms. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes, medication, or other interventions depending on the specific type of dyssomnia.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain in response to sound stimuli. These tests are often used to assess hearing function and neural processing in individuals, particularly those who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests.

There are several types of AEP tests, including:

1. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) or Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the brainstem in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess the integrity of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory neuropathy and retrocochlear lesions.
2. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (MLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess higher-level auditory processing, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory processing disorders and central auditory dysfunction.
3. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a complex stimulus, such as speech. It is often used to assess language processing and cognitive function, and can help diagnose conditions such as learning disabilities and dementia.

Overall, AEP tests are valuable tools for assessing hearing and neural function in individuals who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests or who have complex neurological conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "music" is not a term that has a medical definition. Music is a form of art that uses sound organized in time. It may include elements such as melody, harmony, rhythm, and dynamics. While music can have various psychological and physiological effects on individuals, it is not considered a medical term with a specific diagnosis or treatment application. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

Hearing aids are electronic devices designed to improve hearing and speech comprehension for individuals with hearing loss. They consist of a microphone, an amplifier, a speaker, and a battery. The microphone picks up sounds from the environment, the amplifier increases the volume of these sounds, and the speaker sends the amplified sound into the ear. Modern hearing aids often include additional features such as noise reduction, directional microphones, and wireless connectivity to smartphones or other devices. They are programmed to meet the specific needs of the user's hearing loss and can be adjusted for comfort and effectiveness. Hearing aids are available in various styles, including behind-the-ear (BTE), receiver-in-canal (RIC), in-the-ear (ITE), and completely-in-canal (CIC).

Auditory fatigue, also known as temporary threshold shift, refers to a temporary decrease in hearing sensitivity that occurs after exposure to loud sounds. It is usually temporary and recovers after a period of rest and avoidance of further noise exposure. However, repeated or prolonged exposures to loud sounds can lead to permanent hearing damage or tinnitus.

The exact mechanism of auditory fatigue is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the temporary reduction in the sensitivity of hair cells in the inner ear (cochlea) that are responsible for converting sound waves into electrical signals that are sent to the brain. This reduction in sensitivity can make it difficult to hear quiet sounds and may cause sounds to seem distorted or muffled.

If you experience auditory fatigue, it is important to give your ears a rest and avoid further exposure to loud noises until your hearing returns to normal. If you are regularly exposed to loud noises as part of your job or hobbies, it is important to use appropriate hearing protection to prevent permanent damage to your hearing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Fourier Analysis is not a medical term. It is a mathematical concept used in various scientific fields, including physics, engineering, and signal processing.

Fourier Analysis is a method to decompose functions into sinusoidal components (sines and cosines) of different frequencies. This allows for the representation of a function or a signal as a sum of these frequency components. It's particularly useful in analyzing periodic functions, understanding signals, and solving partial differential equations.

If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Computer-assisted image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist healthcare professionals in analyzing and interpreting medical images. These systems use various techniques such as pattern recognition, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to help identify and highlight abnormalities or patterns within imaging data, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound images. The goal is to increase the accuracy, consistency, and efficiency of image interpretation, while also reducing the potential for human error. It's important to note that these systems are intended to assist healthcare professionals in their decision making process and not to replace them.

Speech discrimination tests are a type of audiological assessment used to measure a person's ability to understand and identify spoken words, typically presented in quiet and/or noisy backgrounds. These tests are used to evaluate the function of the peripheral and central auditory system, as well as speech perception abilities.

During the test, the individual is presented with lists of words or sentences at varying intensity levels and/or signal-to-noise ratios. The person's task is to repeat or identify the words or phrases they hear. The results of the test are used to determine the individual's speech recognition threshold (SRT), which is the softest level at which the person can correctly identify spoken words.

Speech discrimination tests can help diagnose hearing loss, central auditory processing disorders, and other communication difficulties. They can also be used to monitor changes in hearing ability over time, assess the effectiveness of hearing aids or other interventions, and develop communication strategies for individuals with hearing impairments.

Pitch perception is the ability to identify and discriminate different frequencies or musical notes. It is the way our auditory system interprets and organizes sounds based on their highness or lowness, which is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. A higher pitch corresponds to a higher frequency, while a lower pitch corresponds to a lower frequency. Pitch perception is an important aspect of hearing and is crucial for understanding speech, enjoying music, and localizing sounds in our environment. It involves complex processing in the inner ear and auditory nervous system.

High-frequency hearing loss is a type of sensorineural hearing impairment in which the ability to hear and discriminate sounds in the higher frequency range (3000 Hz or above) is diminished. This type of hearing loss can make it difficult for individuals to understand speech, especially in noisy environments, as many consonant sounds fall within this frequency range. High-frequency hearing loss can be caused by various factors including aging, exposure to loud noises, genetics, certain medical conditions, and ototoxic medications. It is typically diagnosed through a series of hearing tests, such as pure tone audiometry, and may be treated with hearing aids or other assistive listening devices.

Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are low-level sounds that are produced by the inner ear (cochlea) without any external stimulation. They can be recorded in a quiet room using specialized microphones placed inside the ear canal. SOAEs are thought to arise from the motion of the hair cells within the cochlea, which generate tiny currents in response to sound. These currents then cause the surrounding fluid and tissue to vibrate, producing sound waves that can be detected with a microphone.

SOAEs are typically present in individuals with normal hearing, although their presence or absence is not a definitive indicator of hearing ability. They tend to occur at specific frequencies and can vary from person to person. In some cases, SOAEs may be absent or reduced in individuals with hearing loss or damage to the hair cells in the cochlea.

It's worth noting that SOAEs are different from evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs), which are sounds produced by the inner ear in response to external stimuli, such as clicks or tones. Both types of otoacoustic emissions are used in hearing tests and research to assess cochlear function and health.

Pitch discrimination, in the context of audiology and neuroscience, refers to the ability to perceive and identify the difference in pitch between two or more sounds. It is the measure of how accurately an individual can distinguish between different frequencies or tones. This ability is crucial for various aspects of hearing, such as understanding speech, appreciating music, and localizing sound sources.

Pitch discrimination is typically measured using psychoacoustic tests, where a listener is presented with two sequential tones and asked to determine whether the second tone is higher or lower in pitch than the first one. The smallest detectable difference between the frequencies of these two tones is referred to as the "just noticeable difference" (JND) or the "difference limen." This value can be used to quantify an individual's pitch discrimination abilities and may vary depending on factors such as frequency, intensity, and age.

Deficits in pitch discrimination can have significant consequences for various aspects of daily life, including communication difficulties and reduced enjoyment of music. These deficits can result from damage to the auditory system due to factors like noise exposure, aging, or certain medical conditions, such as hearing loss or neurological disorders.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "hearing impairment" is defined as "hearing loss greater than 40 decibels (dB) in the better ear in adults or greater than 30 dB in children." Therefore, "Persons with hearing impairments" refers to individuals who have a significant degree of hearing loss that affects their ability to communicate and perform daily activities.

Hearing impairment can range from mild to profound and can be categorized as sensorineural (inner ear or nerve damage), conductive (middle ear problems), or mixed (a combination of both). The severity and type of hearing impairment can impact the communication methods, assistive devices, or accommodations that a person may need.

It is important to note that "hearing impairment" and "deafness" are not interchangeable terms. While deafness typically refers to a profound degree of hearing loss that significantly impacts a person's ability to communicate using sound, hearing impairment can refer to any degree of hearing loss that affects a person's ability to hear and understand speech or other sounds.

The cochlear nerve, also known as the auditory nerve, is the sensory nerve that transmits sound signals from the inner ear to the brain. It consists of two parts: the outer spiral ganglion and the inner vestibular portion. The spiral ganglion contains the cell bodies of the bipolar neurons that receive input from hair cells in the cochlea, which is the snail-shaped organ in the inner ear responsible for hearing. These neurons then send their axons to form the cochlear nerve, which travels through the internal auditory meatus and synapses with neurons in the cochlear nuclei located in the brainstem.

Damage to the cochlear nerve can result in hearing loss or deafness, depending on the severity of the injury. Common causes of cochlear nerve damage include acoustic trauma, such as exposure to loud noises, viral infections, meningitis, and tumors affecting the nerve or surrounding structures. In some cases, cochlear nerve damage may be treated with hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive devices to help restore or improve hearing function.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Industry" is a general term that refers to a specific branch of economic activity, or a particular way of producing goods or services. It is not a medical term with a defined meaning within the field of medicine.

However, if you are referring to the term "industrious," which can be used to describe someone who is diligent and hard-working, it could be applied in a medical context to describe a patient's level of engagement and effort in their own care. For example, a patient who is conscientious about taking their medications as prescribed, following through with recommended treatments, and making necessary lifestyle changes to manage their condition might be described as "industrious" by their healthcare provider.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

Electricity is not a medical term, but rather a fundamental aspect of physics and science. It refers to the form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles such as electrons or protons, either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current.

