Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.AcetyleneRhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Bradyrhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Rhizobium etli: A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Mesorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family PHYLLOBACTERIACEAE. They are able to invade root-hairs of a wide range of plants, inciting the production of PLANT ROOT NODULES.Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyanothece: A form-genus of unicellular coccoid to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA, in the order Chroococcales. Three different clusters of strains from diverse habitats are included.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Frankia: Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Aliivibrio fischeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. A. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Azorhizobium caulinodans: A species of AZORHIZOBIUM which forms nodules on the roots of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Pseudomonas stutzeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Sesbania: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Molybdoferredoxin: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Dinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Vicia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Gluconacetobacter: A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Azospirillum brasilense: A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.Achromobacter: A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Nostoc: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Buchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Azospirillum: A genus of gram-negative aerobic bacteria that occurs free-living in the soil or associated with the roots of cereal crops or grasses (POACEAE).Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Spirillum: A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.Chemoautotrophic Growth: Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Dicarboxylic AcidsTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Herbaspirillum: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Pacific OceanAnts: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Darkness: The absence of light.Rhodospirillaceae: A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Flavodoxin: A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cape Verde: The republic consists of islands that are located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean about 300 miles off the west coast of Africa. The archipelago includes 10 islands and 5 islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The capital is Praia.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Laccaria: A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
"Nitrogen fixation in a chemoautotrophic lucinid symbiosis". Nature Microbiology. 2 (1). doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.193. ISSN ... "Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation". Nature Microbiology. 2 (1). doi: ... are able to fix nitrogen gas into organic nitrogen. The species and genera include: Alucinoma Habe, 1958 Alucinoma soyae Habe, ... Collins, London Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L. G. (2012-02-22). "On the evolutionary ecology of symbioses between ...
Hennecke, H (1990). "Nitrogen fixation genes involved in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum-soybean symbiosis". FEBS Letters. 268 (2 ... Nitrogen fixation is an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Plants cannot use atmospheric nitrogen (N2); they must use ... After photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation (or uptake) is the most important process for the growth and development of plants. The ... Cluster I contains most of the nitrogen fixation genes. Cluster II contains three fix genes located near nod genes. This genus ...
Roots are called coralloid with an Anabaena symbiosis allowing nitrogen fixation. Tannins-rich cells are found on either side ... Ultrastructure and phenolic histochemistry of the Cycas revoluta-Anabaena symbiosis. M. Obukowicz, M. Schaller and G.S. Kennedy ...
It is used to study the symbiosis responsible for nitrogen fixation. (Agronomy, Molecular biology) Mimulus guttatus is a model ... Lotus japonicus a model legume used to study the symbiosis responsible for nitrogen fixation. (Agronomy, Molecular biology) ... Azotobacter vinelandii, a obligate anaerobe diazotroph used in nitrogen fixation research. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - a ... model for animal-bacterial symbiosis, bioluminescent vibrios Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth), the larvae of which ...
Actinorhizal symbioses account for roughly the same amount of nitrogen fixation as rhizobial symbioses. All of these orders, ... They elongate and begin terminally differentiating into symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Zone III-the nitrogen fixation ... Indeed, high nitrogen content blocks nodule development as there is no benefit for the plant of forming the symbiosis. The ... Nitrogen fixation in the nodule is very oxygen sensitive. Legume nodules harbor an iron containing protein called ...
His research in nitrogen fixation and symbiosis in cyanobacteria are internationally acclaimed. He is an elected Fellow of the ... ISBN 9781466504783 Cyanobacteria in Symbiosis (Springer, 2002) ISBN 9781402007774 CRC Handbook of Symbiotic Cyanobacteria (CRC ...
The nitrogen cycle in soils depends on the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. This is achieved by a number of diazotrophs. One ... For example, microbial symbiosis plays a crucial role in the immune system. The microorganisms that make up the gut flora in ... play critical roles in Earth's biogeochemical cycles as they are responsible for decomposition and nitrogen fixation. Bacteria ... He was responsible for the first isolation and description of both nitrifying and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. French-Canadian ...
