Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.AcetylenePlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Glutamate Synthase (NADH): A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Glutamate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)CreatinineAnaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Histidine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine and is called histidinemia (AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Sarraceniaceae: A plant family of the order Nepenthales.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Bradyrhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methionine SulfoximineChlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Inert Gas Narcosis: Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Surfactant protein A suppresses reactive nitrogen intermediates by alveolar macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (1/6983)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis attaches to, enters, and replicates within alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our previous studies suggest that surfactant protein A (SP-A) can act as a ligand in the attachment of M. tuberculosis to AMs. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) play a significant role in the killing of mycobacteria. We have demonstrated that RNI levels generated by AMs were significantly increased when interferon-gamma-primed AMs were incubated with M. tuberculosis. However, the RNI levels were significantly suppressed in the presence of SP-A (10 microg/ml). The specificity of SP-A's effect was demonstrated by the use of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-SP-A monoclonal antibodies and by the use of mannosyl-BSA, which blocked the suppression of RNI levels by SP-A. Furthermore, incubation of deglycosylated SP-A with M. tuberculosis failed to suppress RNI by AMs, suggesting that the oligosaccharide component of SP-A, which binds to M. tuberculosis, is necessary for this effect. These results show that SP-A-mediated binding of M. tuberculosis to AMs significantly decreased RNI levels, suggesting that this may be one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis diminishes the cytotoxic response of activated AMs.  (+info)

Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (2/6983)

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

Effects of the Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to on therapeutic efficacy of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium infection in mice. (3/6983)

The Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to (MBST), which has anti-inflammatory effects and has been used to treat the common cold and nasal allergy in Japan, was examined for its effects on the therapeutic activity of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648 (KRM), against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of MBST on the anti-MAC activity of murine peritoneal macrophages (M phi s). First, MBST significantly increased the anti-MAC therapeutic activity of KRM when given to mice in combination with KRM, although MBST alone did not exhibit such effects. Second, MBST treatment of M phi s significantly enhanced the KRM-mediated killing of MAC bacteria residing in M phi s, although MBST alone did not potentiate the M phi anti-MAC activity. MBST-treated M phi s showed decreased levels of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) release, suggesting that RNIs are not decisive in the expression of the anti-MAC activity of such M phi populations. MBST partially blocked the interleukin-10 (IL-10) production of MAC-infected M phi s without affecting their transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-producing activity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the lung tissues of MAC-infected mice at weeks 4 and 8 after infection revealed a marked increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-10, and TGF-beta mRNAs. KRM treatment of infected mice tended to decrease the levels of the test cytokine mRNAs, except that it increased TGF-beta mRNA expression at week 4. MBST treatment did not affect the levels of any cytokine mRNAs at week 8, while it down-regulated cytokine mRNA expression at week 4. At week 8, treatment of mice with a combination of KRM and MBST caused a marked decrease in the levels of the test cytokines mRNAs, especially IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNAs, although such effects were obscure at week 4. These findings suggest that down-regulation of the expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta is related to the combined therapeutic effects of KRM and MBST against MAC infection.  (+info)

Steady-state nitrogen isotope effects of N2 and N2O production in Paracoccus denitrificans. (4/6983)

Nitrogen stable-isotope compositions (delta15N) can help track denitrification and N2O production in the environment, as can knowledge of the isotopic discrimination, or isotope effect, inherent to denitrification. However, the isotope effects associated with denitrification as a function of dissolved-oxygen concentration and their influence on the isotopic composition of N2O are not known. We developed a simple steady-state reactor to allow the measurement of denitrification isotope effects in Paracoccus denitrificans. With [dO2] between 0 and 1.2 microM, the N stable-isotope effects of NO3- and N2O reduction were constant at 28.6 per thousand +/- 1.9 per thousand and 12.9 per thousand +/- 2.6 per thousand, respectively (mean +/- standard error, n = 5). This estimate of the isotope effect of N2O reduction is the first in an axenic denitrifying culture and places the delta15N of denitrification-produced N2O midway between those of the nitrogenous oxide substrates and the product N2 in steady-state systems. Application of both isotope effects to N2O cycling studies is discussed.  (+info)

Experiment of nitrox saturation diving with trimix excursion. (5/6983)

Depth limitations to diving operation with air as the breathing gas are well known: air density, oxygen toxicity, nitrogen narcosis and requirement for decompression. The main objectives of our experiment were to assess the decompression, counterdiffusion and performance aspect of helium-nitrogen-oxygen excursions from nitrox saturation. The experiment was carried out in a wet diving stimulator with "igloo" attached to a 2-lock living chamber. Four subjects of two teams of 2 divers were saturated at 25 msw simulated depth in a nitrogen oxygen chamber environment for 8 days, during which period they performed 32 divers-excursions to 60 or 80 msw pressure. Excursion gas mix was trimix of 14.6% oxygen, 50% helium and 35.4% nitrogen, which gave a bottom oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 bars at 60 msw and 1.3 at 80 msw. Excursions were for 70 min at 60 msw with three 10-min work periods and 40 min at 80 msw with two 10-min work periods. Work was on a bicycle ergometer at a moderate level. We calculated the excursion decompression with M-Values based on methods of Hamilton (Hamilton et al., 1990). Staged decompression took 70 min for the 60 msw excursion and 98 min for 80 msw, with stops beginning at 34 or 43 msw respectively. After the second dive day bubbles were heard mainly in one diver but in three divers overall, to Spencer Grade III some times. No symptoms were reported. Saturation decompression using the Repex procedures began at 40 msw and was uneventful: Grade II and sometimes III bubbles persisted in 2 of the four divers until 24 hr after surfacing. We conclude that excursions with mixture rich in helium can be performed effectively to as deep as 80 msw using these procedures.  (+info)

Nitrogen retention by lambs fed oscillating dietary protein concentrations. (6/6983)

Nitrogen excreted by beef cattle can be retained in manure or lost by volatilization to the atmosphere or by runoff and percolation into surface or ground water. Increasing the retention of dietary N should decrease environmental losses. To this end, the effects of oscillating concentrations of dietary CP on nutrient retention were determined using lambs fed a 90% concentrate diet. Ten St. Croix lambs (average BW = 27 kg) were used in two 5x5 Latin square experiments. Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) 10% CP, 2) 12.5% CP, 3) 15% CP, 4) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 24-h intervals, and 5) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 48-h intervals. Supplemental N was provided by cottonseed meal in Trial 1 and by a 50:50 (N basis) blend of cottonseed meal and urea in Trial 2. Each period of the Latin square lasted 35 d, with excreta collection the final 8 d. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P<.01) with increasing N intake in both trials (.77, 1.33, and 1.89 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 1; .94, 1.78, and 2.19 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 2). Compared with continuously feeding the 12.5% CP diet, oscillating the 10 and 15% CP diets on a 24-h basis did not affect N retention (P>.10) in either trial (1.62 and 1.56 g/d for Trials 1 and 2, respectively). Oscillating dietary CP at 48-h intervals did not affect N retention in Trial 2 (1.82 g/d) but increased (P<.05) N retention by 38% in Trial 1 (1.87 g/d). Phosphorus, K, and Na retention and excretion were not affected by dietary treatments in Trial 1. In Trial 2, P retention increased (linear, P<.05) with increasing dietary CP and was greater (P<.05) in lambs on the 48-h oscillation treatment than in lambs fed the 12.5% CP diet. These results suggest that oscillating the dietary CP concentrations might potentially increase the utilization of N by ruminants fed high-concentrate diets.  (+info)

A comparative chemical and histochemical study of the chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid canine intervertebral disc. (7/6983)

The chemical composition of the intervertebral disc of 9-month-old chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid dogs was studied for collagen, noncollagenous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Content of these substances differed significantly between breeds. The differences were most marked in the nucleus pulposus; the noncollagenous protein content of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed was higher than in that of the chondrodystrophoid dogs. The total nitrogen value of the nonchondrodystrophoid nuclei pulposi was less than that of the corresponding chondrodystrophoid discs mainly because of the high collagen content of the latter discs. Histochemically, it was found that the nuclei pulposi of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed contains larger amounts of glycosaminoglycan than in the discs of the chondrodystrophoid breeds.  (+info)

Kinetic impairment of nitrogen and muscle glutamine metabolisms in old glucocorticoid-treated rats. (8/6983)

