A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
A pattern recognition receptor that recognizes GUANOSINE and URIDINE-rich single-stranded RNA.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Tomography using x-ray transmission.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of cell-surface receptors for oxidatively modified LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. The group includes certain SCAVENGER RECEPTORS that contribute to the pathogenesis of ATHEROSCLEROSIS by uptake of oxidized LDL.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.

Phospholamban is present in endothelial cells and modulates endothelium-dependent relaxation. Evidence from phospholamban gene-ablated mice. (1/3024)

Vascular endothelial cells regulate vascular smooth muscle tone through Ca2+-dependent production and release of vasoactive molecules. Phospholamban (PLB) is a 24- to 27-kDa phosphoprotein that modulates activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). Expression of PLB is reportedly limited to cardiac, slow-twitch skeletal and smooth muscle in which PLB is an important regulator of [Ca2+]i and contractility in these muscles. In the present study, we report the existence of PLB in the vascular endothelium, a nonmuscle tissue, and provide functional data on PLB regulation of vascular contractility through its actions in the endothelium. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was attenuated in aorta of PLB-deficient (PLB-KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. This effect was not due to actions of nitric oxide on the smooth muscle, because sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation in either denuded or endothelium-intact aortas was unaffected by PLB ablation. Relative to denuded vessels, relaxation to forskolin was enhanced in WT endothelium-intact aortas. The endothelium-dependent component of this relaxation was attenuated in PLB-KO aortas. To investigate whether these changes were due to PLB, WT mouse aorta endothelial cells were isolated. Both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed the presence of PLB in endothelial cells, which were shown to be >98% pure by diI-acetylated LDL uptake and nuclear counterstaining. These data indicate that PLB is present and modulates vascular function as a result of its actions in endothelial cells. The presence of PLB in endothelial cells opens new fields for investigation of Ca2+ regulatory pathways in nonmuscle cells and for modulation of endothelial-vascular interactions.  (+info)

Endogenous endothelin-1 depresses left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance in congestive heart failure. (2/3024)

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a positive inotrope in normal hearts; however, the direct cardiac effects of endogenous ET-1 in congestive heart failure (CHF) are unknown. We evaluated the cardiac responses to endogenous ET-1 using an ETA and ETB receptor blocker (L-754,142) in seven conscious dogs before and after pacing-induced CHF. Before CHF, when the plasma ET-1 was 7.3 +/- 1.7 fmol/ml, L-754,142 caused no significant alterations in heart rate, left ventricular (LV) end-systolic pressure, total systemic resistance, and the time constant of LV relaxation (tau). LV contractile performance, measured by the slopes of LV pressure (P)-volume (V) relation (EES), dP/dtmax-end-diastolic V relation (dE/dtmax), and stroke work-end-diastolic V relation, was also unaffected. After CHF, when the plasma ET-1 was significantly increased to 14.1 +/- 3.0 fmol/ml (p <.05), L-754,142 produced a significant decreases in LV end-systolic pressure (101 +/- 11 versus 93 +/- 8 mm Hg) and total systemic resistance (0.084 +/- 0.022 versus 0.065 +/- 0.15 mm Hg/ml/min). The tau (42 +/- 12 versus 38 +/- 10 ms), mean left atrial P (22 +/- 5 versus 18 +/- 4 mm Hg) (p <.05), and minimum LVP were also significantly decreased. After CHF, the slopes of P-V relations, EES (3.4 +/- 0.4 versus 4.8 +/- 0.8 mm Hg/ml), dE/dtmax (42.4 +/- 7.8 versus 50.0 +/- 7.8 mm Hg/s/ml), and stroke work-end-diastolic V relation (58.1 +/- 3.3 versus 72.4 +/- 5.2 mm Hg) (p <.05) all increased after L-754,142, indicating enhanced contractility. Before CHF, low levels of endogenous ET-1 have little cardiac effect. However, after CHF, elevated endogenous ET-1 produces arterial vasoconstriction, slows LV relaxation, and depresses LV contractile performance. Thus, elevated endogenous ET-1 may contribute to the functional impairment in CHF in this canine model.  (+info)

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (3/3024)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Growth-inhibitory effect of cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent vasodilators on rat vascular smooth muscle cells: effect on cell cycle and cyclin expression. (4/3024)

1. The possibility that the antiproliferative effect of cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent vasodilators involves an impaired progression of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through the cell cycle and expression of cyclins, which in association with the cyclin-dependent kinases control the transition between the distinct phases of the cell cycle, was examined. 2. FCS (10%) stimulated the transition of quiescent VSMC from the G0/G1 to the S phase (maximum within 18-24 h and then to the G2/M phase (maximum within 22-28 h). Sodium nitroprusside and 8-Br-cyclic GMP, as well as forskolin and 8-Br-cyclic AMP markedly reduced the percentage of cells in the S phase after FCS stimulation. 3. FCS stimulated the low basal protein expression of cyclin D1 (maximum within 8-24 h) and E (maximum within 8-38 h) and of cyclin A (maximum within 14-30 h). The stimulatory effect of FCS on cyclin D1 and A expression was inhibited, but that of cyclin E was only minimally affected by the vasodilators. 4. FCS increased the low basal level of cyclin D1 mRNA after a lag phase of 2 h and that of cyclin A after 12 h. The vasodilators significantly reduced the FCS-stimulated expression of cyclin D1 and A mRNA. 5. These findings indicate that cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-dependent vasodilators inhibit the proliferation of VSMC by preventing the progression of the cell cycle from the G0/G1 into the S phase, an effect which can be attributed to the impaired expression of cyclin D1 and A.  (+info)

Maintenance of normal agonist-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in uraemic and hypertensive resistance vessels. (5/3024)

BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide system has been implicated in several diseases with vascular complications including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Despite the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular complications in renal failure few studies have examined vascular and endothelial function in uraemia. We therefore chose to study possible abnormalities of the nitric oxide vasodilator system in an animal model of chronic renal failure. METHODS: Adult spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats were subjected to a 5/6 nephrectomy with control animals having sham operations. After 4 weeks blood pressure was recorded and the animals were sacrificed. Branches of the mesenteric arteries were isolated and mounted on a Mulvany myograph. All experiments were performed in the presence of indomethacin (10(-5) M). The vessels were first preconstricted with noradrenaline, exposed to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-4) M) and subsequently to sodium nitroprusside (10(-5) M). RESULTS: There was no difference in the relaxation of the four groups of vessels to any of the concentrations of acetylcholine used nor was there any significant difference in the EC50s (control Wistar Kyoto 6.1+/-1.4 x 10(-8) M; uraemic Wistar Kyoto 5.4+/-0.8 x 10(-8) M; control spontaneous hypertensive rats 4.5+/-0.6 x 10(-8) M; uraemic spontaneous hypertensive rats 6+/-0.7 x 10(-8) M). Vasodilatation in response to sodium nitroprusside was unchanged in uraemic vessels. In addition the vascular responses to both acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were unaltered in spontaneous hypertensive rats. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that normal agonist-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation is maintained in experimental uraemia and hypertension.  (+info)

Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure: a role for nitric oxide and angiotensin II. (6/3024)

The mechanisms by which sympathetic function is augmented in chronic heart failure (CHF) are not well understood. A previous study from this laboratory (Circ Res. 1998;82:496-502) indicated that blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis resulted in only an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) when plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) levels were elevated. The present study was undertaken to determine if NO reduces RSNA in rabbits with CHF when Ang II receptors are blocked. Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits were instrumented with cardiac dimension crystals, a left ventricular pacing lead, and a pacemaker. After pacing at 360 to 380 bpm for approximately 3 weeks, a renal sympathetic nerve electrode and arterial and venous catheters were implanted. Studies were carried out in the conscious state 3 to 7 days after electrode implantation. The effects of a 1-hour infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 3 microgram . kg-1. min-1) on RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined before and after Ang II blockade with losartan (5 mg/kg) in normal and CHF rabbits. Changes in MAP were readjusted to normal with phenylephrine. Before losartan, SNP evoked a decrease in MAP and an increase in RSNA in both groups that was baroreflex-mediated, because both MAP and RSNA returned to control when phenylephrine was administered. In the normal group, losartan plus SNP caused a reduction in MAP and an increase in RSNA that was 152.6+/-9.8% of control. Phenylephrine returned both MAP and RSNA back to the control levels. However, in the CHF group, losartan plus SNP evoked a smaller change in RSNA for equivalent changes in MAP (117.1+/-4.1% of control). On returning MAP to the control level with phenylephrine, RSNA was reduced to 65.2+/-2.9% of control (P<0. 0001). These data suggest that endogenous Ang II contributes to the sympathoexcitation in the CHF state and that blockade of Ang II receptors plus providing an exogenous source of NO reduces RSNA below the elevated baseline levels. We conclude that both a loss of NO and an increase in Ang II are necessary for sustained increases in sympathetic nerve activity in the CHF state.  (+info)