Nitrogen fixation in the Hemiaulus-Richella symbiosis is 21 to 45 times greater than in the Richella-Rhizosolenia symbiosis ... As the major function of a cyanobiont is to provide their host with fixed nitrogen, genes involved in nitrogen fixation or cell ... By entering into a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, organisms that otherwise cannot inhabit low-nitrogen ... nitrogen-limited environment, and living within a host can provide an anaerobic environment for nitrogen fixation to occur. ...
They are actinorhizal, non-legumes capable of nitrogen fixation through symbiosis with actinobacteria Frankia. Chamaebatia ... of molecular systematics on hypotheses for the evolution of root nodule symbioses and implications for expanding symbioses to ...
Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order ... Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese ... The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The ...
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, performed by the organisms called diazotrophs) is a very old process that probably ... The main donors to the pathway were the genes associated with the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis genes, the pollen tube ... Downie, J. Allan (2005). "Legume Haemoglobins: Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Needs Bloody Nodules". Current Biology. 15 (6): R196 ... This process is called nitrogen fixation. The legume, acting as a host, and rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, ...
Being a legume capable of symbiosis with Rhizobia, the pigeon pea enriches soil through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The crop ... Pigeon peas are in some areas an important crop for green manure, providing up to 90 kg nitrogen per hectare (Adu-Gyamfi et al ...
Zahran, H. H. (1999-12-01). "Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate". ... To express genes for nitrogen fixation, rhizobia require a plant host; they cannot independently fix nitrogen. In general, they ... The symbiosis between nitrogen fixing rhizobia and the legume family has emerged and evolved over the past 65 million years. ... Legume sanctions maintain Rhizobium mutualism Current list of rhizobia species Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage ...
Beijerinck also discovered nitrogen fixation, the process by which diatomic nitrogen gas is converted to ammonium ions and ... Beijerinck revealed this archetypical example of symbiosis between plants and bacteria. Beijerinck discovered the phenomenon of ... Bacteria perform nitrogen fixation, dwelling inside root nodules of certain plants (legumes). In addition to having discovered ...
Soil acidity is an important factor for nitrogen fixation. Thanks to the symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria, white lupin ... Lupin is a good preculture, since it let in the field about 50 kg nitrogen/ha. The lupin doesn't compete well with weeds, ... lupin seeds must be inoculated with the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium lupinii. ... doesn't need a nitrogen fertilisation, while it requires about 40 kg P2O5/ha and 60 kg K2O/ha. Fertilisations based on compost ...
Müllerian mimicry and nitrogen fixation by bacteria in the root nodules of legumes. The term symbiosis (Greek: living together ... In either case, symbiosis is much more common in the living world and much more important than is generally assumed. Almost ... Mutualism may be classified in terms of the closeness of association, the closest being symbiosis, which is often confused with ... The evolution of all eukaryotes (plants, animals, fungi, protists) is believed to have resulted from a symbiosis between ...
For non-leguminous crops, Azospirillum has been demonstrated to be beneficial in some cases for nitrogen fixation and plant ... Symbiosis, 13, 107-114. Nguyen, T. H., Kennedy, I. R. & Roughley, R. J. (2002) The response of field-grown rice to inoculation ... Khammas, K. M. & Kaiser, P. (1992) Pectin decomposition and associated nitrogen fixation by mixed cultures of Azospirillum and ... nitrogen and phosphorus uptake (Galal et al., 2003), and nitrogen (Caballero-Mellado et al., 1992), phosphorus (Caballero- ...
Puri, Akshit; Padda, Kiran Preet; Chanway, Chris P (January 2016). "Evidence of nitrogen fixation and growth promotion in ... Symbiosis. 69 (2): 123-129. doi:10.1007/s13199-016-0385-z. Padda, Kiran Preet; Puri, Akshit; Chanway, Chris P (April 2016). " ... Direct mechanisms include phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, degradation of environmental pollutants, and hormone ... "Plant growth promotion and nitrogen fixation in canola by an endophytic strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa and its GFP-tagged ...
