Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Nitroso CompoundsOzone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.AcetyleneAnesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.
Nitrogen dioxide Gas NO2 33.2 Nitrous oxide Gas N2O 82.05 ... Manganese(III) oxide Solid Mn2O3 −971 Manganese(II,III) oxide ...
Nitrogen (E941). *Nitrous oxide (E942). *Butane (E943a). *Isobutane (E943b). *Propane (E944). *Oxygen (E948) ... Isobutane is oxidized to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, which is subsequently reacted with propylene to yield propylene oxide. The ...
Ammonia decomposition is endothermic and would decrease performance). Nitrous oxide decomposes to nitrogen and oxygen. Steam ... The addition of a modest amount of nitrogen tetroxide, N 2O 4, turned the mixture red and kept it from changing composition, ... Hydrazine decomposes energetically to nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia (2N2H4 → N2+H2+2NH3) and is the most widely used in space ...
Daniel Rutherford isolates nitrogen. Joseph Priestley synthesizes nitrous oxide as phlogisticated nitrous air. Antoine ...
Thiemann, Michael; Scheibler, Erich and Wiegand, Karl Wilhelm (2005). "Nitric Acid, Nitrous Acid, and Nitrogen Oxides". ... and nitrogen oxides: 2 Mg(NO3)2 → 2 MgO + 4 NO2 + O2. The absorption of these nitrogen oxides in water is one possible route to ... Its fertilizer grade has 10.5% nitrogen and 9.4% magnesium, so it is listed as 10.5-0-0 + 9.4% Mg. Fertilizer blends containing ... but rather its decomposition into magnesium oxide, oxygen, ...
Nitrous Acid, and Nitrogen Oxides". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... Dissolved nitrogen oxides are either stripped in the case of white fuming nitric acid, or remain in solution to form red fuming ... 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) → 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g) (ΔH = −905.2 kJ) Nitric oxide is then reacted with oxygen in air to form nitrogen ... The nitric oxide was cooled and oxidized by the remaining atmospheric oxygen to nitrogen dioxide, and this was subsequently ...
Fertilizing farmlands with (excessive) nitrogen increases the release of nitrous oxide. No-till farming improves soil quality ( ... no-till farming reduces nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by 40-70%, depending on rotation. Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse ... Open access). Omonode, R. A.; Smith, D. R.; Gál, A.; Vyn, T. J. (2011). "Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Corn following Three ... On fields too large to manually apply a residue with a high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, a cover crop may be used to produce a ...
Stueckelberg, E. C. G.; Smyth, H. D. (1930). "The ionization of nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide by electron impact". ... He also published on the ionization of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide, ... He published his first research article, on the radiating potentials of nitrogen gas, in 1919; this became the basis of his ... Smyth, H. D. (1923). "The ionisation of nitrogen by electron impact" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 104: 121-34. ...
Nitrous oxide, N2O, is a natural part of the nitrogen cycle, but human land uses often add more. Gardeners may cause extra ... Nitrogen fertilizers may be oxidised to nitrous oxide, especially if fertilizer is applied in excess, or when plants are not ... gardeners may choose instead to use nitrogen-fixing plants which will add nitrogen to the soil without increasing nitrous oxide ... and nitrogen fertilizers can be converted to nitrous oxide. Most farmland consists of fields growing annual arable crops which ...
Nitrogen forms nine molecular oxides, some of which were the first gases to be identified: N2O (nitrous oxide), NO (nitric ... 5 react with nitrous acid to produce azides which further react to give nitrous oxide and nitrogen. Sodium nitrite is mildly ... nitrogen is an anesthetic agent, causing nitrogen narcosis, a temporary state of mental impairment similar to nitrous oxide ... Some nitrogen fixation is done by lightning strikes producing the nitrogen oxides, but most is done by diazotrophic bacteria ...
