The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine and is called histidinemia (AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A plant family of the order Nepenthales.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The consumption of edible substances.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.

Surfactant protein A suppresses reactive nitrogen intermediates by alveolar macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (1/6983)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis attaches to, enters, and replicates within alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our previous studies suggest that surfactant protein A (SP-A) can act as a ligand in the attachment of M. tuberculosis to AMs. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) play a significant role in the killing of mycobacteria. We have demonstrated that RNI levels generated by AMs were significantly increased when interferon-gamma-primed AMs were incubated with M. tuberculosis. However, the RNI levels were significantly suppressed in the presence of SP-A (10 microg/ml). The specificity of SP-A's effect was demonstrated by the use of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-SP-A monoclonal antibodies and by the use of mannosyl-BSA, which blocked the suppression of RNI levels by SP-A. Furthermore, incubation of deglycosylated SP-A with M. tuberculosis failed to suppress RNI by AMs, suggesting that the oligosaccharide component of SP-A, which binds to M. tuberculosis, is necessary for this effect. These results show that SP-A-mediated binding of M. tuberculosis to AMs significantly decreased RNI levels, suggesting that this may be one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis diminishes the cytotoxic response of activated AMs.  (+info)

Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (2/6983)

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

Effects of the Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to on therapeutic efficacy of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium infection in mice. (3/6983)

The Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to (MBST), which has anti-inflammatory effects and has been used to treat the common cold and nasal allergy in Japan, was examined for its effects on the therapeutic activity of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648 (KRM), against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of MBST on the anti-MAC activity of murine peritoneal macrophages (M phi s). First, MBST significantly increased the anti-MAC therapeutic activity of KRM when given to mice in combination with KRM, although MBST alone did not exhibit such effects. Second, MBST treatment of M phi s significantly enhanced the KRM-mediated killing of MAC bacteria residing in M phi s, although MBST alone did not potentiate the M phi anti-MAC activity. MBST-treated M phi s showed decreased levels of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) release, suggesting that RNIs are not decisive in the expression of the anti-MAC activity of such M phi populations. MBST partially blocked the interleukin-10 (IL-10) production of MAC-infected M phi s without affecting their transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-producing activity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the lung tissues of MAC-infected mice at weeks 4 and 8 after infection revealed a marked increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-10, and TGF-beta mRNAs. KRM treatment of infected mice tended to decrease the levels of the test cytokine mRNAs, except that it increased TGF-beta mRNA expression at week 4. MBST treatment did not affect the levels of any cytokine mRNAs at week 8, while it down-regulated cytokine mRNA expression at week 4. At week 8, treatment of mice with a combination of KRM and MBST caused a marked decrease in the levels of the test cytokines mRNAs, especially IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNAs, although such effects were obscure at week 4. These findings suggest that down-regulation of the expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta is related to the combined therapeutic effects of KRM and MBST against MAC infection.  (+info)

Steady-state nitrogen isotope effects of N2 and N2O production in Paracoccus denitrificans. (4/6983)

Nitrogen stable-isotope compositions (delta15N) can help track denitrification and N2O production in the environment, as can knowledge of the isotopic discrimination, or isotope effect, inherent to denitrification. However, the isotope effects associated with denitrification as a function of dissolved-oxygen concentration and their influence on the isotopic composition of N2O are not known. We developed a simple steady-state reactor to allow the measurement of denitrification isotope effects in Paracoccus denitrificans. With [dO2] between 0 and 1.2 microM, the N stable-isotope effects of NO3- and N2O reduction were constant at 28.6 per thousand +/- 1.9 per thousand and 12.9 per thousand +/- 2.6 per thousand, respectively (mean +/- standard error, n = 5). This estimate of the isotope effect of N2O reduction is the first in an axenic denitrifying culture and places the delta15N of denitrification-produced N2O midway between those of the nitrogenous oxide substrates and the product N2 in steady-state systems. Application of both isotope effects to N2O cycling studies is discussed.  (+info)

Experiment of nitrox saturation diving with trimix excursion. (5/6983)

Depth limitations to diving operation with air as the breathing gas are well known: air density, oxygen toxicity, nitrogen narcosis and requirement for decompression. The main objectives of our experiment were to assess the decompression, counterdiffusion and performance aspect of helium-nitrogen-oxygen excursions from nitrox saturation. The experiment was carried out in a wet diving stimulator with "igloo" attached to a 2-lock living chamber. Four subjects of two teams of 2 divers were saturated at 25 msw simulated depth in a nitrogen oxygen chamber environment for 8 days, during which period they performed 32 divers-excursions to 60 or 80 msw pressure. Excursion gas mix was trimix of 14.6% oxygen, 50% helium and 35.4% nitrogen, which gave a bottom oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 bars at 60 msw and 1.3 at 80 msw. Excursions were for 70 min at 60 msw with three 10-min work periods and 40 min at 80 msw with two 10-min work periods. Work was on a bicycle ergometer at a moderate level. We calculated the excursion decompression with M-Values based on methods of Hamilton (Hamilton et al., 1990). Staged decompression took 70 min for the 60 msw excursion and 98 min for 80 msw, with stops beginning at 34 or 43 msw respectively. After the second dive day bubbles were heard mainly in one diver but in three divers overall, to Spencer Grade III some times. No symptoms were reported. Saturation decompression using the Repex procedures began at 40 msw and was uneventful: Grade II and sometimes III bubbles persisted in 2 of the four divers until 24 hr after surfacing. We conclude that excursions with mixture rich in helium can be performed effectively to as deep as 80 msw using these procedures.  (+info)

Nitrogen retention by lambs fed oscillating dietary protein concentrations. (6/6983)

Nitrogen excreted by beef cattle can be retained in manure or lost by volatilization to the atmosphere or by runoff and percolation into surface or ground water. Increasing the retention of dietary N should decrease environmental losses. To this end, the effects of oscillating concentrations of dietary CP on nutrient retention were determined using lambs fed a 90% concentrate diet. Ten St. Croix lambs (average BW = 27 kg) were used in two 5x5 Latin square experiments. Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) 10% CP, 2) 12.5% CP, 3) 15% CP, 4) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 24-h intervals, and 5) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 48-h intervals. Supplemental N was provided by cottonseed meal in Trial 1 and by a 50:50 (N basis) blend of cottonseed meal and urea in Trial 2. Each period of the Latin square lasted 35 d, with excreta collection the final 8 d. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P<.01) with increasing N intake in both trials (.77, 1.33, and 1.89 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 1; .94, 1.78, and 2.19 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 2). Compared with continuously feeding the 12.5% CP diet, oscillating the 10 and 15% CP diets on a 24-h basis did not affect N retention (P>.10) in either trial (1.62 and 1.56 g/d for Trials 1 and 2, respectively). Oscillating dietary CP at 48-h intervals did not affect N retention in Trial 2 (1.82 g/d) but increased (P<.05) N retention by 38% in Trial 1 (1.87 g/d). Phosphorus, K, and Na retention and excretion were not affected by dietary treatments in Trial 1. In Trial 2, P retention increased (linear, P<.05) with increasing dietary CP and was greater (P<.05) in lambs on the 48-h oscillation treatment than in lambs fed the 12.5% CP diet. These results suggest that oscillating the dietary CP concentrations might potentially increase the utilization of N by ruminants fed high-concentrate diets.  (+info)

A comparative chemical and histochemical study of the chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid canine intervertebral disc. (7/6983)

The chemical composition of the intervertebral disc of 9-month-old chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid dogs was studied for collagen, noncollagenous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Content of these substances differed significantly between breeds. The differences were most marked in the nucleus pulposus; the noncollagenous protein content of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed was higher than in that of the chondrodystrophoid dogs. The total nitrogen value of the nonchondrodystrophoid nuclei pulposi was less than that of the corresponding chondrodystrophoid discs mainly because of the high collagen content of the latter discs. Histochemically, it was found that the nuclei pulposi of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed contains larger amounts of glycosaminoglycan than in the discs of the chondrodystrophoid breeds.  (+info)

Kinetic impairment of nitrogen and muscle glutamine metabolisms in old glucocorticoid-treated rats. (8/6983)

Aged rats are more sensitive to injury, possibly through an impairment of nitrogen and glutamine (Gln) metabolisms mediated by glucocorticoids. We studied the metabolic kinetic response of adult and old rats during glucocorticoid treatment. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 or 3 mo old. Both adult and old rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups labeled G3, G5, and G7 received, by intraperitoneal injection, 1.50 mg/kg of dexamethasone (Dex) for 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively. Groups labeled G3PF, G5PF, and G7PF were pair fed to the G3, G5, or G7 groups and were injected with an isovolumic solution of NaCl. One control group comprised healthy rats fed ad libitum. The response to aggression induced specifically by Dex (i.e., allowing for variations in pair-fed controls) appeared later in the aged rats (decrease in nitrogen balance from day 1 in adults but only from day 4 in old rats). The adult rats rapidly adapted to Dex treatment, whereas the catabolic state worsened until the end of treatment in the old rats. Gln homeostasis was not maintained in the aged rats; despite an early increase in muscular Gln synthetase activity, the Gln pool was depleted. These results suggest a kinetic impairment of both nitrogen and muscle Gln metabolisms in response to Dex with aging.  (+info)