It is not known whether the non-nodulating nitrogen fixation, if it exists, does benefit neighboring plants as is said to be ... with indications of a rhizobial symbiosis in non-nodulating legumes (Ph.D.). Yale University. Docket UMI95-41400. Zhang, J. P ... "Quantification of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia L. on salt-affected irrigated croplands using two 15N ... "Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by prairie legumes" (PDF). In Zimmerman JH. Proceedings, 2nd Midwest Prairie ...
Nitrogen-Fixing Leguminous Symbioses (Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, Applications, and Research Progress), Springer Sprent, Janet ... In recognition of the contribution she has made to the understanding of nitrogen fixation in legume symbioses Sprent was ... Sprent's primary research interests lie in the field of nitrogen fixation in legumes. ... Nitrogen Fixing Organisms: Pure and Applied Aspects, Springer Sprent, Janet (1987), The Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle, ...
... the presence of the cyanobacterium allowing nitrogen fixation. Their sensitivity to toxins makes them an excellent indicator of ... Lobaria species are unusual in that they have a three-part symbiosis, containing a fungus, an alga and a cyanobacterium, ...
The host supplies the bacteria with the energy needed for nitrogen fixation and the bacteria provide much of the nitrogen ... Symbiosis spans a wide variety of possible relationships between organisms, differing in their permanence and their effects on ... Hosts of many species are involved in cleaning symbiosis, both in the sea and on land, making use of smaller animals to clean ... Such crops as beans, peas, chickpeas and alfalfa are able to fix nitrogen in this way, and mixing clover with grasses increases ...
... nitrogen fixation, and growth. N-fixation needs an optimal and constant supply of P to the root and nodules. Due to the low P ... Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) increases P uptake in plants even in soils low in P. The symbiosis between a ... S. rostrata tolerates a pH down to 4.3 to slightly alkaline, but nitrogen-fixation is reduced in acidic conditions. It is ... The addition of lime in highly acidic soils and phosphorus in soils with low fertility improves growth and nitrogen fixation of ...
... nitrogen fixation. Since nitrogen is required for growth by all biological systems, but is generally biologically inaccessible ... Symbiosis. 49 (3): 163-180. doi:10.1007/s13199-009-0049-3. De la Torre JR, Goebel BM, Friedmann EI, Pace, NR (2003). "Microbial ... many eukaryotes have established relationships with specialized bacteria that are capable of nitrogen fixation (converting ... studies on lichens have used culture-free techniques to detect the presence of the primary gene involved in nitrogen fixation ( ...
... and SM11 Nitrogen fixation by S meliloti is interfered with by the plastic modifier bisphenol A. The symbiosis between S. ... lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic ... This symbiosis results in a new plant organ termed a root nodule. The S. meliloti genome contains three replicons: a chromosome ... 2006). "Nitrogen-fixing sinorhizobia with Medicago laciniata constitute a novel biovar (bv. medicaginis) of S. meliloti". Syst ...
Rhizobia: relationship between roots of plants and bacteria which promotes nitrogen fixation. ... It is a type of symbiosis which improves the biological fitness of both parties. The two organisms usually come from widely ...
Every method used for demonstrating nitrogen fixation in rhizobia have been used to demonstrate nitrogen fixation in G. ... Biological nitrogen fixation can have a role in this if it can be applied to the major food crop plants. Certain strains of the ... nitrogen fixation, as well as having respiratory chain attributes that make it a possible candidate eukaryote proto- ... diazotrophicus both in vitro and in planta, and field trials demonstrate yield increases and the potential to reduce nitrogen ...
Microbiology, cyanobacteria, plants, symbiosis, nitrogen-fixation National Category Natural Sciences Identifiers. urn:nbn:se:sh ... The cgt gene was expressed in free-living nitrogen-fixing cultures in light or in darkness when supplemented with fructose. ...
... diet with nitrogen (nitrogen fixation and recycling), to aid in wood to digestion (cellulose degradation), and to provide ... Subterranean termites rely on beneficial symbioses with a diverse microbial flora in their guts to aid in digestion of ...
