Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.S-Nitrosoglutathione: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Mice, Inbred C57BLEnzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).IndazolesMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)OxadiazolesSuperoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Triazenes: Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2: A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.HydrazinesOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nitrosation: Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).DiethylaminesBradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.AmidinesQuinoxalinesIndomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Isothiuronium: An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors: Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Cytosolic signaling adaptor proteins that were initially discovered by their role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of organisms that lack an adaptive immune system. This class of proteins contains three domains, a C-terminal ligand recognition domain, an N-terminal effector-binding domain, and a centrally located nuclear-binding oligomerization domain. Many members of this class contain a C-terminal leucine rich domain which binds to PEPTIDOGLYCAN on the surface of BACTERIA and plays a role in pathogen resistance.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nitroso CompoundsMice, Inbred BALB CNitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome: A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
The immune genes (specifically RDH,MyD88, Toll-like R, Nod-like R) The Nitric Oxide Neurotransmitter. Parazoa have nearly every ...
Schopfer MP, Mondal B, Lee DH, Sarjeant AA, Karlin KD (August 2009). "Heme/O2/*NO nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) reactivity: ... Nitric oxide dioxygenase (EC 1.14.12.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate (NO− 3) . ... "Nitric-oxide dioxygenase activity and function of flavohemoglobins. sensitivity to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide inhibition ... "Constitutive and adaptive detoxification of nitric oxide in Escherichia coli. Role of nitric-oxide dioxygenase in the ...
Cellular damage associated with TCT is thought to be a result of increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) secretion by mucosal ... NOD-1 recognition and the presence of Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) are two factors that modulate the effect of TCT. NOD-1 is a ...
Blockade reduced TNFα and nitric oxide production by macrophages, reduced granzyme B production by NK cells, and decreased ... NOD mice, an animal model for autoimmunity that exhibit a susceptibility to spontaneous development of type I diabetes and ... NOD) mice". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 198 (1): 63-9. doi:10.1084/jem.20022125. PMC 2196083 . PMID 12847137. ...
In addition to nitric oxide, other electronically activated species are also signal-transducing agents in a process called ... Certain intracellular receptors of the immune system are cytoplasmic receptors; recently identified NOD-like receptors (NLRs) ... Examples include diacylglycerol and ceramide, the former required for the activation of protein kinase C. Nitric oxide (NO) ...
... including excessive production of chemicals that dilate blood vessels such as nitric oxide, a deficiency of chemicals that ... There are four families of PRRs: the toll-like receptors, the C-type lectin receptors, the NOD-like receptors, and the RIG-I- ...
... lipoxygenase or inducible nitric oxide synthase, and to modify intracellular signaling pathways in immune cells, or in brain ... Rhizobia living in soil are able to sense the flavonoids and this triggers the secretion of Nod factors, which in turn are ...
... including excessive production of chemicals that dilate blood vessels such as nitric oxide, a deficiency of chemicals that ... the NOD-like receptors, and the RIG-I-like receptors. Invariably, the association of a PAMP and a PRR will cause a series of ...
negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process. • cell adhesion. • endothelial cell proliferation. • mesangial cell- ... long-term and multilineage engraftment potential from subfractions of human CD34+ cord blood cells transplanted into NOD/SCID ...
Interleukin-1beta expression within islet macrophages may also up-regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase within the same ... Oral nicotinamide may attenuate intra-islet expression of interleukin-1beta and thus inducible nitric oxide synthase during ... interleukin-1beta immunolabelling was also present in selective macrophages which co-expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase ... Exposure of NOD mice to oral nicotinamide was associated with a considerably reduced expression of interleukin-1beta cells ...
Beta cell Diabetes IGF-II Insulitis Islet NOD mouse Taurine Abbreviations. NO. nitric oxide ... Barua M, Liu Y, Quinn MR (2001) Taurine chloramine inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-alpha gene expression in ... Barua M., Liu Y, Quinn M (2001) Taurine chloramine inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α gene expression in ... in macrophages a prevention of apoptosis was mediated by a reduction in inducible nitric oxide synthase and NF-kappa B [14], ...