However, in the context of medical procedures and treatments, electricity is often used to stimulate nerves or muscles, destroy tissue through processes like electrocoagulation, or generate images of internal structures using methods like electrocardiography (ECG) or electroencephalography (EEG). In these cases, a clear medical definition would be:

The use of electric currents or fields in medical procedures for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "ships" is not a medical term. It is a common noun referring to large vehicles used for transportation on water. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

The correction of hearing impairment refers to the various methods and technologies used to improve or restore hearing function in individuals with hearing loss. This can include the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices. Additionally, speech therapy and auditory training may also be used to help individuals with hearing impairment better understand and communicate with others. In some cases, surgical procedures may also be performed to correct physical abnormalities in the ear or improve nerve function. The goal of correction of hearing impairment is to help individuals with hearing loss better interact with their environment and improve their overall quality of life.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A hearing test is a procedure used to evaluate a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is performed by a hearing healthcare professional in a sound-treated booth or room with calibrated audiometers. The test measures a person's hearing sensitivity at different frequencies and determines the quietest sounds they can hear, known as their hearing thresholds.

There are several types of hearing tests, including:

1. Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA): This is the most common type of hearing test, where the person is presented with pure tones at different frequencies and volumes through headphones or ear inserts. The person indicates when they hear the sound by pressing a button or raising their hand.
2. Speech Audiometry: This test measures a person's ability to understand speech at different volume levels. The person is asked to repeat words presented to them in quiet and in background noise.
3. Tympanometry: This test measures the function of the middle ear by creating variations in air pressure in the ear canal. It can help identify issues such as fluid buildup or a perforated eardrum.
4. Acoustic Reflex Testing: This test measures the body's natural response to loud sounds and can help identify the location of damage in the hearing system.
5. Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs): This test measures the sound that is produced by the inner ear when it is stimulated by a sound. It can help identify cochlear damage or abnormalities.

Hearing tests are important for diagnosing and monitoring hearing loss, as well as identifying any underlying medical conditions that may be causing the hearing problems.

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Cochlear implantation is a surgical procedure in which a device called a cochlear implant is inserted into the inner ear (cochlea) of a person with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external component, which includes a microphone, processor, and transmitter, and an internal component, which includes a receiver and electrode array.

The microphone picks up sounds from the environment and sends them to the processor, which analyzes and converts the sounds into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to the receiver, which stimulates the electrode array in the cochlea. The electrodes directly stimulate the auditory nerve fibers, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the inner ear that are responsible for normal hearing.

The brain interprets these electrical signals as sound, allowing the person to perceive and understand speech and other sounds. Cochlear implantation is typically recommended for people who do not benefit from traditional hearing aids and can significantly improve communication, quality of life, and social integration for those with severe to profound hearing loss.

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Radiographic image enhancement refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of radiographic images, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI images, through various digital techniques. These techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that can interfere with image interpretation.

The goal of radiographic image enhancement is to provide medical professionals with clearer and more detailed images, which can help in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. This process may be performed using specialized software or hardware tools, and it requires a strong understanding of imaging techniques and the specific needs of medical professionals.

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing impairment that occurs due to damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. It can be caused by various factors such as aging, exposure to loud noises, genetics, certain medical conditions (like diabetes and heart disease), and ototoxic medications.

SNHL affects the ability of the hair cells in the cochlea to convert sound waves into electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve. As a result, sounds may be perceived as muffled, faint, or distorted, making it difficult to understand speech, especially in noisy environments.

SNHL is typically permanent and cannot be corrected with medication or surgery, but hearing aids or cochlear implants can help improve communication and quality of life for those affected.

Irritable mood is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is often described as a symptom in various mental health conditions. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) does not have a specific definition for irritable mood. However, the term "irritable" is used to describe a mood state in several psychiatric disorders such as:

1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): In MDD, an individual may experience an irritable mood along with other symptoms like depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, changes in appetite and sleep, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Bipolar Disorder: In bipolar disorder, an individual may experience irritable mood during a manic or hypomanic episode. During these episodes, the person may also have increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, rapid speech, distractibility, and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences.
3. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): This disorder is characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to the situation and occur at least three times per week, along with an irritable or angry mood most of the time between temper outbursts.
4. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): In PMDD, an individual may experience irritability, anger, and increased interpersonal conflicts in addition to other symptoms like depressed mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms during the late luteal phase of their menstrual cycle.

It is essential to consult a mental health professional if you or someone else experiences persistent irritable mood or any other symptoms that may indicate an underlying mental health condition.

A "Health Facility Environment" is a term used to describe the physical surroundings, including buildings, rooms, equipment, and materials, in which healthcare is delivered. This encompasses everything from hospitals and clinics to long-term care facilities and doctors' offices. The design, construction, maintenance, and operation of these environments are critical to ensuring patient safety, preventing infection, and promoting positive health outcomes.

The term "Health Facility Environment" may also refer to the specific environmental considerations within a healthcare setting, such as air quality, water supply, temperature, lighting, and noise control. These factors can significantly impact patients' comfort, well-being, and recovery and are therefore closely monitored and regulated in health facility settings.

In addition, the "Health Facility Environment" includes measures taken to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases, such as hand hygiene practices, cleaning and disinfection protocols, and waste management procedures. Healthcare facilities must adhere to strict guidelines and regulations regarding environmental safety and infection control to protect patients, staff, and visitors from harm.

Phonetics is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of human speech. It involves the study of how these sounds are produced, transmitted, and received, as well as how they are used to convey meaning in different languages. However, there can be some overlap between phonetics and certain areas of medical research, such as speech-language pathology or audiology, which may study the production, perception, and disorders of speech sounds for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

Presbycusis is an age-related hearing loss, typically characterized by the progressive loss of sensitivity to high-frequency sounds. It's a result of natural aging of the auditory system and is often seen as a type of sensorineural hearing loss. The term comes from the Greek words "presbus" meaning old man and "akousis" meaning hearing.

This condition usually develops slowly over many years and can affect both ears equally. Presbycusis can make understanding speech, especially in noisy environments, quite challenging. It's a common condition, and its prevalence increases with age. While it's not reversible, various assistive devices like hearing aids can help manage the symptoms.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

The inferior colliculi are a pair of rounded eminences located in the midbrain, specifically in the tectum of the mesencephalon. They play a crucial role in auditory processing and integration. The inferior colliculi receive inputs from various sources, including the cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, and cortical areas. They then send their outputs to the medial geniculate body, which is a part of the thalamus that relays auditory information to the auditory cortex.

In summary, the inferior colliculi are important structures in the auditory pathway that help process and integrate auditory information before it reaches the cerebral cortex for further analysis and perception.

Visual pattern recognition is the ability to identify and interpret patterns in visual information. In a medical context, it often refers to the process by which healthcare professionals recognize and diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs or symptoms. This can involve recognizing the characteristic appearance of a rash, wound, or other physical feature associated with a particular disease or condition. It may also involve recognizing patterns in medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

In the field of radiology, for example, visual pattern recognition is a critical skill. Radiologists are trained to recognize the typical appearances of various diseases and conditions in medical images. This allows them to make accurate diagnoses based on the patterns they see. Similarly, dermatologists use visual pattern recognition to identify skin abnormalities and diseases based on the appearance of rashes, lesions, or other skin changes.

Overall, visual pattern recognition is an essential skill in many areas of medicine, allowing healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs and symptoms.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Motion perception is the ability to interpret and understand the movement of objects in our environment. It is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain and the visual system. In medical terms, motion perception refers to the specific function of the visual system to detect and analyze the movement of visual stimuli. This allows us to perceive and respond to moving objects in our environment, which is crucial for activities such as driving, sports, and even maintaining balance. Disorders in motion perception can lead to conditions like motion sickness or difficulty with depth perception.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. Mathematics is not a medical term; it is a branch of science dedicated to the study of numbers, shapes, and structures. However, mathematics does have many applications in medicine, such as in modeling disease spread, analyzing medical images, or designing clinical trials. If you have any questions related to mathematics in a medical context, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

Dichotic listening tests are a type of psychological and neurological assessment that measures the ability to process two different auditory stimuli presented simultaneously to each ear. In these tests, different speech sounds, tones, or other sounds are played at the same time, one to each ear, through headphones. The participant is then asked to repeat or identify the stimuli heard in each ear.

The test is designed to evaluate the functioning of the brain's hemispheres and their specialization for processing different types of information. Typically, the right ear is more efficient at sending information to the left hemisphere, which is specialized for language processing in most people. Therefore, speech sounds presented to the right ear are often identified more accurately than those presented to the left ear.

Dichotic listening tests can be used in various fields, including neuropsychology, audiology, and cognitive science, to assess brain function, laterality, attention, memory, and language processing abilities. These tests can also help identify any neurological impairments or deficits caused by injuries, diseases, or developmental disorders.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Hearing disorders, also known as hearing impairments or auditory impairments, refer to conditions that affect an individual's ability to hear sounds in one or both ears. These disorders can range from mild to profound and may result from genetic factors, aging, exposure to loud noises, infections, trauma, or certain medical conditions.

