Root Nodules, Plant
Plant Root Nodulation
PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Complement Fixation Tests
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Molecular Sequence Data
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Reactive Nitrogen Species
Amino Acid Sequence
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary
Orthopedic Fixation Devices
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Genetic Complementation Test
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
RNA Polymerase Sigma 54
Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal
DNA Transposable Elements
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria
Mutation in GDP-fucose synthesis genes of Sinorhizobium fredii alters Nod factors and significantly decreases competitiveness to nodulate soybeans. (1/1731)We mutagenized Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-1 with Tn5-B20 and screened about 2,000 colonies for increased beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of the flavonoid naringenin. One mutant, designated SVQ287, produces lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors (LCOs) that differ from those of the parental strain. The nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residues of all of the LCOs of mutant SVQ287 lack fucose and 2-O-methylfucose substituents. In addition, SVQ287 synthesizes an LCO with an unusually long, C20:1 fatty acyl side chain. The transposon insertion of mutant SVQ287 lies within a 1.1-kb HindIII fragment. This and an adjacent 2.4-kb HindIII fragment were sequenced. The sequence contains the 3' end of noeK, nodZ, and noeL (the gene interrupted by Tn5-B20), and the 5' end of nolK, all in the same orientation. Although each of these genes has a similarly oriented counterpart on the symbiosis plasmid of the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, there are significant differences in the noeK/nodZ intergenic region. Based on amino acid sequence homology, noeL encodes GDP-D-mannose dehydratase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, and nolK encodes a NAD-dependent nucleotide sugar epimerase/dehydrogenase. We show that expression of the noeL gene is under the control of NodD1 in S. fredii and is most probably mediated by the nod box that precedes nodZ. Transposon insertion into neoL has two impacts on symbiosis with Williams soybean: nodulation rate is reduced slightly and competitiveness for nodulation is decreased significantly. Mutant SVQ287 retains its ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other legumes, but final nodule number is attenuated on Cajanus cajan. (+info)
The nolL gene from Rhizobium etli determines nodulation efficiency by mediating the acetylation of the fucosyl residue in the nodulation factor. (2/1731)The nodulation factors (Nod factors) of Rhizobium etli and R. loti carry a 4-O-acetyl-L-fucosyl group at the reducing end. It has been claimed, based on sequence analysis, that NolL from R. loti participates in the 4-O-acetylation of the fucosyl residue of the Nod factors, as an acetyl-transferase (D. B. Scott, C. A. Young, J. M. Collins-Emerson, E. A. Terzaghi, E. S. Rockman, P. A. Lewis, and C. E. Pankhurst. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 9:187-197, 1996). Further support for this hypothesis was obtained by studying the production of Nod factors in an R. etli nolL::Km mutant. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis of the Nod factors produced by this strain showed that they lack the acetyl-fucosyl substituent, having a fucosyl group instead. Acetyl-fucosylation was restored upon complementation with a wild-type nolL gene. These results indicate that the nolL gene determines 4-O-acetylation of the fucosyl residue in Nod factors. Analysis of the predicted NolL polypeptide suggests a transmembranal location and that it belongs to the family of integral membrane transacylases (J. M. Slauch, A. A. Lee, M. J. Mahan, and J. J. Mekalanos. J. Bacteriol. 178:5904-5909, 1996). NolL from R. loti was also proposed to function as a transporter; our results show that NolL does not determine a differential secretion of Nod factors from the cell. We also performed plant assays that indicate that acetylation of the fucose conditions efficient nodulation by R. etli of some Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars, as well as of an alternate host (Vigna umbellata). (+info)
Microbiology of the oil fly, Helaeomyia petrolei. (3/1731)Helaeomyia petrolei larvae isolated from the asphalt seeps of Rancho La Brea in Los Angeles, Calif., were examined for microbial gut contents. Standard counts on Luria-Bertani, MacConkey, and blood agar plates indicated ca. 2 x 10(5) heterotrophic bacteria per larva. The culturable bacteria represented 15 to 20% of the total population as determined by acridine orange staining. The gut itself contained large amounts of the oil, had no observable ceca, and maintained a slightly acidic pH of 6.3 to 6.5. Despite the ingestion of large amounts of potentially toxic asphalt by the larvae, their guts sustained the growth of 100 to 1,000 times more bacteria than did free oil. All of the bacteria isolated were nonsporeformers and gram negative. Fourteen isolates were chosen based on representative colony morphologies and were identified by using the Enterotube II and API 20E systems and fatty acid analysis. Of the 14 isolates, 9 were identified as Providencia rettgeri and 3 were likely Acinetobacter isolates. No evidence was found that the isolates grew on or derived nutrients from the asphalt itself or that they played an essential role in insect development. Regardless, any bacteria found in the oil fly larval gut are likely to exhibit pronounced solvent tolerance and may be a future source of industrially useful, solvent-tolerant enzymes. (+info)
Superoxide dismutase and catalase in the protection of the proton-donating systems of nitrogen fixation in the blue-green alga Anabaena cylindrica. (4/1731)1. Superoxide dismutase activity was present in the heterocysts and vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica, but was always lower in the heterocysts. 2. No qualitative differences were found in the superoxide dismutase from the two cellular types. 3. Catalase activity was also present in both cellular types. 4. Most of the NADP reductase activity, as assayed with menadione or ferredoxin as electron acceptor, was localized within the heterocysts. 5. Studies on H2 consumption showed that most of the hydrogenase activity was associated with the heterocysts. 6. The results are discussed in terms of the postulate that superoxide dismutase and catalase are involved in the protection of the proton-donating systems participating in N2 fixation and H2 metabolism of heterocysts. (+info)
Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and R. fredii USDA257 share exceptionally broad, nested host ranges. (5/1731)Genetically, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and R. fredii USDA257 are closely related. Small differences in their nodulation genes result in NGR234 secreting larger amounts of more diverse lipo-oligosaccharidic Nod factors than USDA257. What effects these differences have on nodulation were analyzed by inoculating 452 species of legumes, representing all three subfamilies of the Leguminosae, as well as the nonlegume Parasponia andersonii, with both strains. The two bacteria nodulated P. andersonii, induced ineffective outgrowths on Delonix regia, and nodulated Chamaecrista fasciculata, a member of the only nodulating genus of the Caesalpinieae tested. Both strains nodulated a range of mimosoid legumes, especially the Australian species of Acacia, and the tribe Ingeae. Highest compatibilities were found with the papilionoid tribes Phaseoleae and Desmodieae. On Vigna spp. (Phaseoleae), both bacteria formed more effective symbioses than rhizobia of the "cowpea" (V. unguiculata) miscellany. USDA257 nodulated an exact subset (79 genera) of the NGR234 hosts (112 genera). If only one of the bacteria formed effective, nitrogen-fixing nodules it was usually NGR234. The only exceptions were with Apios americana, Glycine max, and G. soja. Few correlations can be drawn between Nod-factor substituents and the ability to nodulate specific legumes. Relationships between the ability to nodulate and the origin of the host were not apparent. As both P. andersonii and NGR234 originate from Indonesia/Malaysia/Papua New Guinea, and NGR234's preferred hosts (Desmodiinae/Phaseoleae) are largely Asian, we suggest that broad host range originated in Southeast Asia and spread outward. (+info)
Differential regulation of two divergent Sinorhizobium meliloti genes for HPII-like catalases during free-living growth and protective role of both catalases during symbiosis. (6/1731)Two catalases, KatA and KatB, have been detected in Sinorhizobium meliloti growing on rich medium. Here we characterize a new catalase gene encoding a third catalase (KatC). KatC activity was detectable only at the end of the stationary phase in S. meliloti growing in minimum medium, whereas KatA activity was found during the exponential phase. Analysis with a katC-lacZ fusion demonstrated that katC expression is mainly regulated at the transcription level. An increase of catalase activity correlating with KatA induction was detected in bacteroids. A dramatic decrease of nitrogen fixation capacity in a katA katC double mutant was observed, suggesting that these catalases are very important for the protection of the nitrogen fixation process. (+info)
Azorhizobium caulinodans PII and GlnK proteins control nitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. (7/1731)We herein report that Azorhizobium caulinodans PII and GlnK are not necessary for glutamine synthetase (GS) adenylylation whereas both proteins are required for complete GS deadenylylation. The disruption of both glnB and glnK resulted in a high level of GS adenylylation under the condition of nitrogen fixation, leading to ammonium excretion in the free-living state. PII and GlnK also controlled nif gene expression because NifA activated nifH transcription and nitrogenase activity was derepressed in glnB glnK double mutants, but not in wild-type bacteria, grown in the presence of ammonia. (+info)
The fhu genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum, specifying siderophore uptake proteins: fhuDCB are adjacent to a pseudogene version of fhuA. (8/1731)A mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum was isolated which fails to take up the siderophore vicibactin. The mutation is in a homologue of fhuB, which in Escherichia coli specifies an inner-membrane protein of the ferric hydroxamate uptake system. In Rhizobium, fhuB is in an operon fhuDCB, which specifies the cytoplasmic membrane and periplasmic proteins involved in siderophore uptake. fhuDCB mutants make vicibactin when grown in Fe concentrations that inhibit its production in the wild-type. Nodules on peas induced by fhuDCB mutants were apparently normal in N2 fixation. Transcription of an fhuDCB-lacZ fusion was Fe-regulated, being approximately 10-fold higher in Fe-depleted cells. Downstream of fhuB, in the opposite orientation, is a version of fhuA whose homologues in other bacteria specify hydroxamate outer-membrane receptors. This fhuA gene appears to be a pseudogene with stop codons and undetectable expression. (+info)
Nitrogenase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biological nitrogen fixation process. It is responsible for converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), which can then be used by plants and other organisms to synthesize amino acids, nucleotides, and other nitrogen-containing compounds. In the medical field, nitrogenase is not typically used as a therapeutic agent. However, it has been studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics and other drugs. Some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, produce a form of nitrogenase that is essential for their survival and has been targeted by researchers as a potential way to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. Additionally, nitrogenase has been used in medical research to study the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in various organisms.