Plant-bacteria symbiosis for nitrogen fixation. Plants in the legume family form symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria ... Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is central to any plan for energy-sustainable production of food or fuel. Crop plants for food, oil ... some of the molecular components required for symbiosis processes including root nodule development and nitrogen fixation. ... However, many steps in symbiosis remain uncharacterized. Using the symbiosis model system between Sinorhizobium meliloti and ...
The download nitrogen fixing actinorhizal symbioses nitrogen fixation is released on a Such number in Balboa Park and is more ... A download nitrogen fixing actinorhizal symbioses nitrogen fixation of harmonious tools are the mind and koreaKorean of social ... download nitrogen fixing actinorhizal symbioses nitrogen fixation origins: be it to Sickbay. TUVOK: are you hardcore that s ... The download nitrogen fixing actinorhizal symbioses nitrogen fixation origins applications is new and so new from checkout you ...
Nitrogen fixation by native Bradyrhizobia in symbiosis with Lupinus mariae-josephae requires a T3SS encoding a NopE-like ... Nitrogen fixation by native Bradyrhizobia in symbiosis with Lupinus mariae-josephae requires a T3SS encoding a NopE-like ... Nitrogen fixation by native Bradyrhizobia in symbiosis with Lupinus mariae-josephae requires a T3SS encoding a NopE-like ... Nitrogen fixation by native Bradyrhizobia in symbiosis with Lupinus mariae-josephae requires a T3SS encoding a NopE-like ...
... ... CarbOn export from Nitrogen fixation by DiAtom Symbioses (ANACONDAS) and The River Ocean Continuum of the Amazon (ROCA). ... Since primary production fueled by allochthonous sources of N such as N2 fixation can drive a net, biologically mediated ... Our focus is to identify the links between riverine micronutrient ratios, enhanced N2-fixation, phytoplankton community ...
... examines the unreviewed information regarding their potential roles in the functioning of symbiotic interactions with nitrogen- ... examines the unreviewed information regarding their potential roles in the functioning of symbiotic interactions with nitrogen- ... such as small RNAs have been reported to play important roles in legume symbiosis, nitrogen fixation, and general plant ... Polyamines and Legumes: Joint Stories of Stress, Nitrogen Fixation and Environment. Ana Bernardina Menéndez1,2, Pablo Ignacio ...
Lodwig, E.M., Hosie, A.H.F., Bourdes, A. (2003) Amino-acid cycling drives nitrogen fixation in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis ... nitrogen fixation) provides about 65% of the biospheres available nitrogen. Most of this ammonium is contributed by legume- ... But here the authors show that a more complex amino-acid cycle is essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in pea ... Within the nodules, rhizobia are found as bacteroids, which perform the nitrogen fixation: to do this, they obtain sources of ...
... most symbioses for molecular nitrogen fixation involve facultative interactions. However, some interactions, among them ... Our review emphasises that molecular nitrogen fixation, a driving force for interactions and co-evolution of different species ... Extant lineages of symbiotic associations for nitrogen fixation show diverse grades of adaptation and co-evolution, thereby ... Most nitrogen exists in the atmosphere, and utilisation of this source is important as a means of avoiding nitrogen starvation ...
Medicago-Sinorhizobium Symbiosis Symbiotic genes Nitrogen fixation This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Dixon R, Kahn D (2004) Genetic regulation of biological nitrogen fixation. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:621-631PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Fischer HM (1994) Genetic regulation of nitrogen fixation in rhizobia. Microbiol Rev 58:352-386PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle ... Starker CG, Parra-Colmenares AL, Smith L, Mitra RM, Long SR (2006) Nitrogen fixation mutants of Medicago truncatula fail to ...