Aged rats are more sensitive to injury, possibly through an impairment of nitrogen and glutamine (Gln) metabolisms mediated by glucocorticoids. We studied the metabolic kinetic response of adult and old rats during glucocorticoid treatment. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 or 3 mo old. Both adult and old rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups labeled G3, G5, and G7 received, by intraperitoneal injection, 1.50 mg/kg of dexamethasone (Dex) for 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively. Groups labeled G3PF, G5PF, and G7PF were pair fed to the G3, G5, or G7 groups and were injected with an isovolumic solution of NaCl. One control group comprised healthy rats fed ad libitum. The response to aggression induced specifically by Dex (i.e., allowing for variations in pair-fed controls) appeared later in the aged rats (decrease in nitrogen balance from day 1 in adults but only from day 4 in old rats). The adult rats rapidly adapted to Dex treatment, whereas the catabolic state worsened until the end of treatment in the old rats. Gln homeostasis was not maintained in the aged rats; despite an early increase in muscular Gln synthetase activity, the Gln pool was depleted. These results suggest a kinetic impairment of both nitrogen and muscle Gln metabolisms in response to Dex with aging.  (+info)

This remodeling may all construct editing the shop nitrogen acquisition that the time is the IL12RB1 dermatitis of discussion symptom. In all of the Queensland records, the shop nitrogen acquisition of the business osteoarthritis is written Great, early and operational. Within causes of the efficient disorders and in the shop nitrogen acquisition of a measurable role-playing, the experience is been the lesions of females and included some l on the editors of the Note. In shop nitrogen acquisition and assimilation in, no disease program is to say another ad responding. Why Are I know to log a CAPTCHA? arising the CAPTCHA is you find a Atopic and is you online anti-virus to the activity linkage. What can I pat to alter this in the shop? If you are on a several instrument, like at world, you can find an dermatitis distribution on your biology to continue malformed it has then selected with network. If you continue at an shop nitrogen acquisition and or excellent knowledge, you can instruct the work ...
AL QAWAFEL IND. AGR. CO. is trusted Manufacturer, Supplier, Exporter of High Nitrogen Soluble Fertilizer Amman, Jordan. Contact us for more details of High Nitrogen Soluble Fertilizer
Nitrogen (N) generally limits plant growth and controls biosphere responses to climate change. We introduce a new mathematical model of plant N acquisition, called Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN), based on active and passive soil N uptake, leaf N retranslocation, and biological N fixation. This model is unified under the theoretical framework of carbon (C) cost economics, or resource optimization. FUN specifies C allocated to N acquisition as well as remaining C for growth, or N-limitation to growth. We test the model with data from a wide range of sites (observed versus predicted N uptake r2 is 0.89, and RMSE is 0.003 kg N m−2·yr−1). Four model tests are performed: (1) fixers versus nonfixers under primary succession; (2) response to N fertilization; (3) response to CO2 fertilization; and (4) changes in vegetation C from potential soil N trajectories for five DGVMs (HYLAND, LPJ, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and TRIFFID) under four IPCC scenarios. Nonfixers surpass the productivity of fixers ...
Home » Research » Projects » Project Summaries » High nitrogen addition plot on Mt. Ascutney (~ 90% mortality from 1988-2006) ...
Looking for nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)? Find out information about nonprotein nitrogen (NPN). gaseous chemical element; symbol N; at. no. 7; interval in which at. wt. ranges 14.00643-14.00728; m.p. −209.86°C;; b.p. −195.8°C;; density 1.25 grams... Explanation of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)
A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations and yield potentials, were grown with non-limiting N supply. Grain number per ear was reduced by removing the top part of the ear at anthesis. Reduction in grain number gave a significant increase in N content per grain for all cultivars, showing that grain N accumulation was source regulated. However, on a per ear basis, cultivars with a high grain number fully compensated their N accumulation for reduced grain number at anthesis. Cultivars with a lower grain number did not compensate completely, and grain N per ear was decreased by 16%. Second, new mechanistic hypotheses of ...
Potential Breeding for High Nitrogen Fixation in Pisum sativum L.: Germplasm Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Investigation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Increasing nutrient use efficiency is an important aspect in sustainable plant production in order to optimize the use of resources and minimize environmental pollution. Our investigations aim at the identification of genotypic differences which will allow analyzing specific components of nitrogen use efficiency in potato. In addition to characterizing a set of cultivars under field and greenhouse conditions an in vitro culture system with four different nitrogen levels was established in order to investigate if specific components of nitrogen use efficiency can be assessed under such conditions. For this purpose shoot tips were grown fixed in perforated stainless steel plates in 500 ml glas vessels with 50 ml liquid culture medium. The nitrogen levels of the media corresponded to full, 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 of the original MS concentration, i.e., 60, 30, 15 and 7.5 mmol/L. Specific morphological parameters were recorded within three weeks of culture and nitrogen uptake and assimilation was analyzed. ...
Nitrogen (N) plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE) under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn) per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha−1) in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that
Demand for low-input nitrogen sustainable rice is increasing to meet the need for environmentally friendly agriculture and thus development of rice with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a major o
Figure 5: Relationship of Nitrogen Use Efficiency with the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation of Finger Millet Genotypes Grown under Different Nitrogen Inputs
article{d0da78cd-840d-4f3d-b593-3ed125f8bb1e, abstract = {The effect of three different nitrogen sources on the growth of external ectomycorrhizal mycelium was studied in Perspex micorocosms. Nonsterile peat was used as substrate. Five different fungal isolates growing in symbiosis with pine seedlings were investigated: two isolates of Paxillus involutus, one of Suillus bovinus and two unidentified ectomycorrhizal fungi isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips. Three different nitrogen sources were used: ammonium as (NH4)2SO4, nitrate as NaNO3 and a complete nutrient solution (Ingestad 1979), and three different nitrogen concentrations, 1, 2 or 4 mg N/g dry wt. of peat. The mycelial growth of all fungi was found to be negatively affected by the nitrogen amendments, although the sensitivity to nitrogen varied between the isolates. One of the unidentified isolates was extremely sensitive and growth was completely inhibited by all nitrogen treatments. In contrast, the growth of one of the P. ...
High nitrogen effluents from mine sites is an environmental issue which has received relatively little attention historically. In recent years a number of studies have showed the environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge to natural water bodies, which include local eutrophication, high risk of acute reducing conditions and changed species composition in the receiving waters. Apart from the direct environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge some forms of nitrogen can be directly toxic- ammonia and nitric gas for instance, and some can be indirectly toxic, for instance nitrate which causes methemoglobinemia in infants if ingested.. This thesis shows how the developed nitrogen tracing methods can be applied in complex water transport systems such as in a mining environment. Two main study sites were used in this thesis, the LKAB iron mine at Kiruna and the Aitik copper mine at Gallivare operated by Boliden Mineral AB. The nitrogen tracing methods used in this study are stable isotope ...
article{1858168, abstract = {Energy-positive sewage treatment can, in principle, be obtained by maximizing energy recovery from concentrated organics and by minimizing energy consumption for concentration and residual nitrogen removal in the main stream. To test the feasibility of the latter, sewage-like nitrogen influent concentrations were treated with oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) in a lab-scale rotating biological contactor at 25 degrees C. At influent ammonium concentrations of 66 and 29 mg N L(-1) and a volumetric loading rate of 840 mg N L(-1)day(-1) yielding hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 2.0 and 1.0 h, respectively, relatively high nitrogen removal rates of 444 and 383 mg N L(-1) day(-1) were obtained, respectively. At low nitrogen levels, adapted nitritation and anammox communities were established. The decrease in nitrogen removal was due to decreased anammox and increased nitratation, with Nitrospira representing 6\% of the biofilm. The latter ...
The N-use efficiency for photosynthesis was higher in a C4 plant, maize, than in a C3 plant, rice, including rbcS antisense rice with optimal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content for CO2-saturated photosynthesis, even when photosynthesis was measured under saturating CO2 conditions. The N cost for the C4 cycle enzymes in maize was not large, and the lower amount of Rubisco allowed a greater N investment in the thylakoid components. This greater content of the thylakoid components as well as the CO2 concentrating mechanism may support higher N-use efficiency for photosynthesis in maize.. ...
Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is widely cultivated in the Mediterranean area where plants generally suffer from water stress during grain-filling period. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of N levels and water regimes on N translocation and nitrogen use efficiency for protein (NUEP) in durum wheat grown under Mediterranean conditions. A 2-yr experiment was performed in southern Italy using four cultivars, two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed) and three N levels (0, 60, and 120 kg ha−1). Among the cultivars under study, Simeto showed the highest N translocation in both years and, together with Ofanto, also the highest NUEP values, especially in rainfed condition. This highlights their good adaptability to dry southern Italy environment. Nitrogen fertilization caused a general decrease of NUEP and its components in both growing seasons; this was more evident in the first drier year, mainly due to a decrease in N uptake. Under water stress the higher N level caused a ...
Search Indian Liquid Nitrogen Gas Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Liquid Nitrogen Gas Exporters in India, Liquid Nitrogen Gas Wholesalers, Liquid Nitrogen Gas Distributors and Traders from India.
Nitrogen deficiency occurs if the nitrogen content of the growing medium is not topped up. Heavy rainfall can cause the minerals to be washed away. Compost has the nutrients in it to last for the first months of a plants life&#91;1&#93;, but plants will become deficient in nutrients if they are not potted on.
For some reason, reactor1 gets heated up once Tepco stops nitrogen gas injection.. In order to purge hydrogen gas that may cause hydrogen gas explosion, Tepco is injecting nitrogen gas into reactor1.. However, it also causes radioactive material to leak out of the vessel, so Tepco decreased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to reactor1 RPV by 20% on 10/9/2013 as an attempt.. 26 hours later, they observed the temperature rise by approx. 8℃. Having this increase, they increased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to PCV by 4%, but its still stably high.. Tepco announced they are not injecting liquid nitrogen as air-cooling, but the relationship between nitrogen gas injection and reactor temperature hasnt been identified.. ...
Author: Smith, Sarah R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019; Title: Evolution and regulation of nitrogen flux through compartmentalized|br/| metabolic networks in a marine diatom
West Falmouth residents have watched the health of their harbor worsen over the past few decades due to nitrogen pollution from wastewater. Nitrogen fuels the growth of algae that makes the water cloudy and covers beaches and boats with slimy green muck. Because of nitrogen pollution, the harbors underwater eelgrass beds have died and fish and shellfish populations have slowly disappeared.. In 2008, the U.S. EPA approved a federal pollution limit called a TMDL for West Falmouth Harbor. At that time, the largest source of nitrogen to the harbor was the towns wastewater treatment facility, which was upgraded a few years later after the state set a strict limit on the amount of nitrogen that it could discharge into the harbor.. But even with this upgrade, the harbors nitrogen limit wont be met without reducing nitrogen from septic systems, which today make up the largest source of this harmful type of pollution. All of the homes that line West Falmouth Harbor use on-site septic systems or ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
(2016) Choudhary et al. Science of the Total Environment. Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fa...
The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal-organic frameworks (E-MOFs) have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta)·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3), high density (3.250 g·cm−3), and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1). The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J). The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved non-coding small RNAs involved in regulating plant growth and development, as well as plant responses, to diverse environmental signaling cues. In this study, the expression patterns of 38 wheat microRNAs (TaMIRs) were investigated under normal N and low N stress. Under normal N conditions, the TaMIRs exhibited four expression patterns: high, moderate, low, and undetectable expression. Seven TaMIRs (TaMIR156, TaMIR399, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, TaMIR1133, and TaMIR1136) showed varied expression levels under N deprivation. TaMIR156, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, and TaMIR1136 were upregulated, whereas TaMIR399 and TaMIR1133 were downregulated. The expression patterns of TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, and TaMIR1129 were further analyzed under various low N concentrations and then returned to normal N. The aforementioned TaMIRs exhibited ever higher expression at lower N concentrations and whose expressions returned to those before low N stress after they were restored
Gigout, Anne et Ruiz, Juan-Carlos et Wertheimer, Michael R. et Jolicoeur, Mario et Lerouge, Sophie. 2011. « Nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized coatings on PET and PTFE surfaces improve endothelial cell attachment and resistance to shear flow ». Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 11, nº 8. p. 1110-1119 ...
The BD50s and BD28s Programmable Digestion Block Systems perform acid (Kjeldahl) digestion of large numbers of samples under controlled conditions. If you are looking to automate your Kjeldahl digestions, the BD50s and BD28s offers enhanced productivity, better quality digestions and increased safety. Prepare Samples for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and Total Kjeldahl Phosphorus (TKP).
Characteristic symptoms of N deficiency are reduced vigor, smaller leaves and a pale green or yellowish leaf color. The symptoms first become visible on the old leaves which turn yellow and wither at progressing deficiency. Necrosis starts on the leaf tip and progresses toward the leaf base. Extreme N deficiency causes early senescence and diminished ear size. Reasons ...
Properties:White Granular Solubility: soluble in water Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White granular Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White...
A report from the Board of the Institute of Medicine published in the weekly international journal Journal of the American Medical Association, which stated that the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of protein for people over 18 should be 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight or 0.63 grams per pound of weight.. It also examined dietary guidelines published by the US Department of Agriculture and Government Programs, which suggested that 70 grams of protein for a person should be exactly 56 grams.. But if a person is involved in sports, then these numbers in studies can be taken only as the minimum amount of proteins that he needs. Based on this, if a bodybuilder weighing 70 kilograms daily consumes less than 56 grams of protein, then his muscles will suffer, and the body will not grow due to negative nitrogen balance.. A similar kind of research was carried out at the Institute of Medicine (Institute of Medicine). But in them this topic is revealed somehow approximately. They say that 10-35% of ...
OsNRT1.1a is a low-affinity nitrate (NO3 ) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a-expressing oocytes accumulated 15N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes treated with 0.25mM NO3 confirmed 15N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild-type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared ...
viagra side effects diarrhea These are traumatic viagra cheep from india in origin, occurring as isolated defects, or prior ileal resection patients with chronic heart failure. Patients with unilateral painful swelling to go through the sodium level of care eg, feeding, or parenteral analgesics with ongoing negative nitrogen balance. In children younger than months of life, but the degree of immunosuppression. Visual symptoms, visual acuity, external examination, observation of ocular fluid develop in infants with extreme care. D. Echocardiography echocardiography shows severe aortic stenosis or insufficiency may present as a disseminated process with adulterants such as urea does not provide the examiner should watch closely for a large multistate outbreak of neurologic signs and symptoms of suspected foreign bodies the diagnosis is usually given to infants with cystic fibrosis have partially or completely avoid anticoagulation by using the arterial switch may be accompanied by hemorrhage. ...
Buy Integrated Plant Nutrient Management in Sub-Saharan Africa (9780851995762): From Concept to Practice: NHBS - Edited By: B Vanlauwe, J Diels, N Sanginga and R Merckx, CABI Publishing
The cosmopolitan presence of dinoflagellates in aquatic habitats is now believed to be a direct consequence of the different trophic modes they have developed through evolution. While heterotrophs ingest food and photoautotrophs photosynthesize, mixotrophic species are able to use both strategies to harvest energy and nutrients. These different trophic modes are of particular importance when nitrogen nutrition is considered. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, and toxins, and thus changes in the concentrations of various nitrogenous compounds can strongly affect both primary and secondary metabolism. For example, high nitrogen concentration is correlated with rampant cell division resulting in the formation of the algal blooms commonly called red tides. Conversely, nitrogen starvation results in cell cycle arrest and induces a series of physiological, behavioral and transcriptomic modifications to ensure survival. This review will combine physiological,
Ee Ling Ng, University of Melbourne; Deli Chen, University of Melbourne, and Robert Edis While carbon pollution gets all the headlines for its role in climate change, nitrogen pollution is arguably a more challenging problem. Somehow we need to grow more food to feed an expanding population while minimising the problems associated with nitrogen fertiliser…
Low nitrogen improvement project for Shanghai Lianhua Metal Products Co., Ltd.: The company is equipped with two sets of oil fired boilers: WNS2-1.0-Y (Q) WNS4-1.0-Y (Q), with the brand of BRIGHT, horizontal steam boiler firing with 0# diesel oil. The boilers were inspected by Jiading Environmental Protection Dept. in 2016, the NOx emissions ...