There are mainly two types of hearing disorders: conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the outer or middle ear, preventing sound waves from reaching the inner ear. Causes include earwax buildup, fluid in the middle ear, a perforated eardrum, or damage to the ossicles (the bones in the middle ear).

Sensorineural hearing loss, on the other hand, is caused by damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. This type of hearing loss is often permanent and can be due to aging (presbycusis), exposure to loud noises, genetics, viral infections, certain medications, or head injuries.

Mixed hearing loss is a combination of both conductive and sensorineural components. In some cases, hearing disorders can also involve tinnitus (ringing or other sounds in the ears) or vestibular problems that affect balance and equilibrium.

Early identification and intervention for hearing disorders are crucial to prevent further deterioration and to help individuals develop appropriate communication skills and maintain a good quality of life.

A photon is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a fundamental concept in physics. Photons are elementary particles that carry electromagnetic energy, such as light. They have no mass or electric charge and exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties. In the context of medicine, photons are often discussed in relation to various medical imaging techniques (e.g., X-ray imaging, CT scans, and PET scans) and therapeutic interventions like laser therapy and radiation therapy, where photons are used to diagnose or treat medical conditions.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

## I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "chinchilla."

A chinchilla is actually a type of rodent that is native to South America. They have thick, soft fur and are often kept as exotic pets or used in laboratory research. If you're looking for information about chinchillas in a medical context, such as their use in research or any potential health concerns related to keeping them as pets, I would be happy to help you try to find more information on those topics.

Computer-assisted radiographic image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist and enhance the interpretation and analysis of medical images produced by radiography, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. The computer-assisted system can help identify and highlight certain features or anomalies in the image, such as tumors, fractures, or other abnormalities, which may be difficult for the human eye to detect. This technology can improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, and may also reduce the risk of human error. It's important to note that the final interpretation and diagnosis is always made by a qualified healthcare professional, such as a radiologist, who takes into account the computer-assisted analysis in conjunction with their clinical expertise and knowledge.