"Soil pH affects the processes reducing nitrate to nitrous oxide and di-nitrogen". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 30: 1119-1126 ... Ecosystems where DNRA is dominant have less nitrogen loss, resulting in higher levels of preserved nitrogen in the system. ... as well as their role in the marine nitrogen cycle. Unlike denitrification, which removes reactive nitrogen from the system, ... John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. Tiso, M. and Schechter, A. N. (2015). Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut ...
Nitrogen fertilizer also produces nitrous oxide, a more damaging greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Local, community-grown ... It is a coating on windowpanes of a thin, transparent layer of metal oxide and works by reflecting heat back to its source, ... The nitrogen fertilizers cause toxic chemical leaching and runoff that enters our water tables. ... Although burning biomass for fuel releases carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and nitrogen compounds into the atmosphere, a ...
Nitrogen dioxide Gas NO2. 33.2 Nitrous oxide Gas N2O 82.05 ... Manganese(II) oxide Solid MnO −384.9 Manganese(IV) oxide Solid ...
Nitrous oxide - N2O - (dinitrogen monoxide, laughing gas, NOS). *Nitrogen pentafluoride - NF5 ...
Nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are often used as propellants for air chocolate. Air itself is not used as a ... and especially with nitrous oxide - has the most intense taste. The researchers found that this was due to the larger bubbles ... A survey funded by Nestlé, conducted at the University of Reading, revealed that chocolate foamed with nitrogen - ...
Nitrous oxide (N. 2O). 270 ppb[52][58]. 326 ppb /[56]. 324 ppb[56]. 56 ppb /. 54 ppb. 20.7% /. 20.0%. 0.17 ... Nitrogen trifluoride NF. 3. 500. 12 800. 16 100. 20 700 The use of CFC-12 (except some essential uses) has been phased out due ... carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride *^ "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle" (PDF ... Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide (N. 2O) and three groups of fluorinated gases (sulfur hexafluoride (SF. 6), ...
C. nitrativorans has the ability to perform anoxic-reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide to nitrogen. http://www. ...
They metabolise nitrogenous compounds using various enzymes, turning nitrogen oxides back to nitrogen gas or nitrous oxide. ... 2 H2O Nitric oxide reductase (Nor) then converts nitric oxide into nitrous oxide 2 NO + 2 H+ + 2 e− → N2O + H2O Nitrous oxide ... Examples of by-products are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). NO is an ozone depleting species and N2O is a potent ... The most common denitrification process is outlined below, with the nitrogen oxides being converted back to gaseous nitrogen: 2 ...
The two most common applications of the Cu(I) Y Zeolite are catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide to nitrogen and oxygen, ... Nitrous oxide reacts with ozone to create nitric oxide, thereby contributing in the destruction of the ozone. Therefore, it ... The decomposition of nitrous oxide and reducing the emissions into the atmosphere is important to protect the environment. ... they are utilized as desulfurization agents and in the production of nitrogen gas from nitrogen monoxide. Copper based type Y ...
However, the nitrous oxide was improperly administered and the patient cried out in pain. On 16 October 1846, Boston dentist ... Initially, people thought this gas to be lethal, even in small doses, like some other nitrogen oxides. However, in 1799, ... To his astonishment he found that nitrous oxide made him laugh, so he nicknamed it "laughing gas". In 1800 Davy wrote about the ... Of these first famous anesthetics, only nitrous oxide is still widely used today, with chloroform and ether having been ...
... nitric-oxide, and nitrous oxide reductases. The pathway ultimately yields reduced molecular nitrogen (N2), as well as, when the ... but also in that it has a higher potential to create the harmful byproduct nitrous oxide. Nitrogen, acting as an oxidant, is ... nitrous oxide is only released in the absence of appropriate oxygen regulation. Some solutions to combat the release of nitrous ... Lingering nitrate in drinking water poses a plethora of health risks, and both nitrate and nitrous oxide have major ...