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Nitrogen (N) generally limits plant growth and controls biosphere responses to climate change. We introduce a new mathematical model of plant N acquisition, called Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN), based on active and passive soil N uptake, leaf N retranslocation, and biological N fixation. This model is unified under the theoretical framework of carbon (C) cost economics, or resource optimization. FUN specifies C allocated to N acquisition as well as remaining C for growth, or N-limitation to growth. We test the model with data from a wide range of sites (observed versus predicted N uptake r2 is 0.89, and RMSE is 0.003 kg N m−2·yr−1). Four model tests are performed: (1) fixers versus nonfixers under primary succession; (2) response to N fertilization; (3) response to CO2 fertilization; and (4) changes in vegetation C from potential soil N trajectories for five DGVMs (HYLAND, LPJ, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and TRIFFID) under four IPCC scenarios. Nonfixers surpass the productivity of fixers ...
Home » Research » Projects » Project Summaries » High nitrogen addition plot on Mt. Ascutney (~ 90% mortality from 1988-2006) ...
Looking for nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)? Find out information about nonprotein nitrogen (NPN). gaseous chemical element; symbol N; at. no. 7; interval in which at. wt. ranges 14.00643-14.00728; m.p. −209.86°C;; b.p. −195.8°C;; density 1.25 grams... Explanation of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)
A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations and yield potentials, were grown with non-limiting N supply. Grain number per ear was reduced by removing the top part of the ear at anthesis. Reduction in grain number gave a significant increase in N content per grain for all cultivars, showing that grain N accumulation was source regulated. However, on a per ear basis, cultivars with a high grain number fully compensated their N accumulation for reduced grain number at anthesis. Cultivars with a lower grain number did not compensate completely, and grain N per ear was decreased by 16%. Second, new mechanistic hypotheses of ...
The permeability or crossover characteristics of a typical polymeric perfluorosulfonic acid membrane are used for the temporal and spatial estimation of nitrogen concentration along the anode channels of a fuel cell stack. The predicted nitrogen accumulation is then used to estimate the impact of local fuel starvation on stack voltage through the notion of apparent current density. Despite simplifying assumptions on membrane hydration levels, the calibrated model reasonably predicts the response of a 20-cell stack whenever there is no significant liquid water accumulation in the dead-ended anode. Specifically, the predicted voltage decay and estimated anode outlet gas composition are experimentally validated using stack-averaged voltage and a mass spectrometer. This work shows that the crossover of nitrogen and its accumulation in the anode can cause a considerable stack voltage decay and should be considered under high hydrogen utilization conditions. ...
Potential Breeding for High Nitrogen Fixation in Pisum sativum L.: Germplasm Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Investigation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
To assess the relationship between nitrogen concentrations in mosses and wet bulk nitrogen deposition or concentrations in precipitation, moss tissue and deposition were sampled within a distance of 1 km of each other in seven European countries. Relationships for various forms of nitrogen appeared to be asymptotic, with data for different countries being positioned at different locations along the asymptotic relationship and saturation occurring at a wet bulk nitrogen deposition of ca. 20 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The asymptotic behaviour was more pronounced for ammonium-N than nitrate-N, with high ammonium deposition at German sites being most influential in providing evidence of the asymptotic behaviour. Within countries, relationships were only significant for Finland and Switzerland and were more or less linear. The results confirm previous relationships described for modelled total deposition. Nitrogen concentration in mosses can be applied to identify areas at risk of high nitrogen deposition ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Comparison of Energy Absorption Properties of High Nitrogen Austenitic Steel and Cast Alloy Determined Using Low Velocity Perforation Test - Archives of Metallurgy and Materials
TY - JOUR AU - Hadži-Tašković-Šukalović, Vesna AU - Vučinić, Željko AU - Vuletić, Mirjana AU - Marković, Ksenija AU - Kravić, Natalija PY - 2016 UR - http://rik.mrizp.rs/handle/123456789/618 AB - Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic ...
30mg low nitrogen condensing hot water boiler6 tph low nitrogen condensing boiler project in Uruguay ... Last month 6 tph low nitrogen condensing boiler pr
Increasing nutrient use efficiency is an important aspect in sustainable plant production in order to optimize the use of resources and minimize environmental pollution. Our investigations aim at the identification of genotypic differences which will allow analyzing specific components of nitrogen use efficiency in potato. In addition to characterizing a set of cultivars under field and greenhouse conditions an in vitro culture system with four different nitrogen levels was established in order to investigate if specific components of nitrogen use efficiency can be assessed under such conditions. For this purpose shoot tips were grown fixed in perforated stainless steel plates in 500 ml glas vessels with 50 ml liquid culture medium. The nitrogen levels of the media corresponded to full, 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 of the original MS concentration, i.e., 60, 30, 15 and 7.5 mmol/L. Specific morphological parameters were recorded within three weeks of culture and nitrogen uptake and assimilation was analyzed. ...
Nitrogen (N) plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE) under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn) per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha−1) in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that
Demand for low-input nitrogen sustainable rice is increasing to meet the need for environmentally friendly agriculture and thus development of rice with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a major o
Figure 5: Relationship of Nitrogen Use Efficiency with the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation of Finger Millet Genotypes Grown under Different Nitrogen Inputs
MOLECULAR SINGLE SOURCE PRECURSORS FOR SYNTHESIS OF NITROGEN-RICH CARBON NITRIDE MATERIALS , MOLECULAR SINGLE SOURCE PRECURSORS FOR SYNTHESIS OF NITROGEN-RICH CARBON NITRIDE MATERIALS , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی خوراسگان
article{d0da78cd-840d-4f3d-b593-3ed125f8bb1e, abstract = {The effect of three different nitrogen sources on the growth of external ectomycorrhizal mycelium was studied in Perspex micorocosms. Nonsterile peat was used as substrate. Five different fungal isolates growing in symbiosis with pine seedlings were investigated: two isolates of Paxillus involutus, one of Suillus bovinus and two unidentified ectomycorrhizal fungi isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips. Three different nitrogen sources were used: ammonium as (NH4)2SO4, nitrate as NaNO3 and a complete nutrient solution (Ingestad 1979), and three different nitrogen concentrations, 1, 2 or 4 mg N/g dry wt. of peat. The mycelial growth of all fungi was found to be negatively affected by the nitrogen amendments, although the sensitivity to nitrogen varied between the isolates. One of the unidentified isolates was extremely sensitive and growth was completely inhibited by all nitrogen treatments. In contrast, the growth of one of the P. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait. AU - Hasager, C.B.. AU - Carstensen, J.. AU - Ellermann, T.. AU - Gustafson, B.G.. AU - Hertel, O.. AU - Johnsson, M.. AU - Markager, S.. AU - Skjøth, C.A.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - A retrospective analysis is carried out to investigate the importance of the vertical fluxes of nitrogen to the marine sea surface layer in which high chlorophyll a levels may cause blooms of harmful algae and subsequent turn over and oxygen depletion at the bottom of the sea. Typically nitrogen is the limiting factor for phytoplankton in the Kattegat Strait during summer periods ( May to August) and the major nitrogen inputs come from the atmosphere and deep-water entrainment. The extreme reoccurrence values of nitrogen from atmospheric wet and dry deposition and deep-water flux entrainments are calculated by the periodic maximum method and the results are successfully compared to a map of ...
p,,strong,Aim: ,/strong,Evaluation of tillage practices and nitrogen sources on nitrogen availability in soil and nitrogen uptake of rice,/p, ,p,,strong,Study design: ,/strong,The experiment was laid out in strip-plot design with different tillage practices in horizontal strip and different nitrogen sources in vertical strip and was replicated thrice.,/p, ,p,,strong,Place and duration of study: ,/strong,The field experiment was conducted during the ,em,kharif ,/em,season of 2019 and 2020 at the Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.,/p, ,p,,strong,Methodology: ,/strong,The experiment was performed with twenty treatments in strip-plot design. The horizontal strip comprised four different tillage practices and vertical strip with five different nitrogen sources. Rice variety BPT-5204 was taken as the test variety. Observations of the crop and soil during the experimentation were recorded at regular intervals. The significance of the treatment impact was examined ...
High nitrogen effluents from mine sites is an environmental issue which has received relatively little attention historically. In recent years a number of studies have showed the environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge to natural water bodies, which include local eutrophication, high risk of acute reducing conditions and changed species composition in the receiving waters. Apart from the direct environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge some forms of nitrogen can be directly toxic- ammonia and nitric gas for instance, and some can be indirectly toxic, for instance nitrate which causes methemoglobinemia in infants if ingested.. This thesis shows how the developed nitrogen tracing methods can be applied in complex water transport systems such as in a mining environment. Two main study sites were used in this thesis, the LKAB iron mine at Kiruna and the Aitik copper mine at Gallivare operated by Boliden Mineral AB. The nitrogen tracing methods used in this study are stable isotope ...
article{1858168, abstract = {Energy-positive sewage treatment can, in principle, be obtained by maximizing energy recovery from concentrated organics and by minimizing energy consumption for concentration and residual nitrogen removal in the main stream. To test the feasibility of the latter, sewage-like nitrogen influent concentrations were treated with oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) in a lab-scale rotating biological contactor at 25 degrees C. At influent ammonium concentrations of 66 and 29 mg N L(-1) and a volumetric loading rate of 840 mg N L(-1)day(-1) yielding hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 2.0 and 1.0 h, respectively, relatively high nitrogen removal rates of 444 and 383 mg N L(-1) day(-1) were obtained, respectively. At low nitrogen levels, adapted nitritation and anammox communities were established. The decrease in nitrogen removal was due to decreased anammox and increased nitratation, with Nitrospira representing 6\% of the biofilm. The latter ...
The N-use efficiency for photosynthesis was higher in a C4 plant, maize, than in a C3 plant, rice, including rbcS antisense rice with optimal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content for CO2-saturated photosynthesis, even when photosynthesis was measured under saturating CO2 conditions. The N cost for the C4 cycle enzymes in maize was not large, and the lower amount of Rubisco allowed a greater N investment in the thylakoid components. This greater content of the thylakoid components as well as the CO2 concentrating mechanism may support higher N-use efficiency for photosynthesis in maize.. ...
Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is widely cultivated in the Mediterranean area where plants generally suffer from water stress during grain-filling period. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of N levels and water regimes on N translocation and nitrogen use efficiency for protein (NUEP) in durum wheat grown under Mediterranean conditions. A 2-yr experiment was performed in southern Italy using four cultivars, two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed) and three N levels (0, 60, and 120 kg ha−1). Among the cultivars under study, Simeto showed the highest N translocation in both years and, together with Ofanto, also the highest NUEP values, especially in rainfed condition. This highlights their good adaptability to dry southern Italy environment. Nitrogen fertilization caused a general decrease of NUEP and its components in both growing seasons; this was more evident in the first drier year, mainly due to a decrease in N uptake. Under water stress the higher N level caused a ...
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Nitrogen deficiency occurs if the nitrogen content of the growing medium is not topped up. Heavy rainfall can cause the minerals to be washed away. Compost has the nutrients in it to last for the first months of a plants life&#91;1&#93;, but plants will become deficient in nutrients if they are not potted on.
For some reason, reactor1 gets heated up once Tepco stops nitrogen gas injection.. In order to purge hydrogen gas that may cause hydrogen gas explosion, Tepco is injecting nitrogen gas into reactor1.. However, it also causes radioactive material to leak out of the vessel, so Tepco decreased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to reactor1 RPV by 20% on 10/9/2013 as an attempt.. 26 hours later, they observed the temperature rise by approx. 8℃. Having this increase, they increased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to PCV by 4%, but its still stably high.. Tepco announced they are not injecting liquid nitrogen as air-cooling, but the relationship between nitrogen gas injection and reactor temperature hasnt been identified.. http://www.tepco.co.jp/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2013/images/handouts_131011_11-j.pdf. http://www.tepco.co.jp/nu/fukushima-np/f1/pla/2013/images/data_1u_g-j.pdf. ...
Alfalfa is a high quality forage and also provides a nitrogen (N) benefit to following nonlegume crops. This study examined growth habit and harvest schedule effects on in vitro digestibility of forage; yield and N accumulation of forage, stubble, crowns, and roots; and structural polysaccharide composition and in vitro digestibility of leaves and stems;Six cultivars varying in growth habit were harvested each time they reached the bud, first-flower, mid-flower, or early-pod stage of development. With winter-dormant cultivars, greatest 2-year forage, root, crown, and in vitro digestible dry matter yields were obtained by using the mid-flower cutting schedule. Greatest 2-year N yields of forage, crowns, and roots were also obtained under the mid-flower management. Differences among cultivars for these traits were also observed;Nonwinter-dormant alfalfa, treated as an annual crop, approached the root, crown, and stubble N yields of 2-year-old winter-dormant cultivars. Seasonal forage yields were about
The Effect of Nitrogen Deficiency on the Behavior of the Complete-Mixing Activated Sludge Process M. HAMDY BECHIR, Lecturer JAMES M. SYMONS, Assistant Professor of Sanitary Engineering Civil Engineering Department Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts INTRODUCTION The process of biological removal of pollution from waste waters is accomplished primarily by bacteria which use the organic matter as a source of nutrition. Pollutants are often organic carbon which must be oxidized or removed through a synthesis reaction to eliminate their harmful effects on tne receiving body of water. The bacteria, in order to keep living, have to reproduce or synthesize new cells and increase both in mass and in number. The bacteria in pursuing their natural course of life use the organic carbon available in the waste for energy and new cells, and since the waste is the bacterial food it has to be balanced nutritionally if unhindered growth is to be obtained. The general equation for ...
Could this be extreme nitrogen deficiency which I read can cause older leaves to die off very quickly in extreme cases? Cheers Sam
Newton, Philip P; Lampitt, Richard Stephen (2004): Carbon and nitrogen flux of sediment trap DI181_11834#1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.206555, In: Lowry, Roy K; Machin, P (2016): Compilation of the results of EU-project BOFS. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.859221
Author: Smith, Sarah R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019; Title: Evolution and regulation of nitrogen flux through compartmentalized|br/| metabolic networks in a marine diatom
West Falmouth residents have watched the health of their harbor worsen over the past few decades due to nitrogen pollution from wastewater. Nitrogen fuels the growth of algae that makes the water cloudy and covers beaches and boats with slimy green muck. Because of nitrogen pollution, the harbors underwater eelgrass beds have died and fish and shellfish populations have slowly disappeared.. In 2008, the U.S. EPA approved a federal pollution limit called a TMDL for West Falmouth Harbor. At that time, the largest source of nitrogen to the harbor was the towns wastewater treatment facility, which was upgraded a few years later after the state set a strict limit on the amount of nitrogen that it could discharge into the harbor.. But even with this upgrade, the harbors nitrogen limit wont be met without reducing nitrogen from septic systems, which today make up the largest source of this harmful type of pollution. All of the homes that line West Falmouth Harbor use on-site septic systems or ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
(2016) Choudhary et al. Science of the Total Environment. Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fa...
The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal-organic frameworks (E-MOFs) have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta)·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3), high density (3.250 g·cm−3), and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1). The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J). The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved non-coding small RNAs involved in regulating plant growth and development, as well as plant responses, to diverse environmental signaling cues. In this study, the expression patterns of 38 wheat microRNAs (TaMIRs) were investigated under normal N and low N stress. Under normal N conditions, the TaMIRs exhibited four expression patterns: high, moderate, low, and undetectable expression. Seven TaMIRs (TaMIR156, TaMIR399, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, TaMIR1133, and TaMIR1136) showed varied expression levels under N deprivation. TaMIR156, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, and TaMIR1136 were upregulated, whereas TaMIR399 and TaMIR1133 were downregulated. The expression patterns of TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, and TaMIR1129 were further analyzed under various low N concentrations and then returned to normal N. The aforementioned TaMIRs exhibited ever higher expression at lower N concentrations and whose expressions returned to those before low N stress after they were restored
Gigout, Anne et Ruiz, Juan-Carlos et Wertheimer, Michael R. et Jolicoeur, Mario et Lerouge, Sophie. 2011. « Nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized coatings on PET and PTFE surfaces improve endothelial cell attachment and resistance to shear flow ». Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 11, nº 8. p. 1110-1119 ...
Nitrogen gas springs use compressed nitrogen gas to exert force. Housed within a cylinder, our Nitrogen gas springs meet a wide variety of specifications, with variations on tonnage, stroke lengths, and mounting capabilities. They are used in automobile struts and hatchback doors, office chairs, press tooling, medical and aerospace applications, and other industrial manufacturing. At Precision Punch & Tooling we offer a full-line of nitrogen gas springs, from standard and fixed height cylinders to auto-return cylinders with height adjustment. The structural components of Special Springs gas springs are designed and built to withstand a minimum of 2,000,000 complete cycles at maximum pressure, temperature and for all types of fixings. We also offer a full line of Wire Die Springs.. ...
The BD50s and BD28s Programmable Digestion Block Systems perform acid (Kjeldahl) digestion of large numbers of samples under controlled conditions. If you are looking to automate your Kjeldahl digestions, the BD50s and BD28s offers enhanced productivity, better quality digestions and increased safety. Prepare Samples for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and Total Kjeldahl Phosphorus (TKP).
One of the hallmark metabolic responses to stress (i.e. injury, sepsis, surgery) is catabolism. Generally speaking, the degree of catabolism is proportional to the degree of stress. Catabolism is caused by increased breakdown of skeletal muscle. The subsequent release of amino acids provides some of the substrate for increased hepatic gluconeogenesis.. During periods of stress, the overall nitrogen balance is negative. However, there is conflicting data regarding the degree of skeletal muscle protein synthetic activity. Studies have reported reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis after open cholecystectomy, decreased hepatic protein synthesis that becomes directly proportional to the duration of surgery, and a reduction in the protein synthesis within tissues that have rapidly replicating cells. Other studies postulate that the negative nitrogen balance is the result of protein breakdown that exceeds the increased protein synthetic rate.. Stress hormones like cortisol and cytokines such as ...
Characteristic symptoms of N deficiency are reduced vigor, smaller leaves and a pale green or yellowish leaf color. The symptoms first become visible on the old leaves which turn yellow and wither at progressing deficiency. Necrosis starts on the leaf tip and progresses toward the leaf base. Extreme N deficiency causes early senescence and diminished ear size. Reasons ...
Balance studies were conducted on three groups of young, healthy adults between the ages of 18-24 years. After control studies, Group I was taken to 4300 meters gradually, Group II was taken to 4300 meters abruptly, and Group III remained at sea level during the entire study. One-half of each group were physically conditioned. No significant differences were observed in nitrogen, and fluid balances between a the groups that were taken to altitude gradually or abruptly, or b between the groups that were physically conditioned, and those who did not exercise. As a result, the respective groups were combined for comparative purposes. Three factors were prominent during the 28 day high altitude exposure to 4300 meters that included a a decrease in food intake which is probably due to anorexia caused by the clinical symptoms b a negative nitrogen balance which may be due to the decreased nutrient intake and the increased requirement for energy and c a negative fluid balance due to involuntary
