One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
"Nitrogen control in bacteria". Microbiological Reviews. 59 (4): 604-22. doi:10.1128/MR.59.4.604-622.1995. PMC 239390. PMID ... Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC 6.3.1.2)[3] is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing ... The effects of α-KG on the complexes are opposite.[24] In the majority of gram-negative bacteria, GS can be modified by ... strain PCC 6803 is differently regulated in response to nitrogen availability". Journal of Bacteriology. 179 (8): 2678-89. doi: ...
"Coral's Symbiotic Bacteria Fluoresce, Fix Nitrogen". Chemical and Engineering News. 82 (33): 7. ... Zooplankton provide the polyp with nitrogen, and the polyp shares some of the nitrogen with the zooxanthellae, which also ... Runoff can carry nitrogen and phosphorus which promote excess algae growth. Algae can sometimes out-compete the coral for space ... Cyanobacteria provide soluble nitrates for the reef via nitrogen fixation.[100]. Coral reefs also often depend on surrounding ...
... nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules on legume roots; actinomycete nitrogen-fixing bacteria called Frankia, which ... as compared to the free living bacteria. The incapability of the endosymbiotic bacteria to reinstate their wild type phenotype ... The bacteria oxidize either hydrogen sulfide or methane, which the host supplies to them. These worms were discovered in the ... Eukaryotes (plants, animals, fungi, and protists) developed by symbiogenesis from a symbiosis between bacteria and archaea.[4][ ...
Some systems incorporate bacteria capable of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas.[5] ... Biological filtration and the nitrogen cycle[edit]. A large shower biological filter designed to maximize the beneficial ... The bacteria responsible for breaking down the ammonia colonize the surface of any objects inside the aquarium. In most cases, ... As the water cascades over the media, CO2 is given off, oxygen is picked up, and bacteria convert the waste from the tank into ...
Nitrogen waste is metabolized in aquaria by a type of bacteria known as nitrifiers (genus Nitrosomonas). Nitrifying bacteria ... Fish, invertebrates, fungi, and some bacteria excrete nitrogen in the form of ammonia (which converts to ammonium in acidic ... The "silent cycle" involves adding fast-growing plants and relying on them to consume the nitrogen, filling in for the bacteria ... Maintaining the nitrogen cycle[edit]. Although called the nitrogen "cycle" by hobbyists, in aquaria the cycle is not complete: ...
Merrick, MJ; Edwards, RA (1995). "Nitrogen control in bacteria". Microbiol Rev. 59 (4): 604-22. PMC 239390. PMID 8531888. ... When nitrogen content is lower, the product of glnD gene, uridylyl transferase catalyzes the conversion of PII to give PII-UMP ... The glnALG operon is an operon that regulates the nitrogen content of a cell. It codes for the structural gene glnA the two ... In the presence of PII, which is encoded by glnB, NRII catalyzes the dephosphorylation of NRI-P. The nitrogen content in the ...
The nif genes are found in both free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and in symbiotic bacteria associated with various plants. ... In most bacteria, regulation of nif genes transcription is done by the nitrogen sensitive NifA protein. When there isn't enough ... Rhizobium spp.-Gram-negative, symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria that usually form a symbiotic relationship with legume species ... The nif genes are genes encoding enzymes involved in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into a form of nitrogen available to ...
Due to the high energy required to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, the bacteria take carbon compounds from the plant to fuel ... In return, the plant takes nitrogen compounds produced from ammonia by the bacteria.[23] ... Several legumes that have nitrogen-fixing root nodules are used as green manure crops, which provide nitrogen fertilizer for ... form root nodules in order to associate and form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. ...
Henckel, P. A.; T. T. Plotnikova (1973). "[Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in lichens]". Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR. Seriya ... in extremely nutrient-poor environments and may rely on nitrogen-fixing bacteria to provide them with enough molecular nitrogen ... "Nitrogen-fixing chemo-organotrophic bacteria isolated from cyanobacteria-deprived lichens and their ability to solubilize ... many eukaryotes have established relationships with specialized bacteria that are capable of nitrogen fixation (converting ...
These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).[9] The ... Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that ... "The Nitrogen cycle and Nitrogen fixation". Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved ... Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, legumes are among the best sources of plant ...
... is a species of bacteria. It is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Its cells are Gram-negative, motile and rod- ... nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... ISBN 0-387-25495-1. Malik, Kauser A.; Ladha, J. K.; Bruijn, F. J. de (1997). Opportunities for biological nitrogen fixation in ... Falkow, Stanley; Dworkin, Martin (2006). The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ...
by James W.B. (2011). Nitrogen cycling in bacteria : molecular analysis. Norfolk: Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-86- ... Caminibacter is a genus of anaerobic and thermophilic bacteria from the family Nautiliaceae. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de editors, Don J. ...
... is a species of bacteria. It is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Its cells are yellow-pigmented, straight to ... nov., Nitrogen-Fixing Proteobacteria Associated with Roots of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth), and Description of ... ISBN 0-387-25495-1. Malik, Kauser A.; Ladha, J. K.; Bruijn, F. J. de (1997). Opportunities for biological nitrogen fixation in ... Falkow, Stanley; Dworkin, Martin (2006). The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ...
Wilson, E (2004). "Coral's Symbiotic Bacteria Fluoresce, Fix Nitrogen". Chemical and Engineering News. 82 (33): 7. doi:10.1021/ ... Zooplankton provide the polyp with nitrogen, and the polyp shares some of the nitrogen with the zooxanthellae, which also ... Runoff can carry nitrogen and phosphorus which promote excess algae growth. Algae can sometimes out-compete the coral for space ... Seagrass and mangroves supply dead plants and animals that are rich in nitrogen and serve to feed fish and animals from the ...
Wouter Roelof Lambertus van der Star (2008). Growth and Metabolism of Anammox Bacteria. Wouter van der Star. p. 11. ISBN 978- ... Francisco J. Cervantes (2009). Environmental Technologies to Treat Nitrogen Pollution. IWA Publishing. pp. 71-72. ISBN 978- ... During the anammox process, it oxidizes acetate at the highest rate and out-competes other anammox bacteria which indicates ... an autofluorescent anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 63 (1): 46-55. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ...
Nitrogenase Zumft WG, Mortenson LE (March 1975). "The nitrogen-fixing complex of bacteria". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ...
There are two types of bacteria that synthesize nitrogenase and are required for nitrogen fixation. These are: Free-living ... which is a key step in the process of nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation is required for all forms of life, with nitrogen ... doi:10.1016/0038-0717(84)90118-4. Zumft WG, Mortenson LE (March 1975). "The nitrogen-fixing complex of bacteria". Biochimica et ... There are three types of nitrogenase found in various nitrogen-fixing bacteria: molybdenum (Mo) nitrogenase, vanadium (V) ...
... is a species of bacteria. It is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. It is notable for degrading toluene. Tol-4 is ... ISBN 0-387-25495-1. Malik, Kauser A.; Ladha, J. K.; Bruijn, F. J. de (1997). Opportunities for biological nitrogen fixation in ... Falkow, Stanley; Dworkin, Martin (2006). The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ... rice and other non-legumes: papers presented at the second working group meeting of the frontier project on nitrogen fixation ...
... is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore- ... formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five). They fix nitrogen. Their G+C content is 29%. Only ... polysporogenic bacterium" (PDF). Int J Syst Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1119-24. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-3-1119. PMID 10425769. Madigan ...
Nitrogen fixation[edit]. Main article: Nitrogen fixation. Azotobacter species are free-living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria; in ... If atmospheric nitrogen is not fixed, the source of nitrogen can alternatively be nitrates, ammonium ions, or amino acids. The ... nov., a sodium-dependent, microaerophilic, and aeroadaptive nitrogen-fixing bacterium". International Journal of Systematic ... The process of nitrogen fixation requires an influx of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. Nitrogen fixation is ...
This bacterium is non-nitrogen-fixing photoautotroph. It has been isolated in Chenghai Lake, China, soda lakes of East Africa, ... Arthrospira platensis is filamentous, motile bacterium. Motility has been described as a vigorous gliding without a visible ... Not only are there various health benefits of this bacterium, but it also plays a role in energy production. Since the cells ...
Like many other legumes, it fixes nitrogen. Its root nodule bacterium is Rhizobium galegae. Growers must ensure that their seed ... Some of the bacteria it hosts can degrade soil pollutants such as toluenes. It is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens ...
Respiration is also performed by bacteria and animals. Assuming steady state (net daily average) the change in deficit will be ... is ammonium-nitrogen concentration. The range of k N {\displaystyle k_{N}} is typically 0.05-0.5 d − 1 {\displaystyle d^{-1 ... algae and bacteria and not by macrophytes and animals. Due to the variation of light over time, the variation of the ...
It decomposes soil organic matter with the aid of symbiotic bacteria. As such it is a decomposer. It is also involved in ... nitrogen mineralization. This species is considered an enrichment opportunist. That means that this is a cp-1 ("colonizer") ...
R.C. Burns, R.W.F. Hardy (2012). Nitrogen Fixation in Bacteria and Higher Plants. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978- ... R.N. Doetsch, T.M. Cook (2012). Introduction to Bacteria and Their Ecobiology. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978- ... Rhodomicrobium is a microaerobic to anaerobic, purple non-sulfur, cluster-building genus of bacteria. Rhodomicrobium uses ...
When did the first species of legume appear on Earth? Did such first species have already nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria or ... Perhaps the ancestor of this was pre-adapted from symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and different groups developed ... Nitrogen fixing is found in several groups within the nitrogen-fixing clade (Cucurbitales, Fabales, Fagales and Rosales) of the ... Many legumes are also symbiotic nitrogen fixers.. I'm sure that what I offer above could be improved by a wordsmith of some ...
Bacteria in this clade are unusually small.[4] Due to their small genome size and limited metabolic function, Pelagibacterales ... P. ubique and related species are oligotrophs (scavengers) and feed on dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen.[2] They are ... SAR11 bacteria are responsible for much of the dissolved methane in the ocean surface. They extract phosphate from ... The Pelagibacterales are an order in the Alphaproteobacteria composed of free-living bacteria that make up roughly one in three ...
These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).[42] ... Nitrogen-fixing ability[edit]. Peas, like many legumes, contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their ... Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, peas and many legumes are among the best ... The weevil larvae feed on the root nodules of pea plants, which are essential to the plants' supply of nitrogen, and thus ...
Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic ... These structures have in turn been shown to host nitrogen fixing bacteria which contribute a significant amount of nitrogen and ... that associate with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, capable plants form a symbiotic ... The bacterium, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, colonizes the roots and establishes a nitrogen fixing symbiosis. This high ...
In a detrital web, plant and animal matter is broken down by decomposers, e.g., bacteria and fungi, and moves to detritivores ... Ecologists employ stoichiometry to analyze the ratios of the main elements found in all organisms: carbon (C), nitrogen (N), ... Bacteria that live in detrital sediments create and cycle nutrients and biominerals.[51] Food web models and nutrient cycles ... such as the sulfur bacterium Thiobacillus, which lives in hot sulfur springs. The top level has top (or apex) predators which ...