"NOiSE Volume 1". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2021. "NOiSE". Kodansha USA. ... McNeil, Sheena (December 24, 2007). "NOiSE". Sequential Tart. A.E. Sparrow (January 15, 2008). "Noise: Volume 1 Review". IGN. ... Douresseaux, Leroy (December 14, 2007). "Tsutomu Nihei: NOiSE". ComicBookBin. Campbell, Scott (December 18, 2007). "NOiSE". ... NOiSE is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Tsutomu Nihei. It is a prequel to his ten-volume work, Blame!. ...
Perlin noise is the earliest form of lattice noise, which has become very popular in computer graphics. Perlin Noise is not ... Noises based on lattices, such as simulation noise and Perlin noise, are often calculated at different frequencies and summed ... Unlike these noises, simulation noise has a geometric rationale in addition to its mathematical properties. It simulates ... "Divergence-Free Noise" due to Ivan DeWolf. These often require calculation of lattice noise gradients, which sometimes are not ...
... / The Official Bootleg is the title of the first live album by singer-songwriter Judie Tzuke, released in 1982. It ... "Judie Tzuke - Road Noise: The Official Bootleg review". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 February 2012. "Judie Tzuke Official Charts". ...
Value noise Worley noise Ken Perlin, Noise hardware. In Real-Time Shading SIGGRAPH Course Notes (2001), Olano M., (Ed.). (pdf) ... OpenSimplex noise is an n-dimensional (up to 4D) gradient noise function that was developed in order to overcome the patent- ... OpenSimplex noise uses a larger kernel size than simplex noise. The result is a smoother appearance at the cost of performance ... The algorithm shares numerous similarities with simplex noise, but has two primary differences: Whereas simplex noise starts ...
... is a 2017 Maldivian film directed by Ismail Nihad. Produced under Theatre Mirage and Orkeyz Inc, the film stars ... Ill Noise at IMDb v t e (CS1 Divehi-language sources (dv), Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... Adhushan, Ahmed (18 March 2017). "Release of "Ill Noise" delayed". Mihaaru (in Divehi). Archived from the original on 26 March ... Adhushan, Ahmed (6 March 2017). "Tickets for "Ill Noise" available from Schwack Cinema". Mihaaru (in Divehi). Archived from the ...
... noise. Within each category there are two further divisions of noise - voltage noise or temporal noise. Intrinsic voltage noise ... Another positive use of synaptic noise is by involving frozen noise. Frozen noise refers to random current pulses of varying ... The removal of noise in the beginning is crucial because once a signal and noise with similar timings combine, it is harder to ... Knowing how noise affects the signaling in this area of the brain, for example, not being able to distinguish noise from a ...
4'33" Ambient noise level Electronic noise The Hum Colors of noise Sound masking How low noise levels are achieved in concert ... Background noise is an important concept in setting noise levels. Background noises include environmental noises such as water ... Background noise or ambient noise is any sound other than the sound being monitored (primary sound). Background noise is a form ... The prevention or reduction of background noise is important in the field of active noise control. It is an important ...
It is also called random telegraph noise (RTN), popcorn noise, impulse noise, bi-stable noise, or random telegraph signal (RTS ... Lundberg, Kent H. "Noise Sources in Bulk CMOS" (PDF). "Op-Amp Noise can be Deafening Too" (PDF). Today, although burst noise ... Burst noise is a type of electronic noise that occurs in semiconductors and ultra-thin gate oxide films. ... Individual op-amps can be screened for burst noise with peak detector circuits, to minimize the amount of noise in a specific ...
This added complexity in the data has been called deterministic noise. Though these two types of noise arise from different ... One may also try to alleviate the effects of noise by detecting and removing the noisy training examples prior to training the ... The overfitting occurs because the model attempts to fit the (stochastic or deterministic) noise (that part of the data that it ... When either type of noise is present, it is usually advisable to regularize the learning algorithm to prevent overfitting the ...
... is used as additive white noise to generate additive white Gaussian noise. In telecommunications and computer ... referred to as thermal noise or Johnson-Nyquist noise), shot noise, black-body radiation from the earth and other warm objects ... In signal processing theory, Gaussian noise, named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, is a kind of signal noise that has a probability ... Principal sources of Gaussian noise in digital images arise during acquisition e.g. sensor noise caused by poor illumination ...
The Nashville Noise was a short-lived member of the American Basketball League (ABL). The site was a sound one, capitalizing on ...
The noise corresponds with the low level frequency noise (differential of the ZRA) signal but has a much lower amplitude when ... Electrochemical noise (ECN) is the generic term given to fluctuations of current and potential. When associated with corrosion ... A common feature of this 1/f Poisson spectra is that it differs from the "white" Gaussian noise in which accuracy increases as ... The technique of measuring electrochemical noise uses no applied external signal for the collection of experimental data. The ...
... or luminescence noise is an effect that digital lightening has on an image, specifically on the darker, or ... Brightening the image, especially in underexposed photos, brings out the "shadow noise" in such areas. Noise in digital ... such as Band Aide or Noise Ninja are specifically designed around the process of eliminating shadow noise in a photo. Complete ... However, film grain tends to be less noticeable than noise, which can appear as distorted colors or artifacts on an image. A ...
... is a thrash metal and metal boaro band from Noale, Veneto, Italy. The band was founded in September 1994, when ... On October 17, 2007 singer Bullo announced that all the other members had left Catarrhal Noise. On 19 September 2015 Bullo put ... "CATARRHAL NOISE, IL REPORT E LA SETLIST DELLA REUNION AL MAI PAURA DAY DEL 19 SETTEMBRE 2015". 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2021-05-08 ... Catarrhal Noise". Archived from the original on 2006-10-03. Retrieved 2006-08-29. Programma Monteciorock 2006: Venerdì 16 ...
The last issue of the Noise ran in December 2017. As an independent nonprofit publication, the Noise contained a variety of ... the Noise was a monthly newspaper serving the cities of Flagstaff, Prescott, Sedona, Cottonwood, Jerome, Clarkdale, and Winslow ...
... or The Big Noise may refer to: Superman/Batman: Big Noise, a comic book by Joe Casey The Big Noise (1928 film), an ... the Big Noise, by Wynonna Judd 2016 Big Noise (Tiny Masters of Today EP), a 2006 EP by Tiny Masters of Today Big Noise from ... a 1944 American comedy film starring Laurel and Hardy The Big Noise (2012 film), an Australian film Big Noise, album by Man ... "Big Noise", song by Phil Collins from Buster OST 1988, and album Groovy Kind of Love 1991 This disambiguation page lists ...
... is used to lower the noise present in the audible range (20 Hz to 20 kHz) and increase the noise above the ... Noise shaping works by putting quantization noise in a feedback loop designed to filter the noise as desired. For example, ... Note that the noise is lowest (−80 dB) around 4 kHz where the ear is the most sensitive. Noise shaping in audio is most ... A popular noise shaping algorithm used in image processing is known as 'Floyd Steinberg dithering'; and many noise shaping ...
Thermal noise is the weakest source of noise and can be considered negligible. Ionic conductance noise: Ion channels in the ... The external noise paradigm assumes "neural noise" and speculates that external noise should multiplicatively increase the ... or enable noise-induced dynamical phenomena which cannot be observed in a noise-free system. For instance, channel noise has ... Connectivity noise: Noise that arises from the number of connections and non-uniformity that a neuron has with other neurons ...
"Comfort noise generator using modified Doblinger noise estimate" Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) Payload for Comfort Noise ( ... Comfort noise (or comfort tone) is synthetic background noise used in radio and wireless communications to fill the artificial ... However, improvements in background noise reduction technologies can occasionally result in the complete removal of all noise. ... to fill in the silent portions of transmissions with artificial noise. The noise generated is at a low but audible volume level ...
... a noise-based aesthetic in experimental music and sound art Power noise, a derivative of noise music Noise pop, an alternative ... 1993 Le Noise, an album by Neil Young, 2010 Noise, an album by DecembeRadio, 2005 "Noise" (Kenny Chesney song), 2016 "Noise" ( ... Australia Noise, an American band including Mika Horiuchi Noise (Archive album), 2004 Noise (Boris album), 2014 NOISE ( ... including acoustic noise Noise, any unwanted sound Noise (signal processing), including in electronics Communication noise, ...
Although the existence of meta noise may initially appear to detract from the value of metadata generally, meta noise allows ... Meta noise refers to inaccurate or irrelevant metadata. This is particularly prevalent in systems with a schema not based on a ...
Extensive use of noise barriers began in the United States after noise regulations were introduced in the early 1970s. Noise ... With passage of the Noise Control Act of 1972, demand for noise barrier design soared from a host of noise regulation spinoff. ... The sound sources modeled must include engine noise, tire noise, and aerodynamic noise, all of which vary by vehicle type and ... Noise Barrier Types - Design - Design Construction - Noise Barriers - Noise - Environment". U.S. Federal Highway Administration ...
... is the eleventh studio album by the thrash metal band Flotsam and Jetsam, released on December 21, 2012. In order to ... Ugly Noise marked the first Flotsam and Jetsam album recorded with two of its original members Michael Gilbert (guitar) and ... "CD Reviews - Ugly Noise". Blabbermouth.net. Retrieved 26 December 2019. (Articles with short description, Short description is ... "Flotsam And Jetsam Completes Mixing 'Ugly Noise'". Blabbermouth.net. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2012-12-29. "New Flotsam And Jetsam ...
UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs: Noise Mapping England European Commission: Noise policy FHWA Traffic Noise ... To calculate the noise propagation, it is necessary to create a model with points, lines and areas for the noise sources. The ... The main goals of the END are to make a diagnosis of noise pollution in Europe that can lead to noise management plans and ... The main noise indicators for noise mapping are long-term averaged sound levels, determined over all the correspondent periods ...
... may refer to: Black noise, a type of noise consisting of mostly silence Black Noise (group), a hip-hop crew from ... Cape Town, South Africa Black Noise (FM album) Black Noise (Pantha du Prince album) Black Noise (book), by Tricia Rose This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Black Noise. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
"Neil Young: Le Noise". PopMatters. Retrieved 2011-02-04. Fricke, David (2010-09-27). "Le Noise by Neil Young , Rolling Stone ... "Music - Review of Neil Young - Le Noise". BBC. Retrieved 2011-02-04. Petridis, Alexis (2010-09-24). "Neil Young: Le Noise , CD ... "Swisscharts.com - Neil Young - Le Noise". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 29, 2022. "UK chart listing for Le Noise". UK Albums ... "Ultratop.be - Neil Young - Le Noise" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 29, 2022. "Ultratop.be - Neil Young - Le Noise ...
Music from the Noise Festival (aka Noise Fest) was first released as a cassette titled Noise Fest on ZG Music in 1981; the ... In 1982 the Noise Festival Tape was released by White Columns. Noise Fest inspired the Speed Trials noise rock series organized ... Noise Fest was an influential festival of no wave noise music performances curated by Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth at the New ... Noise Festival Tape (1982) TSoWC White Columns Noise Fest (1981) cassette tape, ZG Music Speed Trials (1984) Homestead Records ...