Denitrification also produces nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a greenhouse gas that is detrimental to the environment. Production ... Usually, nitrogen reactors use both nitrification and denitrification to remove nitrogenous wastes. These processes have high ... performed anammox activity tests using nitrogen compounds labeled with the 15N isotopes and measured 28N2, 29N2, and 30N2 ... treatment industry in nitrogen reactors to remove nitrogenous wastes from wastewater without contributing to fixed nitrogen ...
"Nitrous Oxide Emission in Three Years as Affected by Tillage, Corn-Soybean-Alfalfa Rotations, and Nitrogen Fertilization". ... For example, tillage levels have also been shown to affect nitrous oxide emissions. Agriculture contributes greatly to soil ... including nitrous oxide. Agricultural management practices can affect emission levels. ... Only a fraction of the nitrogen-based fertilizers is converted to produce and other plant matter. The remainder accumulates in ...
Anthropogenic nitrous oxide sources include fertilizer, manure, crop residues and nitrogen-fixing crops production.[7] Methane ... The 100-year global warming potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are recently estimated at 25 and 298 carbon dioxide ... nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons.[5] The burning of fossil fuels (such as oil and gasoline) to power vehicles that ... of emissions come from the actual production of the food because of the methane released by livestock and the nitrous oxide due ...
Gamma rays emitted by a supernova react with nitrogen in the atmosphere, producing nitrous oxides. These molecules cause a ... This could occur if natural processes were to remove the nitrogen from the atmosphere. Studies of organic sediments has shown ... will be lost to space and its surface will consist of a lava ocean with floating continents of metals and metal oxides as well ... that at least 100 kilopascals (0.99 atm) of nitrogen has been removed from the atmosphere over the past four billion years; ...
Most NONOates are stable in alkaline solution above pH 8.0 (e. g. 10 mM NaOH) and can be stored at −20 °C in this way for the short term. To generate NO from NONOates, the pH is lowered accordingly. Typically, a dilution of the stock NONOate solution is made in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4; tris buffers can also be used) and incubated at room temperature for the desired time to allow NO to accumulate in solution. This is often visible as bubbles at high NONOate concentrations. Incubation time is important, since the different NONOates have different half-lives (t½) in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. For example, the half-life of MAHMA NONOate under these conditions is ~3.5 minutes, whilst the t½ of DPTA NONOate is 300 minutes. This is often useful in biological systems, where a combination of different NONOates can be used to give a sustained release of nitric oxide. At pH 5.0, most NONOates are considered to decompose almost instantaneously. ...
Bolezni srca in ožilja oziroma srčno-žilne bolezni (kardiovaskularne bolezni) so bolezni, ki prizadenejo srce in/ali krvne žile.[1] Med najpogostejšimi so povišan krvni tlak, koronarna obolenja, srčna kap, bolezen srčnih zaklopk, revmatične bolezni srca ...[1][2] So glavni vzrok bolezni in prezgodnje smrti v Evropski uniji[3] in so nasploh razširjene po vsem razvitem svetu. Mehanizmi, ki privedejo do določene srčno-žilne bolezni, se razlikujejo. Koronarno srčno bolezen, srčno kap in periferno arterijsko bolezen povzroči ateroskleroza, do katere pa lahko pride med drugim zaradi povišanega krvnega tlaka, kajenja, sladkorne bolezni, pomanjkanja telesne dejavnosti, debelosti, povišanega holesterola v krvi, nepravilne prehrane in prekomernega uživanja alkohola. Povišan krvni tlak je vzrok 13 % smrti zaradi srčno-žilnih bolezni, kajenje 9 %, sladkorna bolezen 6 %, pomanjkanje telesne dejavnosti 6 % in debelost 5 %. Revmatična srčna bolezen lahko nastane zaradi nezdravljene ...