The increases in organic carbon and nitrogen increase aerobic, facultative anaerobic and anaerobic bacteria populations.[18] ... Tilling over-pumps oxygen to local soil residents, such as bacteria and fungi. As a result, the chemistry of the soil changes. ... For summer rice and winter barley grain crops, ground cover enhances nitrogen fixation. Straw from the previous crop mulches ... Tilling uproots all the plants in the area, turning their roots into food for bacteria and fungi. This damages their ability to ...
However, it is essential for the methanotrophic bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, although the general similarity ... Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon ...
Inggris) Coliform Bacteria and Nitrogen Fixation in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Treatment Systems - by Dr. F. Archibald (full ... Inggris) The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in Canadian Pulp and Paper Mill Water Systems - a Cause for Concern? - by Dr. F. ... Inggris) Scientists engineer bacteria to create living photographs. *(Inggris) Scientists are synthetically engineering E. coli ...
... and Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium that invades, and becomes a symbiont in, plant root nodules that fix nitrogen ... Caulobacter crescentus is a member of a group of bacteria that possess the stalk structure, a tubular extension from the cell ... Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative, oligotrophic bacterium widely distributed in fresh water lakes and streams. The ... Caulobacter was the first asymmetric bacterium shown to age. Reproductive senescence was measured as the decline in the number ...
One of the microoganisms implicated in this spoilage is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has grown tolerant to ethanol and is ... Maturation is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen supply, the broad application of external heat, nitrogen ... Suzuki K, Asano S, Iijima K, Kitamoto K. (2008). "Sake and Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria - A review". The Inst of Brew & ... Lactic acid, produced naturally in the two slower traditional methods, is added to the starter to inhibit unwanted bacteria. ...
the blue green algaes helps in nitrogen fixation are nostoc and anabena while blue green bacterias helps in nitrogen fixation ... the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ... Photosynthetic bacteria - proposalEdit. Perhaps someone who knows the topic should write the article photosynthetic bacteria. ... BacteriaEdit. I think this should be changed to Cyanoprokaryote(s).. Much modern up-to-date classification recognizes that ...
Form of nitrogen affected both the total amount and relative composition of the soluble nitrogen in white spruce tissues ( ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... Ammonium nitrogen produced significantly heavier (dry weight) seedlings with higher nitrogen content after 5 weeks (McFee and ... The nitrogen metabolism of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and Pinus banksiana Lamb. as influenced by mineral nutrition. Can. J. Bot ...
... ticks of the Ixodes ricinus type may spread the bacteria more quickly.[8][9] In North America, the bacteria Borrelia ... A doctor would use liquid nitrogen, but products available from chemists for freezing warts can be used instead.[143] Another ... Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ... If untreated, the bacteria may persist in the body for months or even years, despite the production of B. burgdorferi ...
This nitrogen input in the Gulf of Maine is "more than the input of all rivers combined" emptying into the gulf, some 23,000 ... Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulfide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, ... their excrement is important for fisheries because it is rich in iron and nitrogen. The whale faeces are liquid and instead of ... Whales carry nutrients such as nitrogen from the depths back to the surface. This functions as an upward biological pump, ...
Rhizobia: relationship between roots of plants and bacteria which promotes nitrogen fixation. ... Gut flora: many relationships between gut bacteria and herbivores. The bacteria digest cellulose, and get a regular supply of ...
Bacteria * sw:Bacteria. Baghdad * sw:Baghdad. Baltic Sea * sw:Baltic Sea. Banana * sw:Banana. Bangkok * sw:Bangkok. Bangladesh ... Nitrogen * sw:Nitrogen. Noam Chomsky * sw:Noam Chomsky. Nobel Prize * sw:Nobel Prize. North America * sw:North America. North ...
... airtight plastic container with a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen that inhibits microbial growth and prolongs the ... the dough is processed in a steamer to kill any bacteria it may contain. ...
Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and nitrogen sources, a single endospore forms within some of the ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by some bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes.[1][2] The ... Bacteria having a centrally placed endospore include Bacillus cereus. Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be ...
... contributes nitrogen to the ecosystem by acting as a host for nonsymbiotic free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria.[8] ... nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. Saprotrophic fungi and detritivores such as bacteria and insects directly consume dead ... The list of organisms dependent on CWD for habitat or as a food source includes bacteria, fungi, lichens, mosses and other ... CWD, while itself not particularly rich in nitrogen, ... mainly fungi and bacteria.[11] Colonizing organisms that live ...
One indicator of the degree of modification of a grain is that grain's Nitrogen ratio; that is, the amount of soluble Nitrogen ... distinctive taste and clouded appearance in a witbier and the more complex carbohydrates needed for the wild yeast and bacteria ... Generally, brewers favor lower-nitrogen grains, while distillers favor high-nitrogen grains. In most beermaking, an average ... nitrogen content, diastatic power, color, modification, and conversion. The nitrogen content of a grain refers to the mass ...
Hawkes, C.V.; I.F. Wren; D.J. Herman; M.K. Firestone (2005). "Plant invasion alters nitrogen cycling by modifying the soil ... such as cholera bacteria (Vibrio cholerae), and causative agents of harmful algal blooms are often transported via ballast ... Nitrogen and phosphorus are often the limiting factors in these situations.[31] ... and influence some soil processes like carbon and nitrogen mineralization.[24] Other species like Stapelia gigantea facilitates ...
Nitrogen isotopes (14N and 15N) have been used to estimate the relative contributions of legumes verses nonlegumes, as well as ... as a result of acids produced by bacteria feeding upon and fermenting carbohydrates in the mouth. Subsistence based upon ... Nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen are ultimately derived from dietary protein, while carbon can be contributed by protein, ... Compared to other plants, legumes have lower 14N/15N ratios because they can fix molecular nitrogen, rather than having to rely ...
Bacteria and fungi play an essential role in the weathering of primary elements that results in the release of nutrients for ... nitrogen and oxygen) are suggested to be used by mammals, as inferred by biochemical and uptake studies.[8] Calcium makes up ... Minerals can be bioengineered by bacteria which act on metals to catalyze mineral dissolution and precipitation.[54] Mineral ... Required in the synthesis of vitamin B12, but because bacteria are required to synthesize the vitamin, it is usually considered ...
However modern sources tend to regard this as outdated;[9] they are now considered to be more closely related to bacteria,[10] ... Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds which mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. They are produced by ... Cyanotoxins are produced by cyanobacteria, a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The prefix ... Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria are found ...
Like bacteria, archaea lack interior membranes and organelles.[54] Like bacteria, the cell membranes of archaea are usually ... Archaea carry out many steps in the nitrogen cycle. This includes both reactions that remove nitrogen from ecosystems (such as ... the archaeal homologs are more closely related to those of gram-positive bacteria.[67] Archaea and gram-positive bacteria also ... Bacteria. Eukarya. Cell membrane. Ether-linked lipids, pseudopeptidoglycan. Ester-linked lipids, peptidoglycan. Ester-linked ...
Animal gut bacteria[edit]. Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of ... The total emissions of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides will rise due the growing use of bio-ethanol. There is an ... Recent research has shown that TU-103, a strain of Clostridium bacteria found in Zebra feces, can convert nearly any form of ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ...
It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. Bacteria cause myonecrosis ... A gas composition of 5.9% hydrogen, 3.4% carbon dioxide, 74.5% nitrogen, and 16.1% oxygen was reported in one clinical case.[9] ... rod-shaped bacteria (d) Electron microscopic picture of a bacterium found in a submucosal cyst ... When such bacteria are able to enter a living host, they encounter a vast supply of nutrients, warm conditions, and an ...
Downie, J. Allan (2005). "Legume Haemoglobins: Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Needs Bloody Nodules". Current Biology 15 (6): R196- ... Kinase Paved the Way for the Evolution of Intracellular Root Symbioses with Bacteria". PLoS Biology 6 (3): e68. PMC 2270324. ...
Igual que as bacterias, as arqueas carecen de membranas internas e orgánulos membranosos.[47] Igual que as bacterias, as ... Mehta MP, Baross JA (2006). "Nitrogen fixation at 92 degrees C by a hydrothermal vent archaeon". Science 314 (5806): 1783-6. ... Compartidas con Bacteria Compartidas con Eukarya Exclusivas de Archaea Sen núcleo nin orgánulos membranosos Sen peptidoglicano ... os homólogos de arqueas están máis próximos aos das bacterias grampositivas.[58] As arqueas e as bacterias grampositivas tamén ...
Other examples include rhizobia bacteria that fix nitrogen for leguminous plants (family Fabaceae) in return for energy- ... For example, beans may grow up cornstalks as a trellis, while fixing nitrogen in the soil for the corn, a phenomenon that is ...
The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... "Newsvine - Ecofasa turns waste to biodiesel using bacteria". Lele.newsvine.com. 2008-10-18. Retrieved 2009-10-17.. ...
... providing nitrogen to its host through the action of terminally differentiated cells known as heterocysts. These bacteria ...
... s remove substantial amounts of nitrogen from the soil. They also remove phosphorus in the form of P2O5 at the rate of 0.25 ... bacteria, algae and mushrooms. In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell wall. ... Usually, 50-100 kg/ha (45-90 lb/ac) of nitrogen in the form of urea or anhydrous ammonia is sufficient, as oats use about one ... A sufficient amount of nitrogen is particularly important for plant height and hence, straw quality and yield. When the prior- ...
Riboswitches have been found to act as regulators of gene expression, particularly in bacteria, but also in plants and archaea ... Nitrogen (molecular). *Nitrogen monohydride. *Nitrogen sulfide. *Oxygen (molecular). *Phosphorus monoxide. *Phosphorus ... that viruses were instrumental in the transition from RNA to DNA and the evolution of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota. He ...
... in the US have found a combination of bacteria with the potential to lighten the impact of excess nitrogen found in many ... Treatment of nitrogen-polluted sediment using marine anammox bacteria. Kumamoto University. Journal. Chemosphere. Funder. Japan ... As compounds produced by SRB are toxic to anammox bacteria, it is thought that SRB is the cause for the low nitrogen reduction ... in the US have found a combination of bacteria with the potential to lighten the impact of excess nitrogen found in many ...
... were used to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains through enrichment cultures in nitrogen-free media. The medium and high ... Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated, identified and characterized for their nitrogen fixation capacity. The diazotrophic ... EC in the soil affected negatively the nitrogen-fixing activity, which was generally ten times lower compared to the activity ... Isolation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria through enrichment in nitrogen-free media allowed us to identify different species of the ...
... book provides a comprehensive and detailed source of information on the genetic and regulatory aspects of biological nitrogen ... Genetics and regulation of nitrogen fixation in free-living bacteria. [Werner Klipp;] -- This ... Genetics and regulation of nitrogen fixation in free-living bacteria schema:name "Nitrogen fixation ;" ;. . ... schema:name "Genetics and regulation of nitrogen fixation in free-living bacteria"@en ;. schema:productID "57491616" ;. schema: ...