... due to the Fano noise. Surprisingly, the noise is usually smaller than a Poisson distribution noise (in which the variance is ... Fano-Noise-Limited CCDs. SPIE. Bibcode:1988SPIE..982...70J. doi:10.1117/12.948704. (Noise (electronics)). ... Fano noise is a fluctuation of an electric charge obtained in a detector (in spite of constant value of the measured quantity, ... The Fano noise applies as well to other processes in which an energy is converted to an electric charge - solid state detectors ...
Although Johnson-Nyquist noise shares many similarities with phonon noise (e.g. the noise spectral density depends on the ... Phonon noise, also known as thermal fluctuation noise, arises from the random exchange of energy between a thermal mass and its ... Johnson-Nyquist noise arises from the random thermal motion of electrons, whereas phonon noise arises from the random exchange ... An approximate formula for the noise-equivalent power (NEP) due to phonon noise in a bolometer when all components are very ...
Sounds that are too loud can damage sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. Learn how to ... Noise Pollution (Environmental Protection Agency) * Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (National Institute on Deafness and Other ... Keeping Noise Down on the Farm (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders) Also in Spanish ... Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you hear these sounds at ...
If workers are repeatedly exposed to noise at or above the REL, employers must provide a hearing loss prevention program. ... for occupational noise exposure is 85 A-weighted decibels (dBA) over an eight-hour shift. ... Noise dose: The percent of allowable noise exposure. A noise dose of 100% or more means that a worker has exceeded their daily ... When noise levels vary quite a bit or when workers are very mobile, use personal noise dosimeters to assess a workers noise ...
... resulting in noise sidebands. Oscillator phase noise often includes low frequency flicker noise and may include white noise. ... Phase noise is a type of cyclostationary noise and is closely related to jitter, a particularly important type of phase noise ... "noise hill".. A weak signal disappears in the phase noise of the stronger signal. In signal processing, phase noise is the ... Consider the following noise-free signal: v(t) = Acos(2πf0t).. Phase noise is added to this signal by adding a stochastic ...
"NOiSE Volume 1". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2021. "NOiSE". Kodansha USA. ... McNeil, Sheena (December 24, 2007). "NOiSE". Sequential Tart. A.E. Sparrow (January 15, 2008). "Noise: Volume 1 Review". IGN. ... Douresseaux, Leroy (December 14, 2007). "Tsutomu Nihei: NOiSE". ComicBookBin. Campbell, Scott (December 18, 2007). "NOiSE". ... NOiSE is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Tsutomu Nihei. It is a prequel to his ten-volume work, Blame!. ...
White Noise Sunday 3 December 2023. Episode • 1 Hr 0 Mins • 03 DEC • White Noise ... White Noise Sunday 26 November 2023. Episode • 1 Hr 0 Mins • 26 NOV • White Noise ... White Noise Sunday 19 November 2023. Episode • 1 Hr 0 Mins • 19 NOV • White Noise ... White Noise Sunday 12 November 2023. Episode • 1 Hr 0 Mins • 12 NOV • White Noise ...
Executive summary of study of noise and hearing loss among construction apprentices ... The first was a five year study of noise and hearing loss among construction apprentices. The second was a multi-year ... occupational hearing loss study which conducted a survey of individuals with hearing loss claims and evaluated noise and ...
These pages also provide links to practical solutions for controlling noise, presentations, research and statistics on noise. ... Provides links to sources of guidance and information on the control of noise at work. ... They also provide links to practical solutions for controlling noise, presentations, research and statistics on noise. ... These pages provide links to sources of guidance and information on the control of noise at work. ...
See how you can eliminate background noise and improve your sound quality with intuitive audio editing tools like Adobe ... Edit noise levels with ease.. Make adjustments in the Effects menu to reduce unwanted noise. Select Noise Reduction to reduce ... Adaptive Noise Reduction effect or Manual Noise Reduction effect to cut ambient noise, tape hiss and background distractions. ... Apply noise reduction tools.. Learn how to restore audio by experimenting and mastering a variety of noise control tools and ...
Traffic noise is associated with oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, autonomic imbalance, and metabolic abnormalities, ... I think there is no doubt anymore that chronic noise exposure, in particular nighttime noise, can cause coronary disease, heart ... With respect to aircraft noise and airports, "it is important to make new laws and new lower noise limits that protect people ... "I think there is no doubt anymore that chronic noise exposure, in particular nighttime noise, can cause coronary disease, heart ...
Celebrate Christmas with Good Noise. A holiday concert favourite. ... Celebrate! A Good Noise Christmas. Good Noise is thrilled to ... Good Noise Christmas concerts are a holiday favourite of many and we again offer three concerts to choose from. ... Join us on Sunday and celebrate Christmas with Good Noise. Not Available. ... have renowned guitarist David Sinclair join us for our Christmas concerts entitled "Celebrate! A Good Noise Christmas". One of ...
... noise-canceling headphones may be necessary to listen to your music without interruption. ... Types of noise-canceling headphones. Passive noise cancellation vs. active noise cancellation. Passive noise-canceling ... Apples active noise cancellation does an excellent job at blocking outside noise and the transparency mode allows you to use ... Best noise-canceling headphones for people who live in loud cities. [ Bose Noise-canceling Headphones 700 ] ...
Find the latest in noise pop music at Last.fm. ... Noise pop is a term used to loosely describe a strain of ... Noise pop is a term used to loosely describe a strain of alternative rock that fuses punk rocks attitude and anger with the ... Noise pop is a term used to loosely describe a strain of alternative rock that fuses punk rocks attitude and anger with the ... atonal noise, feedback, and free song structures of noise music, presented in a decidedly pop context. Typically it employs ...
Noise. Noise. summary {display: list-item;}details>table.highlight-left {background:#eee}. Loud noise at work can damage ... How can employers control noise?. There are many ways of reducing noise and noise exposure. Nearly all businesses can decide on ... Noise at work can cause hearing damage that is permanent and disabling. This can be gradual, from exposure to noise over time, ... How can employers assess if they have a noise problem?. Employers will probably need to do something about the noise if any of ...
The introduction of "30 km / hour" zones for 70 % of all roads has resulted in a reduction of traffic noise but, noise in the ... Noise is to be understood as every kind of sound which is undesired, disturbs, or irritates, and which detracts from physical, ... Depending on the duration and intensity, noise can lead to a number of problems. Some of these are among others: *reduction of ... Existing traffic noise situations are not subject to these regulations. According to 16 BImSchV the following pollution limits ...
Novel Aircraft-Noise Technology Review and Medium- and Long-Term Noise Reduction Goals (English-only publication) ... ICAO Doc 9943 (2010) - Report To CAEP By The CAEP Noise Technology Independent Expert Panel: Aircraft Noise Technology Review ... The latest set of noise goals is detailed in the ICAO Doc 10127 - Independent Expert Integrated Technology Goals Assessment and ... Independent Expert Reviews specifically focused on noise were delivered in 2010 and 2012, as registered in the following ICAO ...
Settlement in U.K. Sheds Little Light on Wind Turbine Noise Issues Noise complains still abound around wind farms. ... A Massachusetts study of existing evidence suggests wind noise, shadow, dont cause significant harm. ...
Special Olympics athletes are sports leaders-challenging low expectations everywhere they go, from training to competition and beyond. This video captures that power, with thanks to The Coca-Cola Company, Founding Partner and longtime champion of inclusion.
Audio recordings from Tate Moderns 2012 Her Noise symposium ... Her Noise symposium - Part 1 Part 1 of the audio recordings of ... Her Noise symposium - Part 2 Part 2 of the audio recordings of this past conference at Tate Modern ... Her Noise symposium - Part 3 Part 3 of the audio recordings of this past conference at Tate Modern ...
Noise. Association of Noise Consultants. Resource Type(s): Employer association, Safety association ...
... Started as a hobby in 2014(ish), we cut our teeth making Eurorack synthesizer modules in new and unusual ... However you like to make music, Noise Engineering is working hard to bring something exciting to you. ...
To block extraneous noise, sound control products such as carpeting, hanging baffles, wall panels or cubicles might be used. If ... Noise from radios, office equipment, traffic and employee conversations can make it difficult for someone who is hard of ... Extraneous noises can be very distracting. Noise from radios, office equipment, traffic and employee conversations can make it ... To block extraneous noise, sound control products such as carpeting, hanging baffles, wall panels or cubicles might be used. If ...
Available geodata at the FOEN on the topic of noise ... Daytime road traffic noise exposure Data status 2015 (ZIP, 760 ... Nighttime road traffic noise exposure. Data status 2015 (ZIP, 750 MB, 16.10.2018) ... Daytime railway noise exposure. Data status 2015 (ZIP, 220 MB, 16.10.2018) ... Nighttime railway noise exposure. Data status 2015 (ZIP, 130 MB, 16.10.2018) ...
A noise reduction of about 20 dB. An additional benefit has been an improvement in the quality of definition in the lettering ... Acoustic screens limited noise radiation to neighbouring workers but did not reduce the exposure of the operators. ... Identification marking during the manufacture and refurbishment of beer barrels can result in A-weighted noise levels of 105dB ... hse noise case study - Removing impactive strike ... Noise: Dont lose your hearing * Noise at work: A brief guide ...
Lastly, they describe current and future noise-mitigation strategies and evaluate the status of the existing evidence on noise ... noise mitigation efforts and legislation to reduce noise are highly important for future public health." (DOI: 10.1038/s41569- ... Transportation noise pollution and cardio- and cerebrovascular disease Peer-Reviewed Publication Dpt of Cardiology - University ... Traffic noise at night causes fragmentation and shortening of sleep, elevation of stress hormone levels, and increased ...
Fan RPM, Delta Temperature And Output Noise. Our mixed noise testing is described in detail here. ... Noise Absorber kit). Background noise inside the anechoic chamber was below 18 dB(A) during testing, and the results were ... Efficiency, Temperature And Noise * Page 1: Corsair AX1500i Power Supply Review * Page 2: Packaging, Contents, Exterior And ... Current page: Efficiency, Temperature And Noise Prev Page Load Regulation, Hold-Up Time And Inrush Current Next Page Cross-Load ...
Occupational noise attributable DALYs per 100000 capita. Published. 2004. High income countries. 39. 38.85000. ... Occupational noise attributable DALYs per 100000 capita. Published. 2004. Global (WHO LMI). 70. 70.23000. ... Occupational noise attributable DALYs (000). Published. 2004. Low-and-middle-income countries of the South-East Asia Region. ... Occupational noise attributable DALYs (000). Published. 2004. Low-and-middle-income countries of the African Region. 381. ...
Fan RPM, Delta Temperature, And Output Noise. Our mixed noise testing is described in detail here. ... The maximum noise output doesnt exceed 35 dB(A), and you have to push the unit with more than 420W to get there. Thats close ... Current page: Efficiency, Temperature and Noise Prev Page Load Regulation, Hold-Up Time and Inrush Current Next Page Protection ... Background noise inside the chamber is below 6 dB(A) during testing (its actually much lower, but our sound meters microphone ...