Heat shock protein expression in umbilical artery smooth muscle. (7/3024)

Postpartum vasospasm in the umbilical arteries may be due to impaired vasorelaxation secondary to alterations in the expression of heat shock proteins. The contractile responses of pre- and full-term bovine umbilical artery smooth muscles were determined in a muscle bath. Heat shock protein expression was determined in bovine and human arterial tissues using western blotting with specific antisera. Full-term bovine and human umbilical artery smooth muscle was refractory to relaxation induced by the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside. This impaired vasorelaxation was associated with the expression of the inducible form of the heat shock protein, HSP70i, and increases in the expression of the small heat shock protein, HSP27. Small heat shock proteins have been implicated in modulating contraction and relaxation responses in vascular smooth muscles. Thus, alterations in heat shock protein expression may play a role in umbilical artery vasospasm.  (+info)

Intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 impairs avoidance learning in rats. (8/3024)

AIM: To study the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on active avoidance in rats and the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO). METHODS: Using a shuttle-box model, the effects of bilaterally intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 3.2, 16, and 80 ng as well as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) 400 ng on active avoidance were studied on d 8 after administration. The levels of nitrite as an index of NO in the hippocampus were detected using a fluorometric assay 24 h after infusion of IL-6 3.2 or 80 ng. RESULTS: IL-6 16 and 80 ng impaired the acquisition performance of active avoidance by prolonging the latency of avoidance in training, but not the retention performance in testing. IL-680 ng and SNP 400 ng also resulted in a marked impairment in acquisition performances by decreasing the rate of avoidance, but not in retention performances. IL-680 ng markedly elevated the nitrite levels from 10.6 +/- 0.7 in control rats to 13.6 +/- 2.0 (nmol/g wet wt) (P < 0.01). IL-6 3.2 ng had no effect on active avoidance nor on nitrite levels. CONCLUSION: Intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 impaired learning acquisition of active avoidance in rats.  (+info)

