The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine and is called histidinemia (AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A plant family of the order Nepenthales.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The consumption of edible substances.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.

Surfactant protein A suppresses reactive nitrogen intermediates by alveolar macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (1/6983)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis attaches to, enters, and replicates within alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our previous studies suggest that surfactant protein A (SP-A) can act as a ligand in the attachment of M. tuberculosis to AMs. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) play a significant role in the killing of mycobacteria. We have demonstrated that RNI levels generated by AMs were significantly increased when interferon-gamma-primed AMs were incubated with M. tuberculosis. However, the RNI levels were significantly suppressed in the presence of SP-A (10 microg/ml). The specificity of SP-A's effect was demonstrated by the use of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-SP-A monoclonal antibodies and by the use of mannosyl-BSA, which blocked the suppression of RNI levels by SP-A. Furthermore, incubation of deglycosylated SP-A with M. tuberculosis failed to suppress RNI by AMs, suggesting that the oligosaccharide component of SP-A, which binds to M. tuberculosis, is necessary for this effect. These results show that SP-A-mediated binding of M. tuberculosis to AMs significantly decreased RNI levels, suggesting that this may be one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis diminishes the cytotoxic response of activated AMs.  (+info)

Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (2/6983)

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

Effects of the Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to on therapeutic efficacy of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium infection in mice. (3/6983)

The Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to (MBST), which has anti-inflammatory effects and has been used to treat the common cold and nasal allergy in Japan, was examined for its effects on the therapeutic activity of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648 (KRM), against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of MBST on the anti-MAC activity of murine peritoneal macrophages (M phi s). First, MBST significantly increased the anti-MAC therapeutic activity of KRM when given to mice in combination with KRM, although MBST alone did not exhibit such effects. Second, MBST treatment of M phi s significantly enhanced the KRM-mediated killing of MAC bacteria residing in M phi s, although MBST alone did not potentiate the M phi anti-MAC activity. MBST-treated M phi s showed decreased levels of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) release, suggesting that RNIs are not decisive in the expression of the anti-MAC activity of such M phi populations. MBST partially blocked the interleukin-10 (IL-10) production of MAC-infected M phi s without affecting their transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-producing activity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the lung tissues of MAC-infected mice at weeks 4 and 8 after infection revealed a marked increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-10, and TGF-beta mRNAs. KRM treatment of infected mice tended to decrease the levels of the test cytokine mRNAs, except that it increased TGF-beta mRNA expression at week 4. MBST treatment did not affect the levels of any cytokine mRNAs at week 8, while it down-regulated cytokine mRNA expression at week 4. At week 8, treatment of mice with a combination of KRM and MBST caused a marked decrease in the levels of the test cytokines mRNAs, especially IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNAs, although such effects were obscure at week 4. These findings suggest that down-regulation of the expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta is related to the combined therapeutic effects of KRM and MBST against MAC infection.  (+info)

Steady-state nitrogen isotope effects of N2 and N2O production in Paracoccus denitrificans. (4/6983)

Nitrogen stable-isotope compositions (delta15N) can help track denitrification and N2O production in the environment, as can knowledge of the isotopic discrimination, or isotope effect, inherent to denitrification. However, the isotope effects associated with denitrification as a function of dissolved-oxygen concentration and their influence on the isotopic composition of N2O are not known. We developed a simple steady-state reactor to allow the measurement of denitrification isotope effects in Paracoccus denitrificans. With [dO2] between 0 and 1.2 microM, the N stable-isotope effects of NO3- and N2O reduction were constant at 28.6 per thousand +/- 1.9 per thousand and 12.9 per thousand +/- 2.6 per thousand, respectively (mean +/- standard error, n = 5). This estimate of the isotope effect of N2O reduction is the first in an axenic denitrifying culture and places the delta15N of denitrification-produced N2O midway between those of the nitrogenous oxide substrates and the product N2 in steady-state systems. Application of both isotope effects to N2O cycling studies is discussed.  (+info)

Experiment of nitrox saturation diving with trimix excursion. (5/6983)

Depth limitations to diving operation with air as the breathing gas are well known: air density, oxygen toxicity, nitrogen narcosis and requirement for decompression. The main objectives of our experiment were to assess the decompression, counterdiffusion and performance aspect of helium-nitrogen-oxygen excursions from nitrox saturation. The experiment was carried out in a wet diving stimulator with "igloo" attached to a 2-lock living chamber. Four subjects of two teams of 2 divers were saturated at 25 msw simulated depth in a nitrogen oxygen chamber environment for 8 days, during which period they performed 32 divers-excursions to 60 or 80 msw pressure. Excursion gas mix was trimix of 14.6% oxygen, 50% helium and 35.4% nitrogen, which gave a bottom oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 bars at 60 msw and 1.3 at 80 msw. Excursions were for 70 min at 60 msw with three 10-min work periods and 40 min at 80 msw with two 10-min work periods. Work was on a bicycle ergometer at a moderate level. We calculated the excursion decompression with M-Values based on methods of Hamilton (Hamilton et al., 1990). Staged decompression took 70 min for the 60 msw excursion and 98 min for 80 msw, with stops beginning at 34 or 43 msw respectively. After the second dive day bubbles were heard mainly in one diver but in three divers overall, to Spencer Grade III some times. No symptoms were reported. Saturation decompression using the Repex procedures began at 40 msw and was uneventful: Grade II and sometimes III bubbles persisted in 2 of the four divers until 24 hr after surfacing. We conclude that excursions with mixture rich in helium can be performed effectively to as deep as 80 msw using these procedures.  (+info)

Nitrogen retention by lambs fed oscillating dietary protein concentrations. (6/6983)

Nitrogen excreted by beef cattle can be retained in manure or lost by volatilization to the atmosphere or by runoff and percolation into surface or ground water. Increasing the retention of dietary N should decrease environmental losses. To this end, the effects of oscillating concentrations of dietary CP on nutrient retention were determined using lambs fed a 90% concentrate diet. Ten St. Croix lambs (average BW = 27 kg) were used in two 5x5 Latin square experiments. Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) 10% CP, 2) 12.5% CP, 3) 15% CP, 4) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 24-h intervals, and 5) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 48-h intervals. Supplemental N was provided by cottonseed meal in Trial 1 and by a 50:50 (N basis) blend of cottonseed meal and urea in Trial 2. Each period of the Latin square lasted 35 d, with excreta collection the final 8 d. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P<.01) with increasing N intake in both trials (.77, 1.33, and 1.89 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 1; .94, 1.78, and 2.19 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 2). Compared with continuously feeding the 12.5% CP diet, oscillating the 10 and 15% CP diets on a 24-h basis did not affect N retention (P>.10) in either trial (1.62 and 1.56 g/d for Trials 1 and 2, respectively). Oscillating dietary CP at 48-h intervals did not affect N retention in Trial 2 (1.82 g/d) but increased (P<.05) N retention by 38% in Trial 1 (1.87 g/d). Phosphorus, K, and Na retention and excretion were not affected by dietary treatments in Trial 1. In Trial 2, P retention increased (linear, P<.05) with increasing dietary CP and was greater (P<.05) in lambs on the 48-h oscillation treatment than in lambs fed the 12.5% CP diet. These results suggest that oscillating the dietary CP concentrations might potentially increase the utilization of N by ruminants fed high-concentrate diets.  (+info)

A comparative chemical and histochemical study of the chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid canine intervertebral disc. (7/6983)

The chemical composition of the intervertebral disc of 9-month-old chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid dogs was studied for collagen, noncollagenous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Content of these substances differed significantly between breeds. The differences were most marked in the nucleus pulposus; the noncollagenous protein content of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed was higher than in that of the chondrodystrophoid dogs. The total nitrogen value of the nonchondrodystrophoid nuclei pulposi was less than that of the corresponding chondrodystrophoid discs mainly because of the high collagen content of the latter discs. Histochemically, it was found that the nuclei pulposi of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed contains larger amounts of glycosaminoglycan than in the discs of the chondrodystrophoid breeds.  (+info)