This will reinforce understanding of the role of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle. ... students will culture a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium (Azotobacter) from the soil. ... Class practical In this activity, students will culture a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium (Azotobacter) from the soil. ... Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria fix nitrogen by reducing gaseous nitrogen in the air to ammonia. This is incorporated into ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (Rhizobium sp.). These bacteria are often found ... Rhizobium nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (Rhizobium sp ... Rhizobium nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (Rhizobium sp ... atmospheric nitrogen, bacteria, bacterial, bacteriology, bacterium, biological, biology, botanical, botany, coloured, false- ...
Breakthrough Technology Enables Crops To Take Nitrogen From The Air - Effective Means To Replace Nitrogen Fertilizers Developed ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Rhizobium leguminosarum nitrogen fixing bacteria (brown) in ruptured root nodule ... Nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Rhizobium leguminosarum nitrogen fixing bacteria ( ... These bacteria take nitrogen gas from the air and bind it up in compounds which the plant can use for its nutrition. They do ... The plant benefits from this symbiosis as it means they can grow in soils with a low nitrogen content, soils which are ...
Certain endophytic bacteria can provide nitrogen to the plants through biological nitrogen fixation, which is an important ... and are known as endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Besides fixing nitrogen, endophytic bacteria can produce plant growth ... Various direct and indirect methods have been used to quantify the amount of nitrogen fixed by these bacteria, including the ... we have briefly discussed the mechanisms of biological nitrogen fixation and methods to quantify the fixed nitrogen along with ...
Magnetic Sensing of Magnetization in Magnetotactic Bacteria with Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Dimond ... 3 The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond by Marcus W. Doherty, B Neil B. Manson, B Paul Delaney, Fedor Jelezko, D Jörg ... Spin Properties of Very Shallow Nitrogen Vacancy Defects in Diamond by B. K. Ofori-okai, S. Pezzagna, K. Chang, M. Loretz, R. ... RESEARCH ARTICLE MamA as a Model Protein for Structure- Based Insight into the Evolutionary Origins of Magnetotactic Bacteria ...
Nitrogen control in bacteria. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Microbiology and Molecular Biology ... Furthermore, as the range of bacteria in which the phenomenon of nitrogen control is examined is being extended, new regulatory ... Nitrogen metabolism in prokaryotes involves the coordinated expression of a large number of enzymes concerned with both ... The control of this expression is determined by the availability of fixed nitrogen to the cell and is effected by complex ...
In return for breaking down atmospheric nitrogen & converting it into a form the plant can use, the bacterium gains access to ... of a nitrogen- fixing bacterium, Rhizobium leguminosarum, on the root hair of a pea plant, Pisum sativum. Rhizobium is a free- ... living soil bacterium for most of its life, but at times forms a symbiotic association with the roots of leguminous plants. ... bacterium, micro-organisms, microbe, microbes, microbiology, nitrogen-fixing, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, pea, rhizobium ...
The population and diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in agricultural soils varies more according to what crop was ... No Clear Answers From Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Counts The population and diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in agricultural ... Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils. ... However, in September, use of organic crop protection protocols led to more activity among the nitrogen fixing bacteria as ...
Many readers of this book may think that nitrogen gas in the atmosphere is unchangeable forever as it is a stable substance. ... of atmospheric gas of Earth is nitrogen (N2). ... and bacteria contain nitrogen atoms, they will understand that ... Nitric Oxide Anammox Bacterium Nitrogen Dioxide Ammonia Monooxygenase Electron Paramagnetic Reso These keywords were added by ... 2008) Nitrogen Circulation on Earth and Bacteria. In: Chemolithoautotrophic Bacteria. Springer, Tokyo. * DOI https://doi.org/ ...
Six species of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azomonas agilis, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, ... Six species of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azomonas agilis, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, ... nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 30: 106-122Google Scholar ... of aromatic compounds as carbon and energy sources during growth and N2-fixation by free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria. ...
Researchers are aiming to engineer bacteria to release extra nitrogen for crops, reducing reliance on artificial fertilisers, ... In order to make bacteria do this, the team first need to understand how the bacteria monitor nitrogen levels in the ... Some plants have symbiotic relationships with bacteria that produce nitrogen, where the bacteria are embedded in the root ... Bacteria in the soil take nitrogen from the atmosphere and fix it into their cells, and an ambitious project is now trying to ...
Bacteria Got an Early Fix on Nitrogen. 23 Feb 2015, 22:00 UTC You dont have the right version of the adobe flash player to see ...
... Farnelid, Hanna Linnéuniversitetet, ... 454-pyrosequencing, diazotrophs, heterotrophic bacteria, marine bacteria, marine microbial ecology, microbiology, nifH, ... Cyanobacteria are thought to be the main N2-fixers but diazotrophs also include a wide range of heterotrophic bacteria. However ... In Sargasso Sea surface waters, transcripts of nifH related to heterotrophic bacteria were detected indicating heterotrophic N2 ...
Since plants cannot reduce atmospheric N2, they require exogenously fixed nitrogen for growth and development. Atmospheric N2 ... Nitrogen is the most limiting nutritional factor for the growth of plants. ... Nitrogen fixing endophytic bacteria have been isolated from several plant species and found to contribute upto 47% of nitrogen ... Nitrogen fixing ability of bacteria can be evaluated by total nitrogen difference method, acetylene reduction assay, analysis ...
Plant-bacteria symbiosis for nitrogen fixation. Plants in the legume family form symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria ... This approach is expected to establish a functional map of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium S. meliloti and ... and green manure are able to produce high-protein seeds and leaves because of the fixed nitrogen provided by the bacteria. A ... Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is central to any plan for energy-sustainable production of food or fuel. Crop plants for food, oil ...
Corals Form Characteristic Associations with Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria. Kimberley A. Lema, Bette L. Willis, David G. ... Corals Form Characteristic Associations with Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria. Kimberley A. Lema, Bette L. Willis, David G. ... Phylogenetic classification of nitrogen fixing organisms, p 43-86. In Stacey G, Evans HJ, Burris RH (ed), Biological nitrogen ... Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) in stony corals: evidence for coral-bacteria interactions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 111: ...
Unfortunately, most require a source of nitrogen in the soil around them; only a handful (such as legumes like beans and peas) ... are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by binding it so they can use it. See full article. ... Plants need nitrogen to grow: its a key part of the process they use to derive nutrition from the environment. ... BYO Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria. Saturday. Aug 17, 2013 at 11:05 AM Aug 17, 2013 at 4:11 PM ...
Role of nitrogen oxides in the metabolism of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria M.J. Kampschreur; M.J. Kampschreur 1 ... Role of nitrogen oxides in the metabolism of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February 2006; 34 (1): 179-181. ... ammonia oxidation, nitric oxide (NO), nitrification, nitrifier denitrification, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), NOx cycle ... Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can use oxygen and nitrite as electron acceptors. Nitrite reduction by Nitrosomonas is ...
Virus-mediated transfer of nitrogen from heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton Virus-mediated transfer of nitrogen Emma J. ... Virus-mediated transfer of nitrogen from heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton. Virus-mediated transfer of nitrogen ... 4.2 Phytoplankton uptake of remineralised nitrogen. This study shows that remineralised N from viral lysis of bacteria can fuel ... Shelford, E. J. and Suttle, C. A.: Virus-mediated transfer of nitrogen from heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton, ...
A nitrogen-fixing bacteria species that indiscriminately colonizes plant cells is in the midst of an in-field exam. ... How does the bacteria enter the roots? What are the right conditions? Does the cost of supplying sugar to the bacteria result ... Know the N-Loss Pathways to Fine-Tune Nitrogen Management. When we published an article about the potential for Cockings ... And, because of a unique ability to fix nitrogen in the absence of nodules and express cell wall degrading enzymes (i.e find ...
These results confirmed CSIA data that ranked vaccenic acid, an unambiguous marker of purple sulfur bacteria, as the most ... These results confirmed CSIA data that ranked vaccenic acid, an unambiguous marker of purple sulfur bacteria, as the most ... This study provides novel insights into the contribution of purple sulfur bacteria to the carbon cycle during their seasonal ... To investigate the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen assimilation activities, NanoSIMS was coupled with a stable isotope probing ...
Pathways of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in chemoautotrophic bacteria-marine invertebrate symbioses: expression of host and ... Pathways of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in chemoautotrophic bacteria-marine invertebrate symbioses: expression of host and ... Pathways of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in chemoautotrophic bacteria-marine invertebrate symbioses: expression of host and ... Pathways of inorganic nitrogen assimilation in chemoautotrophic bacteria-marine invertebrate symbioses: expression of host and ...
Zoski, E.D., Lapen, D.R., Gottschall, N., Murrell, R.S., and Schuba, B. (2013). Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Bacteria Removal in ... Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Bacteria Removal in Laboratory-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors Amended with Drinking Water Treatment ... Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Bacteria Removal in Laboratory-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors Amended with Drinking Water Treatment ... Total nitrogen removal efficiencies decreased with increasing flow rates. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen increased in all three ...
Buy a discounted Hardcover of Genetics and Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation in Free-Living Bacteria online from Australias ... Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, Applications, and Research Progress by Werner Klipp. ... Booktopia has Genetics and Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation in Free-Living Bacteria, ... Genetics and Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation in Free-Living Bacteria. Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, Applications, and Research ...
Buy Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Cyanobacterial Associations (9781402035418): NHBS - Edited By: C ... Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Cyanobacterial Associations Series: Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, ... Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Assimilation in Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria.- 4. ... Other titles in Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, Applications, and Research Progress Series Genetics and Regulation of Nitrogen ...
Right Now bacteria and Tri-Base Pelletized Carbon) seems to generate a lot of controversy in other forums. I guess some people ... aquarium bacteria, that are responsible for the normal aquarium nitrogen cycle. Bacteria can do amazing things! If bacteria ... Im only going on what I know about the types of bacteria that normally consume nitrogen. Theres too much of this that doesnt ... Im only going on what I know about the types of bacteria that normally consume nitrogen. Theres too much of this that doesnt ...