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Dont worry; analyzing your soil isnt complicated, and you dont need a lab coat. Plant roots and animal guts have evolved specialized cells layers to control mineral nutrient homeostasis that must tolerate the resident microbiota while keeping homeostatic integrity. Grain testing is also available to determine their nutrient content, nutrient removal from the farming system, and the quality of seed before planting. Grain testing is also available to determine their nutrient content, nutrient removal from the farming system, and the quality of seed before planting. PREDICTIVE NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS, INC. (PNS) is a soil and plant health optimization company that provides premium products that effectively blend Predictive Soil Testing Technologies with Intuitive Software for DIY, Professional Landscape and Controlled Environment Agriculture. Plant nutrient testing equipment is primarily used for determining the amount of nutrients present in the plant. Soil as a medium for plant growth can be ...
1,5 à 2 g par jour, soit 3 à 4 comprimés par jour en deux prises matin et soir. Being the fourth most concentrated amino acid in body tissue. General Side Effects. Possible side effects of supplementation with BCAAs include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach bloating, fatigue and loss of coordination. Leucine can be found in a variety of foods, including soy, nuts, oats, beans, lentils, corn and rice. like any active substance, this medicine may cause more or less unpleasant effects in certain people. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Growth in all cells is a major contributory role that l-leucine plays in the body. L-leucine is generally considered safe when taken in normal doses, such as those found in food and most dietary supplements. Using a single amino acid supplement may lead to negative nitrogen balance. Ingesting too much leucine may cause some side effects. Consuming l-leucine through regular foods in your diet is generally considered safe. This can ...
Properties:White Granular Solubility: soluble in water Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White granular Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White...
A report from the Board of the Institute of Medicine published in the weekly international journal Journal of the American Medical Association, which stated that the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of protein for people over 18 should be 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight or 0.63 grams per pound of weight.. It also examined dietary guidelines published by the US Department of Agriculture and Government Programs, which suggested that 70 grams of protein for a person should be exactly 56 grams.. But if a person is involved in sports, then these numbers in studies can be taken only as the minimum amount of proteins that he needs. Based on this, if a bodybuilder weighing 70 kilograms daily consumes less than 56 grams of protein, then his muscles will suffer, and the body will not grow due to negative nitrogen balance.. A similar kind of research was carried out at the Institute of Medicine (Institute of Medicine). But in them this topic is revealed somehow approximately. They say that 10-35% of ...
Nitrogen Use Efficiency,Nitrogen Fertilizers,RAMP,N Rich Strip,N deficiency,nitrogen algorithms,Nitrogen Management,Wheat Nitrogen Fertilization,Maize,Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, pocket sensor, Greenseeder Hand Planter
http://www.qymarketresearch.com/report/118371#inquiry-for-buying. D] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer sales and Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market share by type [2011 to 2017].. E] Worldwide Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer revenue and growth rate [2011 to 2021].. F] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer [Volume and Value] by Regions - USA Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , China Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Europe Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Japan Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer (Volume, Value and Sales Price).. The report also produce extensively details about the description, definitions which are associated to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry and also highlights the modification and changes made to ease the productivity. These company chain and government permission applicable to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market are also included in the report.. The characteristics of the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry are evaluated in a qualitative and quantitative way to compare the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market ...
Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and increased nitrogen (N) fertilization significantly change the nutritional quality of plants and influence the growth and development of insects. However, little is known about plant metabolism and plant-insect interactions under eCO2 and increased N fertilization, especially C4 plants. Thus, the combined effects of eCO2 and increased N fertilization on maize-Ostrinia furnacalis interactions were tested in this study. Our data demonstrated that both eCO2 and increased N fertilization increased starch content, while increased N fertilization promoted the N content in maize. The combined effects of eCO2 and increased N fertilization did not influence the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC):N ratio in maize. The jasmonic acid level of maize was enhanced by increased N fertilization and O. furnacalis infestation. The total phenolics content and defensive enzyme activities of maize increased under eCO2, increased N fertilization and O. furnacalis infestation.
Different sources of nitrogen pose diverse effects to algal community, but the mechanism of inhibitory effects of nitrogen sources on freshwater diatoms is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to compare biomass, photosynthetic activity, and morphological structure of three common freshwater diatoms (Cyclotella meneghiniana, Nitzschia sp., and Gomphonema parvulum) under different nitrogen sources (NO3 − or NH4 +). The sorption characteristic of each diatom was investigated, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content and oxygen evolution rate were analyzed to investigate stress of different nitrogen sources on each diatom in the batch experiments. Ammonium lowered the growth rate of C. meneghiniana and Nitzschia sp. when it was supplied in addition to growth-saturating nitrate concentrations, suggesting a combined effect of inhibition of nitrate uptake and direct ammonium stress. Oxygen evolution rate of Nitzschia sp. showed that the direct ammonium stress on the photosynthetic activity can be
Nitrogen availability often restricts primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous symbionts of terrestrial plants and can improve plant nitrogen acquisition, but have a limited ability to access organic nitrogen. Although other soil biota mineralize organic nitrogen into bioavailable forms, they may simultaneously compete for nitrogen, with unknown consequences for plant nutrition. Here, we show that synergies between the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and soil microbial communities have a highly non-additive effect on nitrogen acquisition by the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. These multipartite microbial synergies result in a doubling of the nitrogen that mycorrhizal plants acquire from organic matter and a tenfold increase in nitrogen acquisition compared to non-mycorrhizal plants grown in the absence of soil microbial communities. This previously unquantified multipartite relationship may contribute to more than 70 Tg of ...
Thinning alters litter quality and microclimate under forests. Both of these two changes after thinning induce alterations of litter decomposition rates and nutrient cycling. However, a possible interaction between these two changes remains unclear. We placed two types of litter (LN, low N concentration litter; HN, high N concentration litter) in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) plantation under four thinning treatments to test the impacts of litter quality, thinning or their combination on decomposition rate and N cycling. In our study, N was accumulated to approach an underlying critical acid-unhydrolyzable residue to nitrogen ratio (approximately 57-69) in litter. Moreover, an interaction between litter quality and thinning on decomposition rates, N accumulation and net release did exist. On one hand, one year decomposition rate of LN was elevated after thinning while that of HN remained the same or even lower (under light thinning); N accumulation of LN declined with light ...
CELAYA-MICHEL, Hernán e CASTELLANOS-VILLEGAS, Alejandro E.. Nitrogen Mineralization on Arid and Semi-Arid Land Soil. Terra Latinoam [online]. 2011, vol.29, n.3, pp.343-356. ISSN 2395-8030.. Arid and semi-arid lands soils have low soil organic matter content because of small plant cover and limited primary productivity. Scarce nitrogen content in arid and semi-arid soil organic matter is transformed to inorganic forms through mineralization, making it available to plants, is known as a major limitation to plant productivity in these ecosystems. Nitrogen transformation through decomposition and mineralization is carried on by soil microorganisms, although in arid land environments, optimal temperature and soil moisture growing conditions are not always present, only after rainfall pulses. Nitrogen availability has been difficult to measure because different methods can result in soil disturbance, removal of roots, and limit air and water exchange. Nitrogen mineralization in arid and semi-arid ...
Multiday Exposure of Men to High Nitrogen Pressure and Increased Airway Resistance at Natural Expired Oxygen Tension: A 14-day Continuous Exposure to 5.2 Per Cent O 2 in N 2 at 4.0 Atmospheres Absolute Pressure
High nitrogen materials are sought as a potentially dense, powerful but insensitive explosive and propellant ingredients. Elucidation of the structure and chemistry of dibenzo-1 ,3a,4,6a-tetraazapentalenes has continued, with particular attention to a putative C12N12O12 derivative initially prepared at the University of New Orleans. This research contributed substantially to identification of the actual o-quinone hydrate structure, and explanation of the apparently anomalous explosive insensitivity of the material. Synthesis of the novel 5,7-dinitrobenzo-1 ,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide has been repeated, its structure has been confirmed, and preliminary evaluation of its explosive sensitivity has been completed.*NITROGEN
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all life forms. The emergence of cells able to transport, catabolize and synthesize a wide variety of nitrogenous compounds has thus been favored by evolutionary selective pressure [1]. As a consequence, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use almost 30 distinct nitrogen-containing compounds [1].. Like most unicellular organisms, yeast transports and catabolizes good nitrogen sources in preference to poor ones. Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) refers to this selection mechanism [1, 2]. More specifically, NCR inhibits the transcriptional activation systems of genes needed to degrade poor nitrogen sources [2]. All known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators (Gln3, Gat1, Dal80, and Deh1) [3]. The ultimate goal is to infer the complete nitrogen catabolite pathways.. In this context, bioinformatics approaches offer the possibility to identify a relatively small number of putative NCR genes [1, 2, 4]. Hence, biologists need only to ...
Isoflavone content of soybean [ Glycine max (L). Merr.] cultivars with different nitrogen sources and growing season under dry land conditions
Of the different sources of nitrogen used for the yield of oxalic acid by parent and X-ray mutated strains ofSclerotium rolfsii, organic nitrogen sources gave better results than inorganic nitrogen sources. Cysteine is the best nitrogen source for the parent and one mutant strain while phenylalanine is for the second one.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of sprinkling irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization of spring triticum durum. The experiment was carried out at the Złotniki Experimental Station belonging to Poznań University of Life Sciences on a sandy loam soil classified as Albic Luvisols in 2005-2006. Treatment included two water variants (irrigation and the control treatment with natural precipitation), and four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg·ha-1). Sprinkling irrigation increased grain yield, as well as agronomic efficiency of N fertilization. Under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions agronomic efficiency decreased due to increasing of nitrogen doses. Irrigation increased grain yield of 63.1% in 2005-2006.
Paper III of this series reports on effects of ley treatments on the results of procedures for assessing soil nitrogen availability and the relationship between the estimates obtained for various availability procedures and test crop yield. Nitrogen availability procedures investigated included the nitrogen mineralisation potential (No) and the rapid procedures waterlogged incubation (WL), extraction with hot 2 M KCl and extraction with a phosphate-borate buffer (PBB). Values for No on a composite soil sample were 27 mg N kg-1 using the standard nutrient solution and 53 mg N kg-1 using a modified nutrient solution (k values were also significantly different). Values of No using the modified nutrient solution for 0-5 cm soil after the legume treatments showed strong treatment effects with values ranging from 44 to 99 mg N kg-1 for the fertilized plots and lower values for the unfertilized plots. After two test crops values were reduced but in the fertilized legume plots were still higher than for ...
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important trait to optimize yield with minimal input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP) Act-certified germplasm may be an important genetic resource for public breeding sectors. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic variation of N-use traits and to characterize maize ex-PVP inbreds that are adapted to the U.S. Corn Belt for NUE performance. Eighty-nine ex-PVP inbreds (36 stiff stalk synthetic (SSS), and 53 non-stiff stalk synthetic (NSSS)) were genotyped using 26,769 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, then 263 single-cross maize hybrids derived from these inbreds were grown in eight environments from 2011 to 2015 at two N fertilizer rates (0 and 252 kg N ha−1) and three replications. Genetic utilization of inherent soil nitrogen and the yield response to N fertilizer were stable across environments and were highly correlated with yield under low and high N conditions, respectively.
Nitrogen use world crop production. World nitrogen situation-trends, outlook, and requirements. Function and transformation of nitrogen in higher Plants. Ammonium versus nitrate nutrition of higher plantes. Nutrient balance and nitrogen use nitrogen toxicity in plants. Dinitrogen fixation in Leguminous crop plants. Enhancing biological Dinitrogem Fixation in crop plants. Potential for nosymbiotic and assosiative dinitrogen fixation. Uptake of organic nitrogen forms by roots and leaves. Plant use of soil nitrogen. Conventional nitrogen fertilizers. Slow-Release nitrogen fertilizers. Use of nitrogen from agricultural, indistrial, and municipal wastes. Use of nitrogen from manue. Diagnosis of nitrogen deficiency in plants. Nitrogen and yield potential. Efficient use of nitrogen in croppig systems. Crop rotations for efficient nitrogen use. Nitrogen or water stress: their interrelationships. Nitrogen use and nitratite leaching in irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen Use in flooded rice soils. Plant ...
Nitrogen-containing few-walled carbon nanotubes (N-FWCNTs) with very low nitrogen content (0.56 at.%) were obtained by a process involving the coating of acid functionalized FWCNTs with polyaniline (PANI) followed by pyrolysis at high temperatures. The resulting N-FWCNTs exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), despite significantly lower nitrogen content than previously reported in literature. The N-FWCNTs performed on par or better than Pt-C in the cathode of an alkaline direct methanol fuel cell, corroborating the ORR activity observed in the electrochemical cell and exhibiting a higher methanol tolerance. Interestingly, N-FWCNTs showed a high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction and for the hydrogen peroxide decomposition, suggesting that the active sites involved in ORR can simultaneously catalyze other reactions. This unprecedentedly high activity for such a low Ncontent can be explained by the exceptional accessibility for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term N fertilization imbalances potential N acquisition and transformations by soil microbes. AU - Huang, L.. AU - Riggins, C. W.. AU - Rodríguez-Zas, S.. AU - Zabaloy, M. C.. AU - Villamil, M. B.. PY - 2019/11/15. Y1 - 2019/11/15. N2 - Nitrogen (N) fertilization in agricultural soils has been receiving worldwide attention due to its detrimental effects on ecosystem services, particularly on microbial N transformation. However, few studies provide a complete picture of N-fertilization effects on the N transformation cycle within a single agricultural ecosystem. Here, we explored the main steps of the microbial N cycle, using targeted gene abundances as proxies, in relation to soil properties, following 35 years of N-fertilization at increasing rates (0, 202 and 269 kg N/ha) in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the quantification of phylogenetic groups and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Postprandial changes in the content and composition of nonprotein nitrogen in human milk. AU - Donovan, S. M.. AU - Ereman, R. R.. AU - Dewey, K. G.. AU - Lonnerdal, B.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The effect of a meal on human milk (HM) total nitrogen (TN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) content and composition was examined. Two studies were performed in which milk and blood samples were collected 2-3 h after subjects consumed either a test breakfast or lunch. To monitor the rate of transfer of plasma urea into milk, two women were given [15N]2-urea with the meal. Milk TN concentrations were not significantly different from premeal values. However, concentrations of milk NPN, urea nitrogen, and alanine were increased by ≥ 20% over premeal values. [15N]2-Urea appeared in plasma and milk within 15 min and reached maximum enrichments of 10% and 5.5% in plasma and milk, respectively. Several HM NPN components increase in concentration postprandially; however, these concentrations ...
Growth at elevated CO2 and temperature often leads to decreased Rubisco activity. We investigated the effects of increased CO2, temperature and nitrogen on the diurnal changes in the control of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Spring wheat was grown at ambient and 700 μmol mol-1 CO2, under ambient and 4 ºC warmer temperatures, and with two levels of nitrogen supply in field tunnels in a Mediterranean environment. At ear emergence, elevated CO2 increased Rubisco activation, but decreased Rubisco protein and, with high nitrogen, Rubisco specific activity, and had no effect on the rbcS transcript. Warmer temperatures tended to decrease the rbcS mRNA level and Rubisco protein, although the effect on Rubisco activity was small. High nitrogen decreased Rubisco activation or specific activity, depending on the CO2 concentration. It increased Rubisco protein at the end of the night, but accelerated its diurnal loss. The main changes ...
Scientists from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have found a gene that plays an important role in helping rice adapt to low soil nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer has an indispensable role in increasing crop yields, but on the other hand, it creates a severe threat to ecosystems. For this reason, breeding new crop varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a high priority for both agricultural production and environmental protection.. Using a diversified rice population from different regions, the scientists carefully evaluated how various agronomic traits responded to nitrogen in fields with different nitrogen supply conditions. They further performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS), with one very significant GWAS signal identified. The detailed mechanisms of how OsTCP19 works in regulating rice tillering were also characterized.. The researchers found that OsTCP19-H, the high NUE allele, was highly preserved in rice ...
Keywords: : Nitrogen, N-use efficiency, NUE, N recovery, soil P, soil K, soil organic matter, soil structure.. The increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in agriculture in the last five decades is justified by the increased yield potential of the crops grown and the judicious use of agrochemicals to control weeds, pests and diseases to protect that potential. Nitrogen use-efficiency can be assessed in a number of ways, discussed here with examples, but is usually determined as percent recovery of added N in the harvested product when calculated by the difference method. Assessed in this way, N-use efficiency is frequently only about 50%. But N-use efficiency of applied N should include that taken up by roots to produce the above-ground plant, where N plays a vital role in photosynthesis, the fixation of carbon dioxide to produce sugars, and the root system, which takes up nutrients and water. The fate of this N after harvest is important, but the total amount in the crop should be included in ...