Acetylene is not typically used in the medical field. It is a colorless, flammable gas that is commonly used in welding and cutting applications. It is not used for medical purposes and should not be administered to patients. If you have any questions about medical terminology or treatments, it is important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional.
In the medical field, nitrogen isotopes refer to different forms of the element nitrogen that have different atomic masses due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most commonly used nitrogen isotopes in medical applications are nitrogen-13 (13N) and nitrogen-15 (15N). Nitrogen-13 is a radioactive isotope that is commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to study the function of various organs and tissues in the body. It is produced by bombarding a target material with high-energy protons, and the resulting radioactive nitrogen-13 is then used to create radiotracers that can be injected into the body and imaged using PET. Nitrogen-15, on the other hand, is a stable isotope that is used in various medical applications, including the study of metabolism and the measurement of blood flow. It is often used in combination with other stable isotopes, such as oxygen-15, to create radiotracers that can be used in PET scans. Overall, nitrogen isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and scientists to study the function of various organs and tissues in the body and to diagnose and treat a wide range of medical conditions.
Azotobacter is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in soil and water. They are known for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants, making them important in the nitrogen cycle. In the medical field, Azotobacter is not typically associated with human health, and there is no known medical significance of this bacteria. However, some species of Azotobacter have been studied for their potential use in bioremediation, the process of using living organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from the environment.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
In the medical field, PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins refer to a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea. These proteins are also known as PII signal transduction proteins or PII-like proteins. The PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins are small, highly conserved proteins that contain a central histidine residue that can bind to various ligands, including ammonia, 2-oxoglutarate, and ATP. The binding of these ligands to the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins triggers conformational changes in the protein, which in turn modulate the activity of other proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism. In bacteria and archaea, the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins play a critical role in regulating the uptake and assimilation of nitrogen sources, such as ammonia and nitrate. They also regulate the expression of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, including those encoding enzymes involved in nitrogen fixation, ammonium assimilation, and nitrate reduction. Overall, the PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins are important regulators of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea, and their dysfunction can lead to nitrogen starvation and other metabolic disorders.
Bradyrhizobium is a genus of soil bacteria that form symbiotic relationships with legume plants. These bacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by the plant, making them an important source of nitrogen for many crops. In the medical field, Bradyrhizobium is not typically associated with human health, but it can be studied as a model organism for understanding the mechanisms of nitrogen fixation and symbiosis. In some cases, Bradyrhizobium infections have been reported in immunocompromised individuals, but these cases are rare and typically associated with the use of contaminated soil or water.
I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any medical field that uses the term "Cyanothece." However, Cyanothece is a genus of cyanobacteria that are known for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and produce oxygen through photosynthesis. They are commonly found in freshwater and marine environments, and have been studied for their potential use in biofuel production and wastewater treatment. If you have any additional context or information about where you heard this term, please let me know and I may be able to provide more information.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Leghemoglobin is a protein found in the root nodules of legumes (such as beans, peas, and lentils) that plays a crucial role in the nitrogen-fixing process. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, but it is not readily available in the soil. Legumes form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in their root nodules. These bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that the plant can use. Leghemoglobin is responsible for binding to oxygen molecules in the root nodules and releasing them to the bacteria. This process helps to regulate the amount of oxygen available to the bacteria, which is necessary for their nitrogen-fixing activity. In addition, leghemoglobin also helps to protect the bacteria from harmful oxygen radicals that can damage their cells. In the medical field, leghemoglobin has been studied as a potential source of oxygen-carrying proteins for use in medical applications. For example, researchers have developed synthetic versions of leghemoglobin that could be used as a blood substitute in emergency situations where there is a shortage of blood.
Azotobacter vinelandii is a gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacterium that is commonly found in soil and water. It is a member of the family Azotobacteraceae and is known for its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants. In the medical field, Azotobacter vinelandii has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of various medical conditions. For example, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. It has also been studied for its potential use in the treatment of cancer, as it has been shown to have cytotoxic effects on certain cancer cells. In addition to its potential therapeutic applications, Azotobacter vinelandii has also been used as a model organism for studying the biology of nitrogen fixation and the regulation of gene expression.
Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments such as freshwater, saltwater, and soil. They are also known as blue-green algae or blue-green bacteria. In the medical field, cyanobacteria are of interest because some species can produce toxins that can cause illness in humans and animals. These toxins can be harmful when ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin. Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins can cause a range of symptoms, including skin irritation, respiratory problems, and gastrointestinal issues. In addition to their potential to cause illness, cyanobacteria are also being studied for their potential medical applications. Some species of cyanobacteria produce compounds that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial properties. These compounds are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and infectious diseases.
Anabaena is a genus of filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria that are commonly found in freshwater environments. They are known for their ability to form large, dense colonies called "anabaena blooms" that can cover the surface of the water and produce a blue-green color. In the medical field, Anabaena is not typically associated with human health. However, some species of Anabaena have been shown to produce toxins that can be harmful to humans and animals if ingested or inhaled. For example, Anabaena flos-aquae produces a toxin called microcystin, which has been linked to liver damage and other health problems in humans and animals. In addition, Anabaena blooms can also have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems by reducing light penetration and oxygen levels, which can harm other aquatic organisms. As such, monitoring and managing Anabaena blooms is an important part of maintaining healthy freshwater ecosystems.
Complement fixation tests are a type of serological test used in the medical field to detect the presence of specific antibodies in a patient's blood. These tests are based on the principle that antibodies can bind to specific antigens, causing a change in the complement system, a group of proteins that play a role in the immune response. In a complement fixation test, a known amount of antigen is mixed with a patient's serum, and the mixture is then incubated to allow the antibodies in the serum to bind to the antigen. The bound antibodies then activate the complement system, which leads to the formation of a visible precipitate or clot. The amount of precipitate or clot formed is proportional to the amount of antibodies present in the serum. Complement fixation tests are used to diagnose a variety of infectious diseases, including syphilis, rheumatic fever, and Lyme disease. They are also used to detect the presence of certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. These tests are generally considered to be highly specific, meaning that they are less likely to produce false-positive results than other types of serological tests. However, they may be less sensitive, meaning that they may produce false-negative results in some cases.
Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nitrogen in the body. It catalyzes the reversible transfer of ammonia from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, producing glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate. This reaction is an important step in the urea cycle, which is the primary mechanism for removing excess nitrogen from the body. In the medical field, GLUL is often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders that affect nitrogen metabolism. For example, mutations in the GLUL gene have been associated with several inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism, including glutamine synthetase deficiency and hyperammonemia-hyperornithinemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome (HHH syndrome). In addition, GLUL has been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, as well as in the regulation of immune function and inflammation.