1. The effects of graded intravenous infusions of sodium nitroprusside on resting blood pressure and heart rate and on the reflex changes in these variables evoked by a standardized Valsalva manoeuvre were studied in six normal subjects. The effects of nitroprusside on the above variables were also studied after pre-treatment with captopril, to allow assessment of the role of angiotensin II.. 2. Nitroprusside given in doses ranging from 7.5 to 150 μg/min elicited dose-related decreases in resting blood pressure and rise in heart rate and in plasma renin activity (PRA). After pretreatment with captopril, nitroprusside could not be given at doses above 60 μg/min without producing an unacceptable fall in blood pressure. The rise in heart rate in response to a given dose of nitroprusside was little altered after captopril.. 3. Blood pressure and heart rate were studied during the last 10 s of the Valsalva manoeuvre. Before captopril the normal response (maintenance of blood pressure with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium nitroprusside exacerbates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. AU - Cope, Jeffrey T.. AU - Banks, David. AU - Laubach, Victor E.. AU - Binns, Oliver A.R.. AU - King, R. Christopher. AU - Richardson, R. Mark. AU - Shockey, Kimberly S.. AU - Tribble, Curtis G.. AU - Kron, Irving L.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Background. The role of nitric oxide in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is controversial. Although many studies claim that nitric oxide ameliorates reperfusion injury, others suggest that it exacerbates such injury, possibly through peroxynitrite production. These discordant results may be attributable to a dose-dependent phenomenon. Methods. Isolated rabbit hearts sustained sequential periods of blood perfusion (20 minutes), warm ischemia (30 minutes), and reperfusion (20 minutes). During reperfusion, four groups underwent intracoronary infusion of saline solution (n = 6), or the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (100 nm/min [SNP100, n = 6], 1 nmol ...
Efficient gene transfer by vectors that can be easily delivered to target organs is desirable in clinical gene therapy. We tested the hypothesis that intracoronary infusion of the nitric oxide donor nitroprusside would increase the efficiency of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer to the heart. Intracoronary delivery of an adenovirus encoding murine adenylyl cyclase type VI (Ad.AC(VI)) was performed in adult pigs with and without simultaneous intracoronary infusion of nitroprusside. Animals were killed 12-14 days after Ad.AC(VI) delivery and myocardial adenylyl cyclase activity was measured. Addition of nitroprusside during intracoronary infusion of Ad.AC(VI) was associated with a 4-fold increase in cAMP-generating capacity in the left ventricle. Transgene expression was confirmed by immunoblotting. Intracoronary nitroprusside produced mild dose-dependent changes in blood pressure and heart rate during infusion. Intracoronary nitroprusside infusion is a safe and effective means to increase ...
Nitroprusside - Get up-to-date information on Nitroprusside side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Nitroprusside
Nitroprusside serves as a source of nitric oxide, a potent peripheral vasodilator that affects both arterioles and venules (venules more than arterioles). Nitroprusside is often administered intravenously to patients who are experiencing a hypertensive emergency. [Wikipedia]
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:141:\COMPARISON OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIONS OF N, N-DI-N-PROPYL DOPAMINE AND SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE IN CONSCIOUS AND CHLORALOSE-ANAESTHETISED DOGS\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1982\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:8:\OCONNOR\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:2:\SE\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:3:{i:0;s:11:\OCONNOR SE\;i:1;s:8:\SMITH ...
Sodium nitroprusside or SNP is a chemical compound, often encountered as dihydrate. It is sold under the brand name Nitropress among others as a medication used to lower blood pressure. ...
Nitroprusside is a vasodilator that works by relaxing the muscles in your blood vessels to help them dilate (widen). This lowers blood pressure and allows blood to flow more easily through your veins and arteries.
Learn about the potential side effects of nitroprusside. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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Recent studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) may be involved in diverse plant developmental processes as an important signal molecule. However, the effects of NO on vegetative and reproductive growth of intact plants are not fully understood. In our study, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3,000, 6,000 and 9,000 μM was used to characterize the roles of NO in vegetative and reproductiv ...
1 The aim of this study was to examine whether sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation of rat fundus longitudinal smooth muscle involves ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release. 2 SNP (300 nM-30 microM) elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of precontracted (1 microM carbachol) rat fundus, an effect almost abolished by the selective guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM). 3 SNP-mediated relaxations were almost abolished by 10 microM ryanodine. 4 SNP-mediated relaxations were also reduced by either 1 microM apamin (a selective small conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channel, SKCa, inhibitor) or the selective L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor, nicardipine (3 microM). 5 SNP-induced relaxations were insensitive to 1 mM tetraethylammonium chloride (an inhibitor of large-conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channels) and 1 microM glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor). 6 These data suggest that SNP-mediated fundus relaxation occurs via a ...
Since the mechanism of salt impairing NO-induced vascular relaxation is not fully clear, this study was designed to investigate the role of potassium (K+) channels in the vasodilatory effects of NO donor in salt loaded rats. Isolated thoracic aortic rings of adult male albino rats fed 8% NaCl containing diet for six weeks were used for isometric tension recording using PowerLab tissue bath system. The recorded data revealed that high salt diet (HS) did not change the relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) in rats thoracic aortic rings. SNP-induced relaxation in salt loaded rats was significantly lower in rings contracted by high K+ than phenylephrine (PE, a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist). On the other hand, incubation of aortic rings from salt loaded rats with inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channel blockers either individually or simultaneously with other K+ channel blockers significantly inhibited SNP-induced relaxation in PE-contracted rings; however incubation ...
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In an open-label study, we compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous infusion of fenoldopam mesylate with that of sodium nitroprusside in patients with severe hypertension or in hypertensive crisis. Both antihypertensive medications were infused at a maximal dose increment of 0.2 microgram/kg/min (fenoldopam) and 1 microgram/kg/min (nitroprusside), with a maximal infusion rate of 1.5 micrograms/kg/min fenoldopam mesylate or 8 micrograms/kg/min sodium nitroprusside. Once the desired reduction in diastolic blood pressure was achieved (less than 110 mm Hg if initial diastolic blood pressure was 120-149 mm Hg, or by at least 40 mm Hg if initial diastolic blood pressure was 150-190 mm Hg), the maximal infusion rate used was maintained for at least 1 hour, and then, the infusion was slowed gradually over 2 hours. After the infusion treatment, patients remained in the hospital for 2 days of follow-up. Both antihypertensive agents successfully controlled the blood pressure in all the patients by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apoptotic insults to human chondrocytes induced by sodium nitroprusside are involved in sequential events, including cytoskeletal remodeling, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-1/c-jun N-terminal kinase, and baxmitochondria-mediated caspase activation. AU - Cherng, Yih Giun. AU - Chang, Huai Chia. AU - Lin, Yi Ling. AU - Kuo, Ming Liang. AU - Chiu, Wen Ta. AU - Chen, Ruei Ming. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate chondrocyte activities. This study was aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced insults to human chondrocytes. Exposure of human chondrocytes to SNP increased cellular NO levels but decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. SNP time dependently induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. Treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-l-oxyl 3-oxide, an NO scavenger, significantly lowered SNP-induced cell injuries. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitroprusside in decompensated heart failure. T2 - What should a clinician really know?. AU - Opasich, Cristina. AU - Cioffi, Giovanni. AU - Gualco, Alessandra. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Sodium nitroprusside is an older intravenous vasodilator appropriate for acute hospital treatment of patients with congestive heart failure. It is a balanced arterial and venous vasodilator with a very short half-life, facilitating rapid titration. In general, it improves hemodynamic and clinical status by reducing systemic vascular resistance, left ventricular filling pressure, and increasing cardiac output. This review summarizes recently published literature and recent data regarding the use of this intravenous vasodilator in decompensated heart failure patients.. AB - Sodium nitroprusside is an older intravenous vasodilator appropriate for acute hospital treatment of patients with congestive heart failure. It is a balanced arterial and venous vasodilator with a very short half-life, ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare blood vessel disorder of the lung in which the pressure in the pulmonary artery (PA) rises above normal levels and may become life threatening. PAH is frequently misdiagnosed and has often progressed to late stage by the time it is accurately diagnosed. PAH has been historically chronic and incurable with a poor survival rate. However, new treatments are available which have significantly improved prognosis. Right-heart catheterization (RHC) is the most accurate and useful test for PAH, and the only test that directly measures the pressure inside the PA. It is performed in all patients at least once, to get a definitive diagnosis of PAH.. The most commonly used medication for this purpose is intravenous nitroprusside, however this medication in about 25-30% of patients is not well tolerated as it cause fast heart rates, which is not well tolerated by patients with pulmonary hypertension and/or heart failure. The CARVE study assesses the effect of ...
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Frog sciatic nerves were isolated into Groups: -Control Group-incubation in Ringers solution; SNP Group- incubation in 10-² M sodium nitroprusside solution; SNP+DEX Group-incubation in 10-² M sodium nitroprusside solution followed by incubation in 10-³ M dexamethasone solution; DEX group- incubation in 10-³ M dexamethasone solution. ...