Nitric Oxide Dismutase (nod) Genes as a Functional Marker for the Diversity and Phylogeny of Methane-Driven Oxygenic ... Nitric Oxide Dismutase (nod) Genes as a Functional Marker for the Diversity and Phylogeny of Methane-Driven Oxygenic ...
NOD-like receptors. eNOS:. endothelial nitric oxide synthase. iNOS:. inducible nitric oxide synthase. ... M. Bergeron and M. Olivier, "Trypanosoma cruzi-mediated IFN-γ-inducible nitric oxide output in macrophages is regulated by iNOS ... G. Metz, Y. Carlier, and B. Vray, "Trypanosoma cruzi upregulates nitric oxide release by IFN-γ-preactivated macrophages, ... M. Tsujino, Y. Hirata, T. Imai et al., "Induction of nitric oxide synthase gene by interleukin-1β in cultured rat cardiocytes ...
... and nitric oxide; NOD, nonobese diabetic; PM, plasma membrane; RIN, rat insulinoma; T1D, type 1 diabetes; T2D, type 2 diabetes ... Delaney, C. A., Green, M. H., Lowe, J. E., and Green, I. C. (1993) Endogenous nitric oxide induced by interleukin-1 β in rat ... Evidence for an effector role of nitric oxide in islet dysfunction. Biochem. J. 287 (Pt. 1), 229- 235. ... Welsh, N., Eizirik, D. L., Bendtzen, K., and Sandler, S. (1991) Interleukin-1 β-induced nitric oxide production in isolated rat ...
NO, nitric oxide. no., number. NOD, nonobese diabetic. NOR, nonobese resistant. NOS, NO synthase ...
... nod-like receptor; NO, nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; OF-IN, oligofructose-enriched inulin; OmpC, Escherichia coli ... 2003). Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in human colorectal cancer: correlation with tumor angiogenesis. Am. J. ... Yui, K., Kawasaki, Y., Yamada, H., and Ogawa, S. (2016). Oxidative stress and nitric oxide in autism spectrum disorder and ... trimethylamine N-oxide; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; Treg, regulatory T cell; tTg, tissue transglutaminase; UC, ulcerative ...
The immune genes (specifically RDH,MyD88, Toll-like R, Nod-like R) The Nitric Oxide Neurotransmitter. Parazoa have nearly every ...
Schopfer MP, Mondal B, Lee DH, Sarjeant AA, Karlin KD (August 2009). "Heme/O2/*NO nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) reactivity: ... Nitric oxide dioxygenase (EC 1.14.12.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate (NO− 3) . ... "Nitric-oxide dioxygenase activity and function of flavohemoglobins. sensitivity to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide inhibition ... "Constitutive and adaptive detoxification of nitric oxide in Escherichia coli. Role of nitric-oxide dioxygenase in the ...
... nitric oxide; NOD, nonobese diabetic; NONOate, N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino-1,2-ethylenediamine; rAd, ... Role of nitric oxide in interleukin-1β-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 266:21351-21354, pmid:1657959.. ... 1998) Inducible nitric-oxide synthase generates superoxide from the reductase domain. J. Biol. Chem. 273:22635-22639, pmid: ... 1997) Mitochondrial DNA in beta-cells is a sensitive target for damage by nitric oxide. Diabetes. 46:1291-1295, pmid:9231653.. ...
NLR - NOD-like receptors. NO - Nitric oxide. NOD - Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain ... induce САМ to kill tubercle bacilli via production of nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS). This enzyme catalyzes synthesis of nitric ... NOD-) like receptors (NLRs), mannose receptors (CD207), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing ... oxide (NO), a powerful antimicrobial substance. The Th-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) activate ААM to produce anti-inflammatory ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is an antimicrobial compound, produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages and ... trigger these cells to produce IL-1β, through the Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome (65). In mice, LPS and ... Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the pathogenesis of experimental leptospirosis. Microb Pathog (2011) 51(3):203-8. ... Attenuated nephritis in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout C57BL/6 mice and pulmonary hemorrhage in CB17 SCID and ...
The NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome may... ... NOD-like receptor protein 3. NO. Nitric oxide. NTG. ... Another study in mice found repeated stimulation of high affinity nitric oxide (NO) receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), ... The NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome may regulate the inflammatory process of microglia in several neurological ... Chronic migraine Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome Interleukin-1β Central sensitization ...