ஆக்சிசன் நிறம் மணம் சுவையற்ற ஒரு வளிமம் .நீர்ம வடிவில் உள்ள ஆக்சிசன் ஒளி ஊடுருவும் நீல நிறத்தில் இருக்கும். சிறிதளவு நிலைப்பெறா காந்தத்தன்மை (paramagnetic) உடையது. காந்தப் புலனுக்கு உட்படுத்தினால் நீர்ம ஆக்சிசன், காந்த முனைகளுக்கு இடையே, இழுப்புண்டு முனைகளை இணைத்து நிற்கும். உறைந்து திண்மமாகச் சுருங்கும் போது வெளிர் நீல நிறத்தைப் பெறுகிறது. இது காற்றை விடச் சற்று கனமானது. நீரில் ...
വിവരങ്ങൾ ക്രിയേറ്റീവ് കോമൺസ് ആട്രിബ്യൂഷൻ-ഷെയർഎലൈക്ക് അനുമതിപത്ര പ്രകാരം ലഭ്യമാണ്; മേൽ നിബന്ധനകൾ ഉണ്ടായേക്കാം. കൂടുതൽ വിവരങ്ങൾക്ക് ഉപയോഗനിബന്ധനകൾ കാണുക ...
Urine patches in cattle pastures generate large concentrations of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide through nitrification and denitrification processes in urine-contaminated soils. Over the past few decades, the cattle population has increased more rapidly than the human population. Between the years 2000 and 2050, the cattle population is expected to increase from 1.5 billion to 2.6 billion. When large populations of cattle are packed into pastures, excessive amounts of urine soak into soils. This increases the rate at which nitrification and denitrification occur and produce nitrous oxide. Currently, nitrous oxide is one of the single most important ozone-depleting emissions and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21st century. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential ...
Nitrous oxide is used by doctors and dentists to reduce pain. In the body, it makes people feel happy. For this reason it is also called "laughing gas". It is sometimes used only to feel happy, like an illegal drug. Nitrous oxide is used in high performance cars to increase the power of their engines. When it is used this way, it is usually called "nitrous" or "NOS". Nitrous oxide can also be used in aerosol spray cans, especially for foods like whipped cream. This is because it has a sweet taste and is not toxic, and also makes the whipped cream more fluffy. ...
... forms nine molecular oxides, some of which were the first gases to be identified: N2O (nitrous oxide), NO (nitric oxide), N2O3 (dinitrogen trioxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), N2O4 (dinitrogen tetroxide), N2O5 (dinitrogen pentoxide), N4O (nitrosylazide),[57] and N(NO2)3 (trinitramide).[58] All are thermally unstable towards decomposition to their elements. One other possible oxide that has not yet been synthesised is oxatetrazole (N4O), an aromatic ring.[57] Nitrous oxide (N2O), better known as laughing gas, is made by thermal decomposition of molten ammonium nitrate at 250 °C. This is a redox reaction ...
... (February 17, 1814, Georgia, Vermont - August 9, 1898, Rotterdam, Netherlands) was an American showman, medicine man, lecturer, and former medical student who pioneered the use of nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, in dentistry. After making $535 from his first public demonstration of nitrous oxide, Colton left medical school to travel the country giving lectures and presentations. On December 10, 1844, he gave a performance in Hartford, Connecticut, at which one of his audience volunteers injured his leg, but did not feel the pain because of the effects of the gas. Connecticut dentist Horace Wells was in attendance, realized the possibilities of using nitrous oxide in dental surgery, and obtained a supply of the gas from Colton. In 1849, Gardner Colton went to California, where his brother Walter Colton was the Alcalde of Monterey, to join the California ...