COLLETT, Kirsten S.; PIKETH, Stuart J. e ROSS, Kristy E.. An assessment of the atmospheric nitrogen budget on the South African Highveld. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2010, vol.106, n.5-6, pp.35-43. ISSN 1996-7489.. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations on the South African Highveld have become a growing concern, with satellite images indicating very high nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the region. This study investigated the nitrogen budget on the Highveld through the analysis of the concentration of the atmospheric nitrogen species on a temporal scale as well as the atmospheric conversion, transport and removal of these species. Data were collected at Eskoms Elandsfontein ambient air quality monitoring site, which is centrally located on the industrialised Highveld. A years dataset from 2005 and 2006 was analysed and it was found that nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations were higher in winter as a result of stable atmospheric conditions, as well as prevalent westerly and ... offers 237 kjeldahl nitrogen apparatus products. About 47% of these are Testing Equipment, 40% are Other Test Instruments. A wide variety of kjeldahl nitrogen apparatus options are available to you, such as power.
Most chemically fertilized gardens have too much sudden nitrogen, and as a result, too many bug problems. Most organic gardens arent fed enough nitrogen to be really productive.. Soil test results do not usually include nitrogen, as soil nitrogen levels can change even before test results are returned. Nitrogen availability is temperature dependent, and in in the nitrate or nitrite (anion forms), subject to leaching. So, nitrogen requirements are best judged by gardeners and farmers, not soil tests. Shades of green and growth rates are important clues, revealing if sufficient nitrogen is available. Slow growth or a yellowish-green color indicates a nitrogen deficiency. Sulfur deficiency in particular looks like a lack of nitrogen, but we always add sufficient sulfur for the season.. Nitrogen applications are very powerful. They are like stepping on the garden growth accelerator. You want to be sure everything is in tune, and all the other minerals are present and available before ramping up ...
As "Urban Remo", Remo has helped thousands of people to learn the skills necessary to produce a world class product. His expertise covers all levels of growing and has landed him 34 awards, worldwide…. Keep reading ...
Cyanobacteria unable to fix atmospheric nitrogen have evolved sophisticated adaptations to survive to long periods of nitrogen starvation. These genetic programs are still largely unknown - as evidenced by the many proteins whose expression is regulated in response to nitrogen availability, but which belong to unknown or hypothetical categories. In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the global nitrogen regulator NtcA activates the expression of the sll0944 gene upon nitrogen deprivation. This gene encodes a protein that is highly conserved in cyanobacteria, but of unknown function. Based on the results described herein, we named the product of sll0944 carbon flow regulator A (CfrA). We analyzed the phenotypes of strains containing different levels of CfrA, including a knock-out strain (ΔcfrA), and two strains overexpressing CfrA from either the constitutive Ptrc promoter (Ptrc-cfrA) or the arsenite-inducible promoter ParsB (Pars-cfrA). Our results show that the amount of CfrA determines the ...
As a PADI SCUBA Instructor, each new Bering Sea gold rush season has sends a few questions my way about the dredging they do. Specifically, how long they stay underwater before going past NDL (no decompression limit). So I thought Id post the answer here for everyone who is interested. It is common for dredgers to claim you dont have to pay attention to dive tables until you go past 10 meters. That is 100% incorrect. You cannot change physics no matter how much you may not
Background Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all life forms. Like most unicellular organisms, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaetransports and catabolizes good nitrogen sources in preference to...
Biology Assignment Help, Nitrogen control of nitrogen assimilation, Nitrogen Control of Nitrogen Assimilation N 2 -fixer like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Nostoc can grow with N 2 , NO - 3 or NH + 4 as nitrogen source. You would like to know how these organisms manage to assimilate one of the three forms of N 2
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Mark Colosimo, US Army Corps of Engineers/Johns Hopkins University Flows, concentrations and fluxes of Nitrogen and Phosphorus measured at the Baltimore Ecosystem Studys (BES) stream sampling stations along the Gwynns Falls urban-rural gradient and reference stations in the Gunpowder Watershed from water years 1999 and 2000 are discussed. The BES stream monitoring network includes watersheds at three scales, arrayed in a hierarchical design with forested, agricultural, suburban and urban land uses. A relation between land use and annual N load was apparent at some sites. However, the heterogeneous nature of urban watersheds was also revealed in this sampling of the urban hydrologic environment, attesting to the complex hydraulic system and land-water linkages that are likely to be operating. Urban sites with relatively low nutrient loads, suburban sites with high nutrient loads, watersheds with potentially high nitrogen retentions as well as watersheds with unusual water yields are among the ...
Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) levels were significantly different among eight range grasses at maturity. Roots, rhizomes, and stem bases (storage organs), differed significantly in percentage TNC within rhizomatous and bunch-type (non-rhizomatous) grasses. Percent organic nitrogen differed significantly among grasses and storage organs but not to the same extent as with TNC. We of nonstructural polysaccharide accumulated (Smith, 1968; suggest that TNC concentrations of storage organs must be determined for each grass before sampling for TNC levels, in Grasses of subtropical order to locate storage organs with greatest TNC concentration.
An overview was made to understand the regulation system of a bacterial cell such as Escherichia coli in response to nutrient limitation such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, ion sources, and environmental stresses such as oxidative stress, acid shock, heat shock, and solvent stresses. It is quite important to understand how the cell detects environmental signals, integrate such information, and how the cell system is regulated. As for catabolite regulation, F1,6B P (FDP), PEP, and PYR play important roles in enzyme level regulation together with transcriptional regulation by such transcription factors as Cra, Fis, CsrA, and cAMP-Crp. αKG plays an important role in the coordinated control between carbon (C)- and nitrogen (N)-limitations, where αKG inhibits enzyme I (EI) of phosphotransferase system (PTS), thus regulating the glucose uptake rate in accordance with N level. As such, multiple regulation systems are co-ordinated for the cell synthesis and energy generation against nutrient
Watch KjelFlex K-360 - Kjeldahl analysis with broad application flexibility | Environmental XPRT. Protein determination via Kjeldahl analysis with KjelFlex ...
Nitrogen canisters[edit]. Further information: Suicide bag. In 2012 Nitschke started a beer-brewing company (Max Dog Brewing) ... "Dr Death' to fight nitrogen complaint". Nine MSN. 3 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 7 May ... Following a 2013 workshop showcasing Nitschke's nitrogen gas product, the AMA's WA branch president and general practitioner,[ ... filled with nitrogen.[78] Nitschke developed a process in which patients lose consciousness immediately and die a few minutes ...
Nitrogen rule[edit]. The nitrogen rule states that organic molecules that contain hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, ... Amines follow nitrogen rule. Odd molecular ion mass-to-charge ratio suggests existence of odd numbers of nitrogens. Nonetheless ... where C is the number of carbons, H is the number of hydrogens, X is the number of halogens, and N is the number of nitrogen. ... have an odd nominal mass if they have an odd number of nitrogen atoms or an even mass if they have an even number of nitrogen ...
The nitrogen-15 dimension is perpendicular to the screen. Each window is focused on the nitrogen chemical shift of that amino ... Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance[edit]. Main article: Triple-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance ... However, since nitrogen atoms are found mainly in the backbone of a protein, the results mainly reflect the motions of the ... Nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance[edit]. Main article: Heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy ...
Carbon to nitrogen ratio[edit]. Topsoil is the primary resource for plants to grow and crops to thrive and the main two ... The Carbon provides energy and Nitrogen is a tissue builder and plants require them in a range of ratios to enable suitable ... Understanding the Carbon Nitrogen Ratio by Crow Miller ACRES ... Nitrogen ratio, Electrical Conductivity, Loss on Ignition, pH, Chemical and Physical Contamination. The topsoil should be ...
Nitrogen fixation[edit]. Among his many agricultural investigations with plants, the most important by far are his ... The question of the ability of leguminous plants to use the nitrogen of the air had long been one of inquiry, and its ... Investigations into the Nitrogen assimilation of the Gramineae and Leguminosae; Berlin, 1888), and Ueber Stickstoffnahrung ... was a German agricultural chemist who discovered that leguminous plants assimilate the free nitrogen of the atmosphere. ...
Maintaining the nitrogen cycle[edit]. Although called the nitrogen "cycle" by hobbyists, in aquaria the cycle is not complete: ... nitrogen must be added (usually indirectly through food) and nitrates must be removed at the end. Nitrogen bound up in plant ... Nitrogen waste is metabolized in aquaria by a type of bacteria known as nitrifiers (genus Nitrosomonas). Nitrifying bacteria ... Nitrogen waste products become toxic to fish and other aquarium inhabitants above a certain concentration.[7] ...
Nitrogen narcosis[edit]. Main article: Nitrogen narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis is also called "L'ivresse des grandes profondeurs" ... At greater depths, however, nitrogen affects the brain in the same way as nitrous oxide (also known as laughing gas) and other ... primarily nitrogen or helium) dissolved in the body coming out of solution to form gas bubbles.[2] ... or "rapture of the deep". Nitrogen comprises 79% of the air, but at surface pressures it has no sedating effect. ...