The ear-splitting noise of more than 130 decibels is touted as the unofficial sound track of the football games. We in India ... The average Indians natural gift to make noises can give any trumpet a run for its money. The higher the decibel levels, the ... Early morning in a public garden, you may feel, is a noise free time. Fat chance! Nose, throat, mouth must all be cleared with ... Elsewhere doors, gates, shutters, can only open to the accompaniment of a great amount of grating noises that can wake up the ...
Noise Uprising brings to life the moment and sounds of a cultural revolution. Between the development of electrical recording ... Noise Uprising brings to life the moment and sounds of a cultural revolution. Between the development of electrical recording ... The scope of Dennings book-dozens of genres across five continents-is impressive … Noise Uprising offers an ambitious map of ... Noise Uprisings year zero is 1925, when electrical recording techniques allowed vinyl to conquer the world. Record companies ...
Home » Health » Inspections, Reporting & Forms » Reporting » Noise Control Program » Noise Control Form ... Noise Type (select one). Air-conditioning Construction Domestic Power Tools Exotic Bird Landscaping/Leaf Blowing Loading/ ... I hereby declare and certify under penalty of perjury that the information supplied on this noise complaint is true and correct ... "How to File a Noise Complaint in the City of Long Beach" and "When Should I file a Noise Complaint?" before completing the ...
  • The NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational noise exposure is 85 A-weighted decibels (dBA) over an eight-hour shift. (cdc.gov)
  • The ear-splitting noise of more than 130 decibels is touted as the unofficial sound track of the football games. (deccanherald.com)
  • e) Noise level, in decibels, is the A-weighted sound pressure level as measured using the slow dynamic characteristic for sound level meters specified in ASA S1.4-1961, American Standard Specification for General Purpose Sound Level Meters, or latest revision thereof. (codepublishing.com)
  • In a city whose cacophony can reach 95 decibels in Midtown Manhattan - way above the federal government's recommended average of no more than 70 decibels - the commotion over all that racket involves irate residents, anti-noise advocates, bars, helicopter sightseeing companies, landscapers and construction companies, as well as City Hall. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency has said that noise below an average of 70 decibels over 24 hours is safe and won't cause hearing loss. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In 2009, the E.U. set noise guidelines of 40 decibels at night to "protect human health. (chicagotribune.com)
  • And it said steady, continuous noise in the daytime - such as the noise on highways - should not exceed 50 decibels. (chicagotribune.com)
  • And communities where at least 3 in 4 residents are black had median nighttime noise levels of 46.3 decibels - four decibels louder than communities with no black residents. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The consensus is that if we can keep noise below 70 decibels on average, that would eliminate hearing loss," Neitzel said. (chicagotribune.com)
  • But the problem is that if noise is more than 50 decibels, there's an increased risk of heart attack and hypertension," he said. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Noise at 70 decibels is not safe. (chicagotribune.com)
  • We used temporal and signal-to-noise analysis to identify 2 health officials are now augmenting traditional disease sur- subsets of ICD-9 codes that most accurately represent ILI veillance, e.g., laboratory-based methods, with nontradi- trends, compared nationwide sentinel ILI surveillance data tional analysis of electronic medical records for more from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with timely monitoring of infectious disease patterns. (cdc.gov)
  • What Noises Cause Hearing Loss? (cdc.gov)
  • Explore noise reduction with Adobe Audition. (adobe.com)
  • But with editing tools in Audition, like DeNoise and Noise Reduction, you can re-work audio and remove interruptions to get the best sound. (adobe.com)
  • Select Noise Reduction to reduce background and broadband noise. (adobe.com)
  • Fine-tune your noise reduction techniques by using or combining effects like the DeNoise effect, Adaptive Noise Reduction effect or Manual Noise Reduction effect to cut ambient noise, tape hiss and background distractions. (adobe.com)
  • Apply noise reduction tools. (adobe.com)
  • The introduction of "30 km / hour" zones for 70 % of all roads has resulted in a reduction of traffic noise but, noise in the main traffic arteries has increased. (berlin.de)
  • A noise reduction of about 20 dB. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Together with broad portfolios of devices for receiving and processing audio, echo cancellation and noise reduction, NXP also provides Class-AB and Class-D amplifiers for automotive sound systems. (nxp.com)
  • To make engines inherently quieter, Perkins engineers have identified noise reduction opportunities in engine components ranging from the oil pan to the cooling fan and the gears under the timing case cover. (perkins.com)
  • The goal of the project is to develop a novel rail pad system that is optimized with respect to both railway noise reduction and protection of the railway superstructure against transient loads and vibrations. (empa.ch)
  • Sustained exposure to loud noise is associated with adverse consequences other than hearing loss. (medscape.com)
  • For instance, sustained exposure to unwanted loud noise is annoying. (medscape.com)
  • The annoying quality of loud noise may serve as a warning that it is adversely affecting health, ie, injuring the auditory system. (medscape.com)
  • Here are some sources of loud noise that you may be exposed to. (cdc.gov)
  • Loud noise above 120 dB can cause immediate harm to your ears. (cdc.gov)
  • The city's noise ordinance reads, in part, "No person shall disturb the peace, quiet and comfort of any neighborhood by creating therein any disturbing or unreasonably loud noise. (abc15.com)
  • Hearing loss due to injurious noise at workplace is referred to as occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL). (medscape.com)
  • Consequently, occupational noise exposure has drawn the most attention and is the best studied. (medscape.com)
  • Smoking is a widespread addiction among on hearing may compound the effects of young people and the damage caused by in- exposure to occupational noise. (who.int)
  • This criteria document reevaluates and reaffirms the recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational noise exposure established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1972. (cdc.gov)
  • This study aimed to analyze the perception of occupational noise and hearing loss in dental students of a public institution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thomas Münzel, MD, lead author of the review and director of Cardiology at University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany, said, "as the percentage of the population exposed to detrimental levels of transportation noise will rise again when the COVID pandemic is over, noise mitigation efforts and legislation to reduce noise are highly important for future public health. (eurekalert.org)
  • At certain levels noises are detrimental to the health and welfare of the citizenry and in the public interests shall be systematically proscribed. (codepublishing.com)
  • It is hereby declared to be the policy of the City to prohibit unnecessary, excessive and annoying noises from all sources subject to its police power. (codepublishing.com)
  • The Village of Lindenhurst is holding a public hearing Tuesday on a proposed law that would clearly define excessive noise levels. (newsday.com)
  • Instead it uses a basis of 'unreasonable' noise that is defined as 'any excessive or unusually loud sound' that 'annoys, disturbs, injures or endangers the comfort, repose, health, peace or safety of a reasonable person of normal sensitivities. (newsday.com)
  • An estimated 12.5% of children and adolescents aged 6-19 years (approximately 5.2 million) and 17% of adults aged 20-69 years (approximately 26 million) have suffered permanent damage to their hearing from excessive exposure to noise. (cdc.gov)
  • He hopes politicians create laws to protect people from environmental stressors and "take into account in particular the new findings concerning noise pollution and cardiovascular disease and to acknowledge noise as a cardiovascular risk factor," he said. (medscape.com)
  • Not only does their use lead to enormous noise pollution in the road areas but, also both day and night, permanently detract from the living and occupational quality of the buildings and land located near the main network road. (berlin.de)
  • As a whole it is the noise from the primary road network - compared with other sources such as rail and air traffic, industry and small business as well as sports and leisure noise which because of both its extent and the number of affected persons - presents the most problematic pollution. (berlin.de)
  • From the mobilization actions in the community, a research was developed with the publications of the European Office of the World Health Organization that highlighted leisure noise as a public health problem and one of the forms of pollution that most affects people. (bvsalud.org)
  • I think there is no doubt anymore that chronic noise exposure, in particular nighttime noise, can cause coronary disease, heart failure, stroke, and arterial hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • Nighttime noise has also been shown to decrease sleep quality and increase stress hormone levels. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with established coronary artery disease, the adverse effects of nighttime noise on vascular function were, as expected, even stronger," Münzel said. (medscape.com)
  • In 1983, the EC's permissible noise emission level for motor vehicles lay at about 10 dB above today's limit, i.e. 10 vehicles of the current models are - from the standpoint of motor noise - not louder than one which was registered in 1983. (berlin.de)
  • The effect of lower noise levels over long periods is the same as louder noise levels over a shorter period. (cdc.gov)
  • You may feel that this function doesn't work, or noise is louder in a quiet environment or depending on the noise. (sony.com)
  • Noise levels are likely hazardous if a person must raise their voice to speak with someone three feet away (about at arm's length). (cdc.gov)
  • If you need to raise your voice to be heard at an arm's length, the noise level in the environment is likely above 85 dB in sound intensity and could damage your hearing over time. (cdc.gov)
  • When noise levels in an area are fairly constant, you can use SLMs to estimate a worker's average noise exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • When noise levels vary quite a bit or when workers are very mobile, use personal noise dosimeters to assess a worker's noise exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Dosimeters average noise levels over time and calculate a noise dose. (cdc.gov)
  • It considers both noise levels and how long the employee is exposed at each noise level. (cdc.gov)
  • If you can't determine the noise levels safely or accurately, consult the equipment vendor or a noise control engineer. (cdc.gov)
  • Edit noise levels with ease. (adobe.com)
  • Identification marking during the manufacture and refurbishment of beer barrels can result in A-weighted noise levels of 105dB. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Traffic noise at night causes fragmentation and shortening of sleep, elevation of stress hormone levels, and increased oxidative stress in the vasculature and the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • ONIHL is a more common cause of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and much more serious problem than socioacusis for the following 2 reasons: (1) The threat of loss of employment may convince people to remain in environments with noise levels higher than they would otherwise accept, and (2) in the workplace, high levels of noise may be sustained on a regular basis for many hours each day over many years. (medscape.com)
  • Even with hearing protection, Melamed reported that 60% of workers rated high levels of unwanted background noise as "highly annoying. (medscape.com)
  • The increased urinary cortisol levels decreased toward normal after 7 days of noise attenuation. (medscape.com)
  • The table below shows dB levels and how noise from everyday sources can affect your hearing. (cdc.gov)