Keywords: : Nitrogen, N-use efficiency, NUE, N recovery, soil P, soil K, soil organic matter, soil structure.. The increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in agriculture in the last five decades is justified by the increased yield potential of the crops grown and the judicious use of agrochemicals to control weeds, pests and diseases to protect that potential. Nitrogen use-efficiency can be assessed in a number of ways, discussed here with examples, but is usually determined as percent recovery of added N in the harvested product when calculated by the difference method. Assessed in this way, N-use efficiency is frequently only about 50%. But N-use efficiency of applied N should include that taken up by roots to produce the above-ground plant, where N plays a vital role in photosynthesis, the fixation of carbon dioxide to produce sugars, and the root system, which takes up nutrients and water. The fate of this N after harvest is important, but the total amount in the crop should be included in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topographic Influence on Plant Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in a Temperate Forested Watershed. AU - Chiwa, Masaaki. AU - Ikezaki, Shoko. AU - Katayama, Ayumi. AU - Enoki, Tsutomu. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Plant stoichiometry has been used to diagnose phosphorus (P) limitation caused by increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Spatial variability of N/P stoichiometry within a forested watershed has not yet been evaluated. This study conducted synoptic sampling of leaf matter in 27 plots within a temperate forested watershed on low P availability rock (serpentine bedrock) with a moderately high atmospheric N deposition (16 kg N ha-1 year-1) to assess the effects of spatial topographic variation on N/P stoichiometry. Leaf N and P concentrations and N/P ratios of Japanese cypress were assessed, and their spatial variations were evaluated across a catchment. Average leaf P concentration was low (0.66 ± 0.16 mg g-1) across the sites, while leaf N concentration ...
Expert Panel (EUNEP) which took place on 6 and 7 May 2019 in Budapest. EUNEP gathers scientists from all over Europe with the aim of improving the management of nitrogen in the environment.. During the meeting, EUNEP members welcomed the fact that the NUE indicator - as developed by the Panel members in 2015 - has now been taken up by scientists and stakeholders, such as Laura Cardenas in a recent paper on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and nitrous oxide emissions from five UK fertilized grasslands. In addition, the momentum around joined-up nitrogen actions is growing at international level. For instance, the Resolution on Sustainable Nitrogen Management, recently adopted at the 11-15 March 2019 meeting of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA) in Nairobi, calls for coherent evidence-based, global policy coordination to address negative impacts of reactive nitrogen stemming from multiple sources. This is also the mission of the EUNEP. In this context, the International Fertilizer Association (IFA) in a ...
We tested the reliability of fecal nitrogen (FN) to predict dietary nitrogen (DN) in two sika deer Cervus nippon Heude, 1884 populations with greatly differing habitats. One was near the village of Nishiokoppe (area A) and the other was on Nakanoshima Island (area B) in Hokkaido, Japan. To estimate FN, we washed feces through a sieve, and diet was identified based on rumen-content analysis. The diet in area A was mostly composed of grass and legumes of agricultural origin, with browse being only a minor component. In contrast, browse such as deciduous foliage was the main component of the diet in area B. Dietary nitrogen was significantly regressed by FN within specific areas. On the other hand, the DN-FN-relationship had a similar slope but significantly different intercepts between areas. DN-FN-relationships differed between diets with and without an agricultural component, irrespective of browse. Thus, the difference in the DN-FN-relationship between areas was explained by differences in ...
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This factorial split-plot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the application of time and level of nitrogen on yield, grain content, remobilization efficiency, and nitrogen consumption of quinoa cultivars. The present work has a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2018 and 2019 in Khuzestan, Iran. The experimental factors herein included four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (no fertilizer application, 100, 200, and 300 kg/ha) and different administrations: (1) 50% at base stage + 50% at six-leaf stage, (2) 50% at base stage + 25% at six-leaf stage + 25% at mid-flowering stage, (3) 25% at base stage + 50% at six-leaf stage + 25% at mid-flowering stage, and (4) 25% base stage + 25% six-leaf stage + 50% mid-flowering stage. Furthermore, quinoa cultivars Gizat, Q26, and Titicaca were selected as the sub-plots. Comparing the two-year averages, we found that with the increase in the nitrogen fertilizer, grain yield, biological yield, remobilization (R), current ...
Author(s): Ros, Gerard H.; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Hoffland, Ellis | Abstract: Strong relationships between Extractable Organic N (EON) and N mineralization suggest that they can be used to assess the N mineralization potential of soils. EON is often used to proxy Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), which is assumed to play an intermediate role in N mineralization. We tested whether EON relates to N mineralization and how this relation is affected by the extraction methodology used. We synthesized results from 171 papers on correlation coefficients between EON and N mineralization using meta-analysis. EON was positively related to N mineralization, and its size explained 14-65% of the variation in N mineralization. Best results were obtained with hot CaCl2 and acid KMnO4 as extractants. EON extracted with alkali solutions explained less of the variation in N mineralization than the other soil tests. There was no direct relationship between the intensity of extraction and the performance of EON as
The relationship between total and metabolically active soil microbial communities can provide insight into how these communities are impacted by environmental change, which may impact the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients in the future. For example, the anthropogenic release of biologically available N has dramatically increased over the last 150 years, which can alter the processes controlling C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, nearly 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. A microbial mechanism underlies this response, as compositional changes in the soil microbial community have been concomitantly documented with these biogeochemical changes. Here, we co-extracted DNA and RNA from decaying leaf litter to determine if experimental atmospheric N deposition has lowered the diversity and altered the composition of the whole communities of ...
Climate change is expected to have strong impacts on permafrost and the frequency of landscape disturbances are expected to increase in response to warming temperatures and overall permafrost change. These disturbances can increase the export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from High Arctic catchments, having important effects on downstream aquatic ecosystems, thus motivating the need to better understand the impact of permafrost change on nitrogen exports. This study examined fluxes of DIN (ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-)) from paired catchments at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory, Nunavut. Water samples were collected from the outlet of the rivers during the melt season from 2003 to 2016. A range of surface water draining different landscape types were also sampled during the 2016 season to identify how specific locations in the catchments control downstream DIN concentrations. Both physical disturbances, including active layer detachments (ALDs), and thermal perturbations ...
The objective of this study was to assess live weight gain, animal behaviour and N excretion in the urine of dairy heifers fed herbs during autumn and spring. Sixty heifers were allocated into five dietary treatments: 100% ryegrass-white clove pasture (100RG/WC); 50% RG/WC + 50% chicory (50CH); 75% RG/WC + 25% chicory (25CH); 75% RG/WC + 25% plantain (25PL); and 50% RG/WC + 50% plantain (50PL). The 100RG/WC had the highest (5.0 times/6 h) and lowest (2.5 times/6 h) urination frequency compared with other treatments in autumn (averaged 3.5 times/6 h) and spring (averaged 4.5 times/6 h), respec ...
Provided by Healio. Yamada K. Nutr J. 2013;doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-79.. June 24, 2013. Patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma who had a lower dietary fat intake experienced slower recovery from invasive therapies in a recent study.. Researchers assessed the dietary intake of 35 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before and after hospitalization. Nitrogen balance and nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) were measured upon admission and four days later.. Patients mean dietary intake at admission was 1,977 ± 513 kcal/day, with a negative nitrogen balance (-2.1 ± 4.5 g/dL) and an npRQ of 0.83 ± 0.061. While at the hospital, mean intake was 1,834 ± 290 kcal/day (P=.061 for difference), with a similar nitrogen balance (-3.0 ± 2.8 g/dL; P=.31). The npRQ after 4 days in-hospital was 0.86 ± 0.075 (P=.0032).. Five patients experienced minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), and investigators observed a trend toward lower npRQ among them compared with patients without MHE (0.78 ± ...
Liu, Mengyun, David A.N. Ussiri and Rattan Lal. 2016. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions under different land uses and tillage practices. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 47(12):1528-1541.. ...
Rhizoboxes were developed in order to analyse root system and corresponding protease activity in the rhizosphere of young tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker). The activity of proteases exuded by tomato roots applying in situ zymography was detected along the entire root system. The corresponding root architecture as well as root and shoot biomasses was determined to correlate protease activity with plant growth parameters under varying nitrogen supplies. With higher nitrate fertilisation, the proteases in the rhizosphere were more active than nitrogen-deficient plants. This may indicate that exuded proteases were not solely a plant response to nitrogen deficiency with the aim to increase nitrogen availability. Instead, they may have different roles, e.g. in root development.
As we approach spring and the coming growing season, corn farmers facing tight margins or operating losses with their corn crop are looking for ways to be as economical as possible. One input that always seems to need constant monitoring and fine-tuning is the nitrogen input schedule. Two Purdue experts have recently completed an updated report to a 10-year field-level study of nitrogen rates.. Applying more than enough nitrogen is no longer the cheap insurance it once was many years ago, said Jim Camberato, soil fertility specialist and co-author of Nitrogen Management Guidelines for Corn in Indiana. High nitrogen fertilizer costs and environmental impacts should encourage growers to critically evaluate their nitrogen management program, including application rate, fertilizer material and timing.. Nitrogen is the most expensive nutrient used in corn production. If applied properly, it makes individual plants stronger and increases yield.. Beyond some level of applied nitrogen, grain yield ...
Researchers in China studied the co-application of manures and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in high-input greenhouses. They said the environmental risks may outweigh the benefits.
Nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials are known to be excellent electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. In this study, we used a new and simple post-doping synthesis method to prepare nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by reacting fluorina
The Harland-Ashworth test for measuring undenatured whey protein nitrogen in nonfat dry milk was modified to measure undenatured whey protein nitrogen in dried whey. The new test was designed to measure absorbance in Harland-Ashworth filtrates at 280 nm to eliminate difficulties associated with turbidimetric measurements. One gram dried whey was reconstituted in 25 ml pH 6.7 phosphate buffer (.lM) in a 25 x 150 mm test tube. Ten grams sodium chloride were added. The test tubes were incubated for 30 min in a water bath at 37C and shaken 8-10 times in the first 15 min. The tubes were removed from the water bath and cooled to room temperature. The contents of the tubes were filtered through S & S 602 filter paper. One milliliter of filtrate was diluted with 10 ml H2o and the total absorbance was measured against a blank of 1 ml phosphate buffer saturated with sodium chloride, then diluted with 10 ml H2o. One milliliter of filtrate was mixed with 10 ml 13.2% trichloroacetic acid and filtered through Whatman
Contractile activity is an important determinant of the size, rate of protein turnover and phenotypic properties of muscle. Animal models that decrease muscle activity invariably accelerate the rate of protein degradation, usually complementing decreases in the rate of protein synthesis. The net effect is muscle atrophy. By contrast, increased activity and/or passive stretch enhance the synthesis of new proteins, whilst protein catabolism may be either decreased or increased. Muscle hypertrophy results. Endurance activities in man and animals usually induce cardiac hypertrophy, and increased fatigue resistance in skeletal muscle. During exercise the whole body and its skeletal musculature exhibit a negative nitrogen balance, and there is general agreement that rates of protein synthesis are decreased. Changes in protein degradation are, however, much less clearly defined. Resistance exercises induce the opposite changes, with the size of the heart remaining unchanged whilst the bulk and strength ...
Metabolic responses during a very-low-calorie diet, composed of 50 per cent glucose and 50 per cent protein, were studied in 18 grossly obese subjects (relative weights 131-205 per cent) for 28 d. During the last 14 d (period 2) eight subjects (Gp B) served as controls, while the other ten subjects (Gp A) in the low T₃ state were treated with triiodothyronine supplementation (50 micrograms, 3 times daily). During the first 14 d (period 1) a low T₃-high rT₃ state developed; there was an inverse relationship between the absolute fall of the plasma T₃ concentrations and the cumulative negative nitrogen balance as well as the beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) acid concentrations during the semi-starvation period, pointing to a protein and fuel sparing effect of the low T₃ state. Weight loss in the semi-starvation period was equal in both groups; during T₃ treatment the rate of weight loss was statistically significant (Gp A 6.1 +/- 0.3 kg vs Gp B 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg, P less than 0.001). In the ...
Author: Rubin, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: affinity nitrate transporter|br/|sucrose-specific induction|br/|knox gene-expression|br/|lob domain protein|br/|p-i starvation|br/|enzyme-activities|br/|phenylpropanoid biosynthesis|br/|flavonoid biosynthesis|br/|environmental nitrate|br/|secondary metabolism; Title: Members of the LBD Family of Transcription Factors Repress Anthocyanin Synthesis and Affect Additional Nitrogen Responses in Arabidopsis
Research on hydroponically grown mums showed that nitrogen (N) levels applied can be reduced when adequate sulfur (S) is also applied. However, changes in stem length, leaf area, and time-to-fl ower can be affected. Our goal was to evaluate whether reduced N levels in combination with S would affect commercial production and post-harvest longevity of pot mums. `White Diamond was grown in a peat:perlite:vermiculite medium following a commercial production schedule. N levels applied were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L. S levels were 0, 5, 10, 20, and 80 mg/L. The treatment design was a complete factorial 4 × 5 with 20 treatment combinations. The experimental design was a split-plot with N levels as the whole-plot and S levels as the split-plot factor. Variables measured were plant height, leaf area, days to bud set, days to first color, and days to flower opening. Plants were ship to the Univ. of Florida for postharvest evaluation. Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED AND PROC REG. N and S ...
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The collection of atmospheric deposition by technical samplers and validated deposition modelling using chemical transport models is spatially complemented by using mosses as bioindicator: since 1990, the European moss survey has been providing data on element concentrations in moss every 5 years at up to 7300 sampling sites. In the moss specimens, heavy metals (since 1990), nitrogen (since 2005) and persistent organic pollutants (since 2010) were determined. Germany participated in all surveys with the exception of that in 2010. In this study, the spatial structures of element concentrations in moss collected in Germany between 1990 and 2015 were comparatively investigated by using Morans I statistics and Variogram analysis and mapped by use of Kriging interpolation. This is the precondition to spatially join the moss survey data with data collected at other locations within different environmental networks and to validate spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition as derived by technical sampling and
The effect of sowing date, N fertilisation and genotype on the grain yield and yield stability of maize was studied between 1991 and 2006 in a long-term N fertilisation experiment set up on chernozem soil in Martonvásár, Hungary. The N treatments (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg ha −1 ) represented the main plot of the three-factor, split-split-plot experiment, with the sowing date (early, optimum, late, very late) in the sub-plots and hybrids from different maturity groups in the sub-sub-plots. The highest yields were obtained for the early and optimum sowing dates (8.712 and 8.706 t ha −1 ). Compared with the optimum sowing date, a delay of ten or twenty days led to yield losses of 5% and 12.5%, respectively. In the late and very late sowings and in years with unfavourable weather conditions, yield increments were only observed up to an N rate of 60 kg ha −1 , while in the early and optimum sowings and in favourable years yield increments were significant up to 120 kg ha −1 N. Yield ...
Spatial variability of soil parameters within fields complicates N fertilizer recommendations for corn (Zea mays L.) production. Thus, the ability to identify differences in crop N status within corn fields could lead to efficiencies in N fertilizer application and decreased ground water pollution. In this study, we digitized aerial color photographic transparencies using an eight-bit scheme to generate digital counts for the red, green, and blue primary colors in the photographs at the R5 growth stage and related them to grain yield. Digital count responses were relative to the N treatment in which grain yield plateaued. Experiments were conducted in 1992 and 1993 for four irrigated corn hybrids with five N rates on a 6-ha field near Shelton, NE. Red and green digital counts relative to those for the high N treatment provided better prediction of yield response than relative blue counts in both years. In 1993, black-and-white photographs taken with a filter centered around 536 nm also predicted yield
Nitrogen canisters[edit]. Further information: Suicide bag. In 2012 Nitschke started a beer-brewing company (Max Dog Brewing) ... "Dr Death' to fight nitrogen complaint". Nine MSN. 3 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 7 May ... Following a 2013 workshop showcasing Nitschke's nitrogen gas product, the AMA's WA branch president and general practitioner,[ ... filled with nitrogen.[78] Nitschke developed a process in which patients lose consciousness immediately and die a few minutes ...
Nitrogen rule[edit]. The nitrogen rule states that organic molecules that contain hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, ... Amines follow nitrogen rule. Odd molecular ion mass-to-charge ratio suggests existence of odd numbers of nitrogens. Nonetheless ... where C is the number of carbons, H is the number of hydrogens, X is the number of halogens, and N is the number of nitrogen. ... have an odd nominal mass if they have an odd number of nitrogen atoms or an even mass if they have an even number of nitrogen ...
The nitrogen-15 dimension is perpendicular to the screen. Each window is focused on the nitrogen chemical shift of that amino ... Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance[edit]. Main article: Triple-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance ... However, since nitrogen atoms are found mainly in the backbone of a protein, the results mainly reflect the motions of the ... Nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance[edit]. Main article: Heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy ...
Carbon to nitrogen ratio[edit]. Topsoil is the primary resource for plants to grow and crops to thrive and the main two ... The Carbon provides energy and Nitrogen is a tissue builder and plants require them in a range of ratios to enable suitable ... Understanding the Carbon Nitrogen Ratio by Crow Miller ACRES http://sccd.org/carbon-nitrogen_ratio.pdf ... Nitrogen ratio, Electrical Conductivity, Loss on Ignition, pH, Chemical and Physical Contamination. The topsoil should be ...
Nitrogen is a common element in nature and an essential plant nutrient. Approximately 78% of Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen (N2 ... Environmental Impacts of Nitrogen Use in Agriculture *^ a b .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser- ... Nitrogen promotes plant growth. Livestock then eat the crops producing manure, which is returned to the soil, adding organic ... "WQ262 Nitrogen in the Environment: Leaching , University of Missouri Extension". Extension.missouri.edu. Retrieved 2013-03-08. ...
Nitrogen fixation[edit]. Among his many agricultural investigations with plants, the most important by far are his ... The question of the ability of leguminous plants to use the nitrogen of the air had long been one of inquiry, and its ... Investigations into the Nitrogen assimilation of the Gramineae and Leguminosae; Berlin, 1888), and Ueber Stickstoffnahrung ... was a German agricultural chemist who discovered that leguminous plants assimilate the free nitrogen of the atmosphere. ...
Maintaining the nitrogen cycle[edit]. Although called the nitrogen "cycle" by hobbyists, in aquaria the cycle is not complete: ... nitrogen must be added (usually indirectly through food) and nitrates must be removed at the end. Nitrogen bound up in plant ... Nitrogen waste is metabolized in aquaria by a type of bacteria known as nitrifiers (genus Nitrosomonas). Nitrifying bacteria ... Nitrogen waste products become toxic to fish and other aquarium inhabitants above a certain concentration.[7] ...
Nitrogen narcosis[edit]. Main article: Nitrogen narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis is also called "L'ivresse des grandes profondeurs" ... At greater depths, however, nitrogen affects the brain in the same way as nitrous oxide (also known as laughing gas) and other ... primarily nitrogen or helium) dissolved in the body coming out of solution to form gas bubbles.[2] ... or "rapture of the deep". Nitrogen comprises 79% of the air, but at surface pressures it has no sedating effect. ...
Nitrogen assimilation[edit]. Aspergillus fumigatus can survive on a variety of different nitrogen sources, and the assimilation ... of nitrogen is of clinical importance, as it has been shown to affect virulence.[23][28] Proteins involved in nitrogen ... Examples of nutrient uptake include that of metals, nitrogen, and macromolecules such as peptides.[12][23] ... is induced by nitrogen starvation". Fungal Genetics and Biology. 36 (3): 207-14. doi:10.1016/S1087-1845(02)00022-1. PMID ...