Nitrogen assimilation[edit]. Aspergillus fumigatus can survive on a variety of different nitrogen sources, and the assimilation ... of nitrogen is of clinical importance, as it has been shown to affect virulence.[23][28] Proteins involved in nitrogen ... Examples of nutrient uptake include that of metals, nitrogen, and macromolecules such as peptides.[12][23] ... is induced by nitrogen starvation". Fungal Genetics and Biology. 36 (3): 207-14. doi:10.1016/S1087-1845(02)00022-1. PMID ...
Nitrogen nucleophiles[edit]. In alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution, a primary or secondary amine adds to the carbonyl group and a ... proton is transferred from the nitrogen to the oxygen atom to create a carbinolamine. In the case of a primary amine, a water ...
"The Nitrogen cycle and Nitrogen fixation". Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved ... These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).[9] The ... Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, legumes are among the best sources of plant ... Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that ...
Nitrogen fertilizers[edit]. Top users of nitrogen-based fertilizer[10] Country Total N use (Mt pa) ... Chemicals that affect nitrogen uptake[edit]. Various chemicals are used to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen-based fertilizers ... Although nitrogen makes up most of the atmosphere, it is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nitrogen is the most ... China although has become the largest producer and consumer of nitrogen fertilizers.[23] Africa has little reliance on nitrogen ...
Nitrogenase (nitrogen fixation)[edit]. The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is a very energy-intensive process, as it involves ... ion coordinated to four nitrogen atoms of a corrin ring and a fifth nitrogen atom from an imidazole group. In the resting state ... The active site nickel geometry cycles from square planar Ni(II), with thiolate (Cys2 and Cys6) and backbone nitrogen (His1 and ... In metalloproteins, metal ions are usually coordinated by nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur centers belonging to amino acid residues ...
Nitrogen[edit]. Nitrogen is important for overall tree and leaf growth and peel thickness, and fruit acidity. ... Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus are the main macronutrients needed in citrus production, as well as Calcium, Magnesium and ...
Other nitrogen compounds. Chloroplasts make all of a cell's purines and pyrimidines-the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. ... 158] They also convert nitrite (NO2−) into ammonia (NH3) which supplies the plant with nitrogen to make its amino acids and ...
A great advantage of crop rotation comes from the interrelationship of nitrogen fixing-crops with nitrogen demanding crops. ... a nitrogen-fixing crop, like a legume, should always precede a nitrogen depleting one; similarly, a low residue crop (i.e. a ... Nitrogen fixing[edit]. Rotating crops adds nutrients to the soil. Legumes, plants of the family Fabaceae, for instance, have ... Both nitrogen-fixing legumes and nutrient scavengers, like grasses, can be used as green manure.[7] Green manure of legumes is ...
... molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).[42] The chemical reaction is: N. 2. +. 8. H. +. +. 8. e. −. →. 2. N. H. 3. +. H. 2 ... Nitrogen-fixing ability[edit]. Peas, like many legumes, contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their ... Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, peas and many legumes are among the best ... The weevil larvae feed on the root nodules of pea plants, which are essential to the plants' supply of nitrogen, and thus ...
This is called "residual nitrogen time" (RNT) when the gas is nitrogen. The RNT is added to the planned "actual bottom time" ( ... Residual nitrogen time[edit]. For the planned depth of the repetitive dive, a bottom time can be calculated using the relevant ... Dissolved inert gases such as nitrogen or helium can form bubbles in the blood and tissues of the diver if the partial ... taking into account the accumulated nitrogen from previous dives.[22] Within the Haldanian logic of the model, at least three ...
Biological filtration and the nitrogen cycle[edit]. A large shower biological filter designed to maximize the beneficial ... Proper management of the nitrogen cycle is a vital element of a successful aquarium. Excretia and other decomposing organic ... Some systems incorporate bacteria capable of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas.[5] ... the nitrogen cycle effectively ends with the production of nitrates. In order that the nitrate level does not build up to a ...
The nitrogen compounds through which excess nitrogen is eliminated from organisms are called nitrogenous wastes (/naɪˈtrɒdʒɪnəs ... Only one nitrogen atom is removed with it. A lot of water is needed for the excretion of ammonia, about 0.5 L of water is ... This includes nitrogen compounds, water, CO2, phosphates, sulphates, etc. Animals treat these compounds as excretes. Plants ... These animals are called ureotelic.[2] Urea is a less toxic compound than ammonia; two nitrogen atoms are eliminated through it ...
Nitrogen 1.0975 39.13 64.98 2.25 Oxygen 1.208 31.83 52.86 2.06 Chlorine 1.988 56.22 93.36 2.39 ...
Nitrogen 1772 D. Rutherford 1772 D. Rutherford He discovered nitrogen while he was studying at the University of Edinburgh.[44] ... Roza, Greg (2010). The Nitrogen Elements: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth. p. 7. ISBN 9781435853355. .. ... They discovered the gas by comparing the molecular weights of nitrogen prepared by liquefaction from air and nitrogen prepared ... "07 Nitrogen". Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "56 Barium". Retrieved 2008-09-12. ...
... its total nitrogen content is roughly four times higher than Earth's, even though on Earth nitrogen makes up about 78% of the ... Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen) is a lifting gas ... The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur ... nitrogen and oxygen) could keep the structure floating at that altitude like a dirigible. ...
Nitrogen. 0.502. -1.380. 0.092. -0.333. 0.400. -0.276. -0.027. 0.322. 0.0279. 2.72E-03 ...
nitrogen 7 N oxygen 8 O fluorine 9 F neon 10 Ne ...
nitrogen: ammonia ('azane' when substituted), hydrazine. *phosphorus: phosphine (note 'phosphane' is the IUPAC recommended name ... Therefore, we have NH3, 'nitrogen hydride' (ammonia), versus H2O, 'hydrogen oxide' (water). This convention is sometimes broken ...
To provide nitrogen fertilizer application data that can be used in socioeconomic and ecological modeling and to explore ... The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application data set of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the ... The national-level nitrogen fertilizer application rates for crops are from the International Fertilizer Industry Association ( ... Spatially explicit fertilizer inputs of Nitrogen (N) were computed by fusing national-level statistics on fertilizer use with ...
Nitrogen Narcosis marks the first full length and strongest statement in the Scuba Death repertoire after the privately issued ... Nitrogen Narcosis by Scuba Death, released 01 September 2014 1. Receptor Antagonist 2. 50-70 meters 3. Nociception 4. Helium ... An inner battle between paranoia and euphoria is played out in well-conceived, precision sonics on Nitrogen Narcosis as Donoso ... Sequencing plays an integral role on Nitrogen Narcosis as the listener is suddenly thrust into the darkest reaches of the ocean ...
Nitrogen narcosis affects most scuba divers at depths below 100 feet and can be dangerous, however, experienced divers can ... Nitrogen narcosis is an altered state of mind caused by breathing nitrogen at a high partial pressure. The deeper a diver ... For this reason, nitrogen narcosis is usually thought of as a function of depth. The deeper a diver goes, the greater the ... Although nitrogen is the principal component of air (79 percent), other gases in a divers tank are also narcotic at great ...
27). Although nitrogen-stressed cells recycle the nitrogen from preexisting photosynthetically fixed carbon toward nitrogen- ... Nitrogen stress also induced a change in the lipid profile; in conjunction with the marked increase in TAGs, nitrogen stress ... S1 and Tables S1 and S2); consequently, the cellular IPL/TAG ratio was 25-fold higher in nitrogen-replete cells. In nitrogen- ... Nitrogen stress sets a global constraint on protein translation by limiting amino acid biosynthesis (22). Thus, on nitrogen ...
Nitrogen fixation. Main article: Nitrogen fixation. The conversion of nitrogen gas (N2) into nitrates and nitrites through ... Though nitrogen fixation is the primary source of plant-available nitrogen in most ecosystems, in areas with nitrogen-rich ... regenerated nitrogen. Nitrogen entering the euphotic zone is referred to as new nitrogen because it is newly arrived from ... nitrogen fixed by natural ecosystems,[3] nitrogen fixed by oceans,[4] nitrogen fixed by agricultural crops,[5] NOx emitted by ...
The decomposition of NI3 proceeds as follows to give nitrogen gas and iodine:. 2 NI3 (s) → N2 (g) + 3 I2 (g) (−290 kJ/mol). ... Nitrogen triiodide is the inorganic compound with the formula NI3. It is an extremely sensitive contact explosive: small ... Nitrogen triiodide was first characterized by Raman spectroscopy in 1990 when it was prepared by an ammonia-free route. Boron ... Silberrad, O. (1905). "The Constitution of Nitrogen Triiodide". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 87: 55-66. doi: ...
The chief commercial method of fixing nitrogen (incorporating elemental nitrogen into compounds) is the Haber-Bosch process for ... Nitrogen - Compounds: Although the other applications are important, by far the greatest bulk of elemental nitrogen is consumed ... The triple bond between atoms in the nitrogen molecules is so strong (226 kilocalories per mole, more than twice that of ... molecular hydrogen) that it is difficult to cause molecular nitrogen to enter into other combinations. ...
Then discover the importance of nitrogen, essential for amino acids and nucleotides, and learn about t... ... ️ The Nitrogen Cycle Explained , A-Level Biology Tutorial - Duration: 11:47. Tailored Tutors 117,097 views ... Nitrogen Importance 3:58. Nitrogen Cycle 4:24. Support us on Patreon! Our FREE resources: ... Explore the cycling of carbon among carbon reservoirs! Then discover the importance of nitrogen, essential for amino acids and ...