  • g) Sound level meter shall mean an instrument including a microphone, an amplifier, an output meter, and frequency weighting networks for the measurement of noise and sound levels in a specified manner as specified in ASA S1.4-1961, American Standard Specification for General Purpose Sound Level Meters, or latest revision thereof. (codepublishing.com)
  • People in poorer and racially segregated neighborhoods live with higher levels of noise than other people, according to a 2017 study led by the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley. (chicagotribune.com)
  • We work hard to manage, monitor and reduce noise levels wherever possible using our dedicated noise and track keeping monitoring system. (eastmidlandsairport.com)
  • Village Clerk-Treasurer Shawn Cullinane said that in cases where a resident complains about noise levels, a police or code enforcement officer could come to the site and determine whether the noise level was 'reasonably' loud. (newsday.com)
  • As issues have come up about music from block parties and other situations where noise levels were discussed, the village decided to give the code a 'scientific standard' Cullinane said. (newsday.com)
  • Kids and teens are often exposed to noise levels that could permanently harm their hearing over time. (cdc.gov)
  • In the second paper, Dr Andrew W Correia (NMR Group, Somerville, MA) and colleagues looked at hospitalization for cardiovascular disease among subjects 65 years or older according to "contours of aircraft noise levels" around 89 airports in the US [ 2 ] . (medscape.com)
  • Importantly, note the authors, the effects were particularly marked at the highest levels of aircraft noise (above the 90th percentile for noise exposure) suggesting a threshold effect above 55 dB. (medscape.com)
  • As the intention is to protect populations from long term health effects, the noise exposure indicators are calculated as annual average noise levels at four meters above the ground at the building's facade. (who.int)
  • Oscillator phase noise often includes low frequency flicker noise and may include white noise . (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether you're recording on an iPhone or a high-quality video camera, picking up some white noise or background sounds is practically inevitable. (adobe.com)
  • We have learned in the last several decades that the health effects of noise go well beyond hearing loss," Dr Rick Neitzel (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) said in an interview. (medscape.com)
  • We're in active denial" about the effects of noise, said Rick Neitzel, director of environmental health policy at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. (chicagotribune.com)
  • As we become increasingly aware of the substantial threat that noise poses to public health, a clear understanding of the mechanisms of damage is critical to efforts focused on minimizing cardiovascular health impacts," added Neitzel, who wasn't involved in the review. (medscape.com)
  • In this Review, the authors such as Mette Sørensen from the Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark and the Department of Natural Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Denmark as well as Thomas Münzel MD and Andreas Daiber PhD from the University Medical Center Mainz at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz Germany focus on the indirect, non-auditory cardiovascular health effects of transportation noise. (eurekalert.org)
  • But experts point to rising complaints, more lawsuits, more people with hearing problems, and studies showing that noise has negative health effects. (chicagotribune.com)
  • According to data for 2006 from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Continuous Miner operators accounted for 30.2% of underground mining equipment operators with noise doses exceeding the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). (cdc.gov)
  • In densely populated areas, noise can cause serious health problems and therefore, city planners are seeking for suitable design strategies to improve the acoustical quality of public spaces. (empa.ch)
  • The objective of this manuscript was to report the community actions of a group of residents, researchers and health professionals against the impacts of leisure noise (car sound walls) in the historic center of Porto Nacional-TO, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is concluded that the information in this report is promising for an area still under development in Brazil and that it implies interdisciplinary articulation around the effects of leisure noise on health. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estimated prevalence of noise induced hearing threshold shifts among children 6 to 19 years of age: The third national health and nutritional examination survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Hansell disclosed receiving consultancy fees from AECOM as part of a UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs report on health effects of environmental noise. (medscape.com)
  • The results presented are based on questions asked in the national public health survey: Does traffic noise (road, train, or air traffic) in or near your home cause any of the following disturbances? (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • In signal processing , phase noise is the frequency-domain representation of random fluctuations in the phase of a waveform , corresponding to time-domain deviations from perfect periodicity ( jitter ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, radio-frequency engineers speak of the phase noise of an oscillator , whereas digital-system engineers work with the jitter of a clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use the Spectral Frequency Display to visualise your audio noise and then edit specific frequency ranges precisely using the Brush or Lasso tool. (adobe.com)
  • Explore the ins and outs of the Spectral Frequency Display and learn how to remove beeps, hisses and noise by visually editing waveforms. (adobe.com)
  • This function mainly reduces the ambient noise in the low frequency bands and has no effect against the ambient noise in the high frequency bands. (sony.com)
  • Noorhassim and Rampal [9] reported a mul- common, mostly due to presbyacousis as a tiplicative association between occupational normal process of ageing, HL among young noise, age and smoking, a Japanese team people is less common and more frequently reported that smoking was not associated caused by a combination of genetic and with low-frequency hearing loss [ 10 ]. (who.int)
  • Hearing loss from routine noise exposure is 100% preventable and is best addressed by creating a quieter workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Environmental noise is a common and preventable cause of hearing loss in industrialized societies. (medscape.com)
  • After residents banded together over a high-pitched humming noise, a Chandler data center is promising to fix it. (abc15.com)
  • The only time my dryer doesn't make any high-pitched squeaky noise is when I spray the tiny wheel under the drum with WD-40. (doityourself.com)
  • Their paper linked daytime and nighttime aircraft noise and hospital visits for stroke , coronary heart disease , and cardiovascular disease by comparing residents in the noisiest areas with those living farther from the airport. (medscape.com)
  • Sound level: The measured noise level at a given point in time. (cdc.gov)
  • Time Weighted Average (TWA) sound level: The noise level averaged over an eight-hour period. (cdc.gov)
  • The two basic instruments for characterizing noise are sound level meters (SLMs) and dosimeters. (cdc.gov)
  • Measure workplace areas with a sound level meter (SLM) and create a noise map of facility areas. (cdc.gov)
  • If an SLM is not available, sound measurement apps can provide a measure of area noise but may not comply with regulatory requirements. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn how to eliminate background noise and improve sound quality with these intuitive audio editing tools. (adobe.com)
  • Headphones with ambient sound control block out most noise while still allowing you to hear sounds essential to safety. (chicagotribune.com)
  • This model features ambient sound control, speak-to-chat and high-quality noise cancellation. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Noise is to be understood as every kind of sound which is undesired, disturbs, or irritates, and which detracts from physical, psychological, or social well-being. (berlin.de)
  • Noise is subjectively valued sound and is therefore dependent on the respective attitude toward the given sound, the condition at the moment, the activity engaged in, and the level of current need for quiet, etc. (berlin.de)
  • Background noise inside the chamber is below 6 dB(A) during testing (it's actually much lower, but our sound meter's microphone hits its floor), and the results are obtained with the PSU operating at 37°C (98.6°F) to 47°C (116.6°F) ambient temperature. (tomshardware.com)
  • Simply measuring the physical intensity of the stimulus as a sound pressure level cannot assess the potentially damaging effect of noise. (medscape.com)
  • The risk of damaging your hearing from noise increases with the sound intensity, not the loudness of the sound. (cdc.gov)
  • The switch of the Noise Canceling circuit produces this sound and isn't a malfunction. (sony.com)
  • The focus of the test was on the conveyor noise since previous studies showed that operation of the conveyor is the most important contributor to the sound radiated by the machine. (cdc.gov)
  • 2017-03-17 genomförde Ljudmiljöcentrum det tvärvetenskapliga symposiet 'Child & Noise - How does the child experience sound environment? (lu.se)
  • Noise-induced hearing loss can result from a one-time exposure to a very loud sound, blast, or impulse, or from listening to loud sounds over an extended period. (cdc.gov)
  • previously, aircraft noise , as well as other " sound pollutants ," has been linked to hypertension . (medscape.com)
  • Joint noises (crepitus) describes a popping, cracking, or clicking sound in a joint. (msdmanuals.com)
  • You may also refer to the city of Long Beach Noise Ordinance Chapter 8.80 . (longbeach.gov)
  • Melamed et al have also shown that chronic noise exposure increases fatigue symptoms and postwork irritability. (medscape.com)
  • New, in particular, are studies demonstrating that even one night of aircraft noise exposure can cause vascular (endothelial) dysfunction in healthy subjects," said Münzel. (medscape.com)
  • My wish is that noise is getting now accepted as a cardiovascular risk factor like smoking, diabetes, and high cholesterol, and that this is pinned down also (for example) in the prevention guidelines," Münzel said. (medscape.com)
  • Lastly, they describe current and future noise-mitigation strategies and evaluate the status of the existing evidence on noise as a cardiovascular risk factor. (eurekalert.org)
  • They can damage sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Listening to loud music, especially on headphones, is a common cause of noise-induced hearing loss. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If workers are repeatedly exposed to noise at or above the REL, employers must provide a hearing loss prevention program. (cdc.gov)
  • The first was a five year study of noise and hearing loss among construction apprentices . (washington.edu)
  • The second was a multi-year occupational hearing loss study which conducted a survey of individuals with hearing loss claims and evaluated noise and hearing loss in nine different industries. (washington.edu)
  • Hearing loss that is caused by the noise exposure due to recreational or nonoccupational activities is termed socioacusis. (medscape.com)
  • Noise is a significant source of hearing loss, but you can protect your hearing. (cdc.gov)
  • An important first step is to understand how noise causes hearing loss. (cdc.gov)
  • Noise Induced Hearing Loss is the most common occupational disease in the U.S. and of paramount importance in the mining industry. (cdc.gov)
  • This type of hearing loss, termed "noise-induced hearing loss," is usually caused by exposure to excessively loud sounds and cannot be medically or surgically corrected. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn about the causes of noise-induced hearing loss and how to prevent it, so your kids-and you-can have healthy hearing for life. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hearing loss and speech reception threshold (SRT) in a fixed noise condition using the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Noise complains still abound around wind farms. (ieee.org)