IgM of NOD B1a cell origin was able to bind to pancreatic beta cells in vitro and induce expression of inducible nitric oxide ... C57BL/6, NOD, NOD.severe combined immunodeficient (SCID), C57BL/6.H2g7 and NOD.H2b mice, 1-12 weeks of age, were bred and ... This analysis revealed upregulation of the gene encoding the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (Nos2) in islet cells co- ... 2 NOD and C57BL/6 mice exhibit distinct profiles of IgM autoreactivity. Serum IgM reactivity of five C57Bl/6 or NOD females was ...
However, more work is required to translate the data from the NOD mouse to our understanding of human diabetes pathogenesis. ... The majority of our knowledge of these pathogenic processes is derived from the NOD mouse model, although some processes are ... nitric oxide; NOD - nonobese diabetic; NOD IL-R - IL-1 receptor-deficient NOD mice; NODTNFR1 - NOD mice deficient in; TNF ... 2.2 Insulin is the primary antigen in NOD mice. The autoreactive T cells and antibodies that develop during the course of NOD ...
concluded that decrease of nitric oxide (NO) or cGMP bio-availability produced by long-standing DM impairs lncRNA expression as ... NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3; ELAVL1: embryonic lethal, abnormal vision-like; IL-1β: interleukin-1β; IL- ... nitric oxide; CXCL5: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5; α-SMA: alpha smooth muscle actin; SM myosin: smooth muscle myosin; SAA3: ... nitric oxide; NASH: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; CXCL5: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5; α-SMA: alpha-smooth muscle actin; SM- ...
In β-cells and macrophages, NO is produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). ... interleukin-1 cytokine trap counteracts the recurrence of disease following syngeneic islet transplantation to diabetic NOD ... Cell biology, Diabetes, Interleukin-1 trap, Simvastatin, Nitric oxide synthase, Cytokine, Pancreatic islet, Streptozotocin, ... cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). This thesis has studied possible strategies to prevent T1DM. ...
An inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase and scavenger of peroxynitrite prevents diabetes development in NOD mice. ... Autoinhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase: distinct effects of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species on enzyme activity. ... Role of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in bile salt-induced apoptosis: relevance to colon carcinogenesis. ... A possible role for nitric oxide in osteoclastogenesis associated with cholesteatoma.. Jung JY, Pashia ME, Nishimoto SY, Faddis ...
Kou R, Michel T: Epinephrine regulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase: roles of TAC1 and beta3-adrenergic receptors ... NOD/LtJ mice (NOD, H2g7) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Mice (8-10 weeks old) were placed on ... MK0431 treatment improves islet graft survival in diabetic NOD mice.. Islet-transplanted, diabetic NOD mice were studied to ... and inserted under the kidney capsule of diabetic female NOD mice. The effect of recombinant adenoviral infection on NOD islet ...
... and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Similarly, H polygyrus [122,123], Hymenoleptis diminuta (H. diminuta) [144], ... However, a large body of experimental data from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice [109-113,115,178-181], the murine model of T1D, ... Inducible nitric oxide synthase; IFN, Interferon; IL, Interleukin; MPO, Myeloperoxidase; MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging; MS, ... The S. mansoni glycoprotein ω-1 induces Foxp3 expression in NOD mouse CD4+ T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2709-18.PubMedGoogle ...
CFA immunization of recipient NOD mice blocks the ability of diabetogenic T cells to transfer disease 9. Treatment of NOD mice ... Adjuvant Immunotherapy Is Dependent on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Daniel A. Kahn Daniel A. Kahn ... Nitric oxide (NO) generated through the cytokine-inducible pathway has been increasingly recognized to play an important role ... Daniel A. Kahn, D. Clay Archer, Daniel P. Gold, Carolyn J. Kelly; Adjuvant Immunotherapy Is Dependent on Inducible Nitric Oxide ...
Biohavens treatment for Lou Gehrigs disease fails to win FDA nod. Jul 19, 2019 , Reuters ... Nitric Oxide Cuts Kidney Injury After Long Cardiac Surgery. Jun 29, 2018 , HealthDay , 0 , ... In addition, nitric oxide treatment reduced the overall major adverse kidney events at 30 days (relative risk, 0.4; 95 percent ... FRIDAY, June 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) - Nitric oxide gas may lead to a reduction in the incidence of acute kidney injury and ...