  • Navarro-Noya, Y. , Luna-Guido, M. and Dendooven, L. (2016) Cultivable Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria from Extremely Alkaline-Saline Soils. (scirp.org)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Rhizobium leguminosarum nitrogen fixing bacteria (brown) in ruptured root nodule cells of a runner bean plant (Phaseolus coccineus). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The population and diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in agricultural soils varies more according to what crop was previously farmed than with whether those soils are organically or conventionally farmed, according to a paper in the February 2011 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology. (asm.org)
  • However, in September, use of organic crop protection protocols led to more activity among the nitrogen fixing bacteria as compared to when conventional pesticides were used, says Orr, suggesting that "nitrogen-fixing bacteria are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of chemical pesticides. (asm.org)
  • Conversely, soil growing barley (or other non-leguminous crops) would be relatively depleted of nitrogen, and so nitrogen-fixing bacteria would thrive, says Orr, remaining in higher numbers the following year. (asm.org)
  • The researchers assayed the population density of nitrogen fixing bacteria by measuring the concentration of nifH, the most conserved of the genes involved in nitrogen fixation. (asm.org)
  • Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils. (asm.org)
  • Six species of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azomonas agilis, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii , and Beijerinckia mobilis , were surveyed for their ability to grow and fix N 2 using aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy source. (springer.com)
  • DeSmedt J, Bauwens M, Tytgat R, DeLey J (1980) Intra-and intergeneric similarities of ribosomal ribonucleic acid cistrons of free-living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, we review application, properties, ecology, and advances in biology of nitrogen fixing bacteria with reference to endophytic bacteria that colonize the interior of plant without exerting any substantive harm to their host plant. (springer.com)
  • A nitrogen-fixing bacteria species that indiscriminately colonizes plant cells is in the midst of an in-field exam. (realagriculture.com)
  • This book describes the milestones in the discovery of the associative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Azoarcus, Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Herbaspirillum, and others) found intimately involved with cereal crops, forage grasses, and sugar cane. (nhbs.com)
  • 3. Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Assimilation in Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria. (nhbs.com)
  • The ARA was high for most of growing season, suggesting that the native N 2 -fixing bacteria responded to rice roots very quickly. (springer.com)
  • Sixteen strains of free-living N 2 -fixing bacteria were isolated from three different soils. (springer.com)
  • Either through nitrogen deposits in the soil, or through a friendly relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • The goal of this experiment is to compare the effects of added nitrogen fertilizer vs. nitrogen-fixing bacteria on the growth of clover. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Science Buddies , 20 Nov. 2020, https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/PlantBio_p010/plant-biology/nitrogen-fixing-bacteria-fertilizers. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • In this experiment, you will grow clover plants in soil with no nitrogen added, in soil with nitrogen fertilizer added, and in soil containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria (in this case, a species of rhizobia called Rhizobium legominosarium , or R. legominosarium ). (sciencebuddies.org)
  • 3)Free living nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Azotobacter sp. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria improved the degradation and nutrient content of the materials and enhance the inoculant load in the compost. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The few existing studies on the subject suggest a high level of diversity among the nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate different species of legumes found in this region ( 9 , 13 , 14 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Monitoring of heterotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and presumptive coliforms in two Libyan sewage treatment plants showed that tertiary treatment of effluents by chlorination killed these bacteria. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • An invasion of soybean aphids poses a problem for soybean farmers requiring application of pesticides, but a team of Penn State entomologists thinks a careful choice of nitrogen-fixing bacteria may provide protection against the sucking insects. (psu.edu)
  • Soybeans are legumes, plants that can have a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria -- rhizobia -- and therefore do not need additional nitrogen fertilizer. (psu.edu)
  • Soybeans are from Asia and so there were originally no nitrogen-fixing bacteria that would colonize soybeans in U.S. soils," said Consuelo De Moraes, associate professor of entomology. (psu.edu)
  • Their rhizobia are highly competitive against naturally occurring nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (psu.edu)
  • The researchers do not yet know what the natural nitrogen-fixing bacteria do to repel aphids. (psu.edu)
  • Arable farmers could slash fertiliser costs, boostyields, and protect the environment following the launch of a newnitrogen-fixing bacteria mix. (farmersguide.co.uk)
  • The symbiotic tree legume, mesquite, forms two lateral root systems when able to access surface and ground water and both systems have associated nitrogen fixing bacteria. (secheresse.info)
  • According to Friesen, most nitrogen-fixing bacteria use an enzyme that does not work when oxygen is present. (msu.edu)
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of Medicago truncatula and prepared for 16S rRNA PCR analysis. (asmscience.org)
  • Normalized learning gains (G) showed an improvement of students' knowledge of microbial identification methods (LO4, G = 0.46), biochemical properties of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (LO3, G = 0.45), and the events leading to the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbioses (LO1&2, G = 0.51, G = 0.37). (asmscience.org)
  • These large root growths provide a safe environment for nitrogen-fixing bacteria that, in return, provide nitrogen-rich compounds in a form that the plant can easily use. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria , blowout price while supplies last, 42g $4. (gardenerspantry.ca)
  • Transforming atmospheric nitrogen into solid compounds, the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria then provide this valuable protein building block to the plants in a mutually beneficial relationship. (gardenerspantry.ca)
  • Interestingly, some common herbs, shrubs and trees are also known to partner with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil. (gardenerspantry.ca)
  • Store leftover nitrogen-fixing bacteria in a cool place away from direct sunlight, with the bag closed tightly. (gardenerspantry.ca)
  • Definition - What does Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria mean? (safeopedia.com)
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are microscopic organisms that are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into compounds that occur in soil and that are used by plants as nutrients. (safeopedia.com)
  • The primary means of natural nitrogen fixation is through the activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (safeopedia.com)
  • George Hepburn of Soil Fertility Services says that applying nitrogen-fixing bacteria to soils in the form of liquid product Bio-N has the potential to supply crops with the equivalent of 60-100kg N/ha. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria need a soil temperature of at least 8-9C, along with air - compacted or poorly structured soils aren't suitable - and moisture. (fwi.co.uk)
  • nifU of nitrogen-fixing bacteria is involved in the synthesis of the Fe-S cluster of nitrogenase. (pnas.org)
  • This analysis led to the uncharacterized genes, NFU1 , ISU1 , and ISU2 , which are related to domains of NifU, a protein from nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • Describes the importance of nitrogen-fixing bacteria on crops of legumes. (unt.edu)
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen gas, which is almost inert, into solid nitrogen compounds that can then be absorbed by plants. (reference.com)
  • Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) with bacteria is thought to be a cost-effective alternative that could be performed "on-site", but its effectiveness and interaction with other microbes was unclear. (eurekalert.org)
  • hence, they deplete less nitrogen from the soil, and the higher concentration of nitrate and ammonium suppresses the population of free-living nitrogen fixers. (asm.org)
  • Ammonia thus formed and released from nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium sulfate, urea, etc.) is partially absorbed by plants, and its remaining part which has not been utilized by plants is oxidized to nitrite (NO 2 − ) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of mutants of these bacteria derepressed for synthesis of the nitrogenase complex in the presence of ammonium salts supports a critical role for glutamine and [lowercase alpha]-ketoglutarate in the regulation of synthesis. (umsystem.edu)
  • These nitrogen compounds can be added to the soil in the form of ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 + ) fertilizer. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Rhizobia , the type of bacteria that you will study in this experiment, can turn the nitrogen in the soil into usable nitrogen compounds like ammonium and nitrate ions. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Anammox, a microbial process of the nitrogen cycle, directly converts ammonium to nitrogen gas, requiring no organic carbon and minimal use of energy, and is gaining a lot of traction in wastewater sidestream treatment. (waterworld.com)
  • The process requires bacteria that convert ammonium into nitrate, and these bacteria require oxygen that must be constantly supplied to the treatment tanks via pumps. (waterworld.com)
  • The anammox bacteria reduce the nitrogen cycle by converting ammonium directly into nitrogen gas. (waterworld.com)
  • Anammox is an abbreviation for anaerobic ammonium oxidation, a microbial process of the nitrogen cycle. (waterworld.com)
  • Normally, ammonium is removed by oxidizing it to nitrate and then to nitrogen gas. (waterworld.com)
  • With the anammox process, ammonium is directly converted to nitrogen gas, requiring no organic carbon and minimal use of energy. (waterworld.com)
  • The anammox bacteria do not require oxygen to oxidize the ammonium. (waterworld.com)
  • Nitrogen-rich saline wastewater Optimal ammonium removal efficiencies (AREs) were 93.95% and 93.18% with 0.05 mM Mn(II) and 0.025 mM Mn(II) and Ni(II) Ni(II), respectively. (deepdyve.com)
  • The effect of a soil amendment on ammonium nitrogen transformation and nitrogen retention in broiler manure was evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • 00:03:30.03 of nitrogen fertilizer, it's usually in the form of ammonium. (ibiology.org)
  • 00:03:33.29 Now, ammonium, remarkably, can actually be made from 00:03:37.19 molecular nitrogen, which is in the air, which is very abundant. (ibiology.org)
  • 00:03:51.11 So, in order to coax that nitrogen into a combined form of ammonium, 00:03:57.24 there's a process called the Haber-Bosch process, 00:04:00.26 which is able to take molecule nitrogen, 00:04:04.01 combine it with hydrogen gas at very high temperature, 00:04:08.16 very high pressure, with a metal catalyst, and convert it to ammonium. (ibiology.org)
  • When doing so, they are able to convert (fix) atmospheric nitrogen in the soil to ammonia. (pond5.com)
  • In return for breaking down atmospheric nitrogen & converting it into a form the plant can use, the bacterium gains access to the plant's carbohydrate food stores & is kept safe in the plant's tissue. (sciencephoto.com)
  • About 78% of atmospheric gas of Earth is nitrogen (N 2 ). (springer.com)
  • Since plants cannot reduce atmospheric N 2 , they require exogenously fixed nitrogen for growth and development. (springer.com)
  • Biological nitrogen fixation is a process where atmospheric N 2 is reduced to NH 3 . (springer.com)
  • only a handful (such as legumes like beans and peas) are capable of "fixing" atmospheric nitrogen by binding it so they can use it. (therolladailynews.com)
  • Azotic Technologies has identified a bacterial species that inhabits the plant, and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. (blogspot.com)
  • Azos solves this dilemma by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and feeding it directly into your newly developing roots. (wallacewow.com)
  • However, atmospheric nitrogen is not present in a form that is available to plants and, ultimately, humans and animals. (safeopedia.com)
  • Atmospheric nitrogen fixation by lightning is the lesser way of nature making the element available to plants, and hence to us. (bernard-preston.com)
  • Living within the root nodules, the bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants. (brightkite.com)
  • Most studies on nitrogen fixation activity in soils with high salinity have focused on Rhizobium-legume symbioses. (scirp.org)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (Rhizobium sp. (pond5.com)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a nitrogen- fixing bacterium, Rhizobium leguminosarum, on the root hair of a pea plant, Pisum sativum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Rhizobium is a free-living soil bacterium for most of its life, but at times forms a symbiotic association with the roots of leguminous plants. (sciencephoto.com)
  • and mutualistic (symbiotic) bacteria such as Rhizobium, associated with leguminous plants, and various Azospirillum species, associated with cereal grasses. (britannica.com)
  • These naturally occurring Rhizobium bacteria form nodules in the roots of their host plants where they gather nitrogen gas from the air. (gardenerspantry.ca)
  • The inoculum added to both Plant 2 and Plant 3 contains the bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum viceae, R. phaseoli, and Bradyrhizobium. (brightkite.com)