Nitrogen Narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis1 is a condition experienced by divers breathing compressed air when they breathe nitrogen ... Nitrogen Narcosis (Last Posting: Jan 22, 2008) partial pressure of nitrogen (Last Posting: Jul 21, 2003) Narc-ed (Last Posting ... 1 Nitrogen Narcosis should not be confused with the bends, or Decompression Sickness to give it its proper name. The two are ... So at a depth of ten metres, the partial pressure of nitrogen is 1.6 bars, at 20 metres 2.4 bar and at 30 metres 3.2 bars. ...
... Aims and Intentions. Labelling rules require that where ingredients are highlighted in the name ... The analysis determines the nitrogen (mainly on a fat free basis) of meat or fish ingredient, and converts this to a meat or ... The Sub-committee oversees the determination of nitrogen factors for meat, poultry and seafood for use by both enforcement ... The Subcommittee has already produced reports on nitrogen factors for pork (1991), beef (1993), mutton and lamb (1995, 1996), ...
When too much nitrogen flows to our bays, fast-growing plants out-compete and kill slower-growing beneficial plants. ... Nitrogen makes plants grow. But too much of a good thing is a bad thing. ... What Is Nitrogen Pollution? Nitrogen makes plants grow. But too much of a good thing is a bad thing. When too much nitrogen ... Nitrogen makes plants grow. But too much of a good thing is a bad thing. When too much nitrogen flows to our bays, fast-growing ...
Nitrogen dioxide worldwide. Image 14398 views 96 likes Applications Nitrogen dioxide concentrations over Spain. Image 8662 ... Nitrogen dioxide concentrations over Europe. Image 5592 views 44 likes Applications Sentinel-5P sees nitrogen dioxide over ... Nitrogen dioxide over Europe. Image 11757 views 61 likes Applications ... Nitrogen dioxide pollutes the air mainly as a result of traffic and the combustion of fossil fuel in industrial processes. It ...
CHEBI:37382 - nitrogen trichloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Research has also suggested the nodules on nitrogen-fixing trees transfer nitrogen directly to the roots of other trees growing ... Natures Nitrogen. Originally published 4:36 p.m., December 20, 2006. Updated 3:16 p.m., February 22, 2007. By Virginia Hayes ... And if you rely on a wood-burning source of heat in winter, there are woody species that can provide more than the nitrogen ... For more information about how you can tap into the bounty of nitrogen-fixing plants, visit and ...
Nitrogen: Improving on Nature (NITROGEN) A joint Ideas Lab activity between NSF and BBSRC Program Solicitation NSF 12-579. ... Nitrogen is critical to plant growth. A limited number of plant species have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through ... Nitrogen is critical to plant growth. A limited number of plant species have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through ... This could be achieved by: i) giving crops the ability to fix their own nitrogen; ii) significantly increasing the nitrogen ...
Means we either have a low yield compared to the Nitrogen applied or a high Nitrogen rate relative to yield. ... What is Discovery Farms NUE research finding as the relationship between Nitrogen supplied and yield? ...
23.Institut für Kulturpflanzenforschung GaterslebenDeutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu BerlinGatersleben (Kreis Aschersleben)Deutschland ...
... cooking with liquid nitrogen,/a, pique your interest? Learn first-hand from H. Alexander Talbot and Aki Kamozawa how to flash- ...,ordering your ticket,/a, and get 10 ... Chilling Out With Liquid Nitrogen. Did PopScis recent article on ,a href= ... Liquid Nitrogen. Aki Kamozawa and H. Alexander Talbot. If youre going to be in New York City next Tuesday, there are still a ...
More advanced treatise of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Could be useful for teachers who have limited science background or ... What then is the Nitrogen Cycle?,br /,• Like carbon atoms, nitrogen atoms do not stay in one place.,br /,• Nitrogen atoms move ... Nitrogen travels through the five processes in the Nitrogen Cycle!,br /,(1) Nitrogen Fixation,br /,(5) Denitrification,br /, ... Thus, through the nitrogen cycle: ,br /,• Plants obtain nitrogen through nitrogen fixation and nitrification. ,br /,• Animals ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Tags: data visualization, nitrogen dioxide, OMI, pollution, shipping. Posted in Uncategorized , 12 Comments and counting ...
Nitrogen. By: Pantheon Technologies Latest Version: Nitrogen-v2 Pre-installed Nitrogen release of OpenDaylight without any ... Image contains latest Nitrogen service release * The default cloud user is setup to be centos, you can use this user to reach ... Pre-installed Nitrogen release of OpenDaylight without any proprietary modifications on top of a base CentOS 7 image. ... It is useful for any users who want to test their applications and products with vanilla Nitrogen platform, before moving to ...
Start the morning right with Nitrogen Mugs from CafePress. Browse tons of unique designs or create your own custom coffee mug ... Does your mug make a statement? Express yourself with unique Nitrogen Mugs from CafePress. If you want to express your funny ...
Nitrogen in water: Algal blooms in rivers caused by too much nitrogen Descriptive information here will be added later. ... Excess nitrogen can harm water bodies. Excess nitrogen can cause overstimulation of growth of aquatic plants and algae. ... Too Much of a Good Thing: Increasing Nitrogen Deposition in Lakes Increasing nitrogen emissions from motor vehicles, energy ... Wastewater-treatment facilities that do not specifically remove nitrogen can also lead to excess levels of nitrogen in surface ...
... we have succeeded in photographing the spectrum of the light scattered by solidified nitrogen peroxide (N2O4), at a temperature ... we have succeeded in photographing the spectrum of the light scattered by solidified nitrogen peroxide (N2O4), at a temperature ... MENZIES, A., PRINGLE, C. Raman Spectrum of Solid Nitrogen Peroxide. Nature 127, 707 (1931). ...
  • For this reason, many training agencies are now referring to the narcosis caused by breathing compressed air at depth as "inert gas narcosis" rather than "nitrogen narcosis. (
  • The calculations by Vitousek and his team show that humans have further added to the amount of nitrogen being circulated by burning forests and grasslands, draining wetlands, and clearing land for growing crops, all of which speed up the recycling of fixed nitrogen stored in soils and vegetation. (
  • In any case some allowance should be made for the amount of nitrogen collected by the legumes. (
  • Adverse health effects caused by nitrogen mustards depend on the amount of nitrogen mustard to which people are exposed, the route of exposure, and the length of time that people are exposed. (
  • Mr. HOULTON: It would increase the amount of nitrogen we think is available to terrestrial plants by about a third. (
  • Researchers from China Agricultural University analyzed data from across the country and found the amount of nitrogen expelled into its surroundings every year rose by 8 kilograms per hectare every year between 1980 and 2010. (
  • U.S. corn plantations could hit record highs this year, which is great news as corn requires the largest amount of nitrogen. (
  • Corn and cotton share an essential attribute: They need just the right amount of nitrogen to generate high yields. (
  • This Integrated Approach to Nitrogen, (Programma Aanpak Stikstof or PAS in Dutch) was developed to reduce the amount of nitrogen in Natura 2000 areas in the Netherlands and to create room for economic development at the same time. (
  • In some parts of the Natura 2000 sites, the amount of nitrogen deposition is too high. (
  • The amount of nitrogen diminished by just over 5 percent. (
  • Seen over a longer period (1986-2003), the total amount of nitrogen in animal manure has diminished by one third to 363 million kilograms. (
  • About 78% of the air that we breathe is composed of nitrogen gas, and in some areas of the United States, particularly the northeast, certain forms of nitrogen are commonly deposited in acid rain . (
  • This paper contrasts the natural and anthropogenic controls on the conversion of unreactive N2 to more reactive forms of nitrogen (Nr). A variety of data sets are used to construct global N budgets for 1860 and the early 1990s and to make projections for the global N budget in 2050. (
  • Natural microbial processes convert harmful forms of nitrogen (such as nitrate) to harmless nitrogen gas. (
  • The microbes could actively remove harmful forms of nitrogen flowing into the lake when dissolved oxygen in groundwater was low. (
  • But there are also forms of nitrogen in the air that are harmful to people and the environment. (
  • Measures to reduce emissions of these reactive forms of nitrogen are incorporated into the PAS. (
  • The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere , terrestrial , and marine ecosystems . (
  • Nitrogen is a "colorless, odorless, tasteless, insoluble, inert diatomic gas comprising 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume. (
  • More than 3 million tons of nitrogen are deposited in the United States each year from the atmosphere, derived either naturally from chemical reactions or from the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal and gasoline. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are broken down rapidly in the atmosphere by reacting with other substances commonly found in the air. (
  • Forests in Europe and North America are probably growing faster because excess nitrogen stimulates rapid plant growth, and fast-growing trees soak up more carbon from the atmosphere for photosynthesis. (
  • Mr. BENJAMIN HOULTON (University of California, Davis Professor): If you go into most forest ecosystems for a long time it's been recognized that there's way too much nitrogen accumulating in soils and plants than could be explained by the atmosphere. (
  • Nitrogen (N2) is a key building block of all life on Earth and is the most abundant element in the atmosphere -- crucial for plant growth. (
  • Nitrogen is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, where it is most-commonly bonded with itself in diatomic N2 molecules. (
  • Washington, DC--New work from a team led by Carnegie's Alexander Goncharov confirms that nitrogen, the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, becomes a metallic fluid when subjected to the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found deep inside the Earth and other planets. (