Nitrogen nucleophiles[edit]. In alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution, a primary or secondary amine adds to the carbonyl group and a ... proton is transferred from the nitrogen to the oxygen atom to create a carbinolamine. In the case of a primary amine, a water ...
"The Nitrogen cycle and Nitrogen fixation". Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved ... These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).[9] The ... Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, legumes are among the best sources of plant ... Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that ...
Nitrogen fertilizers[edit]. Top users of nitrogen-based fertilizer[10] Country Total N use (Mt pa) ... Chemicals that affect nitrogen uptake[edit]. Various chemicals are used to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen-based fertilizers ... Although nitrogen makes up most of the atmosphere, it is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nitrogen is the most ... China although has become the largest producer and consumer of nitrogen fertilizers.[23] Africa has little reliance on nitrogen ...
Nitrogenase (nitrogen fixation)[edit]. The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is a very energy-intensive process, as it involves ... ion coordinated to four nitrogen atoms of a corrin ring and a fifth nitrogen atom from an imidazole group. In the resting state ... The active site nickel geometry cycles from square planar Ni(II), with thiolate (Cys2 and Cys6) and backbone nitrogen (His1 and ... In metalloproteins, metal ions are usually coordinated by nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur centers belonging to amino acid residues ...
Nitrogen[edit]. Nitrogen is important for overall tree and leaf growth and peel thickness, and fruit acidity. ... Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus are the main macronutrients needed in citrus production, as well as Calcium, Magnesium and ...
Reactions at nitrogen[edit]. Basicity[edit]. Aniline is a weak base. Aromatic amines such as aniline are, in general, much ... As a result, the nitrogen lone pair is in an spx hybrid orbital with high p character. The amino group in aniline is flatter (i ... The nitrogen's electron was delocalized to the ring. This is why that aniline is less basic than most amines. ... The oxidation of aniline has been heavily investigated, and can result in reactions localized at nitrogen or more commonly ...
Nitrogen[edit]. Nitrogen nucleophiles include ammonia, azide, amines, nitrites, hydroxylamine, hydrazine, carbazide, ...
Other nitrogen compounds. Chloroplasts make all of a cell's purines and pyrimidines-the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. ... 158] They also convert nitrite (NO2−) into ammonia (NH3) which supplies the plant with nitrogen to make its amino acids and ...
A great advantage of crop rotation comes from the interrelationship of nitrogen fixing-crops with nitrogen demanding crops. ... a nitrogen-fixing crop, like a legume, should always precede a nitrogen depleting one; similarly, a low residue crop (i.e. a ... Nitrogen fixing[edit]. Rotating crops adds nutrients to the soil. Legumes, plants of the family Fabaceae, for instance, have ... Both nitrogen-fixing legumes and nutrient scavengers, like grasses, can be used as green manure.[7] Green manure of legumes is ...
... molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).[42] The chemical reaction is: N. 2. +. 8. H. +. +. 8. e. −. →. 2. N. H. 3. +. H. 2 ... Nitrogen-fixing ability[edit]. Peas, like many legumes, contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their ... Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, peas and many legumes are among the best ... The weevil larvae feed on the root nodules of pea plants, which are essential to the plants' supply of nitrogen, and thus ...
This is called "residual nitrogen time" (RNT) when the gas is nitrogen. The RNT is added to the planned "actual bottom time" ( ... Residual nitrogen time[edit]. For the planned depth of the repetitive dive, a bottom time can be calculated using the relevant ... Dissolved inert gases such as nitrogen or helium can form bubbles in the blood and tissues of the diver if the partial ... taking into account the accumulated nitrogen from previous dives.[22] Within the Haldanian logic of the model, at least three ...
Biological filtration and the nitrogen cycle[edit]. A large shower biological filter designed to maximize the beneficial ... Proper management of the nitrogen cycle is a vital element of a successful aquarium. Excretia and other decomposing organic ... Some systems incorporate bacteria capable of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas.[5] ... the nitrogen cycle effectively ends with the production of nitrates. In order that the nitrate level does not build up to a ...
The nitrogen compounds through which excess nitrogen is eliminated from organisms are called nitrogenous wastes (/naɪˈtrɒdʒɪnəs ... Only one nitrogen atom is removed with it. A lot of water is needed for the excretion of ammonia, about 0.5 L of water is ... This includes nitrogen compounds, water, CO2, phosphates, sulphates, etc. Animals treat these compounds as excretes. Plants ... These animals are called ureotelic.[2] Urea is a less toxic compound than ammonia; two nitrogen atoms are eliminated through it ...
Nitrogen 1.0975 39.13 64.98 2.25 Oxygen 1.208 31.83 52.86 2.06 Chlorine 1.988 56.22 93.36 2.39 ...
Nitrogen 1772 D. Rutherford 1772 D. Rutherford He discovered nitrogen while he was studying at the University of Edinburgh.[44] ... Roza, Greg (2010). The Nitrogen Elements: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth. p. 7. ISBN 9781435853355. .. ... They discovered the gas by comparing the molecular weights of nitrogen prepared by liquefaction from air and nitrogen prepared ... "07 Nitrogen". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "56 Barium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. ...
... its total nitrogen content is roughly four times higher than Earth's, even though on Earth nitrogen makes up about 78% of the ... Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen) is a lifting gas ... The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur ... nitrogen and oxygen) could keep the structure floating at that altitude like a dirigible. ...
Nitrogen. 0.502. -1.380. 0.092. -0.333. 0.400. -0.276. -0.027. 0.322. 0.0279. 2.72E-03 ...
Nitrogen. 0.0012506. 63.15. 77.36 Oxygen. 0.001429. 54.36. 90.20 Sodium. 0.971. 370.87. 1156 ...
Nitrogen: Boiling point at atmospheric pressure (common cooling agent; for reference) 45 −228 SmFeAsO0.85F0.15 low-temperature ... which makes it unsuitable for liquid nitrogen cooling (approximately 30 °C below nitrogen triple point temperature). For ... The major advantage of high-temperature ceramic superconductors is that they can be cooled by using liquid nitrogen.[3] On the ... The label high-Tc should be reserved for materials with critical temperatures greater than the boiling point of liquid nitrogen ...
nitrogen 7 N oxygen 8 O fluorine 9 F neon 10 Ne ...
nitrogen: ammonia ('azane' when substituted), hydrazine. *phosphorus: phosphine (note 'phosphane' is the IUPAC recommended name ... Therefore, we have NH3, 'nitrogen hydride' (ammonia), versus H2O, 'hydrogen oxide' (water). This convention is sometimes broken ...
Liquid nitrogen readily evaporates to form gaseous nitrogen, and hence the precautions associated with gaseous nitrogen also ... Liquid nitrogen is extensively used in vacuum pump systems. Safety[edit]. Gas[edit]. Although nitrogen is non-toxic, when ... Atomic nitrogen is prepared by passing an electric discharge through nitrogen gas at 0.1-2 mmHg, which produces atomic nitrogen ... Nitrogen at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham). *Nitrogen podcast from the Royal Society of Chemistrys ...
27). Although nitrogen-stressed cells recycle the nitrogen from preexisting photosynthetically fixed carbon toward nitrogen- ... Nitrogen stress also induced a change in the lipid profile; in conjunction with the marked increase in TAGs, nitrogen stress ... S1 and Tables S1 and S2); consequently, the cellular IPL/TAG ratio was 25-fold higher in nitrogen-replete cells. In nitrogen- ... Nitrogen stress sets a global constraint on protein translation by limiting amino acid biosynthesis (22). Thus, on nitrogen ...
Urea Nitrogen Clearance (Urine). Does this test have other names?. Urine urea nitrogen, 24-hour urine test ... This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine.. Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks ... Either of these problems can lead to changes in the amount of urea nitrogen in your body. ...
Nitrogen fixation. Main article: Nitrogen fixation. The conversion of nitrogen gas (N2) into nitrates and nitrites through ... Though nitrogen fixation is the primary source of plant-available nitrogen in most ecosystems, in areas with nitrogen-rich ... regenerated nitrogen. Nitrogen entering the euphotic zone is referred to as new nitrogen because it is newly arrived from ... nitrogen fixed by natural ecosystems,[3] nitrogen fixed by oceans,[4] nitrogen fixed by agricultural crops,[5] NOx emitted by ...
The chief commercial method of fixing nitrogen (incorporating elemental nitrogen into compounds) is the Haber-Bosch process for ... Nitrogen - Compounds: Although the other applications are important, by far the greatest bulk of elemental nitrogen is consumed ... The triple bond between atoms in the nitrogen molecules is so strong (226 kilocalories per mole, more than twice that of ... molecular hydrogen) that it is difficult to cause molecular nitrogen to enter into other combinations. ...
Nitrogen Narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis1 is a condition experienced by divers breathing compressed air when they breathe nitrogen ... Nitrogen Narcosis (Last Posting: Jan 22, 2008) partial pressure of nitrogen (Last Posting: Jul 21, 2003) Narc-ed (Last Posting ... 1 Nitrogen Narcosis should not be confused with the bends, or Decompression Sickness to give it its proper name. The two are ... So at a depth of ten metres, the partial pressure of nitrogen is 1.6 bars, at 20 metres 2.4 bar and at 30 metres 3.2 bars. ...
... Aims and Intentions. Labelling rules require that where ingredients are highlighted in the name ... The analysis determines the nitrogen (mainly on a fat free basis) of meat or fish ingredient, and converts this to a meat or ... The Sub-committee oversees the determination of nitrogen factors for meat, poultry and seafood for use by both enforcement ... The Subcommittee has already produced reports on nitrogen factors for pork (1991), beef (1993), mutton and lamb (1995, 1996), ...
When too much nitrogen flows to our bays, fast-growing plants out-compete and kill slower-growing beneficial plants. ... Nitrogen makes plants grow. But too much of a good thing is a bad thing. ... What Is Nitrogen Pollution? Nitrogen makes plants grow. But too much of a good thing is a bad thing. When too much nitrogen ... Nitrogen makes plants grow. But too much of a good thing is a bad thing. When too much nitrogen flows to our bays, fast-growing ...
Nitrogen dioxide worldwide. Image 14398 views 96 likes Applications Nitrogen dioxide concentrations over Spain. Image 8662 ... Nitrogen dioxide concentrations over Europe. Image 5592 views 44 likes Applications Sentinel-5P sees nitrogen dioxide over ... Nitrogen dioxide over Europe. Image 11757 views 61 likes Applications ... Nitrogen dioxide pollutes the air mainly as a result of traffic and the combustion of fossil fuel in industrial processes. It ...
Current page: Overclocking with Liquid Nitrogen Prev Page Overclocking with Water Cooling Next Page Howd We Do with 20 Core i7 ... Overclocking with Liquid Nitrogen * Page 1: Intel Core i7-7700K: De-Lidded and Overclocked ... After tens of liters of liquid nitrogen, a bottle of gas, and more than 10 hours of chilling to test the BIOS, processor, RAM, ... Overclocking with Liquid Nitrogen. The difference between conventional and extreme overclocking is largely a matter of ...
CHEBI:37382 - nitrogen trichloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Nitrogen fixation is conducted by a variety of bacteria, both as free-living organisms and in symbiotic association with plants ... Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen fixation refers to the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into a form usable by plants and ... Nitrogen Fixation. Nitrogen fixation refers to the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into a form usable by plants and ... Nitrogen fixation is the biological process by which atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) is converted into ammonia (NH3). Nitrogen is ...
Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by ... Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. Contact with the skin or eyes can cause burns. ... Everybody is exposed to small amounts of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. Higher exposure may occur by burning wood or kerosene ... What are nitrogen oxides?. Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Two of the most ...
Research has also suggested the nodules on nitrogen-fixing trees transfer nitrogen directly to the roots of other trees growing ... Natures Nitrogen. Originally published 4:36 p.m., December 20, 2006. Updated 3:16 p.m., February 22, 2007. By Virginia Hayes ... And if you rely on a wood-burning source of heat in winter, there are woody species that can provide more than the nitrogen ... For more information about how you can tap into the bounty of nitrogen-fixing plants, visit agroforestry.net/pubs/NFTs.html and ...
Nitrogen dioxide. CAS No: 10102-44-0. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Nitrogen dioxide. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Nitrogen: Improving on Nature (NITROGEN) A joint Ideas Lab activity between NSF and BBSRC Program Solicitation NSF 12-579. ... Nitrogen is critical to plant growth. A limited number of plant species have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through ... Nitrogen is critical to plant growth. A limited number of plant species have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through ... This could be achieved by: i) giving crops the ability to fix their own nitrogen; ii) significantly increasing the nitrogen ...
Means we either have a low yield compared to the Nitrogen applied or a high Nitrogen rate relative to yield. ... What is Discovery Farms NUE research finding as the relationship between Nitrogen supplied and yield? ...
23.Institut für Kulturpflanzenforschung GaterslebenDeutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu BerlinGatersleben (Kreis Aschersleben)Deutschland ...
Although nitrogen exists in abundance in the earths atmosphere, relatively few plants are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen ... Typically, commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen as a supplement for depleted soil. ... Nitrogen is an essential nutrient needed by all plants to thrive. ... Nitrogen is an essential nutrient needed by all plants to thrive. Although nitrogen exists in abundance in the earths ...
More advanced treatise of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Could be useful for teachers who have limited science background or ... What then is the Nitrogen Cycle?,br /,• Like carbon atoms, nitrogen atoms do not stay in one place.,br /,• Nitrogen atoms move ... Nitrogen travels through the five processes in the Nitrogen Cycle!,br /,(1) Nitrogen Fixation,br /,(5) Denitrification,br /, ... Thus, through the nitrogen cycle: ,br /,• Plants obtain nitrogen through nitrogen fixation and nitrification. ,br /,• Animals ...
Tags: data visualization, nitrogen dioxide, OMI, pollution, shipping. Posted in Uncategorized , 12 Comments and counting ...
Nitrogen. By: Pantheon Technologies Latest Version: Nitrogen-v2 Pre-installed Nitrogen release of OpenDaylight without any ... Image contains latest Nitrogen service release * The default cloud user is setup to be centos, you can use this user to reach ... Pre-installed Nitrogen release of OpenDaylight without any proprietary modifications on top of a base CentOS 7 image. ... It is useful for any users who want to test their applications and products with vanilla Nitrogen platform, before moving to ...
Start the morning right with Nitrogen Mugs from CafePress. Browse tons of unique designs or create your own custom coffee mug ... Does your mug make a statement? Express yourself with unique Nitrogen Mugs from CafePress. If you want to express your funny ...
Nitrogen in water: Algal blooms in rivers caused by too much nitrogen Descriptive information here will be added later. ... Excess nitrogen can harm water bodies. Excess nitrogen can cause overstimulation of growth of aquatic plants and algae. ... Too Much of a Good Thing: Increasing Nitrogen Deposition in Lakes Increasing nitrogen emissions from motor vehicles, energy ... Wastewater-treatment facilities that do not specifically remove nitrogen can also lead to excess levels of nitrogen in surface ...
Other names: Nitrogen gas; N2; UN 1066; UN 1977; Dinitrogen; Molecular nitrogen; Diatomic nitrogen; Nitrogen-14 ...
Other names: Nitrogen gas; N2; UN 1066; UN 1977; Dinitrogen; Molecular nitrogen; Diatomic nitrogen; Nitrogen-14 ... Reddy, S.P.; Cho, C.W., Induced infrared absorption of nitrogen and nitrogen-foreign gas mixtures, Can. J. Phys., 1965, 43, ... Gartner, E.M.; Thrush, B.A., Infrared emission by active nitrogen. I. The kinetic behaviour of N2(B3«SIGMA»u-), Proc. R. Soc. ... Carroll, P.K.; Collins, C.P., High resolution absorption studies of the b1«PI»u ,-- X1«SIGMA»g+ system of nitrogen, Can. J. ...
Nitrogen fertilizer: Retrospect and prospect. Charles R. Frink, Paul E. Waggoner, and Jesse H. Ausubel ... Because nitrogen (N) comprises fully 16% of protein, neither we, other animals, nor plants grow and survive unless roots ... Maene, L. M., paper presented at Asia Nitrogen 98, February 22-24, 1998, Kuala Lumpur. ...
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a noxious gas emitted primarily through the burning of gasoline, coal, and diesel fuel by motor ... Airborne Nitrogen Dioxide Plummets Over China. NO2 amounts have dropped with the coronavirus quarantine, Chinese New Year, and ... The plot below shows the mean column density of nitrogen dioxide-how much NO2 would be found in a column of air stretching up ... The maps on this page show levels of nitrogen dioxide in the troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) over China. The ...
Oxides of nitrogen: …2HNO3 + NO Nitrogen (N) forms oxides in which nitrogen exhibits each of its positive oxidation numbers ... Other articles where Nitrogen oxide is discussed: oxide: ... In nitrogen: Compounds. Many of the nitrogen oxides are ... In oxide: Oxides of nitrogen. …2HNO3 + NO Nitrogen (N) forms oxides in which nitrogen exhibits each of its positive oxidation ... begins with the emission of nitrogen oxide during the morning commuting hour, followed by the formation of nitrogen dioxide by ...
  • Inclusion of legumes in crop rotations is generally thought to improve soil nitrogen levels, but benefits depend on the level of N 2 fixed and the amount of nitrogen removed in grain or forage. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The calculations by Vitousek and his team show that humans have further added to the amount of nitrogen being circulated by burning forests and grasslands, draining wetlands, and clearing land for growing crops, all of which speed up the recycling of fixed nitrogen stored in soils and vegetation. (newscientist.com)
  • Grosvenor Place, which runs alongside the palace, has almost four times the maximum permissible amount of nitrogen dioxide. (dictionary.com)
  • In any case some allowance should be made for the amount of nitrogen collected by the legumes. (dictionary.com)
  • Adverse health effects caused by nitrogen mustards depend on the amount of nitrogen mustard to which people are exposed, the route of exposure, and the length of time that people are exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Mr. HOULTON: It would increase the amount of nitrogen we think is available to terrestrial plants by about a third. (npr.org)
  • When they're grown with the same amount of nitrogen fertilizer as their traditionally bred counterparts, they do noticeably better. (fastcompany.com)
  • Researchers from China Agricultural University analyzed data from across the country and found the amount of nitrogen expelled into its surroundings every year rose by 8 kilograms per hectare every year between 1980 and 2010. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But scientists did not follow up on these findings, and the amount of nitrogen released as rocks weather was thought to be insignificant. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But Schlesinger cautions against overinterpreting the significance of the new findings, noting that the amount of nitrogen entering soils via synthetic fertilizers dwarfs that from rocks. (scientificamerican.com)
  • U.S. corn plantations could hit record highs this year, which is great news as corn requires the largest amount of nitrogen. (aol.com)
  • Corn and cotton share an essential attribute: They need just the right amount of nitrogen to generate high yields. (uga.edu)
  • This Integrated Approach to Nitrogen, (Programma Aanpak Stikstof or PAS in Dutch) was developed to reduce the amount of nitrogen in Natura 2000 areas in the Netherlands and to create room for economic development at the same time. (rivm.nl)
  • In some parts of the Natura 2000 sites, the amount of nitrogen deposition is too high. (rivm.nl)
  • As a result the amount of nitrogen fixed is too costly for the plant. (abc.net.au)
  • and nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , in which it is in the +4 state. (britannica.com)
  • Nitric oxide reacts rapidly with oxygen to form brown nitrogen dioxide, an intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid and a powerful oxidizing agent utilized in chemical processes and rocket fuels. (britannica.com)
  • The air we breathe is a mixture of 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and 1% other gases consisting mainly of argon but small but important traces of carbon dioxide and water vapour. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Measurements gathered by the Copernicus Sentinel-5P mission between August 2018 and February 2019 have been averaged to reveal nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. (esa.int)
  • Nitrogen dioxide pollutes the air mainly as a result of traffic and the combustion of fossil fuel in industrial processes. (esa.int)
  • Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitric oxide is a sharp sweet-smelling gas at room temperature, whereas nitrogen dioxide has a strong, harsh odor and is a liquid at room temperature, becoming a reddish-brown gas above 70°F. (cdc.gov)
  • The reaction of nitrogen dioxide with chemicals produced by sunlight leads to the formation of nitric acid, which is a major constituent of acid rain. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen dioxide also reacts with sunlight, which leads to the formation of ozone and smog conditions in the air we breathe. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are found in tobacco smoke, so people who smoke or breathe in second-hand smoke may be exposed to nitrogen oxides. (cdc.gov)