  • When speaking directly in terms of bean seeds specifically, these legumes attract and form a "symbiotic relationship" with certain nitrogen-fixating bacteria such as Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium via specially designed root nodules. (brightkite.com)
  • 00:00:30.24 First, I'd like to give you an introduction to the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, 00:00:36.14 in particular, between Rhizobium and legumes. (ibiology.org)
  • Biological nitrogen fixation is represented in a diverse range of microorganisms, among which Klebsiella pneumoniae serves as a paradigm for the genetic analysis of diazotrophy, which is the ability to grow with N as sole nitrogen source. (worldcat.org)
  • Look for any other types of growth you think are likely to be of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • Gaseous nitrogen (N 2 ) is present in relatively high concentrations in seawater, and therefore nitrogen fixation, the reduction of N 2 to ammonia, is an important functional role that certain microorganisms, termed diazotrophs, might play in coral symbioses ( 36 , 52 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • Because bacteria can replicate in any environment, it is important for the food packaging industry to find a way to eliminate these microorganisms from their products. (onsitegas.com)
  • 2010. Pathways of nitrogen utilization by soil microorganisms: A review. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Among the most active and abundant microorganisms in GB plumes are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the SUP05 group of Gammaproteobacteria ( 13 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • As compounds produced by SRB are toxic to anammox bacteria, it is thought that SRB is the cause for the low nitrogen reduction performance of both samples at various times in the experiment. (eurekalert.org)
  • SOB, on the other hand, is beneficial because it removes the sulfur compounds that are toxic to anammox bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • These bacteria take nitrogen gas from the air and bind it up in compounds which the plant can use for its nutrition. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Nitrogen metabolism in prokaryotes involves the coordinated expression of a large number of enzymes concerned with both utilization of extracellular nitrogen sources and intracellular biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds. (asm.org)
  • Symbioses between chemoautotrophic bacteria and marine invertebrates living at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and other sulfide-rich environments function autotrophically by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide as an energy source and fixing carbon dioxide into organic compounds. (biologists.org)
  • Nitrogen can be combined chemically with oxygen or hydrogen to form types of nitrogen compounds that plants can use. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Bacteria can use most organic and some inorganic compounds as food, and some can survive extreme conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of chemical reactions in which nitrogen from the atmosphere is fixed in compounds in soil or water, assimilated by plants and animals, released to the soil and water through decomposition, and returned to the atmosphere through denitrification. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the atmosphere's free nitrogen combines with other elements to form compounds that are deposited in the soil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The natural circulation of nitrogen (including nitrogen compounds) from air to consuming organisms (plants, animals and bacteria) and back to air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nitrogen compounds are valuable raw materials for protein production and the plant is able to produce fruits that contain high protein concentrations without spending a lot of energy obtaining the necessary building blocks. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • These bacteria produce extra nitrogen compounds for the plant during its life but, after the plant dies, this protein also becomes available to other plants as it releases them into the soil. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • The reuse of nitrogen is vital for the support of all living things on Earth but, at any one time, most of the nitrogen in compounds that are useful to life are locked up in the bodies of living and dead (but not yet decayed) plants and animals. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • These bacteria then convert the ammonia into these compounds for their own needs. (bernard-preston.com)
  • We observed a unique metabolic signature for the three species in the utilization of multiple dissolved organic nitrogen compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This environment drives genomic streamlining of opportunistic bacteria to exploit their preferred nitrogen-containing compounds and maintain nutrient cycling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • You may be able to set up this investigation alongside the investigation of nitrogen-fixing microbes from legume root nodules in the same lesson. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • These reactions are most efficient when there is no oxygen present, so the bacteria inside root nodules are in the perfect situation. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • The bacteria that live in root nodules are said to have a symbiotic relationship with the plant as both organisms benefit from the association. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • Most of the bacteria involved in nitrogen fixation in root nodules belong to the species Rhizobia. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • Isolation of pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic diazotrophs from several locations in Central Asia and Egypt through micro-oxic enrichments of soils yielded the aerotolerant fermentative haloalkaliphilic bacterium Amphibacillus tropicus and the obligately anaerobic haloalkaliphile Bacillus arseniciselenatis. (scirp.org)
  • The aim of this work was to determine the nitrogen fixing activity in soils with different electrolytic conductivity, and to identify the cultivable diazotrophic community and to evaluate their potential of nitrogen fixing capacity. (scirp.org)
  • The plant benefits from this symbiosis as it means they can grow in soils with a low nitrogen content, soils which are inaccessible to other plants. (sciencephoto.com)
  • We investigated the relationships between nitrification, NO₃⁻ leaching and N₂O emissions with ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in nitrogen rich grassland soils. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • These findings suggest that nitrification and thus NO₃⁻ leaching and N₂O emissions are driven by bacteria rather than archaea in these nitrogen rich grassland soils. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • 1321 words - 5 pages Influences on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization: Implications for Soil Restoration and Revegetation Introduction Nitrogen is a macronutrient essential to the growth of plants and is also one of the most deficient nutrients in most soils. (brightkite.com)
  • Biological nitrogen fixation controls soil fertility as it represents the most important input of nitrogen into an ecosystem. (scirp.org)
  • This book provides a comprehensive and detailed source of information on the genetic and regulatory aspects of biological nitrogen fixation in free-living (non-symbiotic) prokaryotes. (worldcat.org)
  • Certain endophytic bacteria can provide nitrogen to the plants through biological nitrogen fixation, which is an important source of nitrogen input in agriculture and represents a promising substitute for chemical fertilizers, and are known as endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. (intechopen.com)
  • Research on endophytic diazotrophic bacteria has come a long way, and in this chapter, we have briefly discussed the mechanisms of biological nitrogen fixation and methods to quantify the fixed nitrogen along with reviewing recent studies focused on evaluating the role of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in promoting plant growth in both native and nonnative crop hosts. (intechopen.com)
  • Here biological nitrogen fixation has immense potential and can be used as an alternate to chemical fertilizers. (springer.com)
  • Biological nitrogen fixation has been reported to be exclusively carried out by few members of the prokaryotic organisms. (springer.com)
  • Author Zhe Piao is indebted to Prof. M.Y. Cai, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, for her identification of the strains and for her helpful discussions on biological nitrogen fixation, Mr. Z.X. Jin and Prof. C.H. Cui (Northeast Agricultural College), Ms. Y.H. Guo (Shenyang Agricultural College), Mr. Y.Z. Sun and Mr. T.Y. Shi (Yanbian Agricultural College) for their help in sampling. (springer.com)
  • Choudhury ATMA, Kennedy IR (2004) Prospects and potentials for systems of biological nitrogen fixation. (springer.com)
  • Biological nitrogen fixation is not only essential for world nitrogen balance but it is also an alternative to expensive commercial fertilizer for crop production. (umsystem.edu)
  • Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) is a process of great importance in crop production systems, as it provides additional natural sources of mineral nitrogen. (ccsenet.org)
  • If the bacteria actually had those properties, it would mean we could have plants that could fix their own nitrogen, a compound used in critical biological functions, with no need for nitrogen fertilizers," said Friesen. (msu.edu)
  • you either have to provide biological nitrogen fixation from legumes, or use artificial fertiliser. (bernard-preston.com)
  • That's biological nitrogen fixation. (bernard-preston.com)
  • We can and should use biological nitrogen fixation to the advantage of our healthy living plants. (bernard-preston.com)
  • Formally occurring in the surrounding ecosystem, nitrogen is naturally reduced to form a variety of other biological molecules that can be utilized in the development of photosynthetic plants. (brightkite.com)
  • Nitrogen is also required in the production chlorophyll (a major component in plant photosynthesis), amino acids, ATP, and nucleic acids.Plants in particular obtain nitrogen through a process carried out by a specialized group of bacteria known as Biological Nitrogen-Fixation (BNF). (brightkite.com)
  • Nitrogen oxidation consortia dynamics influence the performance of full-scale rotating biological contactors. (essex.ac.uk)
  • However, when they know that proteins of animals, plants, and bacteria contain nitrogen atoms, they will understand that nitrogen atoms are present also in the organisms in other forms than gas. (springer.com)
  • The photosynthetic bacteria, in particular members of the Rhodospirillaceae, are attractive organisms for genetic and biochemical analyses of nitrogen fixation. (umsystem.edu)
  • Bacteria are small, single-celled organisms that live in nearly every environment on Earth. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms that exist in their millions, in every environment, both inside and outside other organisms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bacteria are thought to have been the first organisms to appear on earth, about 4 billion years ago. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The oldest known fossils are of bacteria-like organisms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bacteria are single-celled organisms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bacteria are single-cell organisms that are neither plants nor animals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biology) the natural circulation of nitrogen by living organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The continuous process by which nitrogen is exchanged between organisms and the environment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The bacteria that fix nitrogen from the air provide a constant and vital in-coming supply of nitrogen for the growth and development of new organisms. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • Aside from the information gathered for Plant 3 and Plant 4, we also collected data that Plant 2, nitrogen minus solution with inoculum, grew slightly larger than Plant 1, nitrogen minus solution with no inoculum.Introduction:As with the great majority of many other organisms, plants make use of Nitrogen (N) as one of the primary sources of nutrients in order to grow and produce energy. (brightkite.com)
  • From the available genome sequences, it is now clear that many organisms, both nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing, possess ORFs that encode for proteins with homology to the individual domains of NifU. (pnas.org)
  • Many organisms obtain the nitrogen that they use to make proteins from the environment, where its availability can vary greatly. (edu.au)
  • 00:00:05.16 I'm here today to tell you about some remarkable organisms, 00:00:09.09 two kinds of organisms in fact, bacteria and plants. (ibiology.org)
  • With Earth Pellets, the Right Now bacteria will not have a carbon source so they cannot process nitrates and phosphates which leave fertilizer for the plants to consume. (fishlore.com)
  • Choudhury ATMA, Khanif YM (2001) Evaluation of the effects of nitrogen and magnesium fertilization on rice yield and fertilizer nitrogen efficiency using 15 N tracer technique. (springer.com)
  • Plants grow well when fertilizer containing nitrogen is added to the soil, but this method can be expensive and has to be repeated each time the nitrogen in the soil is used up. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • BTCC-B64 was evaluated as nitrogen fertilizer substitute. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This powerful new technology effectively fixates nitrogen from the atmosphere and transfer it to the plant, thereby making fertilizer use much more efficient. (horticulturesource.com)
  • without rhizobia, but with added nitrogen fertilizer, and by existing rhizobia in the soil. (psu.edu)
  • If so, there would be less pollution, less nitrogen runoff into rivers and streams, less greenhouse gas emissions, less fuel being used to transport and apply fertilizer. (msu.edu)
  • In Vietnam, we seeing up to 50% reductions in nitrogen fertilizer, combined with a 15% increase in rice yields. (geneticliteracyproject.org)
  • Short for Azospirillum Brasilense, is a nitrogen-fixing super bacterium that can replace 50% of the nitrogen fertilizer required by plants. (wallacewow.com)