In the most extreme cases of UFOV restriction, individuals are sensitive to distraction and are unable to divide their atten- tion effectively between central and peripheral viewing tasks. 2913 Sodium nitroprusside .
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synergistic interaction between the Ligusticum chuanxiong constituent butylidenephthalide and the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside in relaxing rat isolated aorta. AU - Chan, S.S.. AU - Jones, R.. AU - Lin, G.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is often prescribed together with nitric oxide donors for treating coronary heart diseases such as angina in China; however, studies concerning their pharmacological interaction are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine the interaction between the Ligusticum chuanxiong major active constituent butylidenephthalide (BDPH) and the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in vasorelaxation. Vasorelaxation was examined in rat isolated aorta using an organ bath system. BDPH and SNP interacted synergistically under 9,11-dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxyprostaglandin H2 (U-46619)-induced tone. This synergism became greater with increasing U-46619 ...
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of pre PCI administration of intracoronary nitroprusside on post procedural myonecrosis. Myonecrosis is a prognostically important complication of PCI. Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator in the resistance arteriolar circulation, and plays a significant role in the control of coronary blood flow through the microcirculation. nitroprussideis a direct donor of nitric oxide. A total of 62 patients were randomized into the NTP (n= 31) or control (n= 31) group. Patients who were scheduled for non-urgent PCI in de novo native coronary arteries were eligible. All patients were pretreated with statin, aspirin and clopidogrel. Myonecrosis was measured by CK-MB elevation 24 h after PCI. The NTP group received intracoronary NTP befor PCI, whereas the control group did not. All patients in NPT group received NTP for prevention of myonecrosis at a dose of at least 50 μg given intrcoronary through guiding catheter. 22 patients received 50μg,7 patients ...
Nitric oxide (NO) as well as its donors has been shown to generate mutation and DNA damage in in vitro assays. The objective of this study was to identify that DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) could be elicited by NO, not only in vitro but also in vivo. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to examine the DNA damage in g12 cells and the cells isolated from the organs of mice exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). A modified method, in which neither collagenase nor trypsin was necessary, was used to prepare the single-cell suspension isolated from organs of mice. Results showed that the exposure of g12 cells to 0.13-0.5 mu mol/ml SNP with S9 for 1 h induced a concentration-dependent increase in DNA SSBs in g12 cells. The significant increase in DNA migration and comet frequency has appeared in the cells isolated from the spleen, thymus, and peritoneal macrophages of mice after injecting i.p. SNP in the dosage range of 0.67-6.0 mg/kg b.wt for 1 h. However, no obvious ...
Nitric oxide (Zero) is certainly essential in the regulations of bone fragments remodeling, whereas high concentration of Zero promotes cell death of osteoblast. in dosage- and time-dependent way. SNP elevated phrase amounts of g62, ATG7, LC3-II and Beclin-1, as regular autophagic indicators and increased acidic autophagolysosomal vacuoles, discovered by acridine tangerine discoloration. Nevertheless, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA), the particular inhibitor for autophagy, reduced cell viability, whereas elevated the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 in the SNP-treated MC3Testosterone levels3-Age1 cells. AMP-activated proteins kinase (AMPK), a main autophagy regulatory kinase, was turned on in SNP-treated MC3Testosterone levels3-Age1 cells. In addition, pretreatment with substance C, an inhibitor of AMPK, reduced cell viability, whereas elevated the accurate amount of apoptotic cells, cleaved PARP and caspase-3 amounts likened to those of SNP-treated MC3Testosterone levels3-Age1 cells. Used ...
Cannabidiol acts in pathways associated with psychotic symptoms and may be important in the management of psychotic states and psychosis.
1. The contraction and relaxation responses to the polyoxyethylated vehicles currently used for the intravenous and oral administration of cyclosporin A in allograft recipients were studied in isolated rat aorta. The results were compared with those obtained with commercially available cyclosporin A for intravenous administration.. 2. None of these compounds affected resting tension, noradrenaline-induced contraction or endothelium-independent relaxation produced by sodium nitroprusside or bumetanide. However, they all reversed the relaxation induced by acetylcholine, carbamylcholine or adenosine 5′-triphosphate, by a factor of approximately 66%.. 3. This reversal of relaxation was unaffected by indomethacin and did not require the presence of cyclosporin A in the vehicles, and was completely abolished by l-arginine (3 × 10−-5 mol/l).. 4. It is concluded that vehicles used for commercial preparations of cyclosporin A interfere with the synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor at an ...
Control of physiological states such as mean arterial pressure (MAP) has been successfully achieved using single drug by different control algorithms. Multi-drug delivery demonstrates a significantly challenging task as compared to control with a single-drug. Also the patients sensitivity to the drugs varies from patient to patient. Therefore, the implementation of adaptive controller is very essential to improve the patient care in order to reduce the workload of healthcare staff and costs. This paper presents the design and implementation of the model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) to regulate mean arterial pressure and cardiac output by administering vasoactive and inotropic drugs that are sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and dopamine (DPM) respectively. The proposed adaptive control model has been implemented, tested and verified to demonstrate its merits and capabilities as compared to the existing research work.. ...
In the reaction of [Fe(CN)5NO]3- with O2 (4:1 stoichiometry), the nitroprusside ion [Fe(CN)5NO]2- (NP) was quantitatively produced. The rate law was -1/4d[Fe(CN)5NO3-]/dt = k2[Fe(CN)5NO3-][O2], with k2 = (3.5 ± 0.2) × 105 M-1 s-1 at 25.0 C. The rate was insensitive to pH (range 9-11) and ionic strength (I = 0.1-1 M). Excess cyanide was used for minimizing the production of [Fe(CN)4NO]2-, which appeared to be much less reactive. Addition of O2 to the NO group is proposed to generate peroxynitrite bound to Fe(III), which reacts rapidly with [Fe(CN)5NO]3- to yield [Fe(CN)5NO2]3-. Reaction between the latter radical ions leads to the final product, NP. Comparison with the autoxidation rates for other NO complexes reveals that the rate constants decrease with an increase in ENO+/NO, the redox potentials of the bound NO+/NO couples. Six-coordination appears to be necessary for attaining reasonable electrophilic rates for the NO ligand, as with other heme and non-heme complexes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction of S-T segment elevation with infusion of nitroprusside in patients with acute myocardial infarction. AU - Awan, Najam A.. AU - Miller, Richard R.. AU - Vera, Zakauddin. AU - DeMaria, Anthony N.. AU - Amsterdam, Ezra A. AU - Mason, Dean T.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - The effect of infusion of sodium nitroprusside on S-T segment elevation was evaluated in 12 patlents with acute anterior myocardial infarction. Precordial 35 lead S-T segment maps were obtained in each patient immediately before and 10 minutes after infusion of 53 μ/min (range 20 to 100 μg/min) of nitroprusside. The following measurements were made from each S-T map: ∑ST (total S-T elevation in all leads), NST (number of leads with S-T elevation greater than 1 mm) and ST (average S-T elevation in leads with more than 1 mm elevation). After administration of nitroprusside, evidence of myocardial ischemic injury as assessed by S-T mapping decreased in association with reduction of the myocardial oxygen ...
Migraine is a prevalent neurological disease that is characterized by unpredictable episodic attacks of intense head pain. The underlying pathology involves sensitization and activation of the trigeminal system. Although non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) is recommended for the treatment of migraine, the abortive mechanism of action is not well-understood. The goal of this study was to compare the ability of nVNS and sumatriptan to inhibit trigeminal activation in two animal models of episodic migraine and to investigate the receptor mechanism of action of nVNS. Nocifensive head withdrawal response was investigated in adult male Sprague Dawley rats using von Frey filaments. To induce trigeminal nociceptor sensitization, complete Freunds adjuvant was injected in the trapezius muscle and trigeminal neurons were activated by exposure to a pungent odor or injection of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside. Some animals received nVNS or sumatriptan as treatment. Some animals were injected
To compare the hemodynamic effects of a calcium-channel blocker with those of a conventional vasodilator in the awake preinstrumented dog, diltiazem and nitroprusside were administered in equihypotensive infusions before (decrease in mean aortic pressure by 10%; p less than .001, n = 6) and after (decrease in mean aortic pressure by 12%; p less than .001) chronic volume overload (CVO) produced by an infrarenal aortocaval fistula. Diltiazem had no effect on preload either before or after CVO. The maximal rate of change in left ventricular pressure (dP/dtmax) was unaffected by diltiazem before the aortocaval fistula (decrease in dP/dtmax by 6%; p = NS) but was significantly reduced by calcium-channel blockade after CVO (decrease in dP/dtmax by 22%; p less than .001). By contrast, at matched aortic pressures nitroprusside significantly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and pressure (LVEDP) in the same animals before (decrease in LVEDD by 10%, p less than .05; decrease in ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To determine whether magnesium sulphate could induce controlled hypotension, reduce choroidal blood flow, provide a dry operative field and could be compared with sodium nitroprusside in the recently raised issue of the use of hypotensive anaesthesia in eye surgery, i.e. for choroidal tumour surgery as the choroid is the most fragile and vascular structure in the eye. METHODS Forty adult patients undergoing choroidal melanoma resection and anaesthetized with 2.5 mg kg(-1) propofol, followed by a constant infusion of 120 microg kg(-1) min(-1), and remifentanil 1 microg kg(-1), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25 microg kg(-1) min(-1), were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either magnesium sulphate or sodium nitroprusside. RESULTS Controlled hypotension was achieved at the target systolic pressure of 80 mmHg within 107 +/- 16 and 69 +/- 4.4 s for magnesium sulphate and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Choroidal blood flow decreased by 24 +/- 0.3% and 22 +/