  • If you were to come into skin or eye contact with high concentrations of nitrogen oxide gases or nitrogen dioxide liquid, you would likely experience serious burns. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this technical report is to present the IDLH value for Nitrogen Dioxide (CAS ® No. 10102-44-0). (cdc.gov)
  • Three months later, with most coronavirus (COVID-19) lockdowns ending in China and economic activity resuming, the levels of nitrogen dioxide over the country have returned to near normal for this time of year. (nasa.gov)
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is a noxious gas emitted primarily through the burning of gasoline, coal, and diesel fuel by motor vehicles, power plants, and industrial facilities. (nasa.gov)
  • Scientists in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have been monitoring nitrogen dioxide and other aspects of global air quality for several decades. (nasa.gov)
  • The maps on this page show levels of nitrogen dioxide in the troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) over China. (nasa.gov)
  • The plot below shows the mean column density of nitrogen dioxide-how much NO 2 would be found in a column of air stretching up through the troposphere-over China as measured by OMI in 2020 (red line) and from 2015-2019 (blue lines). (nasa.gov)
  • Editor's Note: For more information on NASA's long-term measurements of nitrogen dioxide, see this page . (nasa.gov)
  • begins with the emission of nitrogen oxide during the morning commuting hour, followed by the formation of nitrogen dioxide by oxygenation, and finally, through a complex series of reactions in the presence of hydrocarbons and sunlight, leads to the formation of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrite and other irritant compounds. (britannica.com)
  • Exposure to an increased level of air pollutants, especially nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with lower likelihoods of successful pregnancy among women undergoing in vitro fertilization, according to a team of fertility researchers. (redorbit.com)
  • Burning of fossil fuels and diesel engine combustion produces nitrogen dioxide and fine particles. (redorbit.com)
  • While the effects of declining air quality on IVF success are variable and pollutant-dependent, elevated exposures to nitrogen dioxide and fine particles were consistently associated with lower success rates of pregnancy. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers theorize that higher ozone levels indicate lower nitrogen dioxide levels, which would show better pregnancy outcomes. (redorbit.com)
  • In addition, for the multi-pollutant model, the "positive" effects of ozone were diminished with the addition of nitrogen dioxide. (redorbit.com)
  • In contrast, after adjusting for ozone, higher nitrogen dioxide exposures consistently associated with the lower success rate, regardless of which indictor was used -- positive pregnancy test, clinically confirmed intrauterine pregnancy or live birth. (redorbit.com)
  • Trees are gobbling up a fair amount of the carbon dioxide that we pour into the atmosphere, but scientists have been worried that in the next few decades, they'd start to run out of the nitrogen they need to keep fueling this growth spurt. (npr.org)
  • And nitrogen sprinkled on plants reacts with microbes in the soil to form nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide. (fastcompany.com)
  • When lead(II) nitrate is heated, it decomposes into lead (II) oxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. (reference.com)
  • The council has deployed over 60 nitrogen dioxide diffusion tubes, mostly close to busy roads. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • All current and historical (discontinued) nitrogen dioxide diffusion tube locations are available to view on the interactive map below and a list of annual NO2 diffusion tube reports for Southampton can be found on the reports page. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • Use the link below to view the location of the nitrogen dioxide diffusion tubes on an interactive map. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • Nitrogen narcosis may be differentiated from toxicity of oxygen , carbon monoxide , or carbon dioxide by the absence of such symptoms as headache, seizure, and bluish color of the lips and nail beds. (factbites.com)
  • And he says the more nitrogen a plant has at its disposal the more carbon dioxide it can consume, which in turn further influences climate change. (abc.net.au)
  • Nitrogen dioxide pollution in October 2011 as measured by Sciamachy on Envisat. (esa.int)
  • Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation , ammonification , nitrification , and denitrification . (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of nitrogen gas (N 2 ) into nitrates and nitrites through atmospheric, industrial and biological processes is called nitrogen fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most biological nitrogen fixation occurs by the activity of Mo-nitrogenase, found in a wide variety of bacteria and some Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • In Brazil alone, N 2 fixation contributes the equivalent of 2.5 million tons of fertilizer nitrogen annually to agricultural production and is essential to a country with limited natural gas reserves for fertilizer nitrogen production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some free-living organisms fix enough N 2 in vitro to grow without added nitrogen, but limited energy supply can limit N 2 fixation in nature. (encyclopedia.com)
  • nitrogen cycle, the continuous flow of nitrogen through the biosphere by the processes of nitrogen fixation, ammonification (decay), nitrification, and denitrification. (factmonster.com)
  • This paper details current knowledge about nitrogen fixation by cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) heterocysts. (springer.com)
  • Nitrogen fixation is the process by which atmospheric nitrogen gas is converted into ammonia. (reed.edu)
  • This web site is not designed to be a comprehensive presentation on nitrogen fixation, but rather it is intended as a forum to present informative images that are not otherwise easily available. (reed.edu)
  • This book aims to serve as a centralized reference document for students and researchers interested in aspects of marine nitrogen fixation. (springer.com)
  • Although nitrogen is a critical element in both terrestrial and aquatic productivity, and nitrogen fixation is a key process that balances losses due to denitrification in both environments, most resources on the subject focuses on the biochemistry and microbiology of such processes and the organisms involved in the terrestrial environment on symbiosis in terrestrial systems, or on largely ecological aspects in the marine environment. (springer.com)
  • This book bridges this knowledge gap for both specialists and non-experts, and provides an in-depth overview of the important aspects of nitrogen fixation as it relates to the marine environment. (springer.com)
  • His major focus is oceanic nitrogen fixation. (springer.com)
  • e.g. most # nitrogen in ZBNF will come from biological nitrogen fixation, with only a modest share from manure. (twitter.com)
  • The 'nitrogen balance' includes nitrogen input (fertilising, nitrogen fixation and nitrogen deposition among other things) and nitrogen output (denitrification and the emission of ammonia among other things) and thus reflects a major part of the nitrogen cycle and the impact of farm management on the hydrosphere and atmosphere. (europa.eu)
  • Farming relies on reactive nitrogen to help crops grow, which was historically supplied through animal manures and the natural fixation of nitrogen by plants such as peas and beans. (theecologist.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation is a process in which the bacteria that inhabit the soil change elemental nitrogen into a form that plants are able to use. (prezi.com)
  • Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia , nitric acid, organic nitrates ( propellants and explosives ), and cyanides , contain nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bacteria have the nitrogenase enzyme that combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia , which is converted by the bacteria into other organic compounds . (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, about 30% of the total fixed nitrogen is produced industrially using the Haber-Bosch process, [23] which uses high temperatures and pressures to convert nitrogen gas and a hydrogen source (natural gas or petroleum) into ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant provides amino acids to the bacteroids so ammonia assimilation is not required and the bacteroids pass amino acids (with the newly fixed nitrogen) back to the plant, thus forming an interdependent relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chief commercial method of fixing nitrogen (incorporating elemental nitrogen into compounds) is the Haber-Bosch process for synthesizing ammonia. (britannica.com)
  • Large quantities of nitrogen are used together with hydrogen to produce ammonia , NH 3 , a colourless gas with a pungent, irritating odour. (britannica.com)
  • In some cases, industrial by-products such as pure ammonia can be used as a nitrogen fertilizer, but these should be avoided as they are toxic and pose health problems in terms of handling and exposure. (ehow.com)
  • Gaseous hydrogen and nitrogen react to create ammonia, which is essential for the production of fertilizers. (ehow.com)
  • Nitrate can also be formed in water bodies through the oxidation of other forms of nitrogen, including nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen compounds such as amino acids. (usgs.gov)
  • Ammonia and organic nitrogen can enter water through sewage effluent and runoff from land where manure has been applied or stored. (usgs.gov)
  • Reactive forms of nitrogen, especially nitrate and ammonia, are particularly detrimental. (wiley-vch.de)
  • We decided to permanently close our Blytheville production plants now because of continuing high natural gas costs, the upcoming lull in off-season nitrogen markets and the likelihood that competition from imported ammonia and urea barged up the Mississippi River will make future major maintenance and capital investments at the Blytheville facility unsound,' said Michael Bennett, the company's president and CEO, in a press release. (marketwatch.com)
  • Abundant in nature (78% of the air we breathe), nitrogen is rarely used in the industrial production of chemicals, with the most important process being the synthesis of ammonia, which is in turn used for the preparation of agricultural fertilizers. (eurekalert.org)
  • N 2 ) is split into two atoms of nitrogen that can then be connected to other elements like hydrogen or carbon, which allow nitrogen to be stored as ammonia or converted directly in higher value compounds. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 2017, the lab of Marinella Mazzanti at EPFL was able to convert molecular nitrogen into ammonia in ambient conditions by synthesizing a compound containing two uranium(III) ions and three potassium centers held together by a nitride group. (eurekalert.org)
  • Most of China's nitrogen pollution is in the form of ammonia compounds, the kind found in fertilizer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • While ammonia compounds associated with farming were five times as prevalent as nitrogen oxides in the 1980s, they are now only twice as common in China's water, soil and air. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia , NH 3, hydrazine , N 2 H 4, and azoimide, N 3 H (qq.v. (factbites.com)
  • Decomposers , found in the upper soil layer, chemically modify the nitrogen found in organic matter from ammonia (NH to ammonium salts (NH This process is known as mineralization and it is carried out by a variety of bacteria , actinomycetes, and fungi. (factbites.com)
  • Nitrogen oxides and ammonia end up in the environment mainly as a result of animal husbandry and manure applications in farming, and emissions from traffic and industry. (rivm.nl)
  • RIVM continuously monitors the concentrations of nitrogen oxides and ammonia in the air and precipitation. (rivm.nl)
  • Model calculations are also carried out to explain the measured levels of ammonia and to map the nitrogen deposition on nature. (rivm.nl)
  • Nitrogen in the form of ammonia was first produced industrially using the Haber Bosch process developed in 1909. (earthtimes.org)
  • It is moderately polar with a dipole moment of 0.6 D. The nitrogen center is basic but much less so than ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about nitrogen oxides. (cdc.gov)
  • Everybody is exposed to small amounts of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. (cdc.gov)
  • What are nitrogen oxides? (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen oxides are released to the air from the exhaust of motor vehicles, the burning of coal, oil, or natural gas, and during processes such as arc welding, electroplating, engraving, and dynamite blasting. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen oxides are used in the production of nitric acid, lacquers, dyes, and other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen oxides are also used in rocket fuels, nitration of organic chemicals, and the manufacture of explosives. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to nitrogen oxides when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen oxides are broken down rapidly in the atmosphere by reacting with other substances commonly found in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate from water, but most of it will react with water and form nitric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • When released to soil, small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate into air. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen oxides do not build up in the food chain. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to nitrogen oxides? (cdc.gov)
  • The general population is primarily exposed to nitrogen oxides by breathing in air. (cdc.gov)
  • People who live near combustion sources such as coal burning power plants or areas with heavy motor vehicle use may be exposed to higher levels of nitrogen oxides. (cdc.gov)
  • Households that burn a lot of wood or use kerosene heaters and gas stoves tend to have higher levels of nitrogen oxides in them when compared to houses without these appliances. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers employed in facilities that produce nitric acid or certain explosives like dynamite and trinitrotoluene (TNT), as well as workers involved in the welding of metals may breath in nitrogen oxides during their work. (cdc.gov)
  • How can nitrogen oxides affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of nitrogen oxides in the air can irritate your eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, possibly causing you to cough and experience shortness of breath, tiredness, and nausea. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing high levels of nitrogen oxides can cause rapid burning, spasms, and swelling of tissues in the throat and upper respiratory tract, reduced oxygenation of body tissues, a build-up of fluid in your lungs, and death. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to nitrogen oxides will result in reproductive effects in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely are nitrogen oxides to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified nitrogen oxides for potential carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • 2HNO 3 + NO Nitrogen (N) forms oxides in which nitrogen exhibits each of its positive oxidation numbers from +1 to +5. (britannica.com)
  • acidification include the production of nitrogen oxides from the conversion of atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) by lightning and the conversion of organic nitrogen by wildfires. (britannica.com)
  • Both ozone and nitrogen oxides are oxidizing pollutants. (britannica.com)
  • ozone and nitrogen oxides, however, tend to be more irritating to the lung than to the upper respiratory tract. (britannica.com)
  • The agency says it will reduce summertime emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from power plants that contribute to downwind ozone problems in the eastern half of the US. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Teijin Engineering has developed a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) denitration device for midsized ship engines to ensure compliance with the Tier III nitrogen oxides emissions regulation, which goes into effect in 2016. (environmentalleader.com)
  • This produces nitrogen oxides. (ilo.org)
  • The rise of coal plants, industrial production and motor vehicles spewing nitrogen oxides has tilted this balance. (scientificamerican.com)
  • in the arc process, nitrogen is reacted with oxygen in an electric arc to form nitrogen oxides . (factbites.com)
  • A living fence or hedge of one or more of these species can be harvested repeatedly for its nitrogen-rich clippings (all without any additional fertilizer inputs from you). (independent.com)
  • The aspiration is that mixing researchers from diverse scientific backgrounds will engender fresh thinking and new approaches that can be used to increase nitrogen availability to crop plants whilst maintaining or increasing yield, and hence decrease the need for the application of fertilizer. (nsf.gov)
  • Nitrogen fertilizer is an 'inorganic' fertilizer consisting of nitrous compounds such as ammonium nitrate. (ehow.com)
  • Nitrogen fertilizer is produced using the Haber process, a chemical reaction first developed by German chemist Fritz Haber in 1909. (ehow.com)
  • Unfortunately the benefits of nitrogen fertilizer are contrasted by detrimental environmental effects associated with its use. (ehow.com)
  • It may be difficult or expensive to retain on site all nitrogen brought on to farms for feed or fertilizer and generated by animal manure. (usgs.gov)
  • The excess application of nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture and the limitation of nitrogen uptake by crops raise the alarm about the urgency to breed crops with higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). (nature.com)
  • How many pounds of actual nitrogen is in my bag of fertilizer? (garden.org)
  • The first of the three most prominent numbers on any bag of fertilizer is the percent of nitrogen in that product. (garden.org)
  • If the fertilizer you're using contains mostly water soluble nitrogen, apply no more than 1 pound of actual nitrogen per 1,000 square feet at one time. (garden.org)
  • You can safely apply more than that if you're using an organic fertilizer (derived from plant or animal waste), a fertilizer that contains mostly water insoluble nitrogen, or a controlled-release fertilizer. (garden.org)
  • When both fertilizer price and potential yield are considered, the nitrogen loss from broadcast urea can often be very costly. (usask.ca)
  • Application of nitrogen fertilizer immediately after the soil has thawed in the spring has provided the most consistent, predictable grain yield response. (usask.ca)
  • Nitrogen is essential for crop productivity, however excess fertilizer causes water pollution and leads too #eutrophication . (twitter.com)
  • Gardeners might use fertilizer, but in nature, the conventional wisdom is that air is the ultimate source of nitrogen for plants. (npr.org)
  • With one metric ton of carbon offsets now trading for about $30 on the European Climate Exchange, he thinks a 50% reduction in nitrogen-fertilizer use could generate $30 billion to $40 billion per year in credits for farmers. (fastcompany.com)
  • While most of the nitrogen still comes from waste fertilizer, the source of nitrogen pollution is shifting from agriculture to industry and transport. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The China Agricultural University researchers studied the increased nitrogen uptake in plants that received no nitrogen fertilizer to drive home their point that 'all these changes can be linked to a common driving factor, strong economic growth. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The earliest industrial and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used it in the form of saltpeter ( sodium - or potassium nitrate ), notably in gunpowder , and much later, as fertilizer , and later still, as a chemical feedstock . (factbites.com)
  • A method for treating a seedling by dipping the roots of the seedling into a composition containing a slow release, particulate urea-formaldehyde polymer, which is useful as a fertilizer for enhancing the extended delivery of nitrogen needed for plant development and growth and to the composition useful. (google.com)
  • A method for treating a seedling by dipping the roots of the seedling into a composition containing a slow release, particulate urea-formaldehyde polymer, which is useful as a fertilizer for enhancing the extended delivery of nitrogen needed for plant development and growth and to the composition useful as the root dip, or as a soil drench. (google.com)
  • ARS soil scientist Jorge Delgado (far left) and researcher Ana Karina Saavedra Rivera from Bolivia are part of a team helping farmers grow crops with less nitrogen-based fertilizer. (usda.gov)
  • A U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil scientist in Colorado is helping farmers grow crops with less nitrogen-based fertilizer. (usda.gov)
  • They inhabit sections of plant roots called nodules and directly capture nitrogen from the tiny pockets of air that exist in healthy, aerated soil. (independent.com)
  • These can be used directly as mulch or composted, whereupon a cadre of other microbes convert the stockpiled nitrogen to make a nutrient-rich soil amendment. (independent.com)
  • the rest need to obtain their nitrogen through soluble compounds in soil. (nsf.gov)
  • Typically, commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen as a supplement for depleted soil. (ehow.com)
  • Fertilizers are used to maintain the correct level of nitrogen in the soil, ensuring strong, green plants with a healthy growth rate. (ehow.com)
  • Where soil has become depleted of its natural nitrogen stores, fertilizers are able to make up the deficiency. (ehow.com)
  • Because nitrogen (N) comprises fully 16% of protein, neither we, other animals, nor plants grow and survive unless roots extract it from the soil. (pnas.org)
  • Most stubble fields are deficient in available soil nitrogen (N) and residual soil N levels are often less than 30 lb/acre in the surface two feet of soil. (usask.ca)
  • Next up is #KBSLTER Fellow @XinyiTuSoil , studying methods to improve # nitrogen synchrony, looking at a variety of soil parameters. (twitter.com)
  • Conventional wisdom believes nitrogen for plants starts in the air and is converted by microbes in the soil into a usable form. (npr.org)
  • Experts used to think nearly all nitrogen in soil came directly from the atmosphere, sequestered by microbes or dissolved in rain. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But it turns out scientists have been overlooking another major source of this element, which is crucial to plant growth: up to a quarter of the nitrogen in soil and plants seeps out of bedrock, according to a study published in April in Science . (scientificamerican.com)