  • Nitrogen could get into the Earth's mantle when one tectonic plate slides beneath another--a process called subduction--and could even make its way into the iron-rich core as an impurity," explained Carnegie's Shuqing Jiang, the paper's lead author, "or it could be a remnant from Earth's formation that didn't escape via volcanic activity to form the proto-atmosphere in Earth's babyhood. (
  • In Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is most-commonly bonded with itself in so-called diatomic, N2, molecules. (
  • Nitrogen can replace air and create a stable atmosphere in places such as chemical processing plants and electronics manufacturing factories. (
  • Nitrogen is the largest single component of the Earth's atmosphere (78.084% by volume, 75.5% by weight) and is acquired for industrial purposes by the fractional distillation of liquid air or by mechanical means of gaseous air (i.e. (
  • The movement of nitrogen between the atmosphere , biosphere, and geosphere in different forms is described by the nitrogen cycle (Figure 1), one of the major biogeochemical cycles . (
  • Nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere due to human activity remain elevated in industrialized regions of the world and are accelerating in many developing regions (Galloway 1995). (
  • Bacteria in the soil change nitrogen to a gas, and the gas is then returned to the atmosphere. (
  • Lightning also fixes nitrogen directly in the atmosphere , though at a much smaller total rate than that of bacteria. (
  • Indeed, says the study's lead author, Robert Howarth, a Cornell biogeochemist and aquatic ecosystem scientist, "Although we've known that the nitrogen pollution in the atmosphere is also a source of watershed pollution, it's significantly bigger than we thought, yet very few efforts are being focused on reducing the emissions. (
  • He says that managers need to take heed of the magnitude of nitrogen going into the atmosphere from vehicles and power plants and to recognize that climate change can substantially undermine their efforts to reduce nitrogen in the Chesapeake Bay and other coastal rivers and bays in the northeastern United States. (
  • The basic Earth 's atmosphere is about 78 percent nitrogen, making it the largest pool of nitrogen. (
  • This results in nitrates being converted to nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere . (
  • In an atmosphere of pure nitrogen, animals died and flames were extinguished. (
  • What Is Nitrogen Pollution? (
  • Long Island's ponds and lakes also suffer from nitrogen pollution. (
  • Even Long Island's most bucolic communities are not immune to the effects of nitrogen pollution. (
  • Nitrogen Overload: Environmental Degradation, Ramifications, and Economic Costs presents an integrated, multidisciplinary review of alterations to the nitrogen cycle over the past century and the wide-ranging consequences of nitrogen-based pollution, especially to aquatic ecosystems and human health. (
  • For example, nitrogen which is not utilized by plants may lead to pollution of the groundwater, nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) of waterbodies, acidification of terrestrial ecosystems and the formation of greenhouse gases. (
  • Paris (AFP) - The production of goods for consumers in rich nations leaves a deep footprint in the form of potentially-dangerous nitrogen pollution in developing countries, a study said Monday. (
  • Reactive nitrogen, generated in large part by fuel combustion and agriculture -- mainly fertiliser use -- can contribute to air and water pollution, climate change and acid rain. (
  • A study in the journal Nature Geoscience said many developed nations had a sky-high nitrogen pollution "footprint" -- much of it left far away in the developing world. (
  • We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries," they added. (
  • Consumption in the United States, China, India and Brazil, was responsible for nearly half the world's nitrogen pollution, they added. (
  • Nitrogen pollution in China has kept pace with the country's rapid growth. (
  • A study published in Nature last week finds that the rate of nitrogen pollution grew by more than half in the last 30 years. (
  • One of the biggest drivers of nitrogen pollution in China is that they are increasing their agricultural productivity. (
  • The varied and widespread symptoms of nitrogen pollution are grassland changes, acidic soils, stressed biodiversity, marine pollution, algal blooms and dying fish. (
  • Even areas of China far away from the source of pollution are feeling these symptoms as surplus nitrogen cascades through its habitats. (
  • Reactive Nitrogen pollution affects every part of the natural environment. (
  • Cutting down meat consumption would reduce nitrogen pollution by a considerable amount. (
  • The study suggests that the nitrogen pollution emitted in fossil-fuel combustion from vehicles and electric power plants into sensitive coastal rivers and bays could be twice as great as previous estimates for the northeastern United States. (
  • The study also finds that climate significantly influences nitrogen pollution of watersheds: Much more nitrogen flows into watersheds in wet climates than in dry climates throughout the Northeast into systems such as the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay and Long Island Sound. (
  • Nitrogen is the biggest pollution problem in the nation's waters, with two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays moderately or severely polluted, says Howarth. (
  • Howarth's new study, however, shows that 35 to 40 percent of this nitrogen pollution gets washed into watersheds with wet climates in the northeastern United States, compared with only 10 to 15 percent of the nitrogen from watersheds in dry climates. (
  • If so, this may undercut efforts to reduce coastal nitrogen pollution in areas such as Chesapeake Bay," says Howarth. (
  • Howarth, who heads the North American Nitrogen Center, which is part of an international effort to focus attention on nitrogen pollution, is the David R. Atkinson Professor in Ecology and Environmental Biology at Cornell. (
  • Until now, scientists believed that the primary sources of nitrogen pollution in the Chesapeake Bay were agricultural -- runoff from fields and feedlots -- and sewage-treatment plants. (
  • Howarth and his colleagues analyzed 16 major watersheds in the northeastern United States and found that not only is more nitrogen flushed into rivers in wetter years, but that wetter climates also have a long-term, steady-state influence on nitrogen pollution into rivers. (
  • The new climate models also forecast that nitrogen flows into the Chesapeake could increase by as much as 17 percent by 2030 and by up to 65 percent by 2095 because of increased human activity that contributes to nitrogen pollution. (
  • They inhabit sections of plant roots called nodules and directly capture nitrogen from the tiny pockets of air that exist in healthy, aerated soil. (
  • These can be used directly as mulch or composted, whereupon a cadre of other microbes convert the stockpiled nitrogen to make a nutrient-rich soil amendment. (
  • Because nitrogen (N) comprises fully 16% of protein, neither we, other animals, nor plants grow and survive unless roots extract it from the soil. (
  • When released to soil, small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate into air. (
  • Most stubble fields are deficient in available soil nitrogen (N) and residual soil N levels are often less than 30 lb/acre in the surface two feet of soil. (
  • Next up is #KBSLTER Fellow @XinyiTuSoil , studying methods to improve # nitrogen synchrony, looking at a variety of soil parameters. (
  • Conventional wisdom believes nitrogen for plants starts in the air and is converted by microbes in the soil into a usable form. (
  • The abnormal amount of rainfall this summer could also affect nitrogen amounts still in the soil. (
  • Nitrogen in the form of ammonium can be absorbed onto the surfaces of clay particles in the soil. (
  • The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of re-seeding of cropland using minimum tillage and conventional tillage methods on crop uptake of nitrogen, soil nitrate-N concentration, nitrate concentration in shallow ground water underlying the field, and the relationships between these matrices. (
  • Jorge Delgado , with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit in Fort Collins, Colo., conducts research to help growers determine exactly how much nitrogen to apply to a field, when to apply it and what alternatives might work best. (
  • Decomposition releases a form of nitrogen into the soil that plants can use. (
  • As such, crops pull nitrogen out of the soil each season, leaving it depleted after harvest. (
  • Traditional agriculture techniques, such as composting crop waste and applying animal manure, naturally help to cycle usable nitrogen back into the soil. (
  • In nature, nitrogen is most commonly fixed by certain types of soil-dwelling bacteria . (
  • Other plants get nitrogen from the soil by absorption at their roots in the form of either nitrate ions or ammonium ions. (
  • During nitrification, nitrogen trapped in the sediments, primarily resulting from decaying algae, gets converted into a chemical form (nitrate) that can be transported out of the lake by flowing groundwater. (
  • 3. Objectives  Characterize nitrogen inputs, outputs and underlying GW nitrate concentration in a typical manured field over the aquifer. (
  • But in the early 1900s, a German chemist developed synthetic nitrate, which is the form of nitrogen plants use. (
  • but over time, excess nitrogen is mineralized as nitrate, which then leaches into water. (
  • 2009). Nitrogen-nitrate contamination can have adverse human affects including methemoglobinemia or ―blue-baby‖ syndrome (Majumdar, 2003). (
  • A nationwide survey conducted by EPA showed that 1.2 percent of community and 2.4 percent of private drinking water wells exceeded the 10 parts per million (ppm) nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) standard. (
  • A new target has been set in the revised version of the Sustainable Development Strategy in 2016: a maximum nitrogen surplus of 70 kg per hectare in average for the years 2028 to 2032 (BReg 2016). (
  • Teijin Engineering has developed a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) denitration device for midsized ship engines to ensure compliance with the Tier III nitrogen oxides emissions regulation, which goes into effect in 2016. (