Kinetic impairment of nitrogen and muscle glutamine metabolisms in old glucocorticoid-treated rats. (8/6983)

Aged rats are more sensitive to injury, possibly through an impairment of nitrogen and glutamine (Gln) metabolisms mediated by glucocorticoids. We studied the metabolic kinetic response of adult and old rats during glucocorticoid treatment. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 or 3 mo old. Both adult and old rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups labeled G3, G5, and G7 received, by intraperitoneal injection, 1.50 mg/kg of dexamethasone (Dex) for 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively. Groups labeled G3PF, G5PF, and G7PF were pair fed to the G3, G5, or G7 groups and were injected with an isovolumic solution of NaCl. One control group comprised healthy rats fed ad libitum. The response to aggression induced specifically by Dex (i.e., allowing for variations in pair-fed controls) appeared later in the aged rats (decrease in nitrogen balance from day 1 in adults but only from day 4 in old rats). The adult rats rapidly adapted to Dex treatment, whereas the catabolic state worsened until the end of treatment in the old rats. Gln homeostasis was not maintained in the aged rats; despite an early increase in muscular Gln synthetase activity, the Gln pool was depleted. These results suggest a kinetic impairment of both nitrogen and muscle Gln metabolisms in response to Dex with aging.  (+info)

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Nitrogen (N) generally limits plant growth and controls biosphere responses to climate change. We introduce a new mathematical model of plant N acquisition, called Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN), based on active and passive soil N uptake, leaf N retranslocation, and biological N fixation. This model is unified under the theoretical framework of carbon (C) cost economics, or resource optimization. FUN specifies C allocated to N acquisition as well as remaining C for growth, or N-limitation to growth. We test the model with data from a wide range of sites (observed versus predicted N uptake r2 is 0.89, and RMSE is 0.003 kg N m−2·yr−1). Four model tests are performed: (1) fixers versus nonfixers under primary succession; (2) response to N fertilization; (3) response to CO2 fertilization; and (4) changes in vegetation C from potential soil N trajectories for five DGVMs (HYLAND, LPJ, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and TRIFFID) under four IPCC scenarios. Nonfixers surpass the productivity of fixers ...
Home » Research » Projects » Project Summaries » High nitrogen addition plot on Mt. Ascutney (~ 90% mortality from 1988-2006) ...
Looking for nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)? Find out information about nonprotein nitrogen (NPN). gaseous chemical element; symbol N; at. no. 7; interval in which at. wt. ranges 14.00643-14.00728; m.p. −209.86°C;; b.p. −195.8°C;; density 1.25 grams... Explanation of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)
A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations and yield potentials, were grown with non-limiting N supply. Grain number per ear was reduced by removing the top part of the ear at anthesis. Reduction in grain number gave a significant increase in N content per grain for all cultivars, showing that grain N accumulation was source regulated. However, on a per ear basis, cultivars with a high grain number fully compensated their N accumulation for reduced grain number at anthesis. Cultivars with a lower grain number did not compensate completely, and grain N per ear was decreased by 16%. Second, new mechanistic hypotheses of ...
The permeability or crossover characteristics of a typical polymeric perfluorosulfonic acid membrane are used for the temporal and spatial estimation of nitrogen concentration along the anode channels of a fuel cell stack. The predicted nitrogen accumulation is then used to estimate the impact of local fuel starvation on stack voltage through the notion of apparent current density. Despite simplifying assumptions on membrane hydration levels, the calibrated model reasonably predicts the response of a 20-cell stack whenever there is no significant liquid water accumulation in the dead-ended anode. Specifically, the predicted voltage decay and estimated anode outlet gas composition are experimentally validated using stack-averaged voltage and a mass spectrometer. This work shows that the crossover of nitrogen and its accumulation in the anode can cause a considerable stack voltage decay and should be considered under high hydrogen utilization conditions. ...
Potential Breeding for High Nitrogen Fixation in Pisum sativum L.: Germplasm Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Investigation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
To assess the relationship between nitrogen concentrations in mosses and wet bulk nitrogen deposition or concentrations in precipitation, moss tissue and deposition were sampled within a distance of 1 km of each other in seven European countries. Relationships for various forms of nitrogen appeared to be asymptotic, with data for different countries being positioned at different locations along the asymptotic relationship and saturation occurring at a wet bulk nitrogen deposition of ca. 20 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The asymptotic behaviour was more pronounced for ammonium-N than nitrate-N, with high ammonium deposition at German sites being most influential in providing evidence of the asymptotic behaviour. Within countries, relationships were only significant for Finland and Switzerland and were more or less linear. The results confirm previous relationships described for modelled total deposition. Nitrogen concentration in mosses can be applied to identify areas at risk of high nitrogen deposition ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Comparison of Energy Absorption Properties of High Nitrogen Austenitic Steel and Cast Alloy Determined Using Low Velocity Perforation Test - Archives of Metallurgy and Materials
TY - JOUR AU - Hadži-Tašković-Šukalović, Vesna AU - Vučinić, Željko AU - Vuletić, Mirjana AU - Marković, Ksenija AU - Kravić, Natalija PY - 2016 UR - AB - Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic ...
30mg low nitrogen condensing hot water boiler6 tph low nitrogen condensing boiler project in Uruguay ... Last month 6 tph low nitrogen condensing boiler pr
Increasing nutrient use efficiency is an important aspect in sustainable plant production in order to optimize the use of resources and minimize environmental pollution. Our investigations aim at the identification of genotypic differences which will allow analyzing specific components of nitrogen use efficiency in potato. In addition to characterizing a set of cultivars under field and greenhouse conditions an in vitro culture system with four different nitrogen levels was established in order to investigate if specific components of nitrogen use efficiency can be assessed under such conditions. For this purpose shoot tips were grown fixed in perforated stainless steel plates in 500 ml glas vessels with 50 ml liquid culture medium. The nitrogen levels of the media corresponded to full, 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 of the original MS concentration, i.e., 60, 30, 15 and 7.5 mmol/L. Specific morphological parameters were recorded within three weeks of culture and nitrogen uptake and assimilation was analyzed. ...
Nitrogen (N) plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE) under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn) per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha−1) in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that
Demand for low-input nitrogen sustainable rice is increasing to meet the need for environmentally friendly agriculture and thus development of rice with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a major o
Figure 5: Relationship of Nitrogen Use Efficiency with the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation of Finger Millet Genotypes Grown under Different Nitrogen Inputs
article{d0da78cd-840d-4f3d-b593-3ed125f8bb1e, abstract = {The effect of three different nitrogen sources on the growth of external ectomycorrhizal mycelium was studied in Perspex micorocosms. Nonsterile peat was used as substrate. Five different fungal isolates growing in symbiosis with pine seedlings were investigated: two isolates of Paxillus involutus, one of Suillus bovinus and two unidentified ectomycorrhizal fungi isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips. Three different nitrogen sources were used: ammonium as (NH4)2SO4, nitrate as NaNO3 and a complete nutrient solution (Ingestad 1979), and three different nitrogen concentrations, 1, 2 or 4 mg N/g dry wt. of peat. The mycelial growth of all fungi was found to be negatively affected by the nitrogen amendments, although the sensitivity to nitrogen varied between the isolates. One of the unidentified isolates was extremely sensitive and growth was completely inhibited by all nitrogen treatments. In contrast, the growth of one of the P. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait. AU - Hasager, C.B.. AU - Carstensen, J.. AU - Ellermann, T.. AU - Gustafson, B.G.. AU - Hertel, O.. AU - Johnsson, M.. AU - Markager, S.. AU - Skjøth, C.A.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - A retrospective analysis is carried out to investigate the importance of the vertical fluxes of nitrogen to the marine sea surface layer in which high chlorophyll a levels may cause blooms of harmful algae and subsequent turn over and oxygen depletion at the bottom of the sea. Typically nitrogen is the limiting factor for phytoplankton in the Kattegat Strait during summer periods ( May to August) and the major nitrogen inputs come from the atmosphere and deep-water entrainment. The extreme reoccurrence values of nitrogen from atmospheric wet and dry deposition and deep-water flux entrainments are calculated by the periodic maximum method and the results are successfully compared to a map of ...