Dinitrogen oksida, dikenal luas sebagai gas tertawa, adalah senyawa kimia dengan rumus N2O. Pada suhu ruang, ia berwujud gas tak berwarna dan tidak mudah terbakar. Apabila dihirup atau dicecap terasa sedikit aroma dan rasa manis. Dinitrogen oksida juga dipakai dalam mobil balap yang dikenal sebagai NOS (Nitrous Oxide System). Dalam NOS, dinitrogen oksida dapat mempercepat kecepatan mobil dan mendorong proses pembakaran pada mesin. Gas ini dipakai luas dalam pembiusan (anestesi) dan pematirasaan (analgesik). Sebutan "gas tertawa" merujuk pada efek kegirangan (euforia) yang dialami manusia apabila menghirupnya, sehingga dulu pernah digunakan sebagai halusinogen rekreatif (hiburan). Pada suhu tinggi, N2O memiliki perilaku oksidator sekuat oksigen, sehingga dipakai dalam pembakaran roket dan motor balap untuk meningkatkan tenaga yang dikeluarkan mesin. Gas ini juga menjadi penanda bagi ranjau atau peledak ...
In the United Kingdom, the East Radcliffe and Beaver models were early examples, the latter using an automotive wiper motor to drive the bellows used to inflate the lungs.[3] Electric motors were, however, a problem in the operating theatres of that time, as their use caused an explosion hazard in the presence of flammable anesthetics such as ether and cyclopropane. In 1952, Roger Manley of the Westminster Hospital, London, developed a ventilator which was entirely gas driven, and became the most popular model used in Europe. It was an elegant design, and became a great favourite with European anesthetists for four decades, prior to the introduction of models controlled by electronics. It was independent of electrical power, and caused no explosion hazard. The original Mark I unit was developed to become the Manley Mark II in collaboration with the Blease company, who manufactured many thousands of these units. Its principle of operation was very simple, an incoming gas flow was used to lift a ...
In the United Kingdom, the East Radcliffe and Beaver models were early examples, the latter using an automotive wiper motor to drive the bellows used to inflate the lungs.[3] Electric motors were, however, a problem in the operating theatres of that time, as their use caused an explosion hazard in the presence of flammable anesthetics such as ether and cyclopropane. In 1952, Roger Manley of the Westminster Hospital, London, developed a ventilator which was entirely gas driven, and became the most popular model used in Europe. It was an elegant design, and became a great favourite with European anesthetists for four decades, prior to the introduction of models controlled by electronics. It was independent of electrical power, and caused no explosion hazard. The original Mark I unit was developed to become the Manley Mark II in collaboration with the Blease company, who manufactured many thousands of these units. Its principle of operation was very simple, an incoming gas flow was used to lift a ...
The ASA physical status classification system is a system for assessing the fitness of patients before surgery. In 1963 the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) adopted the five-category physical status classification system; a sixth category was later added. These are: Healthy person. Mild systemic disease. Severe systemic disease. Severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life. A moribund person who is not expected to survive without the operation. A declared brain-dead person whose organs are being removed for donor purposes. If the surgery is an emergency, the physical status classification is followed by "E" (for emergency) for example "3E". Class 5 is usually an emergency and is therefore usually "5E". The class "6E" does not exist and is simply recorded as class "6", as all organ retrieval in brain-dead patients is done urgently. The original definition of emergency in 1940, when ASA classification was first designed, was "a surgical procedure which, in the surgeon's ...
... are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by the organism, tissue or cell from outside (say, from the atmosphere or hydrosphere, as in the case of oxygen) and that are used to transmit chemical signals which induce certain physiological or biochemical changes in the organism, tissue or cell. The term is applied to, for example, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen, ethylene, etc. Many, but not all, gaseous signaling molecules are called gasotransmitters. The biological roles of each of the gaseous signaling molecules are in short outlined below. Gasotransmitters is a subfamily of endogenous molecules of gases or gaseous signaling ...
Max Planck Institute »acid »monoxide »nitrogen »nitrogen compounds »nitrogen monoxide »nitrogen oxides »nitrous »quantities ... nitrogen compounds , nitrogen monoxide , nitrogen oxides , nitrous , quantities ... Soil crusts emit nitrogen oxides and nitrous acid. 01.12.2015. A Mainz study shows that biological soil crusts release large ... and nitrous acid (HONO) when moistened. The two reactive nitrogen compounds play a key role in the production of ozone and OH ...