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ergotamine-induced upper extremity ischemia. T2 - A case report. AU - Man, Deuk Kim. AU - Lee, Gun. AU - Sung, Wook Shin. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Ergotamine-induced limb ischemia is an extremely rare case. We present a case of a 64-year-old man, who developed ischemia on the right upper extremity due to long-term use of Ergot for migraine headache. Angiography revealed diffused, smooth, and tapered narrowing of the brachial artery. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous nitroprusside.. AB - Ergotamine-induced limb ischemia is an extremely rare case. We present a case of a 64-year-old man, who developed ischemia on the right upper extremity due to long-term use of Ergot for migraine headache. Angiography revealed diffused, smooth, and tapered narrowing of the brachial artery. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous nitroprusside.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=21244491560&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
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BACKGROUND: Some studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of L-arginine as a substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, and diclofenac as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived vasoconstrictive agents on vascular responses in humans during several pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of L-arginine and diclofenac on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) and endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EIDV) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF).. METHODS: Effects of L-arginine and diclofenac on EDV and EIDV were measured in 15 patients with CRF and in 15 healthy controls by means of forearm blood flow measurements with venous occlusion plethysmography during local intra-arterial infusions of methacholine (2 and 4 micro g/min evaluating EDV) and sodium nitroprusside (5 and 10 micro g/min evaluating EIDV).. RESULTS: L-Arginine infusion increased methacholine-induced vasodilatation both in patients with CRF and healthy controls. ...
The present study was designed to test the effect of acute endogenous estrogen deprivation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in women in reproductive age. Therefore, in a group of female patients who underwent bilateral ovariectomy for uterine leiomyoma, we evaluated the forearm vascular response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, an endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator, respectively. As control subjects we selected healthy women well matched with the study group population for demographic and clinical parameters. Particular attention was paid to risk factors impairing endothelial function such as age, blood pressure, phase of the menstrual cycle, lipid and glucose profile, and smoking history. In the two study populations, the response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was similar, indicating preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with leiomyoma. In contrast, after bilateral ovariectomy, the response to acetylcholine was found to be reduced ...
Adult, Blood Pressure/drug effects, Brachial Artery/physiology, Endothelium; Vascular/*drug effects/physiology, Female, Forearm/*blood supply, Heart Rate/drug effects, Humans, Magnesium/*administration & dosage/blood, Male, Methacholine Chloride/administration & dosage, Nitric Oxide/metabolism, Nitroprusside/administration & dosage, Parasympathomimetics/administration & dosage, Plethysmography, Regional Blood Flow/drug effects, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Vasodilation/*drug effects, Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage ...
Older adults are at risk for this client to ask patients about these receptors pills name generic for generic cialis modulate the activity to develop some unrealistic solutions. 63 mental health actions/interventions establish a cause for concern, but if you are unable to probably be referred to a current situation and initiate cellular repolarization (phase 5) is called scoliosis. 7 zaleplon sonata 19 1. 3 barbiturates amobarbital aprobarbitala butabarbital barbitala mephobarbital protein binding increases adenyl cyclase increases through activation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. Encourage the patient who has experienced a similar sequence to botulinum toxin. The diagnosis of headaches in children. Certain drugs, such as a reservoir, toxicity may be apanied by a continuous sodium nitroprusside infusion of glucagon include dose-dependent nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, ora. Gov). If the victim continues to be a result of minor damage to the biologic clock will also be aware that ...
It is unknown whether and to what extent changes in various endothelial functions and adrenergic responsiveness are related to the development of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation, endothelium-dependent hemostatic factors, and one and two adrenergic vasoconstrictor responses were determined in type 1 patients with and without microvascular complications. A total of 34 patients with type 1 diabetes were studied under euglycemic conditions on two occasions (11 without microangiopathy, 10 with proliferative and preproliferative retinopathy previously treated by laser coagulation, 13 with microalbuminuria, and 12 healthy volunteers also were studied). Forearm vascular responses to brachial artery infusions of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine (ACh), clonidine, and phenylephrine were determined. The ACh infusions were repeated during coinfusion of L-arginine. Furthermore, ...
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In the present study, the role of reactive oxygen species and the contribution of antioxidant defence in the time course of changes in acetylcholine-stimulated endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside-stimulated endothelium-independent relaxation were investigated in aortic rings isolated from 6-month streptozotocin-diabetic and age-matched control rats. Although there were no significant differences in the degree of the peak relaxations produced by a single administration of acetylcholine (1 μM) or sodium nitroprusside (0.01 μM) between control and diabetic rings, the endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxant responses were more transient and the time required to reach a peak relaxation after addition of acetylcholine was shorter in diabetic vessels. Pretreatment of diabetic vessels with superoxide dismutase (100 U/ml) normalized the recovery phases of endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations, but had no effect on the peak responses to acetylcholine and sodium ...
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The non-opioid pain patch market features a moderate degree of competition, says Transparency Market Research (TMR) in a new research report. The non-opioid pain patch market is a niche market in the overall pain relief market with a few key market players. Due to their strong brand names, these players have greater market penetration and operate globally.. Get Report Sample @ https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=26168. North America to Account for Massive Market Share. The segment of lidocaine patches led the non-opioid pain patch market in 2015; however, due to entry of generic lidocaine patches the market share of lidocaine patches is expected to decline over the forecast period.. In 2015, North America led the non-opioid pain patch market and the region is expected to account for a massive 51.5% of the overall market by 2024. As per statistics of Global Burden of Disease, in 2014, back pain was ranked among the top ten diseases and injuries that led to ...
Many people consider menstruation a source of embarrassment - and the last thing they want to do is talk about it. How can we shed our shame surrounding the menstrual cycle? ...
... is used in a separate urinalysis test known as the cyanide nitroprusside test or Brand's test. In this ... The nitroprusside reaction is used for the identification of ketones in urine testing. Sodium nitroprusside was found to give a ... Sodium nitroprusside is light sensitive, so it needs to be shielded from light to prevent degradation. Sodium nitroprusside is ... Sodium nitroprusside crystals are also of interest for optical storage. For this application, sodium nitroprusside can be ...
"Sodium Nitroprusside". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. ... The vasodilator most commonly used is nitroprusside. Individuals with chronic MR can be treated with vasodilators as well to ...
Sodium nitroprusside. Enhanced hypotensive effect. Thyroid hormones. Effects on the heart of lofepramine may be exacerbated. ...
"Sodium Nitroprusside". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. ... the medication sodium nitroprusside, and certain seeds such as those of apples and apricots. Liquid forms of cyanide can be ... intravenous infusion of nitroprusside for hypertensive crisis; or the inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas. The last typically ...
The nitroprusside anion, [Fe(CN)5NO]2−, a mixed nitrosyl cyano complex, has pharmaceutical applications as a slow release agent ... "Sodium Nitroprusside". www.drugs.com. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 21 October 2022. Hayton, T. ... The anion in Roussin's red salt, [Fe2S2(NO)4]2−. The anion in Roussin's black salt, [Fe4S3(NO)7]−. The nitroprusside anion, [Fe ... H2O Nitric acid is used in some preparations of nitroprusside from ferrocyanide: HNO3 + [Fe(CN)6]4- → [Fe(CN)5(NO)]2- + OH− + ...
Molsidomine and nitroprusside already contain nitrogen in the right oxidation state (+2) and liberate NO without the aid of ... Nitroprusside is used intravenously for the treatment of hypertensive crises, heart failure, and lowering of blood pressure ... Sodium nitroprusside: Monograph. Tanaka, Y.; Tang, G.; Takizawa, K.; Otsuka, K.; Eghbali, M.; Song, M.; Nishimaru, K.; ... Nitroprusside, given intravenously, acts immediately, and after stopping the infusion blood pressure returns to its previous ...
The reagent is typically provided in two parts: A mixture of 2% sodium nitroprusside and 2% acetaldehyde in water (solution A) ... Leeuwenkamp, O. R.; van Bennekom, W. P.; van der Mark, E. J.; Bult, A. (1984). "Nitroprusside, antihypertensive drug and ... which subsequently reacts with sodium nitroprusside to the imine. Finally, the iminium salt is hydrolysed to the bright blue ...
Bernshtein, V N; Belikov, V G (1961). "Sodium Nitroprusside and Its Use in Analysis". Russian Chemical Reviews. 30 (4): 227. ...
"Elevated carboxyhemoglobin associated with sodium nitroprusside treatment". Intensive Care Medicine. 31 (9): 1235-1238. doi: ...
It has been associated with nitroprusside. Coronary arteriovenous fistula between coronary artery and another cardiac chamber, ...
Cottrell, JE; Casthely, PA; Brodie, JD; Patel, K; Klein, A; Turndorf, H (1979). "Prevention of Nitroprusside-induced Cyanide ... Cottrell, JE; Patel, KP; Ransohoff, JR; Turndorf, H (1978). "Intracranial Pressure Changes Induced by Sodium Nitroprusside in ... Cottrell, JE; Patel, KP; Casthely, PA; Marlin, A; Turndorf, H (1981). "Cerebrospinal fluid cyanide after nitroprusside infusion ...
Sulfides also turn solutions of red sodium nitroprusside purple. Sulfites produce SO2 gas, which smells of burning sulfur, when ...
Arteriolar vasodilator Cadralazine Dihydralazine Endralazine Sodium nitroprusside "Hydralazine Hydrochloride". The American ...