"Nod proteins link bacterial sensing and autophagy" na mesa resonda "Therapeutic nitric oxide nanoparticles" no 25o Congresso de ... TRAVASSOS L.H.2010TRAVASSOS L.H.; CARNEIRO, L. A. M. ; Girardin SE ; PHILPOTT, D. J. . Nod proteins link bacterial sensing and ... CARNEIRO, L. A. M.2008CARNEIRO, L. A. M. ; MAGALH ES, J.G. ; TATTOLI, I. ; PHILPOTT, D. J. ; TRAVASSOS L.H. . Nod-like proteins ... CARNEIRO, L. A. M.2007CARNEIRO, L. A. M. ; TRAVASSOS L.H. ; Girardin SE . Nod like receptors in innate immunity and ...
NOD-SCID mouse: Non-obsese diabetes severe combined immune-deficiency mouse. NOS: Nitric oxide synthases ... Arginine may be used to synthesize nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthase ubiquitously. Liver and kidney (to a much lesser ... Choudhari SK, Chaudhary M, Bagde S, Gadbail AR, Joshi V. Nitric oxide and cancer: a review. World J Surg Oncol. 2013;11:118. ... Yoshiki N, Kubota T, Aso T. Expression and localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human non-pregnant and early ...
Type 1 diabetes, proinflammatory cytokines, SOCS-3, pancreatic islets, inducible nitric oxide synthase, insulin secretion, NOD ... In the first study we observed that cytokine treatment of mouse pancreatic islets lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS ... Rat islet cultures transduced with Socs3-adenovirus displayed reduced cytokine-induced nitric oxide and apoptosis associated ... Next, we transplanted mouse islets deficient in iNOS to spontaneously diabetic NOD mice. We observed a normalization of ...
  • Generation of iNOS results in the production of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) and, to a lesser extent, superoxide ( 11 )( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • The central role played by NO in the pathophysiology of β cell loss during IDDM is directly demonstrated by the acceleration of IDDM in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice (a well-studied experimental model of autoimmune diabetes) carrying the inos transgene under the control of the insulin promoter ( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • Next, we transplanted mouse islets deficient in iNOS to spontaneously diabetic NOD mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • We and others have shown that the cellular mechanism by which IL-1 mediates an inhibitory effect on islet function and induces islet destruction involves the expression of iNOS 3 and the increased production of nitric oxide ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Ad5E1 tumor cells (C57BL/6 origin) that undergo phthisical rejection were injected into the anterior chamber (AC) of C57BL/6, NOD-SCID, clodronate-liposome treated, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) KO, iNOS-depleted, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) KO mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mice were treated with the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME to determine if tumor rejection and phthisis were nitric oxide-dependent. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the current study, we show that MK0431 pretreatment resulted in the prolongation of islet graft survival in an autoimmune type 1 diabetes model, the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, through a mechanism that includes modulation of CD4 + T-cell migration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain exhibits immunological, histopathological and physiological characteristics of SS with focal mononuclear cell infiltration of the exocrine glands from approximately 8 weeks of age [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent studies revealed that this parasite activates nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain- (NOD-)like receptors and several particular transcription factors in TLR-independent manner. (hindawi.com)
  • NOD B1a cells had a naturally increased pattern of activation, expressed higher levels of toll-like-receptors ( Tlrs ) and responded to TLR stimulation in vitro with higher proliferation and increased capacity to secrete anti-type-1-diabetes-related IgM, but produced lower amounts of IL10. (springer.com)
  • the surface localized Toll-like receptor (TLR5) and the cytosolic NOD-like receptors (NLRs), NLRC4 and NAIP5 . (invivogen.com)
  • NOD-IN-1 is a potent mixed inhibitor of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. (targetmol.com)
  • Rationale: Pattern recognition receptors such as membrane bound Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and cytoplasmic Nod-like receptors (NLRs) of surface epithelial cells and antigen presenting cells detect airborne pathogens and activate innate immune response providing the first line of defense against these inflammatory agents. (cdc.gov)