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a class of cationic compounds that consist of a central nitrogen atom bonded to four alkyl or aryl groups, with one of the alkyl groups replaced by a positively charged ammonium ion. In the medical field, QACs are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and preservatives due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to cell lysis and death. They are particularly effective against Gram-positive bacteria, which have a thick peptidoglycan layer that can be penetrated by the positively charged ammonium ion. QACs are also effective against enveloped viruses, such as influenza and herpes, by disrupting the viral envelope. QACs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as disinfectants for surfaces and equipment, antiseptics for skin and wound care, and preservatives for pharmaceuticals and medical devices. However, QACs can also be toxic to humans and other animals if ingested or inhaled in high concentrations. Therefore, proper handling and use of QACs are essential to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
In the medical field, nitrogen compounds refer to compounds that contain nitrogen atoms. Nitrogen is a common element in the human body and is found in many important biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and amino acids. Nitrogen compounds can be further classified based on their chemical structure and function in the body. Some examples of nitrogen compounds in the medical field include: 1. Ammonia: A toxic gas that is produced by the breakdown of proteins in the body. High levels of ammonia in the blood can be a sign of liver or kidney disease. 2. Nitric oxide: A gas that is produced by the body and plays a role in regulating blood pressure and the immune system. 3. Nitroglycerin: A medication used to treat angina (chest pain) by relaxing blood vessels and increasing blood flow to the heart. 4. Nitrates: A group of compounds that are used to treat angina and heart failure by relaxing blood vessels and reducing the workload on the heart. 5. Nitrous oxide: A gas that is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures and is also known as "laughing gas." Overall, nitrogen compounds play important roles in many biological processes and are often used in medical treatments and medications.
Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze redox reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, energy production, and detoxification. In the medical field, oxidoreductases are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions. For example, some oxidoreductases are involved in the metabolism of drugs and toxins, and changes in their activity can affect the efficacy and toxicity of these substances. Other oxidoreductases are involved in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause cellular damage and contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer and aging. Oxidoreductases are also important in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. For example, some oxidoreductases are used as markers of liver disease, and changes in their activity can indicate the severity of the disease. In addition, some oxidoreductases are targets for drugs used to treat diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Overall, oxidoreductases are a diverse and important class of enzymes that play a central role in many biological processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. It is a colorless, pungent gas with a strong, unpleasant odor. In the medical field, ammonia is often used as a diagnostic tool to test for liver and kidney function. High levels of ammonia in the blood can be a sign of liver or kidney disease, as well as certain genetic disorders such as urea cycle disorders. Ammonia can also be used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as metabolic acidosis, which is a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, ammonia can be toxic in high concentrations and can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled or ingested.
In the medical field, denitrification refers to the process by which bacteria convert nitrate (NO3-) into nitrogen gas (N2) in the absence of oxygen. This process is important in the nitrogen cycle and is carried out by certain types of bacteria, such as denitrifying bacteria, in soil and water environments. In the context of medicine, denitrification may be relevant in certain medical conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, where the body may not be able to effectively remove excess nitrate from the blood. In these cases, denitrification by certain bacteria in the gut may help to reduce the levels of nitrate in the blood and prevent complications. However, denitrification can also have negative effects in certain medical conditions, such as in the case of nitrate poisoning, where excessive amounts of nitrate can be harmful to the body. In these cases, treatment may involve removing the source of nitrate and providing supportive care to manage symptoms.
In the medical field, the term "carbon" typically refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 6, which is a vital component of all living organisms. Carbon is the building block of organic molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, which are essential for the structure and function of cells and tissues. In medicine, carbon is also used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, carbon-13 (13C) is a stable isotope of carbon that is used in metabolic studies to investigate the function of enzymes and pathways in the body. Carbon-14 (14C) is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is used in radiocarbon dating to determine the age of organic materials, including human remains. Additionally, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced by the body during respiration and is exhaled. It is also used in medical applications, such as in carbon dioxide laser therapy, which uses the energy of CO2 lasers to treat various medical conditions, including skin disorders, tumors, and eye diseases.
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a laboratory test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. Urea is a waste product that is produced when the body breaks down protein. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. BUN is typically used to assess kidney function and to diagnose kidney problems. A high level of BUN may indicate that the kidneys are not functioning properly, while a low level may indicate that the kidneys are overworking. BUN levels can also be affected by certain medications, dehydration, and other medical conditions. In addition to assessing kidney function, BUN can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as dialysis or chemotherapy, and to detect dehydration or other fluid imbalances.
In the medical field, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a colorless gas that is produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as gasoline and diesel. It is also produced by industrial processes, such as the production of steel and the burning of coal. NO2 is a toxic gas that can cause a range of respiratory problems, including shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. Long-term exposure to high levels of NO2 can lead to chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and emphysema. In addition to its respiratory effects, NO2 has also been linked to cardiovascular problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. It is also a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. In the medical field, NO2 is typically measured as part of air quality monitoring programs, and its levels are used to assess the health risks associated with air pollution. Medical professionals may also use NO2 levels to diagnose and treat respiratory and cardiovascular conditions related to air pollution exposure.
Molybdoferredoxin is a protein that contains both molybdenum and iron-sulfur clusters. It is found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is involved in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, such as cysteine and methionine. Molybdoferredoxin plays a crucial role in the conversion of sulfite to sulfate, which is an important step in the detoxification of sulfite. It is also involved in the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is an important step in the metabolism of nitrate-containing compounds. In the medical field, molybdoferredoxin is often studied in relation to disorders of sulfur metabolism, such as molybdenum deficiency and sulfite oxidase deficiency.
Molybdenum is a chemical element that is not essential for human health, but it is used in some medical applications. In the medical field, molybdenum is primarily used as a trace element in dietary supplements and as a component of certain medical devices. Molybdenum is a transition metal that is found in small amounts in many foods, including leafy green vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. It is also used in some dietary supplements to support bone health, cardiovascular health, and immune function. In addition to its use in dietary supplements, molybdenum is also used in some medical devices, such as orthopedic implants and dental restorations. Molybdenum is used in these devices because of its high strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion. Overall, while molybdenum is not essential for human health, it has some important medical applications and is used in a variety of medical devices and dietary supplements.
In the medical field, bone screws are a type of orthopedic implant used to stabilize and secure bones during surgery. They are typically made of metal and are designed to be inserted into the bone to provide support and hold the bone in place while it heals. Bone screws are commonly used in orthopedic procedures such as fracture repair, joint replacement, and spinal surgery. They are usually inserted using a specialized surgical tool, and may be secured with a plate or other type of fixation device to provide additional stability. There are many different types of bone screws, including cortical screws, cancellous screws, and pedicle screws, which are used in different parts of the body and for different types of procedures. The specific type of bone screw used will depend on the location and severity of the injury or condition being treated, as well as the surgeon's preference and experience.
In the medical field, the term "carbon cycle" typically refers to the process by which carbon is exchanged between living organisms and their environment. This process involves the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into organic compounds through photosynthesis, which is carried out by plants and other photosynthetic organisms. These organic compounds are then consumed by other organisms, and the carbon is released back into the environment through respiration and other metabolic processes. The carbon cycle is an important aspect of the Earth's ecosystem, as it helps to regulate the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and maintain a balance of greenhouse gases. Disruptions to the carbon cycle, such as those caused by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, can have significant impacts on the environment and human health. For example, increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can contribute to climate change, which can lead to more frequent and severe weather events, rising sea levels, and other environmental impacts that can have negative effects on human health.
Dinitrogenase reductase, also known as nitrogenase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biological nitrogen fixation process. It is responsible for converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), which can be used by plants and other organisms as a source of nitrogen for growth and metabolism. In the medical field, dinitrogenase reductase is not typically used as a therapeutic agent. However, it has been studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics and other drugs. Some bacteria and archaea have evolved mechanisms to evade the action of dinitrogenase reductase inhibitors, making it a challenging target for drug development. Nonetheless, understanding the structure and function of this enzyme is important for developing new strategies to combat bacterial infections and other diseases.