"Nitrogen fixation in a chemoautotrophic lucinid symbiosis". Nature Microbiology. 2 (1). doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.193. ISSN ... "Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation". Nature Microbiology. 2 (1). doi: ... are able to fix nitrogen gas into organic nitrogen. The species and genera include: Alucinoma Habe, 1958 Alucinoma soyae Habe, ... Collins, London Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L. G. (2012-02-22). "On the evolutionary ecology of symbioses between ...
see also Conifers; Fruits; Gymnosperms; Monocots; Nitrogen Fixation; Pollination and Fertilization; Roots; Symbiosis ... Diversity and Symbioses. Some of the most species-rich families of flowering plants include the monocot species of Orchidaceae ... Another highly successful family, the legume family, has evolved symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacterial ...
Nitrogen fixation and ferredoxin-like genes.As with nodulation genes, most of the nitrogen fixation genes of B. japonicum had ... NGR234: rhizobial dicarboxylate transport is essential for nitrogen fixation in tropical legume symbioses. Mol. Plant-Microbe ... in Biological nitrogen fixation. eds Stacey G., Burris R. H., Evans H. J. (Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y), pp 432-460. ... 1998) A survey of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. in The Rhizobiaceae. eds Spaink H. P., Kondorosi A., Hooykaas P. J. ...
Dawson, J. O. (2008). "Ecology of actinorhizal plants". Nitrogen-fixing Actinorhizal Symbioses. Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, ... Nitrogen fixation package for quantitative measurement of nitrogen fixation by plants. *Nitrogenase: enzymes used by organisms ... as seen in nitrogen fixation on rice roots. Nitrogen fixation occurs between some termites and fungi.[3] It occurs naturally in ... Root nodule symbiosesEdit. Main article: Root nodule. Legume familyEdit. Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include ...
N2 - The nitrogen fixation (nif) genes of nodule-forming Bradyrhizobium strains are generally located on symbiosis islands or ... AB - The nitrogen fixation (nif) genes of nodule-forming Bradyrhizobium strains are generally located on symbiosis islands or ... The nitrogen fixation (nif) genes of nodule-forming Bradyrhizobium strains are generally located on symbiosis islands or ... abstract = "The nitrogen fixation (nif) genes of nodule-forming Bradyrhizobium strains are generally located on symbiosis ...
Hennecke, H (1990). "Nitrogen fixation genes involved in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum-soybean symbiosis". FEBS Letters. 268 (2 ... Nitrogen fixation is an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Plants cannot use atmospheric nitrogen (N2); they must use ... After photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation (or uptake) is the most important process for the growth and development of plants. The ... Cluster I contains most of the nitrogen fixation genes. Cluster II contains three fix genes located near nod genes. This genus ...
... with primary research interests in how microbes and plants recognise each other and develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, and in ... Genome structure in nitrogen-fixing organisms. In C. Elmerich, A. Kondorosi & W. E. Newton (Eds.), Biological Nitrogen Fixation ... Sullivan, J. T., Brown, S. D., Yocum, R. R., & Ronson, C. W. (2001). The bio operon on the acquired symbiosis island of ... In T. Finan, M. OBrian, D. Layzell, K. Vessey & W. Newton (Eds.), Nitrogen Fixation: Global Perspectives. (pp. 75-79). Oxford ...
... nitrogen fixation, and production of food for both partners.. Cleaning symbioses. Cleaning symbioses are facultative and loose ... In nitrogen fixation, the bacteria Rhizobium sps. in the root and/or shoot nodules of legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen to make ... Types of symbioses. A. Classification based on location of symbionts relative to host. One manner of classifying symbioses is ... Defense symbioses. An example of defense symbiosis is exemplified by the relationship between clownfish of the genus Amphiprion ...
... nitrogen fixation). Others exhibit symbiosis (see lichens). The chloroxybacteria have been found in marine and freshwater ... Cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation produces bioavailable nitrogen compounds that are important in nitrogen-limited aquatic ... Cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation can be a significant source of biologically available nitrogen in these ecosystems. ... Heterocysts are specialized cells harboring nitrogen fixation, a process by which atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is converted to a ...