p,,strong,Aim: ,/strong,Evaluation of tillage practices and nitrogen sources on nitrogen availability in soil and nitrogen uptake of rice,/p, ,p,,strong,Study design: ,/strong,The experiment was laid out in strip-plot design with different tillage practices in horizontal strip and different nitrogen sources in vertical strip and was replicated thrice.,/p, ,p,,strong,Place and duration of study: ,/strong,The field experiment was conducted during the ,em,kharif ,/em,season of 2019 and 2020 at the Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.,/p, ,p,,strong,Methodology: ,/strong,The experiment was performed with twenty treatments in strip-plot design. The horizontal strip comprised four different tillage practices and vertical strip with five different nitrogen sources. Rice variety BPT-5204 was taken as the test variety. Observations of the crop and soil during the experimentation were recorded at regular intervals. The significance of the treatment impact was examined ...
High nitrogen effluents from mine sites is an environmental issue which has received relatively little attention historically. In recent years a number of studies have showed the environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge to natural water bodies, which include local eutrophication, high risk of acute reducing conditions and changed species composition in the receiving waters. Apart from the direct environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge some forms of nitrogen can be directly toxic- ammonia and nitric gas for instance, and some can be indirectly toxic, for instance nitrate which causes methemoglobinemia in infants if ingested.. This thesis shows how the developed nitrogen tracing methods can be applied in complex water transport systems such as in a mining environment. Two main study sites were used in this thesis, the LKAB iron mine at Kiruna and the Aitik copper mine at Gallivare operated by Boliden Mineral AB. The nitrogen tracing methods used in this study are stable isotope ...
article{1858168, abstract = {Energy-positive sewage treatment can, in principle, be obtained by maximizing energy recovery from concentrated organics and by minimizing energy consumption for concentration and residual nitrogen removal in the main stream. To test the feasibility of the latter, sewage-like nitrogen influent concentrations were treated with oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) in a lab-scale rotating biological contactor at 25 degrees C. At influent ammonium concentrations of 66 and 29 mg N L(-1) and a volumetric loading rate of 840 mg N L(-1)day(-1) yielding hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 2.0 and 1.0 h, respectively, relatively high nitrogen removal rates of 444 and 383 mg N L(-1) day(-1) were obtained, respectively. At low nitrogen levels, adapted nitritation and anammox communities were established. The decrease in nitrogen removal was due to decreased anammox and increased nitratation, with Nitrospira representing 6\% of the biofilm. The latter ...
The N-use efficiency for photosynthesis was higher in a C4 plant, maize, than in a C3 plant, rice, including rbcS antisense rice with optimal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content for CO2-saturated photosynthesis, even when photosynthesis was measured under saturating CO2 conditions. The N cost for the C4 cycle enzymes in maize was not large, and the lower amount of Rubisco allowed a greater N investment in the thylakoid components. This greater content of the thylakoid components as well as the CO2 concentrating mechanism may support higher N-use efficiency for photosynthesis in maize.. ...
Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is widely cultivated in the Mediterranean area where plants generally suffer from water stress during grain-filling period. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of N levels and water regimes on N translocation and nitrogen use efficiency for protein (NUEP) in durum wheat grown under Mediterranean conditions. A 2-yr experiment was performed in southern Italy using four cultivars, two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed) and three N levels (0, 60, and 120 kg ha−1). Among the cultivars under study, Simeto showed the highest N translocation in both years and, together with Ofanto, also the highest NUEP values, especially in rainfed condition. This highlights their good adaptability to dry southern Italy environment. Nitrogen fertilization caused a general decrease of NUEP and its components in both growing seasons; this was more evident in the first drier year, mainly due to a decrease in N uptake. Under water stress the higher N level caused a ...
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This article was first published in gasworld in September 2012.. Everybodys heard of the hydrogen economy, with its promise of limitless low carbon energy. But after decades of R&D, the dream seems scarcely any closer. Apparently still confounded by major technical challenges, the hydrogen economy remains an elusive mirage - always just 10 years away.. But perhaps the hydrogen enthusiasts have simply picked the wrong element? A growing band of companies and independent experts now argue that some of the long-awaited promise of hydrogen could soon be delivered by a different gas - and at a fraction of the cost.. Hydrogen could bankrupt the country, says Professor Yulong Ding, Director of the Institute of Particle Science & Engineering at the University of Leeds, theres a much greater chance well see a nitrogen economy.. Read the full article here.. Full disclosure: this article was sponsored by Highview Power Storage and the Dearman Engine Company. They have established the Liquid Air ...
Nitrogen deficiency occurs if the nitrogen content of the growing medium is not topped up. Heavy rainfall can cause the minerals to be washed away. Compost has the nutrients in it to last for the first months of a plants life&#91;1&#93;, but plants will become deficient in nutrients if they are not potted on.
For some reason, reactor1 gets heated up once Tepco stops nitrogen gas injection.. In order to purge hydrogen gas that may cause hydrogen gas explosion, Tepco is injecting nitrogen gas into reactor1.. However, it also causes radioactive material to leak out of the vessel, so Tepco decreased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to reactor1 RPV by 20% on 10/9/2013 as an attempt.. 26 hours later, they observed the temperature rise by approx. 8℃. Having this increase, they increased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to PCV by 4%, but its still stably high.. Tepco announced they are not injecting liquid nitrogen as air-cooling, but the relationship between nitrogen gas injection and reactor temperature hasnt been identified.. ...
Alfalfa is a high quality forage and also provides a nitrogen (N) benefit to following nonlegume crops. This study examined growth habit and harvest schedule effects on in vitro digestibility of forage; yield and N accumulation of forage, stubble, crowns, and roots; and structural polysaccharide composition and in vitro digestibility of leaves and stems;Six cultivars varying in growth habit were harvested each time they reached the bud, first-flower, mid-flower, or early-pod stage of development. With winter-dormant cultivars, greatest 2-year forage, root, crown, and in vitro digestible dry matter yields were obtained by using the mid-flower cutting schedule. Greatest 2-year N yields of forage, crowns, and roots were also obtained under the mid-flower management. Differences among cultivars for these traits were also observed;Nonwinter-dormant alfalfa, treated as an annual crop, approached the root, crown, and stubble N yields of 2-year-old winter-dormant cultivars. Seasonal forage yields were about
The Effect of Nitrogen Deficiency on the Behavior of the Complete-Mixing Activated Sludge Process M. HAMDY BECHIR, Lecturer JAMES M. SYMONS, Assistant Professor of Sanitary Engineering Civil Engineering Department Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts INTRODUCTION The process of biological removal of pollution from waste waters is accomplished primarily by bacteria which use the organic matter as a source of nutrition. Pollutants are often organic carbon which must be oxidized or removed through a synthesis reaction to eliminate their harmful effects on tne receiving body of water. The bacteria, in order to keep living, have to reproduce or synthesize new cells and increase both in mass and in number. The bacteria in pursuing their natural course of life use the organic carbon available in the waste for energy and new cells, and since the waste is the bacterial food it has to be balanced nutritionally if unhindered growth is to be obtained. The general equation for ...
Could this be extreme nitrogen deficiency which I read can cause older leaves to die off very quickly in extreme cases? Cheers Sam
Newton, Philip P; Lampitt, Richard Stephen (2004): Carbon and nitrogen flux of sediment trap DI181_11834#1. PANGAEA,, In: Lowry, Roy K; Machin, P (2016): Compilation of the results of EU-project BOFS. PANGAEA,
Author: Smith, Sarah R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019; Title: Evolution and regulation of nitrogen flux through compartmentalized|br/| metabolic networks in a marine diatom