Nitrates are a group of compounds that contain the nitrate ion (NO3-). In the medical field, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by relaxing the smooth muscles in blood vessels, which allows blood to flow more easily and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitrates are available in various forms, including tablets, ointments, and sprays. They are usually taken as needed to relieve symptoms, but may also be taken on a regular schedule to prevent angina attacks or lower blood pressure. It is important to note that nitrates can have side effects, such as headache, flushing, and low blood pressure, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are a group of highly reactive molecules that are formed as a byproduct of the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in the body. These molecules include nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and other nitrogen-containing radicals. In the medical field, RNS play important roles in various physiological processes, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, and immune function. However, excessive production of RNS can also lead to cellular damage and contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. RNS are produced by a variety of cells in the body, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. They are also generated by the interaction of oxygen and nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrite and nitrate, which are found in the diet and are converted to NO by enzymes in the body. Overall, RNS are a complex and dynamic group of molecules that play important roles in both health and disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which RNS are produced and regulated is an active area of research in the medical field.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found in almost every environment on Earth, including soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, bacteria are often studied and classified based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. Bacteria can be either beneficial or harmful to humans. Some bacteria are essential for human health, such as the bacteria that live in the gut and help digest food. However, other bacteria can cause infections and diseases, such as strep throat, pneumonia, and meningitis. In the medical field, bacteria are often identified and treated using a variety of methods, including culturing and identifying bacteria using specialized laboratory techniques, administering antibiotics to kill harmful bacteria, and using vaccines to prevent bacterial infections.
In the medical field, bone plates are surgical implants used to stabilize and repair fractures or other injuries to bones. They are typically made of metal, such as titanium or stainless steel, and are designed to fit precisely onto the bone to provide support and promote healing. Bone plates are usually secured to the bone using screws, pins, or other types of fixation devices. They can be used to treat a wide range of bone injuries, including fractures, dislocations, and osteotomies (surgical cuts made in bones to realign them). The use of bone plates has revolutionized the treatment of bone injuries, allowing for faster and more accurate healing, and reducing the risk of complications such as nonunion (failure of the bone to heal) or malunion (healing of the bone in the wrong position).
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Azorhizobium caulinodans is a type of soil bacterium that forms a symbiotic relationship with certain legume plants, such as alfalfa and clover. In this relationship, the bacteria fix nitrogen from the air into a form that the plant can use as a nutrient. The bacteria live in specialized structures called nodules that form on the roots of the legume plant. In the medical field, Azorhizobium caulinodans has been studied for its potential use in bioremediation, which is the use of living organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from the environment. The bacteria have been shown to degrade a variety of organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). They have also been used in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, it is important to note that Azorhizobium caulinodans can also be pathogenic, causing infections in humans and animals. Infections caused by this bacterium are rare, but they can be serious and may require treatment with antibiotics.
Azospirillum brasilense is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is known for its ability to fix nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In the medical field, A. brasilense is not typically associated with human health or disease. However, some strains of the bacteria have been shown to have potential applications in agriculture and biotechnology, such as improving crop yields and producing biofuels.
Achromobacter is a genus of bacteria that belongs to the family Alcaligenaceae. These bacteria are gram-negative, non-spore-forming rods that are commonly found in soil, water, and the environment. In the medical field, Achromobacter can cause a variety of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. Some species of Achromobacter are also known to cause nosocomial infections, which are infections that are acquired in a hospital or healthcare setting. Achromobacter infections can be difficult to treat because they are often resistant to antibiotics. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care.
In the medical field, biomass refers to the total mass of living organisms in a particular area or ecosystem. This can include plants, animals, and microorganisms, and is often used as a measure of the health and productivity of an ecosystem. Biomass can also be used to refer to the energy that can be derived from living organisms, such as through the burning of wood or the fermentation of plant materials to produce biofuels. In this context, biomass is often seen as a renewable energy source, as it can be replenished through natural processes such as photosynthesis.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
In the medical field, "caves" typically refers to the natural or artificial underground spaces that are used for various purposes, such as storage, research, or treatment. One example of medical caves is the "cave hospital" or "cave clinic," which is a type of underground medical facility that is designed to provide shelter and medical care to people in emergency situations, such as natural disasters or war zones. These facilities are typically equipped with medical equipment and supplies, and are staffed by medical professionals who are trained to provide emergency medical care. Another example of medical caves is the "cave laboratory," which is an underground research facility that is used for scientific research, such as studying the effects of low light levels on plant growth or studying the behavior of animals in their natural habitat. These facilities are typically equipped with specialized equipment and are staffed by scientists who are trained in the specific area of research. Overall, the term "caves" in the medical field refers to underground spaces that are used for medical or scientific purposes, and are designed to provide a safe and controlled environment for research, treatment, or emergency care.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.
In the medical field, hydrogen is not typically used as a standalone treatment or medication. However, there is some research being conducted on the potential therapeutic uses of hydrogen gas (H2) in various medical conditions. One area of interest is in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are underlying factors in many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hydrogen gas has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a therapeutic agent in these conditions. Another area of research is in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydrogen gas has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of TBI, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in humans. However, it's important to note that the use of hydrogen gas in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and risks. As such, hydrogen gas should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatments without the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Azospirillum is a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are commonly found in soil and water. They are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are known for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants. In the medical field, Azospirillum is not typically associated with human health. However, some species of Azospirillum have been studied for their potential use in bioremediation, which is the process of using living organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from the environment. Additionally, some strains of Azospirillum have been shown to have potential as probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts.
In the medical field, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of gases that are formed when nitrogen and oxygen react at high temperatures. These gases are commonly found in the atmosphere and are also produced by various human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and industrial processes. NOx gases can have harmful effects on human health, particularly on the respiratory system. When inhaled, they can cause irritation of the airways, coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure to high levels of NOx can lead to chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to their respiratory effects, NOx gases can also contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, which is a major component of smog and can cause eye irritation, coughing, and other respiratory symptoms. NOx gases can also contribute to the formation of fine particulate matter, which can be inhaled deep into the lungs and cause a range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. Overall, the medical community recognizes the importance of monitoring and controlling NOx emissions to protect public health and reduce the risk of respiratory and other health problems associated with exposure to these gases.
Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria that belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria. It is a diverse group of bacteria that includes many important pathogens, as well as many beneficial bacteria that are found in soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, Alphaproteobacteria are often studied because of their potential to cause disease. Some examples of Alphaproteobacteria that are known to cause human disease include Rickettsia, which can cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus, and Anaplasma, which can cause anaplasmosis. Other members of this class of bacteria, such as Neisseria and Borrelia, are also known to cause human disease. In addition to their potential to cause disease, Alphaproteobacteria are also important for their role in the environment and in the human body. Some species of Alphaproteobacteria are involved in nitrogen fixation, which is the process by which atmospheric nitrogen is converted into a form that can be used by plants. Other species of Alphaproteobacteria are found in the human gut and are thought to play a role in maintaining gut health.
In the medical field, "Alnus" refers to a genus of trees and shrubs in the birch family (Betulaceae). Some species of Alnus are commonly used in traditional medicine for their various medicinal properties. For example, Alnus glutinosa (common alder) is used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory infections, coughs, and bronchitis. Alnus incana (gray alder) is used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. However, it is important to note that the use of Alnus species in medicine should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Anaerobiosis is a condition in which an organism cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. In the medical field, anaerobiosis is often associated with infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, which are bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. These bacteria are commonly found in the human body, particularly in areas such as the mouth, gut, and female reproductive tract, where oxygen levels are low. Anaerobic bacteria can cause a range of infections, including dental caries, periodontitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Treatment for anaerobic infections typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria.
Aerobiosis is a type of respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen. In the medical field, aerobiosis is the process by which cells in the body use oxygen to produce energy through a series of chemical reactions called cellular respiration. This process is essential for the survival of most living organisms, as it provides the energy needed for growth, repair, and other vital functions. During aerobiosis, glucose (a type of sugar) is broken down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary energy currency of the cell. Oxygen is required for this process to occur, as it acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, which is the final step in cellular respiration. Aerobic exercise, such as running or cycling, is a type of physical activity that relies on aerobiosis to produce energy. During aerobic exercise, the body uses oxygen to break down glucose and other nutrients, producing energy that can be used to power the muscles and other organs. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improved cardiovascular health, increased endurance, and weight loss.
Chemoautotrophic growth is a type of metabolism that occurs in certain microorganisms, such as bacteria and archaea, that are capable of producing their own food using energy from inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or methane, instead of sunlight. These microorganisms are called chemoautotrophs. Chemoautotrophic growth is an important process in many natural environments, such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where sunlight is not available, and in the digestive tracts of some animals, where chemoautotrophic bacteria help to break down complex organic matter. In the medical field, chemoautotrophic growth is not directly related to human health, but it is important to understand this process because it helps scientists to better understand the diversity of microorganisms that exist in different environments and their roles in the ecosystem. Additionally, some chemoautotrophic bacteria have been studied for their potential use in bioremediation, the process of using living organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from the environment.