  • In classical sepsis, activation of innate immune pathways via pattern recognition receptors, such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, initiates systemic inflammation [ 29 - 31 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • I am not good at finding people, I can only entrust them, and I [Stimulate Nitric Oxide and Testosterone Production] Penis Girth Enlargment must really find them, or confirm the whereabouts of the old man, I will pay, and a penny will not spend more The fat pharmacist said, immediately sighed The old man always calls himself the winner of luck and fate. (mandalajoga.hu)
  • Some studies have found that the active flavanoids in Horny Goat Weed may work on the body in much the same way as the active compound larginine, in that it increases nitric oxide levels in the bloodstream. (publisherdesk.com)
  • Riociguat exerts its effects in PAH by affecting the nitric oxide pathway, which is also targeted by the established PDE-5 inhibitor class represented by drugs such as Pfizer's Revatio (sildenafil). (pmlive.com)
  • 21. A method of claim 1, wherein said uncoated particle containing a living cell is treated with a nitric oxide inhibitor prior to implantation. (google.com)
  • We previously noted an altered developmental morphology in the endocrine pancreas of the diabetes-prone, female NOD mouse in early life and prior to the process of insulitis [ 5 ], suggesting that this might be a pre-disposing feature for diabetes. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine if nutritional taurine supplementation to the NOD mouse in early life could alter the morphology of the developing endocrine pancreas, change the degree of insulitis in later life, and delay the onset of diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Fas expression is induced in vitro in NOD islet cells by IL-1β, IFN-γ, or a combination of IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α ( 19 ), and in normal mouse islet cells by IL-1β alone ( 13 , 24 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vitro assays found that supernatant from hsTNFR-hMSCs could block TNFα-mediated nitric-oxide synthetase activity in bovine articular chondrocytes, while transduced hMSCs did not upregulate the expression of ICAM-1 on the cell surface in response to TNFα ( Schultz et al ) due to the neutralizing effect of hsTNFR molecule expression. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Although the biological function of SHP has yet to be identified, SHP has been shown, that with oxygen bound, it can react rapidly with nitric oxide to form nitrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitric oxide synthesis pathway: under normal oxygen parameters (normoxia), in the presence of NAPDH and cofactors such as BH4, FMN, FAD, and eNOS catalyze the conversion of L‐arginine to L‐citrulline and NO. Further, one electron oxidation of NO catalyzed by ceruloplasmin in plasma and cytochrome c oxidase in tissues yields nitrite, further with relatively faster two‐electron oxidation yielding nitrate by heme proteins in blood and tissues. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Nitrate, also known as nitric acid ion or nitrATE ion, belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal nitrates. (ymdb.ca)
  • The NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome may regulate the inflammatory process of microglia in several neurological diseases, but its role in CM is largely unknown. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, administering TN to the diabetic rats resulted in decreased expression of TXNIP, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, and IL-1ß proteins and decreased distribution of TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 proteins in retinas. (bvsalud.org)
  • Role of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in bile salt-induced apoptosis: relevance to colon carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to numerous flavohemoglobins, many distantly related members of the hemoglobin superfamily including the muscle myoglobin, the non-symbiotic plant hemoglobin and symbiotic plant leghemoglobin, the neuronal neuroglobin, and the mammalian cytoplasmic cytoglobin appear to function as nitric oxide dioxygenases (NODs), although the cellular electron donor(s) for many globins have yet to be defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, an hmp mutant of E. coli, unable to metabolize nitric oxide, exhibited very low NO uptake activity in the presence of M. smegmatis HbN as compared to HbN of M. tuberculosis. (jove.com)
  • 2003. Induction of macrophage nitric oxide production by Gram-negative flagellin involves signaling via heteromeric Toll-like receptor 5/Toll-like receptor 4 complexes. (invivogen.com)
  • The effect of NOD IgM produced by B1a cells on NOD.severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) beta cells was examined in co-cultures: IgM binding was measured by flow cytometry and real-time PCR was used to study oxidative stress responses. (springer.com)
  • NODs are now known to serve two important physiological functions in diverse life forms: they prevent NO toxicity (otherwise known as "nitrosative stress") and regulate NO signalling. (wikipedia.org)