... nitrous oxide, nitrogen tetroxide, carbon monoxide, and ethylene to evaluate the potential hazards of these materials to ... This paper presents the results of detonation studies conducted by the Bureau of Mines on nitric oxide, ... This paper presents the results of detonation studies conducted by the Bureau of Mines on nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen ... Detonation studies with nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen tetroxide, carbon monoxide and ethylene.. ...
... that streams and rivers receiving nitrogen from urban and agricultural land uses are a significant source of nitrous oxide to ... Nitrogen loading to river networks from urban and agricultural activities is a potentially important source of nitrous oxide ... They found that the amount of nitrous oxide produced in streams is related to human activities that release nitrogen into the ... New study focuses on nitrogen in waterways as cause of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. University of Notre Dame ...
... nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, crop N use efficiency, and soil N were measured to assess management impacts on soil, water, and ... as well as nitrogen (N) and harvest practices in corn (residue retention/removal) and switchgrass plots (harvest in August or ... Microbial Ecology, Nitrogen, and Nitrous Oxide Trends in Marginal Soils Used for Cellulosic Biofuel Production in Eastern ... nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, crop N use efficiency, and soil N were measured to assess management impacts on soil, water, and ...
They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence ... Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03) ... Stutz, Jochen. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03) ... They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence ...
... LA HARPER, RR SHARPE, TB ... "Nitrogen Cycling Through Swine Production Systems: Ammonia, Dinitrogen, and Nitrous Oxide Emissions." Journal of Environmental ... "Nitrogen Cycling Through Swine Production Systems: Ammonia, Dinitrogen, and Nitrous Oxide Emissions." JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ... Nitrogen cycling through swine production systems: Ammonia, dinitrogen, and nitrous oxide emissions}, volume = {33}, year = { ...
The unaccounted yet abundant nitrous oxide-reducing microbial community: a potential nitrous oxide sink. ISME J. 7:417-426. doi ... Detecting Nitrous Oxide Reductase (nosZ) Genes in Soil Metagenomes: Method Development and Implications for the Nitrogen Cycle ... Detecting Nitrous Oxide Reductase (nosZ) Genes in Soil Metagenomes: Method Development and Implications for the Nitrogen Cycle ... Detecting Nitrous Oxide Reductase (nosZ) Genes in Soil Metagenomes: Method Development and Implications for the Nitrogen Cycle ...
... Detecting Nitrous Oxide Reductase (nosZ) Genes in Soil Metagenomes: Method Development and Implications for the Nitrogen Cycle ... Detecting Nitrous Oxide Reductase (nosZ) Genes in Soil Metagenomes: Method Development and Implications for the Nitrogen Cycle ...
The microbial mediated process of denitrification is a major pathway for the removal of reactive nitrogen a pollutant in ... Rates of Denitrification Enzyme Activity in Wetland Soils with Direct Simultaneous Quantification of Nitrogen and Nitrous Oxide ... Rates of Denitrification Enzyme Activity in Wetland Soils with Direct Simultaneous Quantification of Nitrogen and Nitrous Oxide ... to the instrument and sample handling allowed for the simultaneous and direct measurement of reaction products nitrous oxide ( ...
"Process-based modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen sources in mown grassland, Nutrient Cycling in ... Process-based modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen sources in mown grassland. Schmid, Martin; Neftel, ... Process-based modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen sources in mown grassland. Process-based modelling ... "Process-based modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen sources in mown grassland." Nutrient Cycling in ...
2008 The influence of soluble carbon and fertilizer nitrogen on nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emissions from two contrasting ... The influence of soluble carbon and fertilizer nitrogen on nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emissions from two contrasting ... nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, soil respiration, mineral N, glucose, soil moisture, mitigation ... Contradictory effects of simultaneous available organic C and N sources on nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric ...