Glutamate synthase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nitrogen in plants and some bacteria. It catalyzes the conversion of glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate to glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate, using reducing power from either NADPH or ferredoxin. This reaction is a key step in the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen, such as ammonia or nitrate, into organic compounds that can be used for growth and metabolism. In plants, glutamate synthase is primarily located in the chloroplasts and is involved in the assimilation of nitrogen from the atmosphere through the process of nitrogen fixation. In bacteria, the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and is involved in the assimilation of nitrogen from various sources, including ammonia and nitrate.
In the medical field, dicarboxylic acids are a group of organic compounds that contain two carboxylic acid groups (-COOH) attached to a central carbon atom. These acids are commonly found in the human body and play important roles in various physiological processes. Some examples of dicarboxylic acids include glutaric acid, adipic acid, and suberic acid. Glutaric acid is involved in the metabolism of amino acids and the breakdown of certain drugs. Adipic acid is a building block of adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Suberic acid is a component of certain lipids and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In some cases, dicarboxylic acids can be present in the blood at abnormally high levels, which can indicate certain medical conditions such as glutaric aciduria type 1 or methylmalonic acidemia. These conditions are rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of certain amino acids or fatty acids, leading to the accumulation of dicarboxylic acids in the body.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
Ketoglutaric acid is a chemical compound that is involved in the metabolism of amino acids in the body. It is a key intermediate in the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is a series of chemical reactions that generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from glucose and other nutrients. In the medical field, ketoglutaric acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a treatment for certain medical conditions. For example, it has been suggested that ketoglutaric acid may have potential as a treatment for cancer, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some studies. It has also been suggested that ketoglutaric acid may have potential as a treatment for other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, although more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits. It is important to note that the use of ketoglutaric acid as a dietary supplement or as a treatment for medical conditions is not well-established, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks. It is always a good idea to talk to a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or treatment.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
In the medical field, bone wires are thin, flexible wires made of metal or other materials that are used to stabilize and reinforce broken bones. They are typically inserted into the bone through a small incision and secured in place using screws or other devices. Bone wires are commonly used in orthopedic surgery to treat fractures, particularly in areas of the body where the bone is difficult to access or where there is a risk of nerve or blood vessel damage. They can also be used to treat other conditions, such as osteoporosis, where the bone is weak and prone to fractures.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Tungsten is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. It is a hard, dense, and lustrous transition metal that is often used in medical applications due to its unique properties. One of the main uses of tungsten in medicine is in the production of medical devices such as surgical instruments, dental tools, and prosthetic implants. Tungsten is used because of its high melting point, which allows it to withstand the high temperatures generated during surgical procedures. It is also highly resistant to corrosion, which makes it ideal for use in medical devices that are exposed to bodily fluids. Tungsten is also used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. Tungsten-based shielding materials are used to protect medical personnel and patients from the harmful effects of radiation during treatment. Tungsten is also used in the production of radiation therapy equipment, such as linear accelerators and brachytherapy sources. In addition, tungsten is used in the production of medical imaging equipment, such as X-ray machines and computed tomography (CT) scanners. Tungsten is used in the construction of X-ray targets, which are used to produce high-energy X-rays that are used to create images of the inside of the body. Overall, tungsten is an important material in the medical field due to its unique properties, which make it ideal for use in a wide range of medical applications.
Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.
In the medical field, "bone nails" typically refer to a type of internal fixation device used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize fractures or other injuries to long bones. Bone nails are typically made of metal and are inserted into the bone through a small incision, where they are used to hold the broken bone fragments in place while they heal. There are several types of bone nails, including intramedullary nails, which are inserted into the center of the bone, and external fixators, which are attached to the bone on the outside. Bone nails are commonly used to treat fractures of the femur, tibia, and humerus, as well as other long bones in the body. The use of bone nails can help to reduce the risk of complications associated with open fractures, such as infection, and can also help to speed up the healing process. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are potential risks and complications associated with the use of bone nails, and patients should discuss these with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.
In the medical field, culture media refers to a nutrient-rich substance used to support the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Culture media is typically used in diagnostic laboratories to isolate and identify microorganisms from clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or sputum. Culture media can be classified into two main types: solid and liquid. Solid media is usually a gel-like substance that allows microorganisms to grow in a three-dimensional matrix, while liquid media is a broth or solution that provides nutrients for microorganisms to grow in suspension. The composition of culture media varies depending on the type of microorganism being cultured and the specific needs of that organism. Culture media may contain a variety of nutrients, including amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals, as well as antibiotics or other agents to inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms. Overall, culture media is an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as it allows healthcare professionals to identify the specific microorganisms causing an infection and select the most appropriate treatment.
Methane is not typically used in the medical field. It is a colorless, odorless gas that is the main component of natural gas and is also produced by the digestive processes of some animals, including humans. In the medical field, methane is not used for any therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. However, it can be used as a marker for certain digestive disorders, such as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, as it is produced by certain types of bacteria in the gut.
In the medical field, "darkness" generally refers to a lack of light or visual perception. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including: 1. Retinal detachment: A condition in which the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, separates from the underlying tissue. 2. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to the retina, leading to vision loss and eventually blindness. 3. Macular degeneration: A condition in which the central part of the retina, called the macula, deteriorates, leading to vision loss. 4. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 5. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve can cause vision loss or blindness. 7. Brain injury: Damage to the brain, particularly the visual cortex, can cause blindness or vision loss. In some cases, darkness may also be a symptom of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor or stroke.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. It is an essential nutrient for living organisms and is found in all cells of the body. In the medical field, phosphorus is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of phosphorus in the blood, which can be an indicator of various medical conditions. High levels of phosphorus in the blood can be caused by kidney disease, certain medications, or excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods. Low levels of phosphorus can be caused by malnutrition, certain medications, or excessive loss of phosphorus through the urine. Phosphorus is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, where it is used to help build strong bones. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, where it is used to help slow the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its use in medicine, phosphorus is also used in the production of fertilizers, detergents, and other industrial products.
Sulfur is a chemical element that is not typically used in the medical field for therapeutic purposes. However, sulfur is an essential nutrient that is required for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a component of many amino acids, and it plays a role in the production of collagen, which is important for the health of connective tissue. In some cases, sulfur is used in the treatment of certain skin conditions, such as acne and psoriasis. Topical creams and ointments containing sulfur can help to reduce inflammation and unclog pores, which can help to improve the appearance of acne. Sulfur is also sometimes used in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin, such as athlete's foot. Sulfur is also used in the production of certain medications, such as antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs. However, these medications are typically not used in the medical field for the treatment of sulfur deficiencies or other conditions related to sulfur metabolism.
Flavodoxin is a small, non-heme iron-containing protein that is found in a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. It is involved in a number of metabolic processes, including the reduction of flavins (a type of coenzyme) and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. In the medical field, flavodoxin has been studied for its potential role in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, some researchers have suggested that flavodoxin may play a role in the development of cancer by regulating the activity of certain enzymes involved in cell growth and division. Other studies have suggested that flavodoxin may be involved in the development of cardiovascular disease by regulating the production of reactive oxygen species in the body. Overall, flavodoxin is an important protein that plays a role in a number of metabolic processes and may have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases.
UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase (also known as UDP-glucose dehydrogenase or UDP-glucose 4-epimerase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It catalyzes the conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose, UDP-glucuronic acid, and UDP-xylose, which are important precursors for the synthesis of various glycoproteins, glycolipids, and other biological molecules. In the medical field, UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase is involved in the metabolism of several diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. For example, mutations in the gene encoding this enzyme have been associated with a rare inherited disorder called galactosemia, which is caused by an inability to break down galactose. In cancer, UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase has been shown to play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival, making it a potential target for cancer therapy. Additionally, this enzyme has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
In the medical field, Archaea are a group of single-celled microorganisms that are distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. They are found in a wide range of environments, including extreme environments such as hot springs, salt flats, and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Archaea are known for their unique cell structures and metabolic processes. They have cell walls made of a different type of polymer than bacteria, and they often have a more complex metabolism that allows them to survive in harsh environments. In medicine, Archaea are of interest because some species are pathogenic and can cause infections in humans and animals. For example, Methanococcus voltae has been isolated from human infections, and some species of Archaea are associated with chronic infections in animals. Additionally, Archaea are being studied for their potential use in biotechnology. Some species are able to produce useful compounds, such as enzymes and biofuels, and they are being investigated as potential sources of new antibiotics and other therapeutic agents.