  • million tons, a reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions (as compared with 1990 levels) of more than three million tons, and nearly 100 percent program compliance. (
  • Vitousek says: "We need to look at the nitrogen problem rather as Europe has looked at acid rain, by determining critical loads of nitrogen beyond which individual ecosystems become damaged, and then finding ways to cut back emissions to protect them. (
  • The agency says it will reduce summertime emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from power plants that contribute to downwind ozone problems in the eastern half of the US. (
  • This paper provides an economic analysis of the most cost-effective ways to intervene in the nitrogen cycle to reduce nitrogen emissions from industry. (
  • The study claims to be the first to trace the flow of nitrogen emissions along international trade routes. (
  • Based on a global trade database of 188 countries, the study showed the bulk of nitrogen emissions in 2010 came from industry and agriculture, which accounted for 161 teragrams (trillion grammes), while 28 Tg was produced by consumers -- mainly from sewage. (
  • EEA-32 emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO X ) have decreased by 41% between 1990 and 2009. (
  • All organisms require nitrogen to live. (
  • Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. (
  • In living organisms, nitrogen serves many very important functions. (
  • Typically nitrogen must combine with other elements to be utilized successfuly in other organisms. (
  • The fate and transport of nitrogen are critically important issues for human and aquatic ecosystem health because discharging nitrogen-contaminated groundwater can cause harmful algal blooms , foul drinking water, kill fish and other aquatic organisms, release toxins, and diminish the aesthetic and recreational value of lakes and streams. (
  • Nitrogen is used by living organisms to produce a number of complex organic molecules like amino acids , proteins , and nucleic acids . (
  • Nitrogen is important to all living things because it helps build new cells for organisms. (
  • Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. (
  • The nitrogen cycle is of particular interest to ecologists because nitrogen availability can affect the rate of key ecosystem processes, including primary production and decomposition . (
  • A simple diagram of the nitrogen cycle. (
  • The processes in the nitrogen cycle is to transform nitrogen from one form to another. (
  • The diagram alongside shows how these processes fit together to form the nitrogen cycle. (
  • Then discover the importance of nitrogen, essential for amino acids and nucleotides, and learn about the nitrogen cycle! (
  • Until recently nobody considered these various elements of human influence on the nitrogen cycle together. (
  • This paper discusses how humans have altered the nitrogen cycle and suggests strategies for the efficient and equitable use of nitrogen. (
  • The breakthroughs include a successful nitrogen cycle experiment conducted by the Yuanwei Shiyan ("on-site experiment") deep-sea elevator, a research device that is lowered with an anchor and was developed by the Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering of CAS. (
  • This means that, theoretically, nitrogen would remain in its diatomic state in the Earth's mantle but would disassociate into a fluid metal in or just above the core, which potentially has implications for our understanding of the planet's deep nitrogen cycle," said Lobanov, who was at Stony Brook University when the research was conducted. (
  • What is the aquarium nitrogen cycle? (
  • An aquarium's nitrogen cycle is the process a new aquarium undergoes to establish bacterial colonies, according to (
  • The nitrogen cycle reveals the harmonious coordination between different biotic and abiotic elements. (
  • The five-year average of nitrogen surplus per hectare of utilized agricultural land has decreased by 15 % since 1993. (
  • However, the nitrogen balance indicates that only half of the total nitrogen input is removed by agricultural products ( BMEL 2019 , in German only ). (
  • 70% of the nitrogen comes from agricultural use, 21% from motor vehicles and power stations, and most of the rest from biological nitrogen fixing from plants like legumes: peas, beans, lentils and the like. (
  • Dynamic Optimization of Nitrogen Use in Agriculture ," Faculty Series 96032, University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics. (
  • Your opportunity to sponsor the NITROGEN North America 2019! (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified nitrogen oxides for potential carcinogenicity. (
  • In Germany problems occur especially in regions with high livestock density: Due to the high amount of farm manure in the form of animal excrements, often more nitrogen is applied to the fields as the crops can convert into biomass. (
  • Purpose A two- year study was initiated in 2009 to study the fate and transport of nitrogen from dairy manure when applied to cropland that was reseeded to grass for silage production. (
  • Delgado also has published a peer-reviewed report in Advances in Agronomy showing how the NTT may be used to calculate the potential for nitrogen trading on a Virginia no-till operation, an Ohio farm where manure is applied, and irrigated barley and potato fields in Colorado. (
  • We do not know if exposure to nitrogen oxides will result in reproductive effects in humans. (
  • Children would probably be affected by exposure to nitrogen oxides in the same ways as adults. (
  • Exposure to nitrogen mustard liquid is more likely to produce second- and third- degree burns and later scarring than is exposure to nitrogen mustard vapor. (
  • Quickly moving to an area where fresh air is available is highly effective in reducing the possibility of death from exposure to nitrogen mustard. (
  • 1-224) reported a slight reduction in vital capacity and maximum respiratory volume in 70 men exposed to 0.4- to 2.7-ppm concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen six to eight hours daily for four to six years. (
  • Previous studies focused on the nitrogen in acid rain that falls well away from urban and suburban sources, but the new study shows substantially more nitrogen -- largely in gaseous form -- being deposited near highways and other urban sources. (
  • Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are essential for plant and animal growth and nourishment, but the overabundance of certain nutrients in water can cause several adverse health and ecological effects. (
  • UAN ) , which deals only in nitrogen-based nutrients, too climbed 36% because of higher volumes and prices. (
  • Nitrogen is clearly proving to be more profitable than other nutrients. (
  • Even in its retail division (which is also its largest), crop nutrients, particularly nitrogen, contribute the most to its top line. (
  • A recent scientific study shows new, important information about how groundwater cannot only contribute nutrients such as nitrogen to lakes, but can also carry it away. (
  • Nitrogen is one of 16 essential plant nutrients. (
  • High-yielding crop varieties, such as corn, require large amounts of primary nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. (
  • Utilization of primary nutrients has increased by more than 300% while that of nitrogen alone has increased by more than 600% between 1960 and 2007 (USDA, 2009). (
  • Figures for 2002 show that compared with 2001, the nitrogen and phosphate production dropped most sharply (by 10 percent) in North Brabant and Limburg, provinces with a lot of intensive livestock farming. (
  • Of course, nitrogen is used in agriculture to grow crops, and on many farms the landscape has been greatly modified to maximize farming output. (
  • As the world struggles to boost crop yields, "the amount of industrially fixed nitrogen applied to crops during the decade 1980 to 1990 more than equals all that applied previously in human history", says Vitousek, whose study will be published in full in the journal Ecological Applications in August. (
  • Farmers are therefore using nitrogen more efficiently, the area of cultivation of high-output crops has increased and feed conversion by domestic animals has improved. (
  • An average of 40% of the nitrogen fertiliser applied to crops isn't utilised and could be lost. (
  • But this "quick fix" comes at a steep price, as the nitrogen that helps some crops to grow is causing untold amounts of environmental damage. (
  • The instability of NI 3 and NI 3 · NH 3 can be attributed to the large steric strain caused by the three large iodine atoms being held in proximity to each other around the relatively tiny nitrogen atom. (
  • Heterocyclic derivatives containing one or more nitrogen atoms are exceedingly common in a large variety of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical intermediates. (
  • Calculations indicate that at extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those found deep inside Earth, nitrogen should transform from an insulating--or non-electrically conductive--diatomic molecule to a metallic--or electrically conductive--fluid polymer, comprised of atoms linked by complex molecular bonds. (
  • In contrast, trees growing nearby on rocks that didn't contain nitrogen contained a lot less of the stuff. (
  • The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. (
  • About half the world's population depends on the nitrogen in fertilisers to live, according to Dr Mark Sutton, of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in a ground-breaking new report on the impact of nitrogen as a pollutant: European Nitrogen Assessment (ENA), unveiled at a conference in Edinburgh this week. (
  • His efforts to reduce nitrogen losses in Mexico also have been published in the journal Terra Latinoamerica . (
  • As a result, most efforts to reduce nitrogen have targeted these sources. (
  • The fate and transport of nitrogen are critically important issues for human and aquatic ecosystem health. (
  • Monitoring studies conducted at national and state levels show that nitrogen (N) concentrations in groundwater exceed health standards more often than other common contaminants, such as pesticides. (
  • Prolonged or repeated exposures to nitrogen mustards have caused cancer in animals. (
  • Some evidence exists that prolonged or repeated exposures to nitrogen mustards cause leukemia in humans. (