West Falmouth residents have watched the health of their harbor worsen over the past few decades due to nitrogen pollution from wastewater. Nitrogen fuels the growth of algae that makes the water cloudy and covers beaches and boats with slimy green muck. Because of nitrogen pollution, the harbors underwater eelgrass beds have died and fish and shellfish populations have slowly disappeared.. In 2008, the U.S. EPA approved a federal pollution limit called a TMDL for West Falmouth Harbor. At that time, the largest source of nitrogen to the harbor was the towns wastewater treatment facility, which was upgraded a few years later after the state set a strict limit on the amount of nitrogen that it could discharge into the harbor.. But even with this upgrade, the harbors nitrogen limit wont be met without reducing nitrogen from septic systems, which today make up the largest source of this harmful type of pollution. All of the homes that line West Falmouth Harbor use on-site septic systems or ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
(2016) Choudhary et al. Science of the Total Environment. Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fa...
The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal-organic frameworks (E-MOFs) have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta)·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3), high density (3.250 g·cm−3), and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1). The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J). The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved non-coding small RNAs involved in regulating plant growth and development, as well as plant responses, to diverse environmental signaling cues. In this study, the expression patterns of 38 wheat microRNAs (TaMIRs) were investigated under normal N and low N stress. Under normal N conditions, the TaMIRs exhibited four expression patterns: high, moderate, low, and undetectable expression. Seven TaMIRs (TaMIR156, TaMIR399, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, TaMIR1133, and TaMIR1136) showed varied expression levels under N deprivation. TaMIR156, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, and TaMIR1136 were upregulated, whereas TaMIR399 and TaMIR1133 were downregulated. The expression patterns of TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, and TaMIR1129 were further analyzed under various low N concentrations and then returned to normal N. The aforementioned TaMIRs exhibited ever higher expression at lower N concentrations and whose expressions returned to those before low N stress after they were restored
Gigout, Anne et Ruiz, Juan-Carlos et Wertheimer, Michael R. et Jolicoeur, Mario et Lerouge, Sophie. 2011. « Nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized coatings on PET and PTFE surfaces improve endothelial cell attachment and resistance to shear flow ». Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 11, nº 8. p. 1110-1119 ...
Nitrogen gas springs use compressed nitrogen gas to exert force. Housed within a cylinder, our Nitrogen gas springs meet a wide variety of specifications, with variations on tonnage, stroke lengths, and mounting capabilities. They are used in automobile struts and hatchback doors, office chairs, press tooling, medical and aerospace applications, and other industrial manufacturing. At Precision Punch & Tooling we offer a full-line of nitrogen gas springs, from standard and fixed height cylinders to auto-return cylinders with height adjustment. The structural components of Special Springs gas springs are designed and built to withstand a minimum of 2,000,000 complete cycles at maximum pressure, temperature and for all types of fixings. We also offer a full line of Wire Die Springs.. ...
The BD50s and BD28s Programmable Digestion Block Systems perform acid (Kjeldahl) digestion of large numbers of samples under controlled conditions. If you are looking to automate your Kjeldahl digestions, the BD50s and BD28s offers enhanced productivity, better quality digestions and increased safety. Prepare Samples for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and Total Kjeldahl Phosphorus (TKP).
One of the hallmark metabolic responses to stress (i.e. injury, sepsis, surgery) is catabolism. Generally speaking, the degree of catabolism is proportional to the degree of stress. Catabolism is caused by increased breakdown of skeletal muscle. The subsequent release of amino acids provides some of the substrate for increased hepatic gluconeogenesis.. During periods of stress, the overall nitrogen balance is negative. However, there is conflicting data regarding the degree of skeletal muscle protein synthetic activity. Studies have reported reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis after open cholecystectomy, decreased hepatic protein synthesis that becomes directly proportional to the duration of surgery, and a reduction in the protein synthesis within tissues that have rapidly replicating cells. Other studies postulate that the negative nitrogen balance is the result of protein breakdown that exceeds the increased protein synthetic rate.. Stress hormones like cortisol and cytokines such as ...
Characteristic symptoms of N deficiency are reduced vigor, smaller leaves and a pale green or yellowish leaf color. The symptoms first become visible on the old leaves which turn yellow and wither at progressing deficiency. Necrosis starts on the leaf tip and progresses toward the leaf base. Extreme N deficiency causes early senescence and diminished ear size. Reasons ...
Balance studies were conducted on three groups of young, healthy adults between the ages of 18-24 years. After control studies, Group I was taken to 4300 meters gradually, Group II was taken to 4300 meters abruptly, and Group III remained at sea level during the entire study. One-half of each group were physically conditioned. No significant differences were observed in nitrogen, and fluid balances between a the groups that were taken to altitude gradually or abruptly, or b between the groups that were physically conditioned, and those who did not exercise. As a result, the respective groups were combined for comparative purposes. Three factors were prominent during the 28 day high altitude exposure to 4300 meters that included a a decrease in food intake which is probably due to anorexia caused by the clinical symptoms b a negative nitrogen balance which may be due to the decreased nutrient intake and the increased requirement for energy and c a negative fluid balance due to involuntary
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Dont worry; analyzing your soil isnt complicated, and you dont need a lab coat. Plant roots and animal guts have evolved specialized cells layers to control mineral nutrient homeostasis that must tolerate the resident microbiota while keeping homeostatic integrity. Grain testing is also available to determine their nutrient content, nutrient removal from the farming system, and the quality of seed before planting. Grain testing is also available to determine their nutrient content, nutrient removal from the farming system, and the quality of seed before planting. PREDICTIVE NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS, INC. (PNS) is a soil and plant health optimization company that provides premium products that effectively blend Predictive Soil Testing Technologies with Intuitive Software for DIY, Professional Landscape and Controlled Environment Agriculture. Plant nutrient testing equipment is primarily used for determining the amount of nutrients present in the plant. Soil as a medium for plant growth can be ...
1,5 à 2 g par jour, soit 3 à 4 comprimés par jour en deux prises matin et soir. Being the fourth most concentrated amino acid in body tissue. General Side Effects. Possible side effects of supplementation with BCAAs include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach bloating, fatigue and loss of coordination. Leucine can be found in a variety of foods, including soy, nuts, oats, beans, lentils, corn and rice. like any active substance, this medicine may cause more or less unpleasant effects in certain people. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Growth in all cells is a major contributory role that l-leucine plays in the body. L-leucine is generally considered safe when taken in normal doses, such as those found in food and most dietary supplements. Using a single amino acid supplement may lead to negative nitrogen balance. Ingesting too much leucine may cause some side effects. Consuming l-leucine through regular foods in your diet is generally considered safe. This can ...
Properties:White Granular Solubility: soluble in water Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White granular Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White...
Nitrogen Use Efficiency,Nitrogen Fertilizers,RAMP,N Rich Strip,N deficiency,nitrogen algorithms,Nitrogen Management,Wheat Nitrogen Fertilization,Maize,Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, pocket sensor, Greenseeder Hand Planter D] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer sales and Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market share by type [2011 to 2017].. E] Worldwide Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer revenue and growth rate [2011 to 2021].. F] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer [Volume and Value] by Regions - USA Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , China Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Europe Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Japan Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer (Volume, Value and Sales Price).. The report also produce extensively details about the description, definitions which are associated to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry and also highlights the modification and changes made to ease the productivity. These company chain and government permission applicable to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market are also included in the report.. The characteristics of the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry are evaluated in a qualitative and quantitative way to compare the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market ...
Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and increased nitrogen (N) fertilization significantly change the nutritional quality of plants and influence the growth and development of insects. However, little is known about plant metabolism and plant-insect interactions under eCO2 and increased N fertilization, especially C4 plants. Thus, the combined effects of eCO2 and increased N fertilization on maize-Ostrinia furnacalis interactions were tested in this study. Our data demonstrated that both eCO2 and increased N fertilization increased starch content, while increased N fertilization promoted the N content in maize. The combined effects of eCO2 and increased N fertilization did not influence the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC):N ratio in maize. The jasmonic acid level of maize was enhanced by increased N fertilization and O. furnacalis infestation. The total phenolics content and defensive enzyme activities of maize increased under eCO2, increased N fertilization and O. furnacalis infestation.
Different sources of nitrogen pose diverse effects to algal community, but the mechanism of inhibitory effects of nitrogen sources on freshwater diatoms is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to compare biomass, photosynthetic activity, and morphological structure of three common freshwater diatoms (Cyclotella meneghiniana, Nitzschia sp., and Gomphonema parvulum) under different nitrogen sources (NO3 − or NH4 +). The sorption characteristic of each diatom was investigated, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content and oxygen evolution rate were analyzed to investigate stress of different nitrogen sources on each diatom in the batch experiments. Ammonium lowered the growth rate of C. meneghiniana and Nitzschia sp. when it was supplied in addition to growth-saturating nitrate concentrations, suggesting a combined effect of inhibition of nitrate uptake and direct ammonium stress. Oxygen evolution rate of Nitzschia sp. showed that the direct ammonium stress on the photosynthetic activity can be
Nitrogen availability often restricts primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous symbionts of terrestrial plants and can improve plant nitrogen acquisition, but have a limited ability to access organic nitrogen. Although other soil biota mineralize organic nitrogen into bioavailable forms, they may simultaneously compete for nitrogen, with unknown consequences for plant nutrition. Here, we show that synergies between the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and soil microbial communities have a highly non-additive effect on nitrogen acquisition by the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. These multipartite microbial synergies result in a doubling of the nitrogen that mycorrhizal plants acquire from organic matter and a tenfold increase in nitrogen acquisition compared to non-mycorrhizal plants grown in the absence of soil microbial communities. This previously unquantified multipartite relationship may contribute to more than 70 Tg of ...
Thinning alters litter quality and microclimate under forests. Both of these two changes after thinning induce alterations of litter decomposition rates and nutrient cycling. However, a possible interaction between these two changes remains unclear. We placed two types of litter (LN, low N concentration litter; HN, high N concentration litter) in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) plantation under four thinning treatments to test the impacts of litter quality, thinning or their combination on decomposition rate and N cycling. In our study, N was accumulated to approach an underlying critical acid-unhydrolyzable residue to nitrogen ratio (approximately 57-69) in litter. Moreover, an interaction between litter quality and thinning on decomposition rates, N accumulation and net release did exist. On one hand, one year decomposition rate of LN was elevated after thinning while that of HN remained the same or even lower (under light thinning); N accumulation of LN declined with light ...
CELAYA-MICHEL, Hernán e CASTELLANOS-VILLEGAS, Alejandro E.. Nitrogen Mineralization on Arid and Semi-Arid Land Soil. Terra Latinoam [online]. 2011, vol.29, n.3, pp.343-356. ISSN 2395-8030.. Arid and semi-arid lands soils have low soil organic matter content because of small plant cover and limited primary productivity. Scarce nitrogen content in arid and semi-arid soil organic matter is transformed to inorganic forms through mineralization, making it available to plants, is known as a major limitation to plant productivity in these ecosystems. Nitrogen transformation through decomposition and mineralization is carried on by soil microorganisms, although in arid land environments, optimal temperature and soil moisture growing conditions are not always present, only after rainfall pulses. Nitrogen availability has been difficult to measure because different methods can result in soil disturbance, removal of roots, and limit air and water exchange. Nitrogen mineralization in arid and semi-arid ...
Multiday Exposure of Men to High Nitrogen Pressure and Increased Airway Resistance at Natural Expired Oxygen Tension: A 14-day Continuous Exposure to 5.2 Per Cent O 2 in N 2 at 4.0 Atmospheres Absolute Pressure
High nitrogen materials are sought as a potentially dense, powerful but insensitive explosive and propellant ingredients. Elucidation of the structure and chemistry of dibenzo-1 ,3a,4,6a-tetraazapentalenes has continued, with particular attention to a putative C12N12O12 derivative initially prepared at the University of New Orleans. This research contributed substantially to identification of the actual o-quinone hydrate structure, and explanation of the apparently anomalous explosive insensitivity of the material. Synthesis of the novel 5,7-dinitrobenzo-1 ,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide has been repeated, its structure has been confirmed, and preliminary evaluation of its explosive sensitivity has been completed.*NITROGEN
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all life forms. The emergence of cells able to transport, catabolize and synthesize a wide variety of nitrogenous compounds has thus been favored by evolutionary selective pressure [1]. As a consequence, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use almost 30 distinct nitrogen-containing compounds [1].. Like most unicellular organisms, yeast transports and catabolizes good nitrogen sources in preference to poor ones. Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) refers to this selection mechanism [1, 2]. More specifically, NCR inhibits the transcriptional activation systems of genes needed to degrade poor nitrogen sources [2]. All known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators (Gln3, Gat1, Dal80, and Deh1) [3]. The ultimate goal is to infer the complete nitrogen catabolite pathways.. In this context, bioinformatics approaches offer the possibility to identify a relatively small number of putative NCR genes [1, 2, 4]. Hence, biologists need only to ...
Isoflavone content of soybean [ Glycine max (L). Merr.] cultivars with different nitrogen sources and growing season under dry land conditions
Of the different sources of nitrogen used for the yield of oxalic acid by parent and X-ray mutated strains ofSclerotium rolfsii, organic nitrogen sources gave better results than inorganic nitrogen sources. Cysteine is the best nitrogen source for the parent and one mutant strain while phenylalanine is for the second one.
Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient required for plant growth and development. In this study, watermelon plants were grown under hydroponic conditions at 0.2 mM N, 4.5 mM N, and 9 mM N for 14 days. Dry weight and photosynthetic assimilation at low N (0.2 mM) was reduced by 29 and 74% compared with high N (9 mM). The photochemical activity (Fv/Fm) was also reduced from 0.78 at high N to 0.71 at low N. The N concentration in the leaf, stem, and root of watermelon under low N conditions was reduced by 68, 104, and 108%, respectively compared with 9 mM N treatment after 14 days of N treatment. In the leaf tissues of watermelon grown under low N conditions, 9598 genes were differentially expressed, out of which 4533 genes (47.22%) were up-regulated whereas, 5065 genes (52.78%) were down-regulated compared with high N. Similarly in the root tissues, 3956 genes were differentially expressed, out of which 1605 genes were up-regulated (40.57%) and 2351 genes were down-regulated (59.43%), compared with high N.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of sprinkling irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization of spring triticum durum. The experiment was carried out at the Złotniki Experimental Station belonging to Poznań University of Life Sciences on a sandy loam soil classified as Albic Luvisols in 2005-2006. Treatment included two water variants (irrigation and the control treatment with natural precipitation), and four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg·ha-1). Sprinkling irrigation increased grain yield, as well as agronomic efficiency of N fertilization. Under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions agronomic efficiency decreased due to increasing of nitrogen doses. Irrigation increased grain yield of 63.1% in 2005-2006.