In the medical field, Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters (DATs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for transporting dicarboxylic acids across cell membranes. These acids are a group of organic compounds that contain two carboxyl groups, and they are found in a variety of biological processes, including energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and the synthesis of certain hormones. DATs are located in the plasma membrane of cells and use a facilitated diffusion mechanism to transport dicarboxylic acids across the membrane. This means that they do not require energy to function and simply use the concentration gradient of the dicarboxylic acid to move it across the membrane. There are several different types of DATs, including the sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter (NaDC) and the proton-dependent dicarboxylate transporter (DICV). These transporters play important roles in the metabolism of dicarboxylic acids in the body and are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Ferredoxins are small, soluble electron transfer proteins that play a crucial role in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. They are found in a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. In the context of cellular respiration, ferredoxins are involved in the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another, ultimately leading to the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the energy currency of the cell. They are also involved in the detoxification of harmful molecules, such as hydrogen peroxide. In photosynthesis, ferredoxins are involved in the transfer of electrons from water to carbon dioxide, ultimately leading to the production of glucose and oxygen. They are also involved in the regulation of photosynthesis by controlling the flow of electrons through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Ferredoxins are typically composed of four to eight alpha-helices and have a molecular weight of around 10-15 kDa. They are often found in association with other proteins, such as ferredoxin reductases, which are involved in the reduction of ferredoxins to their reduced form.
I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any medical term or concept related to "Cape Verde." It is possible that you may be referring to a specific medical condition or treatment related to Cape Verde, but without more context or information, I am unable to provide a definition. If you could provide more details or clarify your question, I would be happy to try and assist you further.
RNA Polymerase Sigma 54 (RNAP sigma 54) is a subunit of RNA polymerase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing RNA from a DNA template. Sigma 54 is a unique sigma factor that is involved in the transcription of genes that are induced by certain environmental conditions, such as changes in temperature, pH, or nutrient availability. In the medical field, RNAP sigma 54 is of interest because it plays a role in the regulation of bacterial gene expression. Understanding the function of sigma 54 and its role in bacterial physiology can help researchers develop new strategies for treating bacterial infections and for controlling the growth of harmful bacteria in industrial settings. Additionally, sigma 54 has been studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics. By inhibiting the activity of sigma 54, it may be possible to disrupt the transcription of bacterial genes and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.
In the medical field, "fractures, comminuted" refers to a type of bone fracture where the bone is broken into multiple pieces or fragments. This type of fracture is often caused by a severe impact or force, such as a fall from a great height or a car accident. Comminuted fractures can be more difficult to treat than other types of fractures because the bone fragments are often misaligned or displaced, making it harder to set the bone properly. In addition, comminuted fractures may take longer to heal and may be more prone to complications such as infection or nonunion (where the bone fails to heal properly). Treatment for comminuted fractures typically involves surgery to realign and stabilize the bone fragments using plates, screws, or other hardware. Physical therapy may also be necessary to help the patient regain strength and mobility in the affected area.
Hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hydrogen gas (H2) to protons (H+) and electrons (e-). In the medical field, hydrogenase is of interest because it plays a key role in the metabolism of hydrogen, which is produced by various cellular processes such as fermentation and oxidative phosphorylation. Hydrogenase is found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In bacteria, hydrogenase is involved in the metabolism of hydrogen as an energy source or as a byproduct of metabolism. In eukaryotes, hydrogenase is primarily involved in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, a toxic byproduct of cellular metabolism. In the medical field, hydrogenase has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders. For example, some researchers have proposed that inhibiting hydrogenase could be an effective way to treat cancer by disrupting the metabolism of hydrogen by cancer cells. Additionally, hydrogenase has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and may be a potential target for the development of new treatments.
Betaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria that belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria. They are gram-negative bacteria that are found in a variety of environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Some species of Betaproteobacteria are pathogenic and can cause infections in humans, while others are beneficial and play important roles in the environment and in the human body's microbiome. In the medical field, Betaproteobacteria are of interest because of their potential role in causing infections. Some species of Betaproteobacteria, such as Neisseria meningitidis and Burkholderia pseudomallei, are known to cause serious infections, including meningitis and melioidosis, respectively. These bacteria are also being studied for their potential use in the development of new antibiotics and other therapeutic agents.
Amphipoda is a subclass of crustaceans that includes a diverse group of marine and freshwater animals. They are characterized by their elongated bodies, two pairs of antennae, and a single pair of mandibles. In the medical field, amphipods are sometimes used in research as model organisms to study various biological processes, including development, genetics, and behavior. They are also used in aquaculture as a food source for fish and other aquatic animals. Some species of amphipods are known to be vectors of disease, including the。，。，，。，，。
DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons, are segments of DNA that can move or transpose from one location in the genome to another. They are found in the genomes of many organisms, including plants, animals, and bacteria. In the medical field, DNA transposable elements are of interest because they can play a role in the evolution of genomes and the development of diseases. For example, some transposable elements can cause mutations in genes, which can lead to genetic disorders or cancer. Additionally, transposable elements can contribute to the evolution of new genes and the adaptation of organisms to changing environments. Transposable elements can also be used as tools in genetic research and biotechnology. For example, scientists can use transposable elements to insert genes into cells or organisms, allowing them to study the function of those genes or to create genetically modified organisms for various purposes.
Glutamine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the body. It is one of the most abundant amino acids in the human body and is involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Energy production: Glutamine is a major source of fuel for cells in the body, particularly in the muscles and immune system. 2. Protein synthesis: Glutamine is a key building block for proteins and is essential for the growth and repair of tissues. 3. Immune function: Glutamine plays a critical role in the function of the immune system, particularly in the production of white blood cells. 4. Gut health: Glutamine is important for maintaining the health of the gut lining and preventing damage to the gut. In the medical field, glutamine is often used as a supplement to support various health conditions, including: 1. Wound healing: Glutamine has been shown to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection. 2. Cancer treatment: Glutamine supplementation may help to reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as fatigue and muscle wasting. 3. Immune system support: Glutamine supplementation may help to boost the immune system and reduce the risk of infections. 4. Digestive disorders: Glutamine may be helpful in treating digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Overall, glutamine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in many physiological processes in the body and may be beneficial in supporting various health conditions.
Hemeproteins are a class of proteins that contain a heme group, which is a complex of iron and porphyrin. Hemeproteins are found in many organisms and play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including oxygen transport, energy metabolism, and detoxification. The most well-known hemeprotein is hemoglobin, which is found in red blood cells and is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group. The iron atom in the heme group can bind to oxygen molecules, allowing hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Other examples of hemeproteins include myoglobin, which is found in muscle tissue and stores oxygen for use during periods of high physical activity, and cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. Hemeproteins are important for many biological processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Tibial fractures are breaks or fractures in the tibia, which is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg. The tibia is located between the knee and ankle and is responsible for supporting the weight of the body. Tibial fractures can occur as a result of trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, or as a complication of osteoporosis or other bone diseases. Symptoms of a tibial fracture may include pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty bearing weight on the affected leg. Treatment for tibial fractures may include immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to repair the fracture, and physical therapy to help the bone heal and regain strength.
Hydroxybutyrates are a class of compounds that contain a hydroxybutyrate functional group. They are commonly used in the medical field as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. Some examples of hydroxybutyrates include valproic acid, which is used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, and diazepam, which is used to treat anxiety and seizures. Hydroxybutyrates are also used as dietary supplements to promote muscle growth and improve athletic performance.
In the medical field, "Crops, Agricultural" typically refers to the cultivation and harvesting of crops for food, fiber, or other agricultural products. This can include a wide range of crops, such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and livestock feed. The medical field may be interested in agricultural crops for several reasons. For example, some crops may be used as sources of dietary fiber or other nutrients that can help prevent certain diseases. Others may be used to produce biofuels or other industrial products. Additionally, the use of pesticides and other chemicals in agriculture can have potential health effects on both humans and the environment, so the medical field may study the impact of these practices on human health. Overall, the medical field may be interested in agricultural crops as a way to understand the impact of food production on human health and the environment, and to develop strategies for promoting sustainable and healthy food systems.