Biological fixation is carried out by free-living bacteria, Fabaceae-Rhizobium symbiosis and associative symbiontic free-living ... Belnap J (2001) Factors influencing nitrogen fixation and nitrogen release in biological soil crusts. In: Belnap J, Lange OL ( ... McAuliffe C, Chamblee BS, Uribe-Arongo H, Woodhouse WW (1958) Influence of inorganic nitrogen on nitrogen fixation by legumes ... Nitrogen Input Pathways into Sand Dunes: Biological Fixation and Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition. ...
Research interest: Nitrogen Fixation and Symbiosis. Volunteering with Stanford at the Tech has been one of the most rewarding ...
As a result of these disturbances, the nodules occupied by the rosR mutant were not effective in nitrogen fixation. This was in ... trifolii is a soil bacterium that establishes a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with clovers (Trifolium spp.). These plants belong to ... Olivares, J., Bedmar, E. J., and Sanjuan, J. (2013). Biological nitrogen fixation in the context of global change. Mol. Plant ... 2015). The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production. J. Plant ...
Nitrogen fixation in a chemoautotrophic lucinid symbiosis.. König S, Gros O, Heiden SE, Hinzke T, Thürmer A, Poehlein A, Meyer ... Nitrogen Metabolism Genes from Temperate Marine Sediments.. Reyes C, Schneider D, Lipka M, Thürmer A, Böttcher ME, Friedrich MW ... An ancient pathway combining carbon dioxide fixation with the generation and utilization of a sodium ion gradient for ATP ...
Nitrogen Fixation with Soybean: The Perfect Symbiosis? Mariangela Hungria Chapter 100. Nodule Functioning and Symbiotic ... Section 18 Nitrogen Fixation and Cereals. Chapter 108. The Quest for Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Cereals : A Perspective ... as well as nitrogen fixation and cereals.. Covering the full breadth of current nitrogen fixation research and expanding it ... Biological nitrogen fixation is an alternative to nitrogen fertilizer. It is carried out by prokaryotes using an enzyme complex ...
  • An 'extra-ordinary endophyte' this bacterium is one of relatively few that has mechanisms to cope with high levels of sucrose, an acidic pH, a wide range of oxygen environments, nitrogen fixation, as well as having respiratory chain attributes that make it a possible candidate eukaryote proto-mitochondria. (intechopen.com)
  • There is a need to reduce the negative polluting influence of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and to develop a more sustainable climate smart agriculture capable of meeting our future food security needs. (intechopen.com)
  • For many years, and in deed for decades, Brazilian sugarcane had been produced in the same regions with little use of nitrogen fertilizers, without any apparent loss in yield [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Subsequent to this, studies confirmed that some varieties of Brazilian sugarcane were capable of obtaining 60-80% of their nitrogen requirements from BNF, highlighting the possibility that under the right conditions, it might be possible to dispense altogether with nitrogen fertilizers for these varieties [ 1 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • A critical evaluation of the prospects for nitrogen fixation with non-legumes. (worldcat.org)
  • We discuss the effective functions of the rhizobia and methanotrophs in non-legumes for the acquisition of fixed nitrogen in addition to research perspectives. (mdpi.com)
  • An experiment was carried out in Leonard jars, in the greenhouse, with nitrogen-free nutrient solution to test the efficiency of 35 strains of rhizobia isolated from 15 species of tropical legumes. (scielo.br)
  • Their ability to fix gaseous nitrogen makes legumes an ideal agricultural organism as their requirement for nitrogen fertilizer is reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Legumes differ with most plants because they have access to nitrogen from both mineral and symbiotic sources. (scirp.org)
  • The importance of nitrogen-fixing non-legumes for the nitrogen economy of certain ecosystems has been known for a long time (see Silvester, 1977), and some of these plants probably played an essential part in soil reconstruction during and after the formation of glaciers in the Pleistocene age when species of Dryas, Hippophaë, Elaeagnus, Alnus and Shepherdia covered large areas of northern Europe and Canada (Lawrence et al . (springer.com)
  • It was only in the 1950's, when their potentiality for forestry was recognized, that studies really began on the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing associations formed by non-legumes. (springer.com)