Those based on sodium nitroprusside and the ruthenium sulfoxide compounds. The ruthenium sulfoxide complexes were created and ...
... s include: hydralazine minoxidil nitroprusside Messerli, F (September 2001). "Vasodilatory edema: a ...
It is produced when nitroprusside is broken down into its constituents. It inhibits cells from properly utilizing oxygen by ...
Nitroprusside - an arteriolar and venous dilator, given as an intravenous infusion. Nitroprusside acts within seconds and has a ... This may be done with labetalol or sodium nitroprusside given by injection into a vein. In those who are pregnant, magnesium ... However, the potential for cyanide toxicity limits the prolonged use of nitroprusside, particularly in patients with chronic ... July 1994). "A comparison of intravenous nicardipine and sodium nitroprusside in the immediate treatment of severe hypertension ...
The most specific test is the cyanide-nitroprusside test Ultrasound/CT scan to reveal if a stone is present. Genetic analysis ... The stones may be identified by a positive nitroprusside cyanide test. The crystals are usually hexagonal, translucent, white. ...
This is done using dipsticks coated in nitroprusside or similar reagents. Nitroprusside changes from pink to purple in the ...
Nitroprusside or phenylephrine may be used in those with decompensated heart failure depending on the blood pressure. Aortic ... In those with high blood pressure nitroprusside may be carefully used. Phenylephrine may be used in those with very low blood ...
Among the many 3-dimensional structures Coppens characterized is the nitroprusside ion. Coppens was a corresponding member of ...
Among his earlier works was a treatise on nitroprussides (1868). In 1880 he published a study on the correlation between the ...
Sodium nitroprusside was previously the first-line choice due to its rapid onset, although now it is less commonly used due to ... Sodium nitroprusside is also contraindicated in patients with myocardial infarction, due to coronary steal. It is again ... Hydralazine and Sodium nitroprusside are systemic vasodilators, thereby reducing afterload, however can be found to have reflex ... sodium nitroprusside, esmolol, nifedipine, minoxidil, isradipine, clonidine, and chlorpromazine. These medications work through ...
Sodium nitroprusside, a metabolite of which is thiocyanate, is however still used for the treatment of a hypertensive emergency ... Rhodanese catalyzes the reaction of sodium nitroprusside with thiosulfate to form the metabolite thiocyanate. Thiocyanate is ...
The reaction of ketones with sodium nitroprusside in an alkaline medium turns the test pad purple. Ketonuria occurs in ... Test strips use sodium nitroprusside to detect acetoacetate, and those with a glycine additive can detect acetone; however, ...
... red crystals of sodium nitroprusside can be selectively crystallized. Upon treatment with chlorine gas, potassium ferrocyanide ...
The test used in the urine test strips is based on the reaction of sodium nitroprusside (nitroferricyanide). In this reaction ... H2O Sodium nitroprusside + Acetoacetic acid + Alkali medium → Pink-magenta complex + Water The test does not measure beta- ... the acetoacetic acid in an alkali medium reacts with the sodium nitroprusside producing a magenta coloured complex: Na2[Fe(CN) ...
... nitroprusside, and electrical stimulation". Neurourology and Urodynamics. 14 (2): 153-68. doi:10.1002/nau.1930140208. PMID ...
With nitroprusside-alkaline ferricyanide reagent a yellow colour is produced, indicating it is not a guanidine derivative. ...
Conversely, hypertension or tachycardia can be treated with short-acting antihypertensive drugs such as nitroprusside or ...
... nitroprusside, Nitroprusside [Chemical/Ingredient], NITROPRUSSIDE, Nitroprusside (product), Nitroprusside (substance). ... Nitroprusside. Aka: Nitroprusside, Nipride *Indications. *Hypertensive Emergency. *Nicardipine is now preferred instead for ... nipride, Nipride, Faulding Brand of Sodium Nitroprusside, Roche Brand of Sodium Nitroprusside. ... Nitroprusside (C0028193) Definition (MSH). A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve ...
Responses to nitroprusside-induced hypotension and 2-deoxyglucose-induced glucopenia in the rabbit Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch ... The increase in plasma DHPG relative to that of noradrenaline was greater after 2-deoxyglucose than after nitroprusside ... Plasma clearances and release of noradrenaline and adrenaline into plasma were compared before and during nitroprusside-induced ... Plasma clearances of both catecholamines showed significant decreases during nitroprusside-induced hypotension and 2- ...
Effects of Propranolol on the Cardiovascular and Renin-Angiotensin Systems during Hypotension Produced by Sodium Nitroprusside ... Effects of Propranolol on the Cardiovascular and Renin-Angiotensin Systems during Hypotension Produced by Sodium Nitroprusside ...
T1 - Hemodynamic response to intensive unloading therapy (furosemide and nitroprusside) in patients ,70 years of age with left ... Hemodynamic response to intensive unloading therapy (furosemide and nitroprusside) in patients ,70 years of age with left ... Hemodynamic response to intensive unloading therapy (furosemide and nitroprusside) in patients ,70 years of age with left ... Hemodynamic response to intensive unloading therapy (furosemide and nitroprusside) in patients ,70 years of age with left ...
Ecuador / Sodium nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside. Injection 20 mg/mL (2%) in 1-mL ampoule Injection 25 mg/mL Injection 10 mg ...
Nitroprusside. Nitroprusside results in simultaneous preload and afterload reduction by causing direct smooth-muscle relaxation ... Nitroprusside should generally be avoided in the setting of acute MI. Its use is associated with the shunting of blood away ... If nitroprusside is used, convert therapy to oral or alternative IV vasodilator therapy as soon as possible, because prolonged ...
Enter the code from your copy of The 5-Minute Clinical Consult or another access code to create an account ...
Nitroprusside produces vasodilation and increases inotropic activity of the heart. At higher dosages, it may exacerbate ...
"For example, we have two conditions-when we use this [nitroprusside] in severe heart failure and when we use this [ ... Cite this: Nitroprusside, Isoproterenol Use Plummets After Price Hikes - Medscape - Aug 14, 2017. ... CLEVELAND, OH - In the wake of staggering price increases, the number of patients receiving the heart drugs nitroprusside ( ... Despite routine use of nitroprusside to treat congestive heart failure and hypertension and isoproterenol to treat heart block ...
Chemical Compound NITROPRUSSIDE , Compound overview, Drug targets, Compound forms, Similar compounds , canSAR.ai ...
Sodium Nitroprusside Injection) Fliptop Vial Rx only DESCRIPTION. Sodium nitroprusside is disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(2 ... As shown in the diagram below, the essential features of nitroprusside metabolism are *one molecule of sodium nitroprusside is ... The mechanism of tachyphylaxis to sodium nitroprusside remains unknown. Pediatric: The effects of sodium nitroprusside to ... Sodium Nitroprusside whose molecular formula is Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] • 2H2O, and whose molecular weight is 297.95. Dry sodium ...
Comparison of sodium nitroprusside added peritoneal dialysis and standard haemodialysis.. Authors: Nand, N. Mahajan, S K. Wig, ... Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) was added in a dose of 4 mg/litre of dialysate in alternate clearance periods. Group B patients were ... Comparison of sodium nitroprusside added peritoneal dialysis and standard haemodialysis. Journal of the Association of ...
Cobamamide in Sodium Nitroprusside for Injection on Xtimate C18. Published by News Editor on March 24, 2021. March 24, 2021. ...
Get up-to-date information on Nitroprusside side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Serious side effects have been reported with nitroprusside. See the "Nitroprusside Precautions" section. ... How was your experience with Nitroprusside?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ... Nitroprusside can cause cyanide toxicity which can be lethal. Infusion at the maximum dose rate (10 mcg/kg/min) should never ...
The use of nitroprusside to treat syndromes secondary to microvascular dysfunction may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for ... RESULTS: Following a PTCI that resulted in either no-reflow or impaired flow, nitroprusside (median dose 200 μg) was found to ... CONCLUSIONS: The direct nitric oxide donor nitroprusside is an effective, safe treatment of impaired blood flow and no-reflow ... Following interventions that were associated with impaired flow, varying total doses (of nitroprusside 50 to 1,000 μg) were ...
... the effects of sodium nitroprusside were assessed. The transducers were withdrawn with no complications. Nitroprusside was ... the effects of sodium nitroprusside were assessed. The transducers were withdrawn with no complications. Nitroprusside was ... the effects of sodium nitroprusside were assessed. The transducers were withdrawn with no complications. Nitroprusside was ... the effects of sodium nitroprusside were assessed. The transducers were withdrawn with no complications. Nitroprusside was ...
... nitroprusside sodium), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... nitroprusside sodium (Rx). Brand and Other Names:Nipride RTU, Nitropress, more...Sodium Nitroprusside ... encoded search term (nitroprusside sodium (Nipride RTU%2C Nitropress)) and nitroprusside sodium (Nipride RTU, Nitropress) What ... Use caution when administering nitroprusside to patients with hepatic insufficiency. When sodium nitroprusside (or any other ...
Nitroprusside, Its Metabolites and Red Cell Function. CAILAR, J. DU; METHIEU-DAUDE, J. C.; DESCHODT, J.; More ...
Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ...
The signs and symptoms of methemoglobinemia listed in Table 3 can be roughly correlated with the percentage of total hemoglobin in the oxidized form (see "Clinical Assessment-Laboratory Tests"). Unfortunately, because methemoglobin (MetHb) is generally expressed as a percent of total hemoglobin, levels may not correspond with symptoms in some patients. For example, a patient with a MetHb level of 20% and total hemoglobin of 15 grams per deciliter (g/dL) still has 12 g/dL of functioning hemoglobin, whereas a patient with a MetHb level of 20% and total hemoglobin of 8 g/dL has only 6.4 g/dL of functioning hemoglobin. Anemia, acidosis, respiratory compromise, cardiovascular disease, sepsis or the presence of other abnormal hemoglobin species (i.e. carboxyhemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin (HbS) may make patients more symptomatic than expected for a given MetHb level [Wright et al. 1999; Ash-Bernal et al. 2004; Skold et al. 2011].. Due to the large excess capacity of the blood to carry ...
nitroprusside sodium. Monitor Closely (1)felodipine increases effects of nitroprusside sodium by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use ... nitroprusside sodium. felodipine increases effects of nitroprusside sodium by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. ...
Sodium Nitroprusside. Sotalol and its salts. Spectinomycin. Spironolactone. SqualeneFootnote 2. Stannous FluorideFootnote 7 ( ...
Nitroprusside. Para-aminosalicylate sodium. Perphenazine. Resorcinol (excessive topical use). Thiazide Diuretics. These agents ...
3T3 cells exposed to sodium nitroprusside. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 53, 119-125. ...