  • In modern agriculture, this is deemed inadequate, and too much schlep, so large quantities of nitrogen are supplied to the soil from fertilizer. (bernard-preston.com)
  • m -1 ) were used to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains through enrichment cultures in nitrogen-free media. (scirp.org)
  • Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated, identified and characterized for their nitrogen fixation capacity. (scirp.org)
  • Endophytic bacterial community can be analyzed employing stable isotope probing as well as various modern molecular approaches which are based on analysis of 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), gene encoding products for nitrogen fixation and repetitive DNAs. (springer.com)
  • Innovative Technology Improves Our Understanding of Bacterial Cell Signaling Cyclic di-GMP (Guanine Monophosphate) is found in nearly all types of bacteria and interacts with cell signaling networks that control many basic cellular functions. (doe.gov)
  • The complex symbiotic relationship between corals and their dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is believed to be sustained through close associations with mutualistic bacterial communities, though little is known about coral associations with bacterial groups able to fix nitrogen (diazotrophs). (asm.org)
  • N2 utilization and ethanol production demand similar resources within the bacterial cell so we expected resources to be pulled away from ethanol production to allow the bacteria to grow with N2," McKinlay said. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • We hypothesized that designing an experimental protocol to confirm the identity of a bacterium would improve students' knowledge of microbial identification techniques and the physiological characteristics of bacterial species. (asmscience.org)
  • Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Malaysian plants as revealed by 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence based method of bacterial identification. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Bacterial species that live free in the soil are also able to extract and fix the nitrogen from air. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • Updating the insights into the mechanism of endophytic bacterial colonization and interactions with plants is an important step in potentially manipulating endophytic bacteria/microbiome for viable strategies to improve agricultural production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacteria can gain their food from the saliva of the host and also, food debris from in-between the teeth, which is why is very good to floss your teeth to minimise bacterial metabolism, particularly of the bad bacteria which we mentioned earlier. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • 00:00:40.04 I'd then like to focus, in my second segment, 00:00:42.11 on the bacterial genes that are used for the response to the plant, 00:00:46.26 and for the bacteria to be able to provoke the plant, 00:00:49.20 in order to make the home for the bacteria, once they invade. (ibiology.org)
  • In this activity, students will culture a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium (Azotobacter) from the soil. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • Mucoid (sticky) colourless growth oozing from soil particles on the nitrogen-free mineral salts agar medium indicates the presence of Azotobacter . (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • Source: ScienceDaily] - A collaboration of researchers, which includes scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) and Virginia Tech, have completed the genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii , uncovering important genetic information that will contribute to a more complete understanding of the biology of this versatile, soil-living bacterium. (flinn.org)
  • Conclusion] The ammonifiers in nitrogen utilizing bacteria in Danhe water was in much distribution,the nitrobacteria,nitrosation and denitrifying bacteria were at next and azotobacter was relatively less. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Azotobacter and Azomonas bacteria can also fix nitrogen and do so very well in aerobic conditions. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • In order to make bacteria do this, the team first need to understand how the bacteria monitor nitrogen levels in the environment and respond to the available supply by controlling their nitrogen metabolism. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Nitrogen is then passed into the food chain and returned to the soil by the metabolism and decay of plants and animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC 6.3.1.2) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine: Glutamate + ATP + NH3 → Glutamine + ADP + phosphate Glutamine synthetase uses ammonia produced by nitrate reduction, amino acid degradation, and photorespiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bacteria are often found living symbiotically in the roots of leguminous plants. (pond5.com)
  • Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of all proteins and enzymes, nucleic acids that make up DNA, and chlorophyll that enables the process of photosynthesis in plants [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Ammonia (NH 3 ) is formed when dead bodies of animals (carcasses), their excreta, and dead plants are decomposed by bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Nitrate is a good nitrogen source for all plants. (springer.com)
  • Nitrate remained unabsorbed by plants is reduced to nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria. (springer.com)
  • In some cases, the denitrifying bacteria compete with plants in utilizing nitrate. (springer.com)
  • The extra nitrogen could then be taken up into plants and used for their growth. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • We want to trick them into making more nitrogen than they need, making this excess available to plants through the root system. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Some plants have symbiotic relationships with bacteria that produce nitrogen, where the bacteria are embedded in the root systems, providing nitrogen directly to the plants. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Nitrogen is the most limiting nutritional factor for the growth of plants. (springer.com)
  • In practice, chemical N fertilizers are used to provide nitrogen nutrition to plants. (springer.com)
  • All these concerns necessitate the search for an alternative strategy that can provide nitrogen nutrition to the plants in an efficient and sustainable manner. (springer.com)
  • Nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria have edge over its rhizospheric counterparts because, being sheltered inside plant tissues, they face less competition and can make available the fixed nitrogen directly to plants. (springer.com)
  • Plants need nitrogen to grow: it's a key part of the process they use to derive nutrition from the environment. (therolladailynews.com)
  • For plants, it's best to place the filter water return beneath the surface to not 'blow off' most of the CO2 the bacteria are making for the plants while they are processing toxins and waste. (fishlore.com)
  • The plants make some O2 for the fish and the fish make some CO2 for the plants but the bacteria need some O2 and produce CO2 too. (fishlore.com)
  • Plants use nitrogen to make DNA in their cells and the proteins that lead to healthy stems and leaves. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • The problem is, although the Earth's atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen, the form of nitrogen found in the atmosphere cannot be used by plants. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • So how do plants get their nitrogen? (sciencebuddies.org)
  • But this form of nitrogen (N 2 ) cannot be used by plants. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • These bacteria can attach themselves to the roots of some plants, forming little growths called nodules . (sciencebuddies.org)
  • The rhizobia receive nutrients and protection from the plant roots and the plants get their fill of nitrogen. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • You will observe the effects of nitrogen on the health of the clover plants by measuring the increase in biomass of each plant during the experiment. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • The infection of the strains were effective on the nitrogen fixation which performed by the total dried weight of plants, roots and nodules. (nii.ac.jp)
  • GEA, Germany, launched a new nitrogen freezing pilot plant for bacteria, giving food and dairy processors the opportunity to trial new technology in their own plants before investing in production-scale equipment. (refrigeratedfrozenfood.com)
  • Nitrogen-fixing heterotrophic bacteria and presumptive coliforms in sewage treatment plants and irrigation reservoirs in Libya. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • They also found the same level of nitrogen in both soybean plants inoculated with natural rhizobia and those inoculated with commercial varieties. (psu.edu)
  • These are then converted by bacteria, in a process called nitrification, into nutrients that are absorbed by the roots of green plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the plants that we eat because they are high in protein owe their nutritional value to bacteria that live in their roots. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • However, nitrogen is a fairly inert gas - this element does not readily react with anything and is generally unavailable to most plants. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • The nitrogen cycle describes the way that nitrogen cycles through the biosphere from the air, to bacteria, plants and animals and then back to the air again. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • Usually people call these plants "nitrogen-fixing plants" even though technically it is the bacteria who do the job. (gardenerspantry.ca)
  • It amazes me time and again how all the food on our table ultimately comes down to the nitrogen cycle and this partnership of plants and bacteria, with their unique abilities to respectively capture carbon and nitrogen gas from thin air, and then trading and turning these elements into carbohydrates and proteins - so that all creatures may have food to eat. (gardenerspantry.ca)
  • Plants need nitrogen to live, so farmers provide this nutrient through fertilization. (blogspot.com)
  • However, nitrogen is a gas that makes up the majority of air, but plants can't use it in this gaseous form. (blogspot.com)
  • Certain species of these bacteria are free-living while other species exist in symbiotic relationships with plants where they populate root hairs and benefit their host plants through their nitrogen-fixing activities. (safeopedia.com)
  • Plants having symbiotic or mutualistic relationships with nitrogen fixers are mainly from the legume family. (safeopedia.com)
  • Plants require it and, in natural fields and forests, it's these bacteria that supply most of the goods. (bernard-preston.com)
  • Legumes to supply nitrogen fixation - the gas for all our other plants utterly dependent on the element in the soil, but unable to produce their own. (bernard-preston.com)
  • Not all plants can become involved in fixation nitrogen. (bernard-preston.com)
  • Unexpectedly, Plant 3, the plant fed with nitrogen plus solution and inoculum - which was originally speculated to grow the best out of the four - developed at a more declining rate and had the most number of dead seedlings in the end than the plants in the other three pots. (brightkite.com)
  • Most plants obtain the nitrogen they need as inorganic nitrate from the soil solution. (brightkite.com)
  • Insufficient levels of available soil nitrogen limit microbial growth and decay and growth of the plants themselves. (brightkite.com)
  • 00:02:36.10 So that raises the question, where do the plants get their nitrogen? (ibiology.org)
  • 00:02:52.19 And the plants will take up this nitrogen, 00:02:54.24 they will synthesize amino acids from the soil nitrogen, 00:02:58.15 and from those, they make proteins, 00:03:01.02 and then we in turn can get our protein from those plants. (ibiology.org)
  • Cyanobacteria are thought to be the main N 2 -fixers but diazotrophs also include a wide range of heterotrophic bacteria. (diva-portal.org)
  • With molecular methods targeting the nifH gene, encoding the nitrogenase enzyme for N 2 fixation, it was shown that diverse nifH genes affiliating with heterotrophic bacteria were ubiquitous in surface waters from ten marine locations world-wide and the estuarine Baltic Sea. (diva-portal.org)
  • In Sargasso Sea surface waters, transcripts of nifH related to heterotrophic bacteria were detected indicating heterotrophic N 2 -fixing activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study examines the remineralisation of nitrogen (N) from Vibrio lysates by heterotrophic bacterioplankton and its transfer to primary producers. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Shelford, E. J. and Suttle, C. A.: Virus-mediated transfer of nitrogen from heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton, Biogeosciences, 15, 809-819, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-809-2018, 2018. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Nutrient recycling is an important link between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton (henceforth referred to as bacteria) in the ocean. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Heterotrophic bacteria, or heterotrophs , get their energy through consuming organic carbon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Phytoplankton blooms are frequent events in coastal areas and increase the production of organic matter that initially shapes the growth of opportunistic heterotrophic bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heterotrophic bacteria interact with the phytoplankton community via utilization of phytoplankton-produced organic matter for biomass production and respiration [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heterotrophic nitrogen removal in Bacillus sp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify triclosan tolerant heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria from sewage effluent and to determine cross-resistance to antibiotics. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Nitrite is quickly oxidized to nitrate (NO 3 − ) by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. (springer.com)
  • The nitrate is then converted into nitrogen gas by more bacteria, known as denitrifying bacteria, that also require methanol to be added to the mix. (waterworld.com)