  • However, fundamental knowledge concerning this type of symbiosis is still very fragmentary, as compared to that known about the symbiotic associations between Rhizobia and legumes, and there is a particular lack of information concerning the microbial partner, the infection processes and the physiological relationships existing within the symbiosis. (springer.com)
  • Broadly speaking, the work singularly identified the rhizobial symbiosis as a factor affecting the conservation of legumes and often being exceedingly vulnerable to threats. (upm.es)
  • viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V) is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and that a mutualistic carbon-nitrogen metabolic exchange between Chlamydomonas and Methylobacterium spp. (scoop.it)
  • They play role of "chloroplasts" in symbioses with a variety of non-photosynthetic partners such as marine invertebrates, where cyanobionts provide the host with carbon. (kenyon.edu)
  • As drivers of nitrogen fixation and carbon drawdown in river plumes and oligotrophic waters, diatom-diazotroph assemblages have a global impact that is sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic influences. (kenyon.edu)
  • The bacterium sits on the cell wall of this calcifying picoeukaryote, donating fixed nitrogen and receiving fixed carbon in return. (sciencemag.org)
  • The partnership is mutualistic, because the prymnesiophyte receives fixed N in exchange for transferring fixed carbon to UCYN-A. This unusual partnership between a cyanobacterium and a unicellular alga is a model for symbiosis and is analogous to plastid and organismal evolution, and if calcifying, may have important implications for past and present oceanic N 2 fixation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stable isotope results show that the zooxanthellae , which have important mutualistic symbiotic relationship with corals, are using the products of this nitrogen fixation . (kenyon.edu)
  • During arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, cells within the root cortex develop a matrix-filled apoplastic compartment in which differentiated AM fungal hyphae called arbuscules reside. (scoop.it)
  • In the absence of genomic rearrangements, this region might contain more genes involved in symbiosis. (asm.org)
  • Recently, a geographically widespread uncultivated diazotrophic cyanobacterium (UCYN-A) ( 4 ) was found to have an unusual degree of genomic streamlining suggestive of obligate symbiosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Episodic blooms of the diathom Hemiaulus hauckii and its diazotrophic (associated with nitrogen fixation) cyanobacterial symbiont Richelia intracellularis can reach very high densities and have important ecological impacts for the ecosystem. (kenyon.edu)
  • Nitrogen fixation only declined in the water-deprived, half-root system and this result was correlated with modifications in the activities of key nodule's enzymes such as sucrose synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase and in nodular malate content. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thus, the use of a partially droughted split-root system provides evidence that nitrogen fixation activity under drought stress is mainly controlled at the local level rather than by a systemic nitrogen signal. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Daimon and Yoshioka, 2001 ) and moreover, nitrogen assimilation, whether from N 2 fixation or inorganic sources, had a localized effect on root development ( Singleton and van Kessel, 1987 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Bhuvaneswari TV, Solheim B (2000) Root-hair interactions in actinorhizal symbioses. (springer.com)
  • The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can grow efficiently on several inorganic nitrogen sources (e.g. ammonium, nitrate, nitrite) as well as many amino acids. (scoop.it)
  • Nitrogen Biogeochemistry in the Caribbean Sponge, Xestospongia muta: A Source or Sink of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen? (buchfreund.de)
  • Recent findings, nonetheless, open questions about evolution of such symbiosis specificity, metabolic interactions, and cellular adaptations, all of which are areas of great interest in symbiotic research, especially because it may explain the ecological impacts of cyanobionts living in marine environment. (kenyon.edu)
  • Extant lineages of symbiotic associations for nitrogen fixation show diverse grades of adaptation and co-evolution, thereby representing different stages of symbiont-host interaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. orbicularis may also benefit from a steady supply of fixed nitrogen from its symbiont-a scenario that is unprecedented in comparable chemoautotrophic symbioses. (bireme.br)
  • Thanks to direct and reverse genetic as well as transcriptomic approaches, numerous genes involved in this symbiosis have been described and improve our understanding of this fantastic association. (springer.com)