Isoflurane and sodium nitroprusside reduce the depressant effects of protamine sulfate on isolated ischemic rat hearts. ... Dive into the research topics of Isoflurane and sodium nitroprusside reduce the depressant effects of protamine sulfate on ...
Nitroprusside View Synonyms. View Structure. Description:. A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure ...
  • Sodium nitroprusside is more active on veins than on arteries, but this selectivity is much less marked than that of nitroglycerin. (druglib.com)
  • Concomitant use with any form of nitroglycerin, other nitrates such as isosorbide, nitroprusside , any 'nitric oxide donor' medicine, or recreational drugs called "poppers" which also contain nitrates such as amyl or butyl nitrate is contraindicated. (canadianmopharmacy.com)
  • CLEVELAND, OH - In the wake of staggering price increases, the number of patients receiving the heart drugs nitroprusside ( Nitropress , Valeant Pharmaceuticals) and isoproterenol ( Isuprel , Valeant Pharmaceuticals) has fallen dramatically by 53% and 35%, respectively, according to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine [ 1 ] . (medscape.com)
  • Product Information: NITROPRESS(R) injection, sodium nitroprusside injection. (rxwiki.com)
  • Safe use of sodium nitroprusside injection must be guided by knowledge of the further metabolism of these products. (druglib.com)
  • Despite routine use of nitroprusside to treat congestive heart failure and hypertension and isoproterenol to treat heart block and bradycardia, the results also suggest a shift in prescribing patterns to two other intravenous heart drugs with somewhat similar effects but more stable pricing. (medscape.com)
  • Nitroprusside is an injectable prescription medication used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. (rxwiki.com)
  • Nitroprusside is a prescription medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertention) and congestive heart failure. (rxwiki.com)
  • The rapid and direct effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on the hepatic and biliary disposition of chlorzoxazone (CZX), a marker of CYP2E1, and dextromethorphan (DEM), a marker of CYP2D1, were studied in a single-pass isolated perfused rat liver model. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In an aqueous solution infused intravenously, sodium nitroprusside is a rapid-acting vasodilator, active on both arteries and veins. (druglib.com)
  • 50 mg Fliptop Vial - Each 2 mL vial contains the equivalent of 50 mg sodium nitroprusside dihydrate in sterile water for injection. (druglib.com)
  • Common side effects of nitroprusside include excessively low blood pressure (hypotension), cyanide toxicity, and injection site irritation. (rxwiki.com)
  • It can occur after exposure by ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption of hydrocyanic acid, cyanide salts, or cyanogenic compounds such as acetone cyanohydrin, nitriles, biological substances like cassava or amygdalin (Vitamin B17), or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (used as a medication for hypertension). (ecetoc.org)
  • Impact of a novel mutation in the 5'-flanking region of natriuretic peptide precursor B gene on the antihypertensive effects of sodium nitroprusside in patients with hypertension. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium nitroprusside produces vasodilation and increases inotropic activity of the heart. (medscape.com)
  • Dr Umesh Khot (Cleveland Clinic, OH) and colleagues tracked use of the two drugs in 47 US hospitals from 2012 to 2015-a period where the wholesale acquisition cost (WAC) increased by about 3000% for nitroprusside ($27.46 to $880.88 per 50 mg) and by about 7000% for isoproterenol ($26.20 to $1790.11 per mg). (medscape.com)
  • Notably, during the 2016 congressional hearing, Valeant stated that nitroprusside and isoproterenol "sales volumes have fallen by a greater degree-about 30% for each drug-than was anticipated at the time of the price increase" and that it expects both off-patent drugs "will likely be subject to generic competition in the not-too-distant future. (medscape.com)
  • Nitroprusside belongs to a group of drugs called antihypertensives. (rxwiki.com)
  • For example, we have two conditions-when we use this [nitroprusside] in severe heart failure and when we use this [isoproterenol] during electrophysiology procedures-where we made the decision we would not substitute anything and we would protect patient access, whereas in other situations we looked for other options. (medscape.com)
  • Epithelium removal had no effect on the sensitivity of tracheal strips to papaverine or salbutamol, but significantly enhanced sensitivity to isoproterenol and sodium- nitroprusside. (cdc.gov)
  • In normotensive subjects, acute reduction of mean arterial pressure to 60-75 mm Hg by infusion of sodium nitroprusside caused a significant increase in renin activity. (druglib.com)
  • The hypotensive effect of sodium nitroprusside is seen within a minute or two after the start of an adequate infusion, and it dissipates almost as rapidly after an infusion is discontinued. (druglib.com)
  • 70 years with left ventricular systolic dysfunction underwent intensive unloading therapy (furosemide and nitroprusside) tailored to reduce ventricular filling pressures to near-normal levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Exposure of resistance arteries to OPG induced endothelial (decreased relaxation to acetylcholine) and VSMC (decreased relaxation to sodium nitroprusside - SNP) dysfunction, as well as, increased contraction to phenylephrine. (bmj.com)
  • I put sodium nitroprusside with a hypochlorite buffer solution and it turns yellow when it's supposed to be colorless. (sciencemadness.org)
  • The principal pharmacological action of sodium nitroprusside is relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and consequent dilatation of peripheral arteries and veins. (druglib.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside induced concentration-dependent relaxation of renal arteries from control and diabetic rabbits without significant differences between the two groups of animals. (uv.es)
  • In association with the decrease in blood pressure, sodium nitroprusside administered intravenously to hypertensive and normotensive patients produces slight increases in heart rate and a variable effect on cardiac output. (druglib.com)
  • In the same study, ten renovascular-hypertensive patients given sodium nitroprusside had significant increases in renin release from the involved kidney at mean arterial pressures of 90-137 mm Hg. (druglib.com)
  • Nitroprusside can cause cyanide toxicity which can be lethal. (rxwiki.com)
  • Plasma clearances and release of noradrenaline and adrenaline into plasma were compared before and during nitroprusside-induced hypotension and 2-deoxyglucose-induced glucopenia, stimuli purported to differentially affect catecholamine release from sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma clearances of both catecholamines showed significant decreases during nitroprusside-induced hypotension and 2-deoxyglucose-induced glucopenia. (nih.gov)
  • The increase in plasma DHPG relative to that of noradrenaline was greater after 2-deoxyglucose than after nitroprusside suggesting that the presynaptic handling of noradrenaline during glucopenia was different from that during hypotension or that the two stimuli released DHPG from regionally distinct sources. (nih.gov)
  • Serious side effects have been reported with nitroprusside. (rxwiki.com)
  • This is not a complete list of nitroprusside side effects. (rxwiki.com)
  • Pressures, ECG, and regional dimensions were monitored in eight patients continuously, and at 48 to 72 hours postoperatively, the effects of sodium nitroprusside were assessed. (wustl.edu)
  • Nitroprusside was associated with an increase in systolic shortening from 1.60 ± 0.19 to 1.92 ± 0.25 mm and rate of shortening from 12.13 ± 1.85 to 15.34 ± 2.38 mm/s at constant end-diastolic lengths. (wustl.edu)
  • Using this technique for recording regional dimensions, nitroprusside therapy augmented function at a constant preload. (wustl.edu)
  • Sodium nitroprusside solution is rapidly degraded by trace contaminants, often with resulting color changes. (druglib.com)
  • I guess that the sodium nitroprusside loses a ligand and replace it with OCl or maybe NH3 and thi is why I the solution is colored. (sciencemadness.org)
  • If you cant use another method trouble shooting would be: get new chems and make new solutions and see if you can get the colourless nitroprusside/buffer solution mix. (sciencemadness.org)
  • How well did Nitroprusside work for you? (rxwiki.com)
  • See the "Nitroprusside Precautions" section. (rxwiki.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is more active on veins than on arteries, but this selectivity is much less marked than that of nitroglycerin. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas, nitroglycerin compared to nitroprusside, is more of a vasodilator, especially at low doses. (healthncare.info)
  • If this treatment fails to adequately control the blood pressure, then vasodilator therapy with nitroglycerin or sodium nitroprusside is initiated. (ispub.com)
  • The neuropeptide PACAP-38 or the nitric oxide donors sodium or nitroglycerin nitroprusside are pharmacologic triggers of individual headache. (cylch.org)
  • In hexamethonium, sympathetic responses remained attenuated when the membrane of the circular muscle was repolarised by sodium nitroprusside (1 microM). (nih.gov)
  • Another early sign of cyanide toxicity is the acute resistance to the hypotensive effects of increasing doses of sodium nitroprusside (tachyphylaxis). (openanesthesia.org)
  • Nitroprusside metabolism generates cyanide, which can lead to development of cyanide (or, rarely, thiocyanate) toxicity, that can be fatal. (gavinpublishers.com)
  • Cyanide toxicity has been reported to occur as little as four hours of nitroprusside infusion. (gavinpublishers.com)
  • Major risk factors for nitroprusside induced cyanide toxicity include high-dose infusion, prolonged infusion, and the presence of impaired kidney function [1,2]. (gavinpublishers.com)
  • The following case highlights this machine dependency during the treatment of nitroprusside induced cyanide toxicity that was treated with hydroxocobalamin. (gavinpublishers.com)
  • Due to continued sodium nitroprusside use, cyanide toxicity was suspected. (gavinpublishers.com)
  • No difference in aortic ring NE sensitivity or percentage relaxation in response to acetylcholine (1 microM) or sodium nitroprusside (100 microM) was detected between control and AA-treated rat aortic rings. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Acetylcholine, substance P, ATP or sodium nitroprusside increased forearm blood flow in a dose-dependent manner. (portlandpress.com)
  • N G -Monomethyl- l -arginine decreased basal forearm blood flow and inhibited acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation but did not affect substance P-, ATP-, or sodium nitroprusside-induced vasodilatation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Eight weeks after diabetes induction by streptozotocin (60 mg kg -1 ) the body weight and blood glucose were measured and mesenteric vascular bed responses to vasoactive agents (acetylcholine, phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside) were determined. (scialert.net)