  • However, the nitrogen content of Enfix is negligible,meaning its use is unrestricted in organic systems and Nitrate Vulnerable Zones,says Mr Harrington. (farmersguide.co.uk)
  • The oxidation of ammonia (NH₃) to nitrate (NO₃⁻) is a key process in the global nitrogen (N) cycle which has major ecological and environmental implications both in influencing nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions and NO₃⁻ leaching. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Bacteria that convert nitrogen from the atmosphere or soil into ammonia, which can then be converted into plant nutrients by nitrite‐ and nitrate‐forming bacteria. (oup.com)
  • PHA has been successfully used to manage algal growth in aquariums and ponds where denitrifying bacteria present in the water feed on PHA pellets and use the energy to convert the nitrate to nitrogen gas (78% of air is nitrogen). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The extra nutrients, typically from anthropological changes to the nitrogen cycle (e.g., agricultural runoff), are deposited into the seabed causing an unbalanced system and having detrimental effects on the aquatic environment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lytic infection of bacteria by viruses releases nutrients during cell lysis and stimulates the growth of primary producers, but the path by which these nutrients flow from lysates to primary producers has not been traced. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Although many nutrients are released during cell lysis, nitrogen typically limits phytoplankton growth in coastal BC waters (e.g. (biogeosciences.net)
  • One of the most important nutrients required for plant growth is nitrogen . (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Enfixa also releases phosphate and trace nutrientsfrom unavailable stock in the soil and promotes better uptake in the plant,with treated crops showing 60% higher tissue levels of nitrogen, as well ashigher levels of phosphate, potash, and trace nutrients. (farmersguide.co.uk)
  • Recent studies provide solid evidence that these bacteria serve host functions such as improving of plant nutrients through acquisition of nutrients from soil and nitrogen fixation in leaves. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the irrigation reservoirs which received the treated effluent contained large numbers of both types of bacteria. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • There are many different types of bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is used for movement, to propel some types of bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It contains four types of bacteria that work in a range of conditions and also humic and fulvic acid, seaweed and trace elements. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Nitrogen fixing endophytic bacteria have been isolated from several plant species and found to contribute upto 47% of nitrogen derived from air, which in turn enhance plant growth. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, the dominant diazotrophic bacteria in tissue samples differed among coral species, with differences remaining consistent at all three reefs, indicating that coral-diazotroph associations are species specific. (asm.org)
  • Some species of bacteria are able to turn milk into cheese while others can reproduce in less than twenty-four hours. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. (asm.org)
  • Several studies that have examined the diversity of the nitrogen-fixing Leguminosae-associated nodulating bacteria have used cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] as the trap plant species. (asm.org)
  • Some species of bacteria have developed enzyme systems that are able to absorb nitrogen in its elemental form and convert it into nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and nitrates by breaking this strong bond. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • A synthesis of available data suggest that motility, plant cell-wall degradation ability and reactive oxygen species scavenging seem to be crucial traits for successful endophytic colonization and establishment of bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mass blooms of purple sulfur bacteria growing seasonally on green stranded macroalgae have a major impact on the microbial composition and functionality of intertidal mats. (frontiersin.org)
  • Method] The water sample was collected in the deep of 10~20 cm under the water surface of Zhaozhuang section in Danhe for 7 times,the gathering time was 1 year,the microbial colonies were made for differential count according to the characteristics of different colonies,the amount distribution and characteristics of nitrogen utilizing bacteria in Danhe water were studied. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Abstract:Upon initiating our investigation, the hypothesis was that the legume (peapod) seedlings would progress at a better rate using a nitrogen-based nutrient solution and a plant growth inoculum. (brightkite.com)
  • It can be speculated, however, that nitrogen fixation represents an important input of nitrogen into the environment so diazotrophs should be present. (scirp.org)
  • The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. (asm.org)
  • As more specialized strains of bacteria have emerged, so too has the need to distribute them more widely. (refrigeratedfrozenfood.com)
  • Traditionally, they have kept their own strains of bacteria and transferred them from one batch to the next. (refrigeratedfrozenfood.com)
  • They show that different Prochlorococcus strains vary substantially in the average nitrogen content of their encoded proteins and relate this variation to nitrogen availability in different marine habitats and to genomic base composition (GC content). (edu.au)
  • In most Prochlorococcus strains, a group of proteins that are commonly induced during nitrogen stress are poor in nitrogen relative to other proteins, probably reflecting selection for reduced nitrogen content. (edu.au)
  • In this study the impacts of nitrogen fertilization on diazotrophic abundance in Brassica oleracea roots and leaves was investigated in greenhouse experiments by real-time qPCR. (ccsenet.org)
  • 2009. The communities of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Appl. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Legumes have special nodules on their roots where these unique nitrogen fixation bacteria find their way from the soil. (bernard-preston.com)
  • This happy, symbiotic, mutually advantageous relationship between legumes and nitrogen fixation bacteria can make the organic gardener independent, or nearly independent of synthetic fertilisers. (bernard-preston.com)
  • What we're proposing is to get crops like wheat serviced by these modified bacteria without them having to accommodate these bacteria in a very complicated symbiosis," said Professor Buck. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Nitrogen fixation in endophytic and associative symbiosis. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • The researchers used sediment from a shrimp pond in southern Japan and compared the nitrogen removal between an unmodified sample (SB-C) and one with an increased amount of indigenous marine anammox bacteria (MAB) (SB-AMX). (eurekalert.org)
  • By the end of the experiments, the researchers found that a bicarbonate supplement and high nitrogen content was necessary for anammox bacteria to thrive. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study shows that a synergistic effect can be had between SOB and anammox bacteria by simply adding bicarbonate," said project leader Dr. Yasunori Kawagoshi of Kumamoto University. (eurekalert.org)
  • High growth potential and nitrogen removal performance of marine anammox bacteria in shrimp-aquaculture sediment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Another benefit, unlike the traditional nitrification/denitrification process, entails the anammox bacteria do not require an organic carbon source. (waterworld.com)
  • Thirdly, the anammox bacteria produce very little biomass, thus reducing the amount of sludge to manage. (waterworld.com)
  • The anammox bacteria were discovered in the late 1990s by researchers at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. (waterworld.com)
  • The spherical bacteria, similar to ANAMMOX bacteria, dominated the middle part of the biofilter. (iwaponline.com)
  • Enhanced performance and kinetics of marine anammox bacteria (MAB) treating nitrogen-rich saline. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Gd), a bacteria known for its symbiotic relationship with sugarcane, was selected for research into nitrogen fixation in other crops by Edward Cocking, professor and director of The University of Nottingham's Centre for Crop Nitrogen Fixation. (realagriculture.com)
  • Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can use oxygen and nitrite as electron acceptors. (portlandpress.com)
  • Many readers of this book may think that nitrogen gas in the atmosphere is unchangeable forever as it is a stable substance. (springer.com)
  • Bacteria in the soil take nitrogen from the atmosphere and fix it into their cells, and an ambitious project is now trying to engineer bacteria so that they fix more nitrogen than they need, releasing this surplus nitrogen in the soil. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Indiana University biologists believe they have found a faster, cheaper and cleaner way to increase bioethanol production by using nitrogen gas, the most abundant gas in Earth's atmosphere, in place of more costly industrial fertilizers. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Nitrogen is found naturally in the atmosphere. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • The food industry uses a packaging method known as Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) to eliminate bacteria through the application of nitrogen gas. (onsitegas.com)
  • No longer is your plant confined to the soil for nitrogen intake, but now it can access it naturally, straight from the atmosphere! (wallacewow.com)
  • it's all about the formation of nitrogen oxides and ammonia from the atmosphere. (bernard-preston.com)
  • Despite its abundance in the atmosphere, nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. (brightkite.com)
  • Saturn's moon Titan has a dense atmosphere that is 98 percent nitrogen. (reference.com)
  • 00:03:41.02 That you may know: The vast majority of the atmosphere is made of nitrogen. (ibiology.org)
  • 29 Nov 2019 --- By freezing bacteria into pellets before drying, GEA is aiming to elevate the utility of fermentation lines, while reducing costs. (packaginginsights.com)
  • To investigate the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen assimilation activities, NanoSIMS was coupled with a stable isotope probing (SIP) experiment and a compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). (frontiersin.org)
  • This study provides novel insights into the contribution of purple sulfur bacteria to the carbon cycle during their seasonal developments at the sediment surface in the intertidal zone. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Hiatt system (Right Now bacteria and Tri-Base Pelletized Carbon) seems to generate a lot of controversy in other forums. (fishlore.com)
  • Hiatt sells, and highly recommends, two kinds of filter media for Right Now bacteria--Tri-Base Pelletized Carbon (TBPC), and 'Earth Pellets. (fishlore.com)
  • This study determined that a shortage of organic carbon limits denitrification, and the effects of increased dissolved organic carbon concentrations on soil clogging and movement of fecal coliform bacteria are clearly shown. (openrepository.com)
  • Because the colonies can be so widespread, scientists think Trichodesmium may be a major contributor to the global nitrogen and carbon cycles . (nasa.gov)
  • The Daphnia are in charge of cleaning out particles after most of the carbon and nitrogen has been removed", said Dr Narcís Pous Rodríguez from the University of Girona, who is leading the testing of the Daphnia filter. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • 2)Indonesian researchers isolated nitrogen-fixing rhizobia from nodules of leguminous trees in Indonesia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It is really exciting to see that the nitrogen producing rhizobia can be protective," said Dean. (psu.edu)
  • The book also provides an up-to-date analysis of the different associations of cyanobacteria with fungi, diatoms, bryophytes, cycads, Azolla, and Gunnera, including the complex regulatory network that controls the differentiation of vegetative cells into nitrogen fixing heterocysts. (nhbs.com)
  • The Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are one major class of bacteria that can do this, and one of the most primitive. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • They are a genus of cyanobacteria, an ancient type of marine bacteria that, like other phytoplankton, capture and store solar energy through photosynthesis. (nasa.gov)
  • In this issue, Gilbert & Fagan (2011) address this question in the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus, examining a variety of ways in which cells might be thrifty with nitrogen when making proteins. (edu.au)
  • If bacteria can process ammonia and nitrites , why not nitrates and even phosphates too--and even process them aerobically. (fishlore.com)
  • Hiatt claims the Right Now bacteria, when paired with TBPC, aerobically consumes nitrates and phosphates, along with the more usual ammonia and nitrites. (fishlore.com)
  • Their ability to fix nitrogen and to form nitrates, nitrites, amino acids and urea, as well as ammonia could also have helped with the development of early plant life. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • Bioscientist Dr. Ted Cocking, from the Centre for Crop Nitrogen Fixation in the UK, was the first to unlock the potential of this unique bacterium - Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, or Gd for short. (geneticliteracyproject.org)
  • In return the plant passes carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis to the bacteria for use as an energy source. (pond5.com)
  • Endophytic bacteria represents a unique class of bacteria that can colonize interior tissues of plant and provide a range of benefits to the plant similar to those provided by the rhizospheric bacteria. (intechopen.com)
  • Besides fixing nitrogen, endophytic bacteria can produce plant growth hormones like auxin and gibberellin, help in nutrient uptake, and increase the plant's tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. (intechopen.com)
  • Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, development and reproduction. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • One long-term idea is that when you take the plant seed to start the crop growing, you might coat it in these bacteria that would persist and support the plant growth. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, the partial pressure of oxygen inside the plant tissue is more acquiescent for efficient nitrogen fixation. (springer.com)
  • Nitrogen fixing ability of bacteria can be evaluated by total nitrogen difference method, acetylene reduction assay, analysis of nitrogen solutes in xylem and other plant parts and N-Labeling Methods. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, molecular approaches such as amplification, analysis of nitrogen-fixing genes ( nif genes), and qualitative and quantitative estimation of their products can be used for evaluation of nitrogen fixing ability of the bacteria.In addition to nitrogen-fixation ability, these bacteria can influence plant growth through one or more properties. (springer.com)
  • Colonization process of an endophytic bacterium involves various steps which include migration towards root surface, attachment and microcolony formation on plant surface, distribution along root and growth and survival of the population inside plant tissue. (springer.com)
  • , Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Serratia marcesens can help understand mechanism involved in plant-endophyte interaction which in turn will be deterministic in use of suitable formulations of endophytic bacteria to be used as biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. (springer.com)
  • And, because of a unique ability to fix nitrogen in the absence of nodules and express cell wall degrading enzymes (i.e find its way into the host plant), Gd, under the right conditions, successfully colonized wheat, rice and maize in the laboratory. (realagriculture.com)
  • Does the cost of supplying sugar to the bacteria result in a yield penalty to the plant? (realagriculture.com)
  • Among the effects, in addition to often providing fixed nitrogen, plant growth can be promoted and plant diseases controlled. (nhbs.com)
  • Nitrogen is used to build plant proteins and nucleic acids, including DNA. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • With its new pilot plant, GEA freezes the bacteria in droplets using a liquid nitrogen bath outside the freeze dryer, then dries the pellets via the normal procedure. (refrigeratedfrozenfood.com)
  • While they may not provide as much nitrogen to the plant as commercial types, the trade off between optimal growth and heavy insect damage may still be worthwhile. (psu.edu)
  • As well as fixing valuable nitrogen from the air andmaking it available to the plant, Enfixa bacteria also assimilate and storespare nitrogen in the root zone, says Mike Harrington, independent agronomistat Edaphos. (farmersguide.co.uk)
  • When nitrogen fertiliser is applied there is more available thanthe plant can immediately use. (farmersguide.co.uk)
  • Maren Friesen , Michigan State University plant biologist, has found that an elusive bacteria, known as Streptomyces thermoautotrophicus, does not in fact have the exceptional properties that some scientists had hoped. (msu.edu)
  • 2001. Endophytic colonization and in plant a nitrogen fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • 2004. Isolation and characterization of soybean-associated bacteria and their potential for plant growth promotion. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • 2007. Genetic diversity and potential for promotion of plant growth detected in nodule endophytic bacteria of soybean grown in Heilongjiang province of China. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Plant growth is often limited by the availability of a source of combined nitrogen. (plannet-rcn.org)
  • A conversion needs to take place to "fix" nitrogen, binding into a plant-usable form. (blogspot.com)
  • Nitrogen forms the basis of the proteins that make plant, animal and human life possible. (safeopedia.com)
  • A picture is emerging where plant roots act as 'gatekeepers' to screen soil bacteria from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to these plant growth-promoting effects, endophytic bacteria are being widely explored for their use in the improvement of crop performance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purposeful use of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) as biofertilizers in agriculture is a promising technology to provide effective and environmentally friendly solutions with the potential to ensure food security ( Glick, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • more than 70% is nitrogen that could be made available to the plant. (fwi.co.uk)
  • In soil, earthworms will munch their way through plant debris and manure to help break it apart, while also extracting chemicals like nitrogen and phosphorous from the material. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • 00:03:14.09 to support plant yield or plant nitrogen. (ibiology.org)
  • The GEA nitrogen freezing pilot plant will be on display at stand 6F141 in Hall H6 at the upcoming Food Ingredients Europe Exhibition (FiE) in Paris from December 3 to 5. (packaginginsights.com)
  • Cell death of phytoplankton and bacteria release dissolved organic material (DOM), which is rich in free and combined amino acids (Middelboe and Jørgensen, 2006) that are taken up and metabolised by bacteria (Middelboe et al. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Other major stores of nitrogen include organic matter in soil and the oceans. (brightkite.com)
  • How does the bacteria enter the roots? (realagriculture.com)
  • Bacilio-Jiménez M, Aguilar-Flores S, del Valle MV, Pérez A, Zepeda A, Zenteno E (2001) Endophytic bacteria in rice seeds inhibit early colonization of roots by Azospirillum brasilense . (springer.com)
  • Bothe H, Körsgen H, Lehmacher T, Hundeshagen B (1992) Differential effects of Azospirillum , auxin and combined nitrogen on growth of the roots of wheat. (springer.com)
  • Increased nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the nitrogen content in leaves but not in roots. (ccsenet.org)
  • For chemoautotrophy to support growth, these symbioses must be capable of inorganic nitrogen assimilation, a process that is not well understood in these or other aquatic symbioses. (biologists.org)
  • Pathways of inorganic nitrogen assimilation were investigated in several of these symbioses: the vent tubeworms Riftia pachyptila and Tevnia jerichonana, the vent bivalves Calyptogena magnifica and Bathymodiolus thermophilus, and the coastal bivalve Solemya velum. (biologists.org)
  • Nitrite reduction by Nitrosomonas is observed under three conditions: (i) hydrogen-dependent denitrification, (ii) anoxic ammonia oxidation with nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and (iii) NO x -induced aerobic ammonia oxidation. (portlandpress.com)
  • In ponds with healthy colonies of beneficial bacteria living in the filter and on the ponds aggregates, we see Ammonia naturally reduced to Nitrite. (koivet.com)
  • Soon, beneficial bacteria should occur in the pond that will remove the Nitrite, but in the meantime, assure a healthy pond by doing water changes to remove the offending Nitrite, and reduce feedings in order to reduce Ammonia production by the fish which is then converted into Nitrite. (koivet.com)
  • This is because incomplete denitrifying bacteria lack key nitrite reductase enzymes which enable complete denitrifiers to reduce nitrites [29]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, we found that conventional fertility management led to a more active nitrogen-fixing community in June, directly after fertilizers were applied. (asm.org)
  • The raw materials for cellulosic ethanol are low in nitrogen, a nutrient required for ethanol-producing microbes to grow, so cellulosic ethanol producers are estimated to spend millions of dollars annually on nitrogen fertilizers like corn steep liquor and diammonium phosphate. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Knowing the bacterium could use N2 without hindering ethanol production, the team reasoned that N2 gas could serve as an inexpensive substitute for nitrogen fertilizers during cellulosic ethanol production. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • But we recognized nitrogen fertilizers as a smaller, yet considerable, cost contributor that could potentially be more readily addressed," he said. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Nitrogen is most commonly used in the creation of ammonia, which is used in fertilizers, cleaning products, explosives and in several industrial sectors like the paper industry, where it is used to turn wood into pulp. (reference.com)
  • Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Bacteria Removal in Laboratory-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors Amended with Drinking Water Treatment Residuals. (gc.ca)
  • the yearly average of nitrosation and denitrifying bacteria were 647 and 369 MPN/ml.The amount distribution of nitrogen cycle bacteria in water environment was related to season,nutrition status etc.,the azotobacteria was mostly affected by total nitrogen(TN),the denitrifying bacteria were mainly influenced by TN and total phosphorus(TP),the number distribution of azotobacteria and nitrobacteria had a certain coherence with that of denitrifying bacteria on number distribution. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Place will also be working with Easton-basedBlue Ocean Biosystems Inc.to evaluate the use of oolitic aragonite (OA), a calcium carbonate mineral similar to limestone, as a phosphorus mitigant and recovery solution, as well as identifying beneficial indigenous nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria that can colonize and proliferate in OA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As well, the study found fish can't go into some areas because of high bacteria counts, and levels of both phosphorus and nitrogen are increasing. (winnipegfreepress.com)
  • Remember, the bacteria are aerobic and they are using O2 from the water so the O2-depleted water return can be positioned accordingly--more splashy' for more O2 and less splashy for more CO2. (fishlore.com)
  • An aerobic denitrifying bacterium isolated from a bio-trickling filter treating NOx, Bacillus sp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Reactor A had the highest removal efficiency of NO 3 -N at all three flow rates, followed by reactor C and then reactor B. The same trend was seen for NH 3 -N and total N. Total nitrogen removal efficiencies decreased with increasing flow rates. (gc.ca)
  • It is unreactive because it exists as a molecule containing two nitrogen atoms that are bound very tightly together by a triple-strength chemical bond. (typesofbacteria.co.uk)
  • In aggregate, the nitrogen atoms that are bound in proteins typically account for a substantial fraction of the nitrogen in a cell. (edu.au)
  • Various direct and indirect methods have been used to quantify the amount of nitrogen fixed by these bacteria, including the acetylene reduction assay, which is a quick but indirect method, and the 15N isotopic dilution assay, which is a robust and accurate method. (intechopen.com)
  • Our own proteins are utterly dependent on the nitric oxides from the arcing effect of lightning, and the ammonia from nitrogen fixation bacteria. (bernard-preston.com)
  • Proteins are usually composed of 20 different kinds of amino acids that each contain between one and four nitrogen atoms. (edu.au)
  • These observations prompt the question: can environmental nitrogen scarcity lead to adaptive evolution in the nitrogen content of proteins? (edu.au)
  • They also consider biases in the nitrogen content of different kinds of proteins. (edu.au)
  • In contrast, ribosomal proteins are nitrogen rich relative to other Prochlorococcus proteins, and tend to be down-regulated during nitrogen limitation. (edu.au)
  • This suggests the possibility that decaying ribosomal proteins act as a source of nitrogen-rich amino acids during periods of nitrogen stress. (edu.au)
  • The lead investigator on the project, Professor Martin Buck from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial, said: "One of the problems in modern farming is to provide nitrogen at a level that is sustainable, that doesn't harm the environment. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Denitrification is the only reaction capable of removing the tremendous quantity of nitrogen applied when high-rate land filtration systems are used for renovating sewage water. (openrepository.com)
  • Nitrogen control in bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In this research, new hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi were isolated from the crude-oil contaminated soil of the oil-fields in the Amazon rainforest of north-east Ecuador by using a soil enrichment technique. (environmental-expert.com)
  • An understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms by which these bacteria benefit crop productivity is an important issue in agriculture. (nhbs.com)
  • This has been done using the Haber-Bosch process, an industrial form of nitrogen fixation that greatly expanded agriculture. (blogspot.com)
  • Currently, the process of removing nitrogen from wastewater is not that efficient," she said. (waterworld.com)
  • Removing nitrogen from wastewater is critical to prevent eutrophication in receiving water bodies. (iwaponline.com)
  • Both Mn(II) and Ni(II) played key roles in treating nitrogen-rich saline wastewater. (deepdyve.com)
  • Comparison of N2O Emissions and Gene Abundances between Wastewater Nitrogen Removal Systems. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By freezing bacteria into pellets before drying, GEA offers greater flexibility and a higher active cell count through better utilization of their fermentation lines and freeze dryers. (refrigeratedfrozenfood.com)
  • Rather than freezing all of the bacteria in a single batch, it can be collected from a continuous stream improving flexibility and equipment utilization. (refrigeratedfrozenfood.com)
  • Although there is a cost for the liquid nitrogen, this is more than offset by the optimized utilization of the freeze dryer," says Morten Pedersen, area sales manager for GEA Process Engineering. (refrigeratedfrozenfood.com)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and demonstrated that this pathway is also involved in the utilization of monomethylamine as a nitrogen source by nonmethylotrophs. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Rather than freezing all of the bacteria in a single batch, it can be collected from a continuous stream which improves flexibility and equipment utilization. (packaginginsights.com)