Paper III of this series reports on effects of ley treatments on the results of procedures for assessing soil nitrogen availability and the relationship between the estimates obtained for various availability procedures and test crop yield. Nitrogen availability procedures investigated included the nitrogen mineralisation potential (No) and the rapid procedures waterlogged incubation (WL), extraction with hot 2 M KCl and extraction with a phosphate-borate buffer (PBB). Values for No on a composite soil sample were 27 mg N kg-1 using the standard nutrient solution and 53 mg N kg-1 using a modified nutrient solution (k values were also significantly different). Values of No using the modified nutrient solution for 0-5 cm soil after the legume treatments showed strong treatment effects with values ranging from 44 to 99 mg N kg-1 for the fertilized plots and lower values for the unfertilized plots. After two test crops values were reduced but in the fertilized legume plots were still higher than for ...
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important trait to optimize yield with minimal input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP) Act-certified germplasm may be an important genetic resource for public breeding sectors. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic variation of N-use traits and to characterize maize ex-PVP inbreds that are adapted to the U.S. Corn Belt for NUE performance. Eighty-nine ex-PVP inbreds (36 stiff stalk synthetic (SSS), and 53 non-stiff stalk synthetic (NSSS)) were genotyped using 26,769 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, then 263 single-cross maize hybrids derived from these inbreds were grown in eight environments from 2011 to 2015 at two N fertilizer rates (0 and 252 kg N ha−1) and three replications. Genetic utilization of inherent soil nitrogen and the yield response to N fertilizer were stable across environments and were highly correlated with yield under low and high N conditions, respectively.
Nitrogen use world crop production. World nitrogen situation-trends, outlook, and requirements. Function and transformation of nitrogen in higher Plants. Ammonium versus nitrate nutrition of higher plantes. Nutrient balance and nitrogen use nitrogen toxicity in plants. Dinitrogen fixation in Leguminous crop plants. Enhancing biological Dinitrogem Fixation in crop plants. Potential for nosymbiotic and assosiative dinitrogen fixation. Uptake of organic nitrogen forms by roots and leaves. Plant use of soil nitrogen. Conventional nitrogen fertilizers. Slow-Release nitrogen fertilizers. Use of nitrogen from agricultural, indistrial, and municipal wastes. Use of nitrogen from manue. Diagnosis of nitrogen deficiency in plants. Nitrogen and yield potential. Efficient use of nitrogen in croppig systems. Crop rotations for efficient nitrogen use. Nitrogen or water stress: their interrelationships. Nitrogen use and nitratite leaching in irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen Use in flooded rice soils. Plant ...
Nitrogen-containing few-walled carbon nanotubes (N-FWCNTs) with very low nitrogen content (0.56 at.%) were obtained by a process involving the coating of acid functionalized FWCNTs with polyaniline (PANI) followed by pyrolysis at high temperatures. The resulting N-FWCNTs exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), despite significantly lower nitrogen content than previously reported in literature. The N-FWCNTs performed on par or better than Pt-C in the cathode of an alkaline direct methanol fuel cell, corroborating the ORR activity observed in the electrochemical cell and exhibiting a higher methanol tolerance. Interestingly, N-FWCNTs showed a high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction and for the hydrogen peroxide decomposition, suggesting that the active sites involved in ORR can simultaneously catalyze other reactions. This unprecedentedly high activity for such a low Ncontent can be explained by the exceptional accessibility for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term N fertilization imbalances potential N acquisition and transformations by soil microbes. AU - Huang, L.. AU - Riggins, C. W.. AU - Rodríguez-Zas, S.. AU - Zabaloy, M. C.. AU - Villamil, M. B.. PY - 2019/11/15. Y1 - 2019/11/15. N2 - Nitrogen (N) fertilization in agricultural soils has been receiving worldwide attention due to its detrimental effects on ecosystem services, particularly on microbial N transformation. However, few studies provide a complete picture of N-fertilization effects on the N transformation cycle within a single agricultural ecosystem. Here, we explored the main steps of the microbial N cycle, using targeted gene abundances as proxies, in relation to soil properties, following 35 years of N-fertilization at increasing rates (0, 202 and 269 kg N/ha) in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the quantification of phylogenetic groups and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Postprandial changes in the content and composition of nonprotein nitrogen in human milk. AU - Donovan, S. M.. AU - Ereman, R. R.. AU - Dewey, K. G.. AU - Lonnerdal, B.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The effect of a meal on human milk (HM) total nitrogen (TN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) content and composition was examined. Two studies were performed in which milk and blood samples were collected 2-3 h after subjects consumed either a test breakfast or lunch. To monitor the rate of transfer of plasma urea into milk, two women were given [15N]2-urea with the meal. Milk TN concentrations were not significantly different from premeal values. However, concentrations of milk NPN, urea nitrogen, and alanine were increased by ≥ 20% over premeal values. [15N]2-Urea appeared in plasma and milk within 15 min and reached maximum enrichments of 10% and 5.5% in plasma and milk, respectively. Several HM NPN components increase in concentration postprandially; however, these concentrations ...
Growth at elevated CO2 and temperature often leads to decreased Rubisco activity. We investigated the effects of increased CO2, temperature and nitrogen on the diurnal changes in the control of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Spring wheat was grown at ambient and 700 μmol mol-1 CO2, under ambient and 4 ºC warmer temperatures, and with two levels of nitrogen supply in field tunnels in a Mediterranean environment. At ear emergence, elevated CO2 increased Rubisco activation, but decreased Rubisco protein and, with high nitrogen, Rubisco specific activity, and had no effect on the rbcS transcript. Warmer temperatures tended to decrease the rbcS mRNA level and Rubisco protein, although the effect on Rubisco activity was small. High nitrogen decreased Rubisco activation or specific activity, depending on the CO2 concentration. It increased Rubisco protein at the end of the night, but accelerated its diurnal loss. The main changes ...
Scientists from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have found a gene that plays an important role in helping rice adapt to low soil nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer has an indispensable role in increasing crop yields, but on the other hand, it creates a severe threat to ecosystems. For this reason, breeding new crop varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a high priority for both agricultural production and environmental protection.. Using a diversified rice population from different regions, the scientists carefully evaluated how various agronomic traits responded to nitrogen in fields with different nitrogen supply conditions. They further performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS), with one very significant GWAS signal identified. The detailed mechanisms of how OsTCP19 works in regulating rice tillering were also characterized.. The researchers found that OsTCP19-H, the high NUE allele, was highly preserved in rice ...
Keywords: : Nitrogen, N-use efficiency, NUE, N recovery, soil P, soil K, soil organic matter, soil structure.. The increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in agriculture in the last five decades is justified by the increased yield potential of the crops grown and the judicious use of agrochemicals to control weeds, pests and diseases to protect that potential. Nitrogen use-efficiency can be assessed in a number of ways, discussed here with examples, but is usually determined as percent recovery of added N in the harvested product when calculated by the difference method. Assessed in this way, N-use efficiency is frequently only about 50%. But N-use efficiency of applied N should include that taken up by roots to produce the above-ground plant, where N plays a vital role in photosynthesis, the fixation of carbon dioxide to produce sugars, and the root system, which takes up nutrients and water. The fate of this N after harvest is important, but the total amount in the crop should be included in ...