Applying cavity ring-down spectroscopy for the measurement of dissolved nitrous oxide concentrations and bulk nitrogen isotopic ... Laser spectroscopy is an emerging technology for measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) dynamics in the environment, but most studies ... to an air/water gas equilibration device to collect continuous in situ dissolved N2O molar concentration and bulk nitrogen ...
Isotopic characterization of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrate (pNO3−) from laboratory biomass burning ... Isotopic characterization of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrate (pNO3−) from laboratory biomass burning ... Isotopic characterization of nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrate (pNO3−) from laboratory biomass burning ... including nitrogen oxides (. NO. x. =. NO. +. NO. 2. ), nitrous acid (HONO), nitric acid (HNO3), and particulate nitrate (p. NO ...
The absorption spectrum of nitrous-oxide and the heat of dissociation of nitrogen. Arun K. Dutta, M. Sc. ... The absorption spectrum of nitrous-oxide and the heat of dissociation of nitrogen ... The absorption spectrum of nitrous-oxide and the heat of dissociation of nitrogen. ... The absorption spectrum of nitrous-oxide and the heat of dissociation of nitrogen ...
Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux responds exponentially to nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated wheat in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico. ... Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux responds exponentially to nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated wheat in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico. ... Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, increase following soil management activities, especially irrigation ... Nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications to wheat have doubled since the 1980s, and currently average around 300 kg N ha−1. ...
Nitrogen-rich organic soils under warm well-drained conditions are global nitrous oxide emission hotspots. Nature ... well-drained conditions are global nitrous oxide emission hotspots. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.885897, Supplement ... Data for the paper Nitrogen-rich organic soils under warm, ... Nitrogen, total. TN. %. Pärn, Jaan. 29. Carbon. C. %. Pärn, ... Pärn, Jaan (2018): Data for the paper Nitrogen-rich organic soils under warm, well-drained conditions are global nitrous oxide ...
... however they can also be involved in the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Environmental controls on ... to nitrogen (N) loading and/or warming after immediate (1 day) and short-term (14-28 days) exposure. This twofactor laboratory ... confounded by a significant interaction of exposure X warming and exposure X nitrogen X warming. Similarly, C. virginica also ... Bivalve shellfish potentially reduce excess nitrogen in the water column, ...
Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and the main driver of stratospheric ozone depletion. Since soils are the ... Nitrogen-rich organic soils under warm well-drained conditions are global nitrous oxide emission hotspots Jaan Parn 1, 2 Jos ... Nitrogen-rich organic soils under warm well-drained conditions are global nitrous oxide emission hotspots. Nature ... Abstract : Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and the main driver of stratospheric ozone depletion. Since soils ...
Fractionation of Nitrous Oxide. Fri, 15 Jun 2012 , Nitrogen Deposition Much has been learned about N2Os loss processes through ... The chosen standard is typically atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen, though standard mean ocean water is often used for oxygen. ... The most abundant naturally occurring species of N2O is 14N14N16O (446). When the major oxygen and nitrogen isotopes (15N, ...
... the riparian reserve soil did not respond to rewetting and nitrogen application and fluxes were negligible. Furthermore, N2O ... including nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions, with unclear underlying biological mechanisms. In this study, we ... and nitric oxide (NO) emissions, with unclear underlying biological mechanisms. In this study, we investigated N2O and NO ... the riparian reserve soil did not respond to rewetting and nitrogen application and fluxes were negligible. Furthermore, N2O ...
... files for the period 1984 through 1987 were searched to identify all deaths in which nitrous-oxide was mentioned and in which ... A study of fatal cases of nitrous-oxide (10024972) abuse in the workplace was conducted. The Integrated Management Information ... JOCMA7; NIOSH-Author; Accident-analysis; Substance-abuse; Nitrogen-oxides; Laboratory-workers; Compressed-gases; Hospital- ... employers be made aware of the danger of nitrous-oxide abuse and that the inventory of nitrous-oxide cylinders be maintained in ...