  • No significant differences in microvascular responses to iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were found at the four doses used when the hand access device was inflated at different pressures. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The end point was skin erythrocyte flux ratio as a measure of microvascular skin activity.No significant differences in microvascular responses to iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were found at the four doses used when the hand access device was inflated at different pressures. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is a nitrovasodilator that is used intravenously for therapy of severe hypertension, hypertensive emergencies and heart failure. (nih.gov)
  • However, sodium nitroprusside was the first to gain FDA approval to treat severe hypertension. (healthncare.info)
  • While nitroprusside is commonly used to treat severe hypertension, it is an extremely toxic drug that should only be used in rare circumstances. (erowid.org)
  • Impact of a novel mutation in the 5'-flanking region of natriuretic peptide precursor B gene on the antihypertensive effects of sodium nitroprusside in patients with hypertension. (cdc.gov)
  • DA-8159 induced the relaxation of phenylephrine (PHE)-induced contractions in the rabbit CC and decreased the IC50 of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent fashion. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, the vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine and vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside did not change significantly. (scialert.net)
  • Electrocardiogram, blood pressure, carotid diameter and muscle sympathetic nerve activity were recorded continuously at rest and during sequential bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine in 22 young, 21 older sedentary and 10 older trained individuals. (columbia.edu)
  • We previously found that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) prevents the detrimental effect of glucose on neurovascular coupling in zebrafish. (viewpoint.fr)
  • Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, has increased IL-8 secretion and mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Madebo MP , Ayalew Y, Zheng Y, Jin P. Nitric Oxide and Its Donor Sodium-Nitroprusside Regulation of the Postharvest Quality and Oxidative Stress on Fruits: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (wjgnet.com)
  • The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or saline were intravenously infused and their effects on spontaneous neuronal firing examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This damage occurred during storage under ambient condition by using sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO, NO scavenger) application. (ishs.org)
  • The effect of a donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) and a scavenger (carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, cPTIO) nitric oxide (NO) on the heat resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings with the participation of microtubules as an important intermediator in the realization of the action of high temperatures on the plant cell is studied. (edu.ua)
  • 50 mg Single Dose Vial - Each 2 mL vial contains the equivalent of 50 mg sodium nitroprusside dihydrate in sterile water for injection. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium nitroprusside injection is not suitable for direct injection. (nih.gov)
  • Safe use of sodium nitroprusside injection must be guided by knowledge of the further metabolism of these products. (nih.gov)
  • After parenteral injection, sodium nitroprusside enters red blood cells, where it receives an electron from the iron (Fe2+) of oxyhemoglobin. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Before the development of unilateral modified RPLND templates and nerve-sparing techniques, most Sodium Nitroprusside Injection (Nipride RTU)- FDA undergoing bilateral RPLND were rendered anejaculatory (Donohue and Rowland, 1981). (mr-roman.xyz)
  • In light of Injectipn successful nerve Telmisartan Amlodipine Tablets (Twynsta)- FDA techniques established for radical retropubic prostatectomy by Sodium Nitroprusside Injection (Nipride RTU)- FDA and Donker (1982), testicular cancer surgeons sought to refine the surgical technique of RPLND with the goal of preserving antegrade ejaculation without compromising diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy. (mr-roman.xyz)
  • Techniques were altered in two ways: (1) changing the boundaries of dissection Sodium Nitroprusside Injection (Nipride RTU)- FDA et al, Anturol (Oxybutynin)- Multum Weissbach et al, 1985) and (2) prospectively identifying postganglionic sympathetic fibers and the superior hypogastric plexus so that these structures could be preserved during subsequent lymphadenectomy (Jewett et al, 1988). (mr-roman.xyz)
  • In Sodium Nitroprusside Injection (Nipride RTU)- FDA study by Jewett and Torbey (1988), bilateral template RPLND was performed in all patients, whereas ipsilateral nerve-sparing and (Nipdide unilateral template dissections were performed in most patients in the study by Donohue (1993). (mr-roman.xyz)
  • Fertility after PC-RPLND has not been established because chemotherapy-induced disruption of (Ni;ride can persist for Sodium Nitroprusside Injection (Nipride RTU)- FDA years after total authors total articles submit articles total downloads of therapy (Lampe et al, 1997). (mr-roman.xyz)
  • Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a parenteral agent that has been used for nearly five decades as an agent causing rapid onset of arterial and venous vasodilation. (gavinpublishers.com)
  • In association with the decrease in blood pressure, sodium nitroprusside administered intravenously to hypertensive and normotensive patients produces slight increases in heart rate and a variable effect on cardiac output. (nih.gov)
  • Nitroprusside is unstable and must be administered intravenously with careful monitoring. (nih.gov)
  • We have examined the release of cyanide in terms of the known chemistry of nitroprusside and suggest that photochemical decomposition of nitroprusside and (or) its metabolism in vivo invalidates the analytical procedure used by previous workers. (tees.ac.uk)
  • The metabolism of nitrovasodilators such as glyceryl trinitrate and nitroprusside provides the active moiety of these drugs (that is, nitric oxide). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is also used as an analytical reagent for the detection of methyl ketones, and for the detection of amines that are often found in illicit drugs. (zamachemicals.in)
  • Silver is toxic, however, _ch . pm page bile bile is produced in addition to trisomies as just described, other more conventional therapy, immunosuppressive agents e.G. The nitroprusside reagent that is advantageous because the kidneys perform two major categories of symptoms in the united states entirely with little early warning. (aaan.org)
  • The principal pharmacological action of sodium nitroprusside is relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and consequent dilatation of peripheral arteries and veins. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is metabolized in peripheral tissue to a cyanide radical which is converted to thiocyanate in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • This effect appears to be related to reduction of myocardial oxygen demand by the peripheral cardiac unloading mechanisms of nitroprusside as well as to a possible direct action of the drug in improving regional blood flow to ischemic heart muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • Methemoglobinemia from excessive doses of sodium nitroprusside or sodium nitrate can be treated with methylene blue, which reduces methemoglobin to hemoglobin. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Our range of products include di sodium tartrate, sodium salt, sodium nitroprusside purified, sodium nitrate purified, sodium molybdate pure and l sodium glutamate. (zamachemicals.in)
  • Despite its use for many years, nitroprusside has not been convincingly linked to cases of clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • Electrocardiographic changes during acute treatment of hypertensive emergencies with sodium nitroprusside or fenoldopam. (nih.gov)
  • Safety and efficacy of urapidil and sodium nitroprusside in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Treatment of hypertensive emergencies including use of sodium nitroprusside. (nih.gov)
  • After administration of nitroprusside, evidence of myocardial ischemic injury as assessed by S-T mapping decreased in association with reduction of the myocardial oxygen consumption index of pressure-time per minute. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.05) between reductions in S-T elevation and lower indexes of myocardial oxygen consumption, it is suggested that nitroprusside may possess a separate action of augmenting regional blood flow to ischemic myocardium. (elsevier.com)
  • Evaluation with the precordial S-T mapping technique suggested that intravenous administration of nitroprusside was associated with evidence of reduced ventricular ischemic injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (elsevier.com)
  • For ischemic arteries, bradykinin or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can be used as reference compounds. (reprocell.com)
  • 8. Role of ROS in the protective effect of silibinin on sodium nitroprusside-induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 20. ERK activation increases nitroprusside induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells irrespective of p53 status: role of superoxide dismutases. (nih.gov)
  • The compounds used were S-nitroso-N-acetylpencillamine (SNAP), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and isosorbide-dinitrate (ISDN) and cell growth was evaluated in terms of DNA synthesis and cell number. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Observations on the behaviour of a substance giving the nitroprusside reaction in skin and in hair. (nih.gov)
  • Nitroprusside helps protect against ischemia reperfusion injury in animal models by improving hepatic microcirculation. (nih.gov)
  • Role of UW solution and sodium nitroprusside in reperfusion of liver xenografts from guinea-pig to rat. (uchicago.edu)
  • Miki T, Subbotin V, Goller AL, Tandin A, Rao AS, Fung JJ, Valdivia LA. Role of UW solution and sodium nitroprusside in reperfusion of liver xenografts from guinea-pig to rat. (uchicago.edu)
  • Results: E-2 increased vasodilatation induced by sodium nitroprusside and decreased vasocontraction induced by potassium. (dtu.dk)
  • The intravenous drip is nitroprusside. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelium-independent relaxation [sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] was similar between all groups. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Recently, we showed that DfMRI response was observed under nitroprusside, a neurovascular uncoupler, while BOLD fMRI response was suppressed ( http://www.pnas.org/content/110/28/11636.full ). (cea.fr)
  • 14. Mechanisms of sodium nitroprusside-induced death in human chondrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium nitroprusside should be used only when available equipment and personnel allow blood pressure to be continuously monitored. (nih.gov)
  • We also present evidence for the stability of nitroprusside in blood, based on 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance studies. (tees.ac.uk)
  • This nonenzymatic electron transfer results in an unstable nitroprusside radical and methemoglobin (Hgb Fe3+). (openanesthesia.org)
  • 1. Role of GS28 in sodium nitroprusside-induced cell death in cervical carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)