Keywords: : Nitrogen, N-use efficiency, NUE, N recovery, soil P, soil K, soil organic matter, soil structure.. The increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in agriculture in the last five decades is justified by the increased yield potential of the crops grown and the judicious use of agrochemicals to control weeds, pests and diseases to protect that potential. Nitrogen use-efficiency can be assessed in a number of ways, discussed here with examples, but is usually determined as percent recovery of added N in the harvested product when calculated by the difference method. Assessed in this way, N-use efficiency is frequently only about 50%. But N-use efficiency of applied N should include that taken up by roots to produce the above-ground plant, where N plays a vital role in photosynthesis, the fixation of carbon dioxide to produce sugars, and the root system, which takes up nutrients and water. The fate of this N after harvest is important, but the total amount in the crop should be included in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topographic Influence on Plant Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in a Temperate Forested Watershed. AU - Chiwa, Masaaki. AU - Ikezaki, Shoko. AU - Katayama, Ayumi. AU - Enoki, Tsutomu. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Plant stoichiometry has been used to diagnose phosphorus (P) limitation caused by increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Spatial variability of N/P stoichiometry within a forested watershed has not yet been evaluated. This study conducted synoptic sampling of leaf matter in 27 plots within a temperate forested watershed on low P availability rock (serpentine bedrock) with a moderately high atmospheric N deposition (16 kg N ha-1 year-1) to assess the effects of spatial topographic variation on N/P stoichiometry. Leaf N and P concentrations and N/P ratios of Japanese cypress were assessed, and their spatial variations were evaluated across a catchment. Average leaf P concentration was low (0.66 ± 0.16 mg g-1) across the sites, while leaf N concentration ...
Expert Panel (EUNEP) which took place on 6 and 7 May 2019 in Budapest. EUNEP gathers scientists from all over Europe with the aim of improving the management of nitrogen in the environment.. During the meeting, EUNEP members welcomed the fact that the NUE indicator - as developed by the Panel members in 2015 - has now been taken up by scientists and stakeholders, such as Laura Cardenas in a recent paper on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and nitrous oxide emissions from five UK fertilized grasslands. In addition, the momentum around joined-up nitrogen actions is growing at international level. For instance, the Resolution on Sustainable Nitrogen Management, recently adopted at the 11-15 March 2019 meeting of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA) in Nairobi, calls for coherent evidence-based, global policy coordination to address negative impacts of reactive nitrogen stemming from multiple sources. This is also the mission of the EUNEP. In this context, the International Fertilizer Association (IFA) in a ...
Moderate fertilization levels are required. Fertilize the crop weekly with 100-150 ppm nitrogen, using complete balanced fertilizer. Avoid high ammonium and high nitrogen levels, but high nitrogen levels results in soft stems. Stems that are too soft will break underneath the flower. Prevent magnesium deficiency by applying magnesium sulphate (0,05 %) 1-2 times and in case of iron deficiency apply iron-chelate for 1-2 times. The roots are sensitive to high salt levels in substrates. Field: N min soil value: approximately 120 g N/m².. ...
We tested the reliability of fecal nitrogen (FN) to predict dietary nitrogen (DN) in two sika deer Cervus nippon Heude, 1884 populations with greatly differing habitats. One was near the village of Nishiokoppe (area A) and the other was on Nakanoshima Island (area B) in Hokkaido, Japan. To estimate FN, we washed feces through a sieve, and diet was identified based on rumen-content analysis. The diet in area A was mostly composed of grass and legumes of agricultural origin, with browse being only a minor component. In contrast, browse such as deciduous foliage was the main component of the diet in area B. Dietary nitrogen was significantly regressed by FN within specific areas. On the other hand, the DN-FN-relationship had a similar slope but significantly different intercepts between areas. DN-FN-relationships differed between diets with and without an agricultural component, irrespective of browse. Thus, the difference in the DN-FN-relationship between areas was explained by differences in ...
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This factorial split-plot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the application of time and level of nitrogen on yield, grain content, remobilization efficiency, and nitrogen consumption of quinoa cultivars. The present work has a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2018 and 2019 in Khuzestan, Iran. The experimental factors herein included four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (no fertilizer application, 100, 200, and 300 kg/ha) and different administrations: (1) 50% at base stage + 50% at six-leaf stage, (2) 50% at base stage + 25% at six-leaf stage + 25% at mid-flowering stage, (3) 25% at base stage + 50% at six-leaf stage + 25% at mid-flowering stage, and (4) 25% base stage + 25% six-leaf stage + 50% mid-flowering stage. Furthermore, quinoa cultivars Gizat, Q26, and Titicaca were selected as the sub-plots. Comparing the two-year averages, we found that with the increase in the nitrogen fertilizer, grain yield, biological yield, remobilization (R), current ...
Author(s): Ros, Gerard H.; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Hoffland, Ellis | Abstract: Strong relationships between Extractable Organic N (EON) and N mineralization suggest that they can be used to assess the N mineralization potential of soils. EON is often used to proxy Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), which is assumed to play an intermediate role in N mineralization. We tested whether EON relates to N mineralization and how this relation is affected by the extraction methodology used. We synthesized results from 171 papers on correlation coefficients between EON and N mineralization using meta-analysis. EON was positively related to N mineralization, and its size explained 14-65% of the variation in N mineralization. Best results were obtained with hot CaCl2 and acid KMnO4 as extractants. EON extracted with alkali solutions explained less of the variation in N mineralization than the other soil tests. There was no direct relationship between the intensity of extraction and the performance of EON as
The relationship between total and metabolically active soil microbial communities can provide insight into how these communities are impacted by environmental change, which may impact the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients in the future. For example, the anthropogenic release of biologically available N has dramatically increased over the last 150 years, which can alter the processes controlling C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, nearly 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. A microbial mechanism underlies this response, as compositional changes in the soil microbial community have been concomitantly documented with these biogeochemical changes. Here, we co-extracted DNA and RNA from decaying leaf litter to determine if experimental atmospheric N deposition has lowered the diversity and altered the composition of the whole communities of ...
Climate change is expected to have strong impacts on permafrost and the frequency of landscape disturbances are expected to increase in response to warming temperatures and overall permafrost change. These disturbances can increase the export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from High Arctic catchments, having important effects on downstream aquatic ecosystems, thus motivating the need to better understand the impact of permafrost change on nitrogen exports. This study examined fluxes of DIN (ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-)) from paired catchments at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory, Nunavut. Water samples were collected from the outlet of the rivers during the melt season from 2003 to 2016. A range of surface water draining different landscape types were also sampled during the 2016 season to identify how specific locations in the catchments control downstream DIN concentrations. Both physical disturbances, including active layer detachments (ALDs), and thermal perturbations ...
The objective of this study was to assess live weight gain, animal behaviour and N excretion in the urine of dairy heifers fed herbs during autumn and spring. Sixty heifers were allocated into five dietary treatments: 100% ryegrass-white clove pasture (100RG/WC); 50% RG/WC + 50% chicory (50CH); 75% RG/WC + 25% chicory (25CH); 75% RG/WC + 25% plantain (25PL); and 50% RG/WC + 50% plantain (50PL). The 100RG/WC had the highest (5.0 times/6 h) and lowest (2.5 times/6 h) urination frequency compared with other treatments in autumn (averaged 3.5 times/6 h) and spring (averaged 4.5 times/6 h), respec ...
Provided by Healio. Yamada K. Nutr J. 2013;doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-79.. June 24, 2013. Patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma who had a lower dietary fat intake experienced slower recovery from invasive therapies in a recent study.. Researchers assessed the dietary intake of 35 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before and after hospitalization. Nitrogen balance and nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) were measured upon admission and four days later.. Patients mean dietary intake at admission was 1,977 ± 513 kcal/day, with a negative nitrogen balance (-2.1 ± 4.5 g/dL) and an npRQ of 0.83 ± 0.061. While at the hospital, mean intake was 1,834 ± 290 kcal/day (P=.061 for difference), with a similar nitrogen balance (-3.0 ± 2.8 g/dL; P=.31). The npRQ after 4 days in-hospital was 0.86 ± 0.075 (P=.0032).. Five patients experienced minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), and investigators observed a trend toward lower npRQ among them compared with patients without MHE (0.78 ± ...