Chromosomes, bacterial, refer to the genetic material of bacteria, which are typically circular DNA molecules. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have linear chromosomes, bacterial chromosomes are circular and can range in size from a few thousand to several million base pairs. Bacterial chromosomes contain all the genetic information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and carry out its various functions. In addition to the bacterial chromosome, bacteria may also have plasmids, which are smaller, circular pieces of DNA that can be transferred between bacteria and may carry genes that confer advantageous traits such as antibiotic resistance.
In the medical field, the term "Atlantic Ocean" typically refers to the body of water that separates the eastern coast of North America from the western coast of Europe and Africa. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world, covering an area of approximately 41.1 million square miles (106.4 million square kilometers). The Atlantic Ocean plays an important role in global climate patterns and weather systems, and is home to a diverse range of marine life, including fish, whales, dolphins, and various species of coral and algae. In medical research, the Atlantic Ocean is sometimes studied as a source of potential new drugs or other therapeutic compounds, as well as a habitat for marine organisms that may be used in medical treatments or as models for studying human biology.
Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable gas with a pungent, suffocating odor. It is commonly used in the medical field as a preservative for tissues, organs, and other biological samples. Formaldehyde is also used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is sometimes used to treat certain medical conditions, such as leprosy and psoriasis. In the medical field, formaldehyde is typically used in concentrations of 1-4%, and it is applied to the tissue or organ to be preserved. The formaldehyde causes the cells in the tissue to become rigid and hard, which helps to preserve the tissue and prevent decay. Formaldehyde is also used to disinfect medical equipment and surfaces, and it is sometimes used to treat wounds and skin conditions. While formaldehyde is effective at preserving tissue and disinfecting surfaces, it can also be harmful if it is inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Exposure to high concentrations of formaldehyde can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, as well as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure to formaldehyde has been linked to certain types of cancer, including nasopharyngeal cancer and sinonasal cancer.
DNA, Archaeal refers to the genetic material of Archaea, a domain of single-celled microorganisms that are distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. Archaeal DNA is similar to bacterial DNA in many ways, but it has some unique features that distinguish it from bacterial DNA. For example, Archaeal DNA is typically circular, rather than linear, and it contains a higher percentage of guanine and cytosine nucleotides than bacterial DNA. Archaeal DNA is also more resistant to heat and chemicals than bacterial DNA, which makes it an important subject of study in the field of molecular biology and genetics.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
Agriculture: Pesticides Disrupt Nitrogen Fixation
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Influence of Mineral Fertilization on the Capacity of Nodulation of Three Species of Legumes (Groundnut, Cowpea and Soybean)
- Different from other crops, leguminous crops accumulate nitrogen (N) for plant growth through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in coordination with rhizobia. (nih.gov)
- Two prominent examples of symbiotic nitrogen fixation include the legume-rhizobium association and actinorhizal symbiosis. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Symbiotic nitrogen fixation reduces the plant's reliance on external nitrogen sources like soil nitrates or fertilizers. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Symbiotic nitrogen fixation can reduce the need for nitrogen-based fertilizers, mitigating nutrient pollution. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a prime example of the intricate ecological relationships that shape ecosystems. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Unlike symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which involves close interactions between specific plant hosts and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs independently in the soil, water, or even within certain organisms. (thenoveldifference.com)
- 9. Succinate Transport Is Not Essential for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Sinorhizobium meliloti or Rhizobium leguminosarum. (nih.gov)
Nodulation and nitrogen fixation3
- However, atmospheric nitrogen, N2, is not readily available for use by most organisms, as it is relatively unreactive. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Therefore, various biological and chemical processes are required to convert atmospheric nitrogen into forms that can be utilized by living organisms. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Nitrogen fixation is the process by which atmospheric nitrogen is converted into ammonia or other nitrogen-containing compounds that can be used by living organisms. (tutorialspoint.com)
- These bacteria possess the enzyme nitrogenase, which can break the triple bond of atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into ammonia. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Industrial nitrogen fixation, on the other hand, is carried out through the Haber-Bosch process, which involves the high-temperature and high-pressure reaction of atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. (tutorialspoint.com)
- The primary difference between nitrogen fixation and the nitrogen cycle is that nitrogen fixation involves the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia or other nitrogen-containing compounds, while the nitrogen cycle involves the transformation and recycling of nitrogen in various forms. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Nitrogen fixation is an essential process for the utilization of atmospheric nitrogen, and it is a critical component of many ecosystems. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Nitrogen loss from fertilizer is responsible for a nearly 20% increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide since the industrial revolution. (cgiar.org)
- Before the synthetic nitrogen, the primary source of agricultural nitrogen was gathered through BNF as bacteria living underground that convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen that can be utilized by crops. (cgiar.org)
- Despite its abundance in the Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is largely inert and cannot be directly utilized by most organisms. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Nitrogen fixation is the process by which atmospheric nitrogen is converted into forms that are biologically accessible and usable. (thenoveldifference.com)
- The plant supplies energy in the form of carbohydrates to the bacteroids, and in return, the bacteroids convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia through the process of nitrogen fixation. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Inside these nodules, the bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation is a process by which certain microorganisms, primarily bacteria, convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into biologically usable forms, such as ammonia (NH3) or nitrate (NO3-), without forming specialized partnerships with plants. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Here, results from long-term growth experiments, gene expression, and (15)N(2)-isotope measurements confirm that strain 195 is capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen when a defined fixed-nitrogen source such as ammonium is unavailable. (nih.gov)
- Beginning in the early twentieth century with the Haber-Bosch process, atmospheric nitrogen was converted into ammonia to create synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. (monthlyreview.org)
- Symbiotic bacteria, such as Rhizobium, form a mutualistic relationship with legumes and other plants, exchanging nitrogen for carbohydrates produced by the plant. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Recent breakthroughs in the genomics of BNF, as well as improvements in the understanding how legumes and nitrogen bacteria interact, have opened new avenues to tackle this problem much more systematically. (cgiar.org)
- This review aimed to present an updated picture of the cross talk between N fixation and P nutrition in legumes, focusing on soybean as a model crop, and Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus as model plants. (nih.gov)
- In rotational cropping systems, legume-fixed nitrogen can be used first by the legumes and then by subsequent crops . (scirp.org)
- This in turn dramatically changed production systems, which no longer depended on legumes and manures to biologically supply nitrogen for other crops such as wheat, corn, and most vegetables. (monthlyreview.org)
- Ammonification is the process by which organic nitrogen compounds are broken down into ammonia by bacteria and fungi. (tutorialspoint.com)
- However, synthetic nitrogen is not very efficient, often causing excess application, which leads to deleterious forms, including ammonia, nitrate, and nitrogen oxides escaping into the surrounding ecosystem, resulting in a myriad of negative impacts on the environment and human health. (cgiar.org)
- We have discovered a trait in the legume Medicago in which this nitrogen-fixation inhibition process is disrupted," says Associate Professor Dijkwel. (massey.ac.nz)
- A large-scale research and development project has shown that giving farmers resources and advice on nitrogen fixation through legume plants can double yields and boost incomes in Africa. (earthscape.org)
- Heavy metals have deleterious the effects on nodulation and N 2 fixation of Rhizobium- Legume symbiosis, due to their inhibitory effects on the growth and activity of both symbionts. (ac.ir)
- Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through exploitation of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis and use of inoculants coupled with soil amendments such as Phosphorus offers in part a means to improve cowpea yield, nutrition and soil fertility. (orgprints.org)
- Nitrogen supply is frequently the second most limiting factor after water availability constraining crop growth and so there is great farmer demand for accessible sources of nitrogen, such as synthetic nitrogen in fertilizer. (cgiar.org)
- Synthetic nitrogen revolutionized cereal crop (e.g., wheat, maize, and rice) production by enhancing growth and grain yield as it eliminated the need to specifically allocate land for soil fertility rejuvenation during crop rotation. (cgiar.org)