  • They then developed a computer model to calculate how quickly the earth's rocks break down and release nitrogen into the soil. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The gross nitrogen balance takes an 'extended soil' surface (or 'land' surface) as the system boundary, meaning that it also includes nitrogen losses from animal housing and manure management (e.g. storage) systems. (europa.eu)
  • The Soil Association's new Fixing Nitrogen report explore this further. (theecologist.org)
  • Reduced synthetic nitrogen use brings improved soil health and ecological diversity making farm systems more resilient to climate change. (theecologist.org)
  • The abnormal amount of rainfall this summer could also affect nitrogen amounts still in the soil. (uga.edu)
  • Nitrogen in the form of ammonium can be absorbed onto the surfaces of clay particles in the soil. (factbites.com)
  • The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of re-seeding of cropland using minimum tillage and conventional tillage methods on crop uptake of nitrogen, soil nitrate-N concentration, nitrate concentration in shallow ground water underlying the field, and the relationships between these matrices. (slideshare.net)
  • He says the bacteria pass nitrogen onto the plant in return for carbon-rich sugars and theoretically, these plants should be most common in parts of the world that have low amounts of nitrogen in the soil. (abc.net.au)
  • If plants take nitrogen from the soil it costs them just 3 to 4 grams of carbon, so why would they bother taking it from the air at a higher cost? (abc.net.au)
  • If plants can fix more nitrogen, they can produce more phosphatases, and therefore they can get more phosphorous from the soil than their competitors," he says. (abc.net.au)
  • Jorge Delgado , with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit in Fort Collins, Colo., conducts research to help growers determine exactly how much nitrogen to apply to a field, when to apply it and what alternatives might work best. (usda.gov)
  • It's difficult for fruit and flowers to grow when there is too much nitrogen in the soil. (ehow.com)
  • Decomposition releases a form of nitrogen into the soil that plants can use. (prezi.com)
  • Bacteria in the soil change nitrogen to a gas, and the gas is then returned to the atmosphere. (prezi.com)
  • About 78% of the air that we breathe is composed of nitrogen gas, and in some areas of the United States, particularly the northeast, certain forms of nitrogen are commonly deposited in acid rain . (usgs.gov)
  • This paper contrasts the natural and anthropogenic controls on the conversion of unreactive N2 to more reactive forms of nitrogen (Nr). A variety of data sets are used to construct global N budgets for 1860 and the early 1990s and to make projections for the global N budget in 2050. (wri.org)
  • Natural microbial processes convert harmful forms of nitrogen (such as nitrate) to harmless nitrogen gas. (usgs.gov)
  • The microbes could actively remove harmful forms of nitrogen flowing into the lake when dissolved oxygen in groundwater was low. (usgs.gov)
  • But there are also forms of nitrogen in the air that are harmful to people and the environment. (rivm.nl)
  • Measures to reduce emissions of these reactive forms of nitrogen are incorporated into the PAS. (rivm.nl)
  • The majority of Earth's atmosphere (78%) is atmosphere nitrogen , [16] making it the largest source of nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urea (CH 4 N 2 O) is the most common source of nitrogen in fertilizers. (britannica.com)
  • Luckily, a number of different bacteria have evolved a way to capture gaseous nitrogen and form ammonium and many of them have also evolved in a symbiotic relationship with host plants, providing them with a source of nitrogen in exchange for carbohydrates for their own metabolism. (independent.com)
  • Lakes on Cape Cod can act as scrubbers of water that flow into them, yet at the same time, can act as a source of nitrogen to downstream aquifers. (usgs.gov)
  • However, atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use, leading to a scarcity of usable nitrogen in many types of ecosystems . (wikipedia.org)
  • Atmospheric nitrogen must be processed, or " fixed ", into a usable form to be taken up by plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen narcosis 1 is a condition experienced by divers breathing compressed air when they breathe nitrogen at a partial pressure greater than three times atmospheric pressure. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Although nitrogen exists in abundance in the earth's atmosphere, relatively few plants are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form they are able to use. (ehow.com)
  • The nitrogen surplus is the difference between the input (e.g. fertiliser, feed, seed and seedlings, atmospheric inputs) and the output (animal and plant products) of the national farm-gate balance. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Chronic deposition of atmospheric nitrogen, resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, is a recent stress to New England forests and waterways. (harvard.edu)
  • They found that the temperature at which nitrogen transitions from insulating to metallic decreases as the pressure increases--starting at about 1,180,000 times normal atmospheric pressure (120 gigapascals) and 2,720 degrees Celsius (3,000 kelvin). (eurekalert.org)
  • Australian plant physiologist and co-author Dr Ying-Ping Wang, of CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research in Aspendale, says nitrogen-fixing plants have bacteria living on their roots that capture atmospheric nitrogen. (abc.net.au)
  • Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers, and release of nitrogen in wastewater have dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • For the majority of crop plants, nitrogen availability has been increased through the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers. (nsf.gov)
  • Further, much of the nitrogen applied to agricultural land through fertilizers is not used by the crop and is lost as run-off into water courses or as greenhouse gases through denitrification, resulting in deleterious impacts on the environment. (nsf.gov)
  • About 100 million tons of nitrogen fertilizers are produced using this process each year. (ehow.com)
  • Nitrogen fertilizers can be used on a wide range of flora, from the household garden to commercial crops. (ehow.com)
  • Nitrogen fertilizers are also extensively used on commercial lawns, including a large proportion of the world's golf courses. (ehow.com)
  • The use of nitrogen fertilizers helps to keep nutrient levels at an optimum level, protect against disease and control weeds, resulting in healthier crops and consistent quality and quantity of yields. (ehow.com)
  • Although nitrogen is abundant naturally in the environment, it is also introduced through sewage and fertilizers. (usgs.gov)
  • Fertilizers used on crops, air pollution, and manure are some of the major sources of nitrogen transported from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico. (usgs.gov)
  • The nitrogen content of common manures and fertilizers ranges between 1 and 46 percent. (garden.org)
  • Gas being a key input for nitrogen fertilizers, Agrium saved quite a bit by paying $3.11 per MMBtu during the first quarter, compared with $3.90 per MMBtu in the year-ago period. (aol.com)
  • Manures and other organic residuals (e.g., biosolids, food processing wastes) and many commercial fertilizers available to producers contain nitrogen (N). Nitrogen is an important plant nutrient that is often deficient in the sandy soils that dominate Delaware, so application of manures and/or fertilizers is necessary to produce maximum economic yields. (udel.edu)
  • Nitrogen is one of the primary ingredients contained in fertilizers, and the most important ingredient for plant growth. (ehow.com)
  • What Is Nitrogen Pollution? (nature.org)
  • Long Island's ponds and lakes also suffer from nitrogen pollution. (nature.org)
  • Even Long Island's most bucolic communities are not immune to the effects of nitrogen pollution. (nature.org)
  • Nitrogen Overload: Environmental Degradation, Ramifications, and Economic Costs presents an integrated, multidisciplinary review of alterations to the nitrogen cycle over the past century and the wide-ranging consequences of nitrogen-based pollution, especially to aquatic ecosystems and human health. (wiley-vch.de)
  • For example, nitrogen which is not utilized by plants may lead to pollution of the groundwater, nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) of waterbodies, acidification of terrestrial ecosystems and the formation of greenhouse gases. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Paris (AFP) - The production of goods for consumers in rich nations leaves a deep footprint in the form of potentially-dangerous nitrogen pollution in developing countries, a study said Monday. (yahoo.com)
  • Reactive nitrogen, generated in large part by fuel combustion and agriculture -- mainly fertiliser use -- can contribute to air and water pollution, climate change and acid rain. (yahoo.com)
  • A study in the journal Nature Geoscience said many developed nations had a sky-high nitrogen pollution "footprint" -- much of it left far away in the developing world. (yahoo.com)
  • We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries," they added. (yahoo.com)
  • Consumption in the United States, China, India and Brazil, was responsible for nearly half the world's nitrogen pollution, they added. (yahoo.com)
  • Nitrogen pollution in China has kept pace with the country's rapid growth. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A study published in Nature last week finds that the rate of nitrogen pollution grew by more than half in the last 30 years. (scientificamerican.com)
  • One of the biggest drivers of nitrogen pollution in China is that they are increasing their agricultural productivity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The varied and widespread symptoms of nitrogen pollution are grassland changes, acidic soils, stressed biodiversity, marine pollution, algal blooms and dying fish. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Even areas of China far away from the source of pollution are feeling these symptoms as surplus nitrogen cascades through its habitats. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Pollution from nitrogen use and manufacture of synthetic fertilisers is driving climate change. (theecologist.org)
  • Reactive Nitrogen pollution affects every part of the natural environment. (earthtimes.org)
  • Cutting down meat consumption would reduce nitrogen pollution by a considerable amount. (earthtimes.org)
  • High levels of nitrogen in the water can create algal blooms, large growths of algae that imbalance the delicate ecosystem to the detriment of other aquatic species. (ehow.com)
  • Wastewater-treatment facilities that do not specifically remove nitrogen can also lead to excess levels of nitrogen in surface or groundwater. (usgs.gov)
  • The levels of nitrogen now seen in China are similar to the levels in Europe in the 1980s, before it implemented countermeasures to protect its environment. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Sedimentary rocks, such as those in the Grand Canyon, contain surprisingly high levels of nitrogen. (scientificamerican.com)
  • million tons, a reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions (as compared with 1990 levels) of more than three million tons, and nearly 100 percent program compliance. (britannica.com)
  • Vitousek says: "We need to look at the nitrogen problem rather as Europe has looked at acid rain, by determining critical loads of nitrogen beyond which individual ecosystems become damaged, and then finding ways to cut back emissions to protect them. (newscientist.com)
  • This paper provides an economic analysis of the most cost-effective ways to intervene in the nitrogen cycle to reduce nitrogen emissions from industry. (wri.org)
  • A California biotech firm claims a gene that makes plants use nitrogen more efficiently can transform agriculture, make lots of money - and slash greenhouse-gas emissions. (fastcompany.com)
  • If we could reduce nitrogen-related emissions in agriculture by 50% in the top six crops," Rey says, "the effect on greenhouse-gas levels would be the same as if you took all the cars in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany off the road forever. (fastcompany.com)
  • The study claims to be the first to trace the flow of nitrogen emissions along international trade routes. (yahoo.com)
  • Based on a global trade database of 188 countries, the study showed the bulk of nitrogen emissions in 2010 came from industry and agriculture, which accounted for 161 teragrams (trillion grammes), while 28 Tg was produced by consumers -- mainly from sewage. (yahoo.com)
  • But most of the climate impact of nitrogen comes from nitrous oxide (or N2O) emissions from the soils to which fertilisers are applied. (theecologist.org)
  • DEF, which is used to mitigate nitrogen oxide emissions in diesel vehicles, is expected to help diversify Agrium's end-use markets. (nasdaq.com)
  • Nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere due to human activity remain elevated in industrialized regions of the world and are accelerating in many developing regions (Galloway 1995). (usda.gov)
  • Excess nitrogen not absorbed by the plants has been shown to leech into the groundwater, nearby rivers, and ultimately the ocean. (ehow.com)
  • If excess nitrogen is found in the crop fields, the drainage water can introduce it into streams like these, which will drain into other larger rivers and might end up in the Gulf of Mexico, where excess nitrogen can lead to hypoxic conditions (lack of oxygen). (usgs.gov)
  • Excess nitrogen can cause overstimulation of growth of aquatic plants and algae. (usgs.gov)
  • An integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the problem of excess nitrogen Human activit. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Human activities generate large amounts of excess nitrogen, which has dramatically altered the nitrogen cycle. (wiley-vch.de)
  • THE Earth is awash with an excess of nitrogen, claim American ecologists. (newscientist.com)
  • However, excess nitrogen may have one beneficial effect. (newscientist.com)
  • Forests in Europe and North America are probably growing faster because excess nitrogen stimulates rapid plant growth, and fast-growing trees soak up more carbon from the atmosphere for photosynthesis. (newscientist.com)
  • Use of #bacteria 's like azotobacter to reduce excess # nitrogen content is a great solution because they are scalable, fast and useful for other task. (twitter.com)
  • While streams and surface runoff can be one source of excess nitrogen into and out of lakes, there is an additional, hidden source of nutrients: discharge of groundwater contaminated with nutrients from septic systems and land-disposal of sewage. (usgs.gov)
  • If we could all highlight the damaging contribution of excess nitrogen to climate change, we can help put this on the agenda for government. (theecologist.org)
  • In May 2019, the Council of State (the highest administrative court) ruled that the current strategy for reducing excess nitrogen in vulnerable natural areas is in breach of EU law. (rivm.nl)
  • In contrast, trees growing nearby on rocks that didn't contain nitrogen contained a lot less of the stuff. (npr.org)
  • Beginning in the 1970s, a few studies showed that several types of sedimentary rock contain nitrogen from long-dead plants, algae and animals deposited on the ancient seafloor. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercial divers who regularly dive to depths of more than 100 metres in the North Sea get round the problems of nitrogen narcosis and oxygen poisoning by breathing a mixture of helium with a reduced percentage of oxygen. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Carbon along with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium and sulfur form most of the compounds that make up living things. (slideshare.net)
  • But although more than three-quarters of the atmosphere consists of nitrogen gas, organisms cannot use it until it has been "fixed" by bonding with hydrogen or oxygen to form ammonium compounds or nitrates. (newscientist.com)
  • If oxygen is combined with nitrogen , it produces five deadly poisons, viz. (dictionary.com)
  • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are all lifeless bodies. (dictionary.com)
  • He had to return to the conception of the individual particles of oxygen, nitrogen , and water, each a center of repulsion. (dictionary.com)
  • The nitrogen that plants do not absorb flows into lakes and rivers, causing algae blooms that suck up oxygen and kill fish and shellfish. (fastcompany.com)
  • The direction of groundwater flow into or out of the lake and the chemistry of the water, especially dissolved oxygen and carbon, control how the nitrogen is processed. (usgs.gov)
  • At a location where the groundwater contained high levels of dissolved oxygen and little nitrogen flowing into the lake, these processes were not active. (usgs.gov)
  • i was wondering if there was a substance that could be burned in the airs natural nitrogen (72%) that would release pure oxygen and a solid state waste product but no gaseous waste products any speculations? (physicsforums.com)
  • How would it burn in nitrogen when combustion requres oxygen. (physicsforums.com)
  • Nitrogen compounds were known to alchemists as early as the Middle Ages, but nitrogen is formally considered to have been discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772 , who called it noxious air or phlogisticated air ( air from which the oxygen had been removed, usually by combustion ). (factbites.com)
  • The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere , terrestrial , and marine ecosystems . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen is a "colorless, odorless, tasteless, insoluble, inert diatomic gas comprising 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume. (independent.com)
  • Some nitrate enters water from the atmosphere, which carries nitrogen-containing compounds derived from automobiles and other sources. (usgs.gov)
  • More than 3 million tons of nitrogen are deposited in the United States each year from the atmosphere, derived either naturally from chemical reactions or from the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal and gasoline. (usgs.gov)
  • Mr. BENJAMIN HOULTON (University of California, Davis Professor): If you go into most forest ecosystems for a long time it's been recognized that there's way too much nitrogen accumulating in soils and plants than could be explained by the atmosphere. (npr.org)
  • Nitrogen (N2) is a key building block of all life on Earth and is the most abundant element in the atmosphere -- crucial for plant growth. (yahoo.com)
  • Nitrogen is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, where it is most-commonly bonded with itself in diatomic N2 molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Washington, DC--New work from a team led by Carnegie's Alexander Goncharov confirms that nitrogen, the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, becomes a metallic fluid when subjected to the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found deep inside the Earth and other planets. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nitrogen could get into the Earth's mantle when one tectonic plate slides beneath another--a process called subduction--and could even make its way into the iron-rich core as an impurity," explained Carnegie's Shuqing Jiang, the paper's lead author, "or it could be a remnant from Earth's formation that didn't escape via volcanic activity to form the proto-atmosphere in Earth's babyhood. (eurekalert.org)
  • In Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is most-commonly bonded with itself in so-called diatomic, N2, molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous research had examined the balance between how much nitrogen in sediments makes it to the mantle (the layer below the earth's crust) and how much volcanoes release into the atmosphere (which is 78 percent nitrogen). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Nitrogen can replace air and create a stable atmosphere in places such as chemical processing plants and electronics manufacturing factories. (reference.com)
  • Nitrogen is the largest single component of the Earth's atmosphere (78.084% by volume, 75.5% by weight) and is acquired for industrial purposes by the fractional distillation of liquid air or by mechanical means of gaseous air (i.e. (factbites.com)
  • The movement of nitrogen between the atmosphere , biosphere, and geosphere in different forms is described by the nitrogen cycle (Figure 1), one of the major biogeochemical cycles . (factbites.com)
  • In an atmosphere of pure nitrogen, animals died and flames were extinguished. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper discusses the consequences of and potential solutions to anthropogenic reactive nitrogen in Earth's environmental systems. (wri.org)
  • This means that, theoretically, nitrogen would remain in its diatomic state in the Earth's mantle but would disassociate into a fluid metal in or just above the core, which potentially has implications for our understanding of the planet's deep nitrogen cycle," said Lobanov, who was at Stony Brook University when the research was conducted. (eurekalert.org)
  • During nitrification, nitrogen trapped in the sediments, primarily resulting from decaying algae, gets converted into a chemical form (nitrate) that can be transported out of the lake by flowing groundwater. (usgs.gov)
  • 3. Objectives  Characterize nitrogen inputs, outputs and underlying GW nitrate concentration in a typical manured field over the aquifer. (slideshare.net)
  • Alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis (strong water), as well as other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium salts and nitrate salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this relationship, legumes will often increase the nitrogen content of nitrogen-poor soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen saturation causes blooms of toxic algae in coastal waters, urban smogs, the death of trees, the leaching of nutrients from soils and the loss of fragile heaths. (newscientist.com)
  • Redwood forests grow over nitrogen-rich soils and rocks, which helps to explain why they reach such massive sizes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • He and his colleagues published a study in 2011 in Nature finding that forest soils above sedimentary rock in parts of California contain 50 percent more nitrogen than in areas overlying igneous (volcanic) rock. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Nevertheless, the findings explain puzzlingly high nitrogen levels in some soils. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There's a lot of emphasis on corn with nitrogen now, making sure it has enough nitrogen all throughout the growing season," said Glen Harris, a soils and fertility agronomist with the University of Georgia Tifton campus. (uga.edu)
  • When we get that much rain, our soils are so sandy, we usually don't count on having a lot of nitrogen left over next year. (uga.edu)
  • While rainforest soils are rich in nitrogen, they are relatively low in soluble phosphorous. (abc.net.au)