  • The next chart shows the cooling fan's speed (RPMs) and output noise. (tomshardware.com)
  • The following graph illustrates the fan's output noise over the PSU's operating range. (tomshardware.com)
  • Noise is "the new secondhand-smoke issue," said Bradley Vite, who pushed for regulations in Elkhart, Indiana, that come with some of the nation's steepest fines. (chicagotribune.com)
  • a) Ambient noise is the all encompassing noise associated with a given environment, being usually a composite of sounds from many sources near and far, without inclusion of intruding noises from isolated identifiable sources. (codepublishing.com)
  • Edit your audio to eliminate different types of noise and then use it across all your projects in different Adobe apps. (adobe.com)
  • Audiophiles enjoy this style of headphones for their ability to eliminate background noise, allowing you to hear songs the way they're meant to be heard. (chicagotribune.com)
  • More than a hundred neighbors responded to the website's online poll and more than 300 signed a petition asking for the city to work with the company to eliminate the noise coming from its air conditioning systems. (abc15.com)
  • Despite the evidence found and the mitigation measures adopted by managers, noise still disturbs residents, suggesting a strong cultural factor in relation to this problem. (bvsalud.org)
  • Epidemiological studies have found that transportation noise increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with high-quality evidence for ischaemic heart disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • MAINZ, GERMANY - An updated evidence review strengthens the concept that exposure to environmental noise from road traffic and aircraft may increase the risk for heart disease and gets at the potential underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. (medscape.com)
  • ABSTRACT Effect of smoking and environmental noise on hearing impairment was investigated in 440 people aged 21-50 years living in Beirut. (who.int)
  • At age 21-39 years, neither smoking nor environmental noise had a significant adverse effect on hearing capacity at low frequencies. (who.int)
  • An association between non-environmental noise. (who.int)
  • Environmental current smoking and HL among older adults noise (also known as community noise or has been reported from Japan [ 4 ]. (who.int)
  • The main sources of environmental noise and that nonsmoking participants who are traffic, industry, construction, public lived with a smoker were almost twice as works and the neighbourhood. (who.int)
  • Hold the microphone away from your body so that noise sources are not blocked. (cdc.gov)
  • NOiSE at Anime News Network's encyclopedia (CS1 uses Japanese-language script (ja), CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja), Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Manga series, 2000 manga, CS1 maint: unfit URL, 2001 manga, Blame! (wikipedia.org)
  • These pages provide links to sources of guidance and information on the control of noise at work. (hse.gov.uk)
  • In the national parks, "the biggest culprit is aircraft - the planes overhead - and then road traffic and sounds from industrial sources like oil and natural gas drilling," said Buxton, who participated in the study of national park noise. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The first step towards efficient noise control of a Continuous Mining Machine requires identification of the various noise sources under controlled operating conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Those are usually costly and less than ideal solutions because in tackling the noise sources a change in one area may have serious implications on others. (perkins.com)
  • Data also residential noise) is defined as noise emitted indicate that current smokers are 1.7 times from all sources except that of the workplace. (who.int)
  • With respect to aircraft noise and airports, "it is important to make new laws and new lower noise limits that protect people living close to airports," Münzel added. (medscape.com)
  • Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) is committed to minimizing noise impacts in neighboring communities from aircraft operating at LAX. (lawa.org)
  • The Aircraft Noise Ombudsman hopes the agreement between the Village Building Company and Canberra Airport will set a precedent for other airports around the country. (abc.net.au)
  • Approach and take-off operations at busy airports are virtually always less noise and fuel efficient than possible due very rigid constraints imposed on the flight profiles by Air Traffic Control ATC (concerning both vertical profiles and speed regimes), but also due to lack of support to the pilots for dealing with given restrictions/constraints and actual weather in the optimum way. (empa.ch)
  • He also studies methods to predict noise around airports and how people who live nearby react to it. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The main aim of aircraft noise research is to find ways of reducing the noise burden experienced by communities living around airports. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This involves understanding how such aircraft produce noise and predicting how it is distributed over the ground around airports. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • LONDON, UK - Aircraft noise from some of the world's busiest airports is linked to an increased risk of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease, according to two new papers. (medscape.com)
  • Time Weighted Average (TWA) is the average noise level during a shift (usually 8 hours). (cdc.gov)
  • Move through the facility taking SLM measurements every few feet to show where the noise level changes. (cdc.gov)
  • Measure the average noise level in each location for at least 30 seconds to capture non-continuous noise. (cdc.gov)
  • Record the noise level in each area on a facility map with equipment and worker location. (cdc.gov)
  • Technical construction modifications to motor vehicles have resulted in significant reductions in the level of motor noise in the past years. (berlin.de)
  • The first difficulty the patient usually notices is trouble understanding speech when a high level of ambient background noise is present. (medscape.com)
  • The German matrix sentence test with a fixed noise level in subjects with normal hearing and hearing impairment. (bvsalud.org)
  • After training with two easily-audible lists of the OLSA, SRTs were determined monaurally with headphones at a fixed noise level of 65 dB SPL using a standard adaptive procedure , converging to 50% speech intelligibility . (bvsalud.org)
  • With 65 dB SPL fixed noise presentation level the SRT is determined by listening in noise for PTAs (bvsalud.org)
  • Background noise inside the anechoic chamber was below 18 dB(A) during testing, and the results were obtained with the PSU operating at 38 C (100.4 F) to 49 C (120.2 F) ambient temperature. (tomshardware.com)
  • H390 minimizes unwanted background noise for clear conversations. (logitech.com)
  • Bhatia reported that individuals who are sensitive to noise show decreased efficacy on multiplication tasks in the presence of unwanted background noise. (medscape.com)
  • Noise protection that attenuated the unwanted background noise by 30-33 dB for 7 days produced significant improvement in irritability and fatigue symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, urinary cortisol secretion was shown to increase with unwanted background noise. (medscape.com)
  • We'll be hiking in Rocky Mountain" National Park, she said, and the background noise "drives my husband absolutely loony. (chicagotribune.com)
  • They conclude that strategies such as traffic management and regulation and the development of low-noise tires may help reduce noise, and air traffic curfews help reduce hazardous noise, but other strategies are needed. (medscape.com)
  • On the basis of their evidence review, Dr Thomas Münzel (Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany) and colleagues say it's becoming clear that transportation noise is associated with oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, autonomic imbalance and metabolic abnormalities-potentially contributing to the development of cardiovascular risk factors, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes, as well as progression of atherosclerosis and increased susceptibility to cardiovascular events. (medscape.com)
  • He notes that a link between aircraft noise and stroke, seen in the Hansell et al paper, "is new and fits with associations between aircraft noise and hypertension and between road traffic noise and death from stroke. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, the authors say a transcriptome analysis of aortic tissues from animals exposed to aircraft noise revealed changes in the expression of genes responsible for the regulation of vascular function, vascular remodeling, and cell death. (medscape.com)
  • When animals exposed to impulse noise are examined, anatomic changes that range from distorted stereocilia of the inner and outer hair cells to complete absence of the organ of Corti and rupture of the Reissner membrane are found. (medscape.com)
  • Some authors define phase noise to be the spectral density of a signal's phase only, [1] while the other definition refers to the phase spectrum (which pairs up with the amplitude spectrum ) resulting from the spectral estimation of the signal itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The legislation concerning tolerance to noise isn't known (77.4%) and this knowledge was statistically associated with the course period (p=0,004). (bvsalud.org)
  • The phase noise components spread the power of a signal to adjacent frequencies, resulting in noise sidebands . (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase noise is sometimes also measured and expressed as a power obtained by integrating ℒ( f ) over a certain range of offset frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additive interaction at high frequencies (mostly at 8000 Hz) between smoking and noise appeared after age 40 years. (who.int)
  • A high signal to noise ratio (SNR) indicates a cleaner and better quality image. (techradar.com)
  • JPEG images from the Nikon D4 show good signal to noise ratio results, just beating the Nikon D3x , Canon EOS 1D MK IV , Nikon D700 and Canon EOS 5D MK II . (techradar.com)
  • TIFF images (after conversion from raw) show that the Nikon D4, has better signal to noise ratio than all but the C anon EOS 5D MK II between ISO 1600 and 6400. (techradar.com)
  • On Signal To Noise you're likely to hear anything from Charley Patton to Super Furry Animals. (kkfi.org)
  • Contact the team at Signal to Noise. (kkfi.org)
  • The IEEE defines phase noise as ℒ( f ) = S φ ( f )/2 where the "phase instability" S φ ( f ) is the one-sided spectral density of a signal's phase deviation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase noise can be measured and expressed as single-sideband or double-sideband values, but as noted earlier, the IEEE has adopted the definition as one-half of the double-sideband PSD. (wikipedia.org)
  • The self-reported noise perception data are derived from the Eurostat SILC-survey, which is yearly carried out in 130 000 households annually in EU Member States and several other European countries. (who.int)
  • Nevertheless, the European Commission decided to prepare Common Noise aSSessment methOdS (CNOSSOS-EU) for road, railway, aircraft and industrial noise in order to improve the reliability and the comparability of results across the EU Member States (20) which improved accuracy and reliability of noise data. (who.int)
  • Traffic noise has been shown in many studies to increase the risk for heart disease, but the precise mechanisms that lead to noise-induced heart disease have been unclear. (medscape.com)
  • The soundscape of urban situations is often dominated by road traffic noise. (empa.ch)
  • The findings also echo a somewhat larger body of work looking at traffic noise, including the large HYENA study. (medscape.com)
  • Traffic noise, annoyance (self-reported) by employment, sex and year. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • They provide an updated overview of epidemiological research on the effects of transportation noise on cardiovascular risk factors and disease, discuss the mechanistic insights from the latest clinical and experimental studies, and propose new risk markers to address noise-induced cardiovascular effects in the general population. (eurekalert.org)