- New research co-authored by International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) scientists, published in Field Crops Research, posits that facilitating natural methods of gathering useable nitrogen in BNF can reduce the amount of synthetic nitrogen being used in global agriculture. (cgiar.org)
- As agricultural systems become more intensive regarding inputs and outputs, synthetic nitrogen has become increasingly crucial, but there are still extensive areas in the world that cannot achieve food and nutrition security because of a lack of nitrogen. (cgiar.org)
- The increase in synthetic nitrogen production allowed for greater food production and tracks closely to the global human population increase . (triplepundit.com)
- Without the technological innovation of synthetic nitrogen via Haber-Bosch, the earth's population would be half what it is today. (triplepundit.com)
- This is important, as creating more does not ensure sustainability (as with our examples of more synthetic nitrogen, more fishing or more oil). (triplepundit.com)
- Leguminous plants, like beans, peas, and clover, form nodules on their roots as a result of a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria known as rhizobia. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Inside the nodules, rhizobia differentiate into bacteroids, which are specialized nitrogen-fixing forms. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Both the plant and the rhizobia regulate the expression of genes involved in nitrogen fixation, ensuring that resources are allocated efficiently. (thenoveldifference.com)
- On the other hand, Ivorian soils are characterized by a tendency towards acidification and a decrease in the content of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen which have a direct impact on the products. (scirp.org)
- The wide expansion and increasing rates of nitrogen and phosphorus application have caused severe damage to aquatic systems in particular. (monthlyreview.org)
- Nitrogen fixation enriches the soil with nitrogen compounds, benefitting other non-nitrogen-fixing plants in the vicinity. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Regulaci n de la Bios ntesis de Factores de Nodulaci n por Rhizobium Tropici Ciat899: Implicaciones de su Aplicaci n como Inoculante Molecular en Leguminosas y Cereales. (us.es)
- 4. Genomic characterization of Ensifer aridi, a proposed new species of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium recovered from Asian, African and American deserts. (nih.gov)
- This process is used extensively in the production of fertilizers, and it has greatly increased the availability of nitrogen for use in agriculture. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Currently, the primary source for nitrogen is synthetic, delivered through fertilizers. (cgiar.org)
- 6 This ultimately reduces the need for nitrogen fertilizers . (bastyr.edu)
Types of bacteria2
- Biological nitrogen fixation is carried out by certain types of bacteria, including free-living bacteria, symbiotic bacteria, and cyanobacteria. (tutorialspoint.com)
- How it moves from the air to the ground is governed in part by a process called biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which is catalyzed by specific types of bacteria. (cgiar.org)
- Nitrogen fixation by yeast and other fungi. (nih.gov)
- Post-war, the nitrogen was then used as fertilizer, leading to the increased food production. (triplepundit.com)
- Free-living bacteria are found in soil and water, and they are able to fix nitrogen independently. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Denitrification is the process by which nitrate is converted into nitrogen gas by bacteria. (tutorialspoint.com)
- their root systems are hospitable for these nitrogen producing bacteria to thrive. (cgiar.org)
- This process is facilitated by a close interaction between the plant and the nitrogen-fixing microorganism, typically bacteria, which benefits both partners and has significant ecological and agricultural implications. (thenoveldifference.com)
- These plants associate with a group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria called Frankia. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Decreasing effect of Cd concentration on root nodules and nitrogen concentration in plants that were inoculated with sensitive strains in comparison with plants inoculated with tolerant strains was 68.31% and 40.8%, respectively. (ac.ir)
- Enabling cereal crops to capture their own nitrogen is a long-standing goal of plant biologists and is referred to as the holy grail of BNF research," said P.M. Reddy, Senior Fellow at The Energy Research Institute, New Delhi. (cgiar.org)
- The theory is that if cereal crops can assemble their own BNF system, the crop's internal nitrogen supply and demand can be tightly regulated and synchronized. (cgiar.org)
- The study examined four methods currently being employed to establish systems within cereal crops to capture and use their own nitrogen, each with their advantages and limitations. (cgiar.org)
- Nitrogen is a critical component of living organisms, as it is a key element in amino acids, nucleic acids, and proteins. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Assimilation refers to the uptake of nitrogen by plants, which can then be used in the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, and proteins. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Nitrogen is essential for all living organisms, playing a crucial role in the structure of proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. (thenoveldifference.com)
- The energy invested by the plant in providing carbohydrates is often more efficient in terms of nitrogen gain than absorbing nitrates from the soil. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are aquatic organisms that can fix nitrogen and are essential components of many aquatic ecosystems. (tutorialspoint.com)
- In this article, we will explore the differences between nitrogen fixation and the nitrogen cycle, including their processes and the organisms involved. (tutorialspoint.com)
- The nitrogen cycle and nitrogen fixation are both important processes for the cycling and utilization of nitrogen in the environment. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Nitrogen fixation also plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle, as it provides the initial source of nitrogen for other processes. (tutorialspoint.com)
- They get nitrogen from the air and store it in their roots and that's pretty cool. (mentalfloss.com)
- To create a low-oxygen environment favorable for nitrogen fixation, leguminous plants produce a protein called leghemoglobin within their nodules. (thenoveldifference.com)
- This process is essential for the conversion of fixed nitrogen into forms that can be utilized by plants. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Notably, more nitrogen from human activities, including agriculture, has been released to the environment than carbon dioxide during recent decades, leading climate scientists to consider the possibility that nitrogen might replace carbon as a prime driver of climate change. (cgiar.org)
- This, together with increasing and changing dietary demands, shows that the future demand for nitrogen will substantially grow to meet the anticipated population of 9.7 billion people by the middle of the century," said J.K. Ladha, adjunct professor in the Department of Plant Sciences at University of California, Davis, and lead author of the study. (cgiar.org)
- There are ways in which BNF could be a core component of efforts to build more sustainable and regenerative agroecosystems to meet nitrogen demand with lower environmental footprints," said Timothy Krupnik, Senior System Agronomist at CIMMYT in Dhaka, Bangladesh. (cgiar.org)
- This process is known as nitrogen fixation, and it is a critical step in the nitrogen cycle. (tutorialspoint.com)
- The nitrogen cycle refers to the natural process by which nitrogen is transformed and recycled in the environment. (tutorialspoint.com)
- The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is transformed and recycled in the environment. (tutorialspoint.com)
- This process is important for the recycling of nitrogen in the environment, as it converts organic nitrogen into a form that can be utilized by plants. (tutorialspoint.com)
- This process is important for returning nitrogen to the atmosphere and completing the nitrogen cycle. (tutorialspoint.com)
- Industrial nitrogen fixation, on the other hand, is carried out through the Haber-Bosch process. (tutorialspoint.com)
- The technological innovation of artificial nitrogen fixation via the Haber-Bosch process was the critical development that put us on the "Great Acceleration" pathway that led to our current sustainability-challenged landscape. (triplepundit.com)
- Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. (nih.gov)
- Nitrogen fertiliser supports plant growth effectively, but it strongly inhibits nitrogen-fixation by clovers and therefore abolishes this natural source of nitrogen traditionally utilised by farmers. (massey.ac.nz)
- Among the inputs needed for a healthy soil, nitrogen is unique because it originates from the atmosphere. (cgiar.org)
- Liquid nitrogen is a chemical that is extremely cold, about -328°F (-200°C). Liquid nitrogen will instantly freeze anything it touches. (nih.gov)
- Presently, processing methods include immediate fixation, snap fixation, snap freezing in liquid nitrogen, and placement in balanced salt solutions or media designated and/or supplied by investigators. (nih.gov)
- Transfer of this trait to clover will greatly reduce fertiliser use because clover uses less fertiliser, while continuing to enrich the pasture with fixed nitrogen. (massey.ac.nz)
- It is responsible for providing the necessary nitrogen for the growth and development of plants, which are the base of many food webs. (tutorialspoint.com)
- This conversion is carried out by nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, which play a pivotal role in making nitrogen available to plants and, consequently, to higher trophic levels in the food chain. (thenoveldifference.com)
- Plants receive a direct nitrogen source in a form they can readily use for growth and development. (thenoveldifference.com)
- to develop a ureide- and specific amino-acid screening technique to economically screen for high N fixation. (saskpulse.com)
- The nitrogen cycle, on the other hand, is responsible for the recycling and transformation of nitrogen in the environment. (tutorialspoint.com)
- It's like 80 percent water, plus a bunch of fertilizing nitrogen and grass cycling is super good for the environment, as that means there's less grass clippings taking up space in landfills. (mentalfloss.com)
- Peas have the ability to fix nitrogen into the soil. (bastyr.edu)
- Plant scientists have often hypothesized that the ultimate solution for solving the ever-growing nitrogen supply challenge is to confer cereals like wheat, maize, rice, with their own capacity for BNF. (cgiar.org)
- The predictive methods developed were able to predict shoot biomass and total nitrogen (N) content of the shoot to about 70% accuracy based on the stem data from which they were generated, and detect half of the top 5 ranked genotypes. (saskpulse.com)