The Supply of Nitrogen. By W. D. Philbrick. Nitrous Oxide as an Anæsthetic Agent. ...
... supplying Nitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Gas Cylinder in India that is a high pressure gas cylinder used for various industrial ... Nitrogen Cylinder also Known as Nitrous Oxide Cylinder.. Nitrous Oxide Cylinders are available with pressured reducing valve ... We are Manufacturer, Exporters and Suppliers of Nitrogen Cylinder Or Nitrous Oxide Cylinder at wholesale competitive prices ... Nitrous Oxide cylinders are ideal for maintaining the purity and quality of gas being dispensed. Special care is taken to ...
... nitrogen, nitrous oxide and oxygen. These gases are available will be delivered in the quantities a ... When nitrous oxide is combined with oxygen, it is often safely used to ease anxiety in dental patients. Nitrous oxide was first ... Nitrous Oxide. Nitrous oxide (N2O), I commonly called "laughing gas." It has no color or smell, and is non-irritating. The gas ... Nitrous oxide is considered a very weak general anesthetic and is generally not used as a single agent. Nitrous oxide is often ...
... Nitrogen fertilizer has been identified as a ... In particular, nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a heat-trapping potential almost 300 times greater than carbon ... and scientific organizations are working to develop a path for reducing nitrous oxide emissions. ...
  • Anthropogenic activities have more than doubled the availability of reactive nitrogen in the biosphere, primarily through agricultural activities. (springer.com)
  • In part, the extent and pace at which secondary forests recover depends on the availability of essential plant nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus 4 . (nature.com)
  • 67 billion tons) in the permafrost, accumulated thousands of years ago, could now become available for decomposition, leading to the release of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) to the atmosphere. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, TEA reduces the ignition delay of hydrazine with nitrogen tetroxide [ 9 ] and ignites with air at temperatures as low as −40°C [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters (monopropellant or bipropellant with dinitrogen tetroxide), the decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jake Beaulieu, a postdoctoral researcher the Environmental Protection Agency in Cincinnati, Ohio, who earned his doctorate at the University of Notre Dame, and Jennifer Tank, Galla Professor of Biological Sciences at the University, are lead authors of new paper demonstrating that streams and rivers receiving nitrogen inputs from urban and agricultural land uses are a significant source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • Wang H, Guan Y, Li L, Wu G. Characteristics of biological nitrogen removal in a multiple anoxic and aerobic biological nutrient removal process. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The involvement of nitric oxide in numerous biological functions has led to the intense study of nitric oxide (NO) generation by the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) responsible. (naver.com)
  • Nitrogen NF is used in pre-flight lung testing to measure the response time of a person to a simulated aircraft cabin environment (hypoxic challenge testing), to power medical devices, as a cryogen to freeze and preserve blood, tissue, and other biological specimens, and to freeze and destroy diseased tissue in cryosurgery and dermatology. (tollgas.com)
  • Nitrogen removal was enhanced under CMR and low DO conditions (CMR-L). The highest total inorganic nitrogen removal efficiency of 91.5% was achieved. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • For examples, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal percentage in IASBR was 38.7% higher than in the AO SBR system [ 2 ]. (eeer.org)
  • Organic forms of soil nitrogen, such as waste products from plants and fungi, could help convert excess inorganic nitrogen--which would otherwise be leached into water or emitted as nitrous oxide--into a form that isn't harmful to the environment. (eurekalert.org)
  • This research shows that river networks play an important role in how human nitrogen use affects climate change and ozone loss. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the rest of us it just means that injecting nitrous cools the intake charge, making a denser, more powerful mixture. (hotrod.com)
  • How well the mixture is dialed in is ultimately a matter of how well the nitrous kit manufacturer calibrated the system. (hotrod.com)
  • the evaporation and expansion of liquid nitrous oxide in the intake manifold causes a large drop in intake charge temperature, resulting in a denser charge, further allowing more air/fuel mixture to enter the cylinder. (wikipedia.org)