  • However, the nitrogen balance indicates that only half of the total nitrogen input is removed by agricultural products ( BMEL 2019 , in German only ). (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Your opportunity to sponsor the NITROGEN North America 2019! (cvent.com)
  • In plants that have a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia, some nitrogen is assimilated in the form of ammonium ions directly from the nodules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids . (factbites.com)
  • Nitrogen compounds have a very long history, ammonium chloride having been known to Herodotus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, which divided the country into six economic regions, reveals that most areas that have the most factories and farms have nitrogen deposition rates higher than the national average. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Moreover, RIVM provides the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with advice and information on nitrogen deposition. (rivm.nl)
  • Finally, RIVM develops and manages the set of instruments that can be used to calculate the emission and deposition of nitrogen on Natura 2000 sites. (rivm.nl)
  • The Dutch government announced its plans for the first steps in tackling the nitrogen deposition issue. (rivm.nl)
  • Although the deposition of sulfur has been reduced over much of the United States and Europe by aggressive environmental protection policies, current nitrogen deposition reduction targets in the US are modest. (usda.gov)
  • Nitrogen deposition remains relatively constant in the northeastern United States and is increasing in the Southeast and the West (Fenn et al. (usda.gov)
  • The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), [2] dominates nitrogen chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatics, and reverse genetic approaches, we analyzed how the flux of carbon into lipids is influenced by nitrogen stress in a model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum . (pnas.org)
  • More advanced treatise of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. (slideshare.net)
  • Like carbon , nitrogen is a necessary element in the tissues of living things. (dictionary.com)
  • His research focuses on the role and importance of marine microbes in major biogeochemical cycles, particularly those of nitrogen and carbon, both from the perspective of the fundamental ecology of these process in marine ecosystems and their physical, chemical and biotic controls. (springer.com)
  • He thinks the discovery should be incorporated into global models for nitrogen and carbon but adds, "I don't think it's going to rewrite our understanding of climate change. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Generally speaking it costs a plant 8 grams of carbon for 1 gram of nitrogen, says Wang. (abc.net.au)
  • Of course, nitrogen is used in agriculture to grow crops, and on many farms the landscape has been greatly modified to maximize farming output. (usgs.gov)
  • Now humans have doubled the global supply of fixed nitrogen by manufacturing nitrogen-rich fertiliser, by burning fossil fuels and by the cultivation of crops such as legumes, which contain symbiotic bacteria that can fix nitrogen. (newscientist.com)
  • As the world struggles to boost crop yields, "the amount of industrially fixed nitrogen applied to crops during the decade 1980 to 1990 more than equals all that applied previously in human history", says Vitousek, whose study will be published in full in the journal Ecological Applications in August. (newscientist.com)
  • In Germany problems occur especially in regions with high livestock density: Due to the high amount of farm manure in the form of animal excrements, often more nitrogen is applied to the fields as the crops can convert into biomass. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Farmers are therefore using nitrogen more efficiently, the area of cultivation of high-output crops has increased and feed conversion by domestic animals has improved. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • An average of 40% of the nitrogen fertiliser applied to crops isn't utilised and could be lost. (twitter.com)
  • We're testing Kaby Lake's maximum frequency at various core voltages, the influence of de-lidding, and even applying a bit of liquid nitrogen. (tomshardware.com)
  • After tens of liters of liquid nitrogen, a bottle of gas, and more than 10 hours of chilling to test the BIOS, processor, RAM, and operating system, we finally stumbled on a solution: the "PLL SFR" setting must also be increased to more than 1.1V instead of 0.9V to unlock the higher multiplier. (tomshardware.com)
  • If you're going to be in New York City next Tuesday, there are still a few tickets left to the Kitchen Alchemy duo's class, "Chilling Out With Liquid Nitrogen. (popsci.com)
  • Did PopSci's recent article on cooking with liquid nitrogen pique your interest? (popsci.com)
  • Here's Gray Matter columnist Theo Gray doing a version of his "dry ice cream"-this time by simply pouring liquid nitrogen into a pot of cream and sugar. (popsci.com)
  • However, take note of this next story: "I once brought a freshly filled 10 L dewar of it to a party my roommates and I were hosting because I was a moron and thought that if the ice/cold beer ran out, we could fill a garbage can with water + beers and then pour in the liquid nitrogen to very quickly cool it to a freezing cold slush. (askmen.com)
  • We opened up the windows and got out of there since 10 liters of liquid nitrogen can make ~6 cubic meters of gas. (askmen.com)
  • Nitrogen mustards can be clear, pale amber, or yellow-colored when in liquid or solid form. (cdc.gov)
  • You could be exposed by coming in direct contact with liquid nitrogen mustards. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to nitrogen mustard liquid is more likely to produce second- and third- degree burns and later scarring than is exposure to nitrogen mustard vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the more intriguing exhibits at this year's Maker Faire Bay Area was Ben Krasnow's liquid nitrogen generator rig. (makezine.com)
  • Liquid nitrogen is used as a refrigerant. (reference.com)
  • If liquid nitrogen comes into contact with a person's skin, it immediately causes severe frostbite. (reference.com)
  • A current COSHH risk asssessment must be in existence for all work with liquid nitrogen. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Users familiar with Bruker's BCUII chiller units will be used to achieving sample temperatures down to around 240K, but to work much below this typically requires a dewar of liquid nitrogen and the use of a liquid nitrogen evaporator. (edu.au)
  • PRINCETON, N.J. - A gifted 15-year-old student from India had to be rushed to the hospital after drinking liquid nitrogen during a science class at Princeton University. (foxnews.com)
  • The students were performing a popular experiment in which liquid nitrogen is used to make ice cream. (foxnews.com)
  • New York, New York, USA - August 18, 2011: Liquid Nitrogen tanks on 40th street off 5th Avenue in Manhattan. (istockphoto.com)
  • Liquid nitrogen is used in various ways for underground telecommunication and electric cables. (istockphoto.com)
  • Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium usually live in the root nodules of legumes (such as peas, alfalfa, and locust trees). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with the capacity to form symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria abound. (independent.com)
  • Another large tribe of useful nitrogen-fixing trees that foster the helpful bacteria as well is the genus Acacia. (independent.com)
  • Lightning and certain bacteria together fix up to 150 million tonnes of nitrogen a year. (newscientist.com)
  • Nitrogen can be found in certain types of algae and bacteria. (reference.com)
  • LSB Industries Inc., the largest merchant manufacturer of concentrated nitric acid in North America, will pay an estimated $6.3 million to $11.7 million to meet nitrogen oxide emission limits that are among the lowest for the industry in the US, the EPA and Department of Justice announced today. (environmentalleader.com)
  • CF ) , which is the largest producer of nitrogen in North America, is probably the best example. (aol.com)
  • The expansion at the Borger facility will help the company to expand its nitrogen footprint in North America. (nasdaq.com)
  • While Agrium expects global nitrogen demand to rise year over year in 2014, it sees a decline in demand in North America due to reduced corn acreage. (nasdaq.com)
  • Nevertheless, Agrium and other nitrogen producers in North America should benefit from relatively lower natural gas prices driven by shale gas production. (nasdaq.com)
  • The five-year average of nitrogen surplus per hectare of utilized agricultural land has decreased by 15 % since 1993. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • The indicator estimates the potential surplus (or deficit) of nitrogen in agricultural land. (europa.eu)
  • It calculates the balance between nitrogen added to an agricultural system and nitrogen removed from the system annually in kilograms of nitrogen per hectare of utilised agricultural area. (europa.eu)
  • 70% of the nitrogen comes from agricultural use, 21% from motor vehicles and power stations, and most of the rest from biological nitrogen fixing from plants like legumes: peas, beans, lentils and the like. (earthtimes.org)
  • Nitrogen is an essential nutrient needed by all plants to thrive. (ehow.com)
  • Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Nitrogen is a vital nutrient in forest ecosystems. (harvard.edu)
  • Although nitrogen is a nutrient, it can also be a pollutant. (harvard.edu)
  • All plants need nitrogen to grow, and a new study says some plants get this nutrient from a surprising source. (npr.org)
  • Nitrogen is an important nutrient but harmful when over-supplied. (usgs.gov)
  • The nitrogen balance is related to nutrient leaching risks: high nitrogen inputs and imbalances normally lead to high pressure on biodiversity within and outside the farmed environment. (europa.eu)
  • Too much nitrogen, however, could result in the nutrient being leached away later in the planting season. (uga.edu)
  • Too much nitrogen at planting time could lead to a deficiency of the essential nutrient later in the planting season because of leaching. (uga.edu)
  • Nitrogen in reactive forms is an important nutrient for plant growth. (rivm.nl)
  • 3 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), nitric oxide (NO) or inorganic nitrogen gas (N 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • A major Florida utility is exploring how to pass the cost of EPA nitrogen oxide regulations on to its customers, the Miami Herald reports. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Reactive nitrogen is a less stable form which binds with other chemicals to cause smog, for example, or nitrogen oxide -- a poisonous gas belted out by diesel cars. (yahoo.com)
  • Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The triple bond between atoms in the nitrogen molecules is so strong (226 kilocalories per mole, more than twice that of molecular hydrogen) that it is difficult to cause molecular nitrogen to enter into other combinations. (britannica.com)
  • Added Holtgrewe: "Our findings could inform the efforts to create forms of energetic nitrogen polymers as well as superconducting, metallic states of a sister diatomic molecule, hydrogen or H2, which could revolutionize the energy sector if reliably synthesized. (eurekalert.org)
  • This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N 2 into useful compounds , but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different kinds of garden plants need different amounts of actual nitrogen over a season. (garden.org)
  • That's the notion that significant amounts of nitrogen could leach out of sedimentary rocks. (npr.org)
  • Excessive amounts of nitrogen burn the plant and damage the leaves. (ehow.com)
  • Nitrogen trichloride can form in small amounts when public water supplies are disinfected with monochloramine, and in swimming pools by disinfecting chlorine reacting with urea in urine and sweat from bathers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new target has been set in the revised version of the Sustainable Development Strategy in 2016: a maximum nitrogen surplus of 70 kg per hectare in average for the years 2028 to 2032 (BReg 2016). (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • It contributes 175 million tons of nitrogen per year to the global nitrogen economy and accounts for 65 percent of the nitrogen used in agriculture. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Calculations indicate that at extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those found deep inside Earth, nitrogen should transform from an insulating--or non-electrically conductive--diatomic molecule to a metallic--or electrically conductive--fluid polymer, comprised of atoms linked by complex molecular bonds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous experiments showed evidence of diatomic nitrogen molecules disassociating and changing states under extreme pressures and temperatures, but a greater range of conditions needed to be explored. (eurekalert.org)
  • Even in its retail division (which is also its largest), crop nutrients, particularly nitrogen, contribute the most to its top line. (aol.com)
  • The nitrogen cycle is of particular interest to ecologists because nitrogen availability can affect the rate of key ecosystem processes, including primary production and decomposition . (wikipedia.org)
  • A simple diagram of the nitrogen cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The processes in the nitrogen cycle is to transform nitrogen from one form to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagram alongside shows how these processes fit together to form the nitrogen cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently nobody considered these various elements of human influence on the nitrogen cycle together. (newscientist.com)
  • This paper discusses how humans have altered the nitrogen cycle and suggests strategies for the efficient and equitable use of nitrogen. (wri.org)
  • The breakthroughs include a successful nitrogen cycle experiment conducted by the Yuanwei Shiyan ("on-site experiment") deep-sea elevator, a research device that is lowered with an anchor and was developed by the Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering of CAS. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • It wasn't entering into the paradigm of how we think the nitrogen cycle works," Houlton says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • they degrade and release their nitrogen, which gets absorbed by plants and animals and trapped in rocks again-perpetuating the cycle. (scientificamerican.com)
  • What is the aquarium nitrogen cycle? (reference.com)
  • An aquarium's nitrogen cycle is the process a new aquarium undergoes to establish bacterial colonies, according to About.com. (reference.com)
  • it and its compounds are necessary for the continuation of life (see nitrogen cycle). (factbites.com)
  • The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790 when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitric acid is another popular commercial compound of nitrogen. (britannica.com)
  • Many of those processes are carried out by microbes , either in their effort to harvest energy or to accumulate nitrogen in a form needed for their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • HARRIS: Benjamin Houlton, at the University of California, Davis, says you can add up all the nitrogen captured by microbes and you can add in the nitrogen particles that fall in the forest in the rain, but you still come up short. (npr.org)
  • Ecologist Kathleen Treseder at the University of California, Irvine, says she's focused much of her effort on understanding the microbes that capture nitrogen from the air and deliver it to plants. (npr.org)
  • Schematic representation of the flow of nitrogen through the ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins ), in the nucleic acids ( DNA and RNA ) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate . (wikipedia.org)
  • All organisms require nitrogen to live. (newscientist.com)
  • In living organisms, nitrogen serves many very important functions. (reference.com)
  • Typically nitrogen must combine with other elements to be utilized successfuly in other organisms. (reference.com)
  • The fate and transport of nitrogen are critically important issues for human and aquatic ecosystem health because discharging nitrogen-contaminated groundwater can cause harmful algal blooms , foul drinking water, kill fish and other aquatic organisms, release toxins, and diminish the aesthetic and recreational value of lakes and streams. (usgs.gov)
  • Nitrogen is used by living organisms to produce a number of complex organic molecules like amino acids , proteins , and nucleic acids . (factbites.com)
  • Nitrogen is important to all living things because it helps build new cells for organisms. (prezi.com)
  • High nitrogen inputs and losses generally coincide with high phosphorous and pesticide inputs and losses. (europa.eu)
  • In Europe, for example, animal feed accounts for 80 percent of all nitrogen inputs. (theecologist.org)
  • Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are essential for plant and animal growth and nourishment, but the overabundance of certain nutrients in water can cause several adverse health and ecological effects. (usgs.gov)
  • UAN ) , which deals only in nitrogen-based nutrients, too climbed 36% because of higher volumes and prices. (aol.com)
  • Nitrogen is clearly proving to be more profitable than other nutrients. (aol.com)
  • A recent scientific study shows new, important information about how groundwater cannot only contribute nutrients such as nitrogen to lakes, but can also carry it away. (usgs.gov)
  • Nitrogen is one of 16 essential plant nutrients. (uga.edu)
  • When a plant has too much nitrogen, the nitrogen blocks other nutrients from being absorbed by the plant. (ehow.com)
  • Human activity has doubled the amount of "fixed" nitrogen circulating in the planet's ecosystems, according to a study carried out for the Ecological Society of America, based in Washington DC. (newscientist.com)
  • In addition to fueling infestations of invasive plants, such as cabomba, high nitrogen levels are also increasing the growth and toxicity of killer blue-green algae. (nature.org)
  • Means we either have a low yield compared to the Nitrogen applied or a high Nitrogen rate relative to yield. (google.com)
  • Organic nitrogen may be in the form of a living organism, humus or in the intermediate products of organic matter decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the other applications are important, by far the greatest bulk of elemental nitrogen is consumed in the manufacture of nitrogen compounds . (britannica.com)
  • About half the world's population depends on the nitrogen in fertilisers to live, according to Dr Mark Sutton, of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in a ground-breaking new report on the impact of nitrogen as a pollutant: European Nitrogen Assessment (ENA), unveiled at a conference in Edinburgh this week. (earthtimes.org)
  • At what are known as standard pressures and temperatures, nitrogen is an inert gas. (reference.com)
  • We are talking here of ''reactive nitrogen'' rather than the inert nitrogen which makes up 78% of the air we breathe and keeps it stable. (earthtimes.org)
  • French chemist Antoine Lavoisier referred to nitrogen gas as "mephitic air" or azote, from the Greek word άζωτικός (azotikos), "no life", due to it being mostly inert. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, excessive input of reactive nitrogen compounds to the environment has serious effects on the climate, biodiversity and landscape quality. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Our results show that diatoms can remodel their intermediate metabolism on environmental cues and reveal that a key signal in this remodeling is associated with nitrogen assimilation. (pnas.org)
  • Some individuals with a fast metabolism can experience nitrogen narcosis at a depth of 25 metres, with others, the onset can be delayed to more than 30 metres. (bbc.co.uk)
  • His research has focused on nitrogen cycling by aquatic microorganisms, although he has publications spanning topics in microbial diversity in freshwater and hypersaline systems, organic matter metabolism, selenium metabolism in estuarine sediments, and nitrogen metabolism in oligotrophic oceans. (springer.com)
  • This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine. (rochester.edu)
  • Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks down protein. (rochester.edu)
  • Either of these problems can lead to changes in the amount of urea nitrogen in your body. (rochester.edu)
  • What is a BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your kidney function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Urea nitrogen is one of the waste products removed from your blood by your kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Normal BUN levels can vary, but generally a high level of blood urea nitrogen is a sign that your kidneys are not working correctly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The fate and transport of nitrogen are critically important issues for human and aquatic ecosystem health. (usgs.gov)
  • Purpose A two- year study was initiated in 2009 to study the fate and transport of nitrogen from dairy manure when applied to cropland that was reseeded to grass for silage production. (slideshare.net)
  • The nitrogen surplus is an indicator of the potential nitrogen losses from agriculture to the environment. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • This website explores links between nitrogen, agriculture, environment and public health. (wri.org)
  • The conversion of nitrogen can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's called nitrogen-fixing and there are a slew of plant species that do it. (independent.com)
  • Nitrogen is critical to plant growth. (nsf.gov)
  • The plant, which manufactures nitrogen products, would then be prepared for permanent closure. (marketwatch.com)
  • A plan to inject nitrogen into the containment vessel around reactor 1 at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant appears to be working, the plant owner said Thursday. (voanews.com)
  • Profit from Agrium's nitrogen business tumbled roughly 56% year over year in the most recent quarter on lower pricing for nitrogen products and reduced sales volumes due to plant outages during the quarter and a shorter fall application season in the U.S. (nasdaq.com)
  • Although a plant receiving a lot of nitrogen has a plethora of new, leafy foliage, there is often only foliage. (ehow.com)
  • Nitrogen plant burn doesn't have to occur immediately. (ehow.com)
  • Prolonged or repeated exposures to nitrogen mustards have caused cancer in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Some evidence exists that prolonged or repeated exposures to nitrogen mustards cause leukemia in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrogen is a vital part of amino acids, which are the small structures that help make up proteins. (reference.com)
Nitrogen Cycle & Phosphate Green turf algae?