Liu, Mengyun, David A.N. Ussiri and Rattan Lal. 2016. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions under different land uses and tillage practices. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 47(12):1528-1541.. ...
Rhizoboxes were developed in order to analyse root system and corresponding protease activity in the rhizosphere of young tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker). The activity of proteases exuded by tomato roots applying in situ zymography was detected along the entire root system. The corresponding root architecture as well as root and shoot biomasses was determined to correlate protease activity with plant growth parameters under varying nitrogen supplies. With higher nitrate fertilisation, the proteases in the rhizosphere were more active than nitrogen-deficient plants. This may indicate that exuded proteases were not solely a plant response to nitrogen deficiency with the aim to increase nitrogen availability. Instead, they may have different roles, e.g. in root development.
As we approach spring and the coming growing season, corn farmers facing tight margins or operating losses with their corn crop are looking for ways to be as economical as possible. One input that always seems to need constant monitoring and fine-tuning is the nitrogen input schedule. Two Purdue experts have recently completed an updated report to a 10-year field-level study of nitrogen rates.. Applying more than enough nitrogen is no longer the cheap insurance it once was many years ago, said Jim Camberato, soil fertility specialist and co-author of Nitrogen Management Guidelines for Corn in Indiana. High nitrogen fertilizer costs and environmental impacts should encourage growers to critically evaluate their nitrogen management program, including application rate, fertilizer material and timing.. Nitrogen is the most expensive nutrient used in corn production. If applied properly, it makes individual plants stronger and increases yield.. Beyond some level of applied nitrogen, grain yield ...
Researchers in China studied the co-application of manures and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in high-input greenhouses. They said the environmental risks may outweigh the benefits.
Nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials are known to be excellent electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. In this study, we used a new and simple post-doping synthesis method to prepare nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by reacting fluorina
The Harland-Ashworth test for measuring undenatured whey protein nitrogen in nonfat dry milk was modified to measure undenatured whey protein nitrogen in dried whey. The new test was designed to measure absorbance in Harland-Ashworth filtrates at 280 nm to eliminate difficulties associated with turbidimetric measurements. One gram dried whey was reconstituted in 25 ml pH 6.7 phosphate buffer (.lM) in a 25 x 150 mm test tube. Ten grams sodium chloride were added. The test tubes were incubated for 30 min in a water bath at 37C and shaken 8-10 times in the first 15 min. The tubes were removed from the water bath and cooled to room temperature. The contents of the tubes were filtered through S & S 602 filter paper. One milliliter of filtrate was diluted with 10 ml H2o and the total absorbance was measured against a blank of 1 ml phosphate buffer saturated with sodium chloride, then diluted with 10 ml H2o. One milliliter of filtrate was mixed with 10 ml 13.2% trichloroacetic acid and filtered through Whatman
Contractile activity is an important determinant of the size, rate of protein turnover and phenotypic properties of muscle. Animal models that decrease muscle activity invariably accelerate the rate of protein degradation, usually complementing decreases in the rate of protein synthesis. The net effect is muscle atrophy. By contrast, increased activity and/or passive stretch enhance the synthesis of new proteins, whilst protein catabolism may be either decreased or increased. Muscle hypertrophy results. Endurance activities in man and animals usually induce cardiac hypertrophy, and increased fatigue resistance in skeletal muscle. During exercise the whole body and its skeletal musculature exhibit a negative nitrogen balance, and there is general agreement that rates of protein synthesis are decreased. Changes in protein degradation are, however, much less clearly defined. Resistance exercises induce the opposite changes, with the size of the heart remaining unchanged whilst the bulk and strength ...
Metabolic responses during a very-low-calorie diet, composed of 50 per cent glucose and 50 per cent protein, were studied in 18 grossly obese subjects (relative weights 131-205 per cent) for 28 d. During the last 14 d (period 2) eight subjects (Gp B) served as controls, while the other ten subjects (Gp A) in the low T₃ state were treated with triiodothyronine supplementation (50 micrograms, 3 times daily). During the first 14 d (period 1) a low T₃-high rT₃ state developed; there was an inverse relationship between the absolute fall of the plasma T₃ concentrations and the cumulative negative nitrogen balance as well as the beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) acid concentrations during the semi-starvation period, pointing to a protein and fuel sparing effect of the low T₃ state. Weight loss in the semi-starvation period was equal in both groups; during T₃ treatment the rate of weight loss was statistically significant (Gp A 6.1 +/- 0.3 kg vs Gp B 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg, P less than 0.001). In the ...
Author: Rubin, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: affinity nitrate transporter|br/|sucrose-specific induction|br/|knox gene-expression|br/|lob domain protein|br/|p-i starvation|br/|enzyme-activities|br/|phenylpropanoid biosynthesis|br/|flavonoid biosynthesis|br/|environmental nitrate|br/|secondary metabolism; Title: Members of the LBD Family of Transcription Factors Repress Anthocyanin Synthesis and Affect Additional Nitrogen Responses in Arabidopsis
Research on hydroponically grown mums showed that nitrogen (N) levels applied can be reduced when adequate sulfur (S) is also applied. However, changes in stem length, leaf area, and time-to-fl ower can be affected. Our goal was to evaluate whether reduced N levels in combination with S would affect commercial production and post-harvest longevity of pot mums. `White Diamond was grown in a peat:perlite:vermiculite medium following a commercial production schedule. N levels applied were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L. S levels were 0, 5, 10, 20, and 80 mg/L. The treatment design was a complete factorial 4 × 5 with 20 treatment combinations. The experimental design was a split-plot with N levels as the whole-plot and S levels as the split-plot factor. Variables measured were plant height, leaf area, days to bud set, days to first color, and days to flower opening. Plants were ship to the Univ. of Florida for postharvest evaluation. Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED AND PROC REG. N and S ...
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The collection of atmospheric deposition by technical samplers and validated deposition modelling using chemical transport models is spatially complemented by using mosses as bioindicator: since 1990, the European moss survey has been providing data on element concentrations in moss every 5 years at up to 7300 sampling sites. In the moss specimens, heavy metals (since 1990), nitrogen (since 2005) and persistent organic pollutants (since 2010) were determined. Germany participated in all surveys with the exception of that in 2010. In this study, the spatial structures of element concentrations in moss collected in Germany between 1990 and 2015 were comparatively investigated by using Morans I statistics and Variogram analysis and mapped by use of Kriging interpolation. This is the precondition to spatially join the moss survey data with data collected at other locations within different environmental networks and to validate spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition as derived by technical sampling and
Liquid nitrogen readily evaporates to form gaseous nitrogen, and hence the precautions associated with gaseous nitrogen also ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. Etymology of Nitrogen Nitrogen at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham) Nitrogen ... Atomic nitrogen is prepared by passing an electric discharge through nitrogen gas at 0.1-2 mmHg, which produces atomic nitrogen ... Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. Nitrogen is a nonmetal and the lightest member of group ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nitrogen trichloride. OSHA - Nitrogen trichloride Nitrogen Trichloride - Health ... Nitrogen halides, Inorganic chlorine compounds, Inorganic nitrogen compounds, Explosive chemicals, Nitrogen(III) compounds, ... Nitrogen trichloride, trademarked as Agene, was at one time used to bleach flour, but this practice was banned in the United ... Nitrogen trichloride can irritate mucous membranes-it is a lachrymatory agent, but has never been used as such. The pure ...
... is a chemical compound with the formula NO 2. It is one of several nitrogen oxides. NO 2 is an intermediate in ... "Nitrogen dioxide". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Nitrogen dioxide". Immediately Dangerous to ... Unlike ozone, O3, the ground electronic state of nitrogen dioxide is a doublet state, since nitrogen has one unpaired electron ... Nitrogen Dioxide Air Pollution Current global map of nitrogen dioxide distribution A review of the acute and long term impacts ...
... making nitrogen unavailable to plants. This is known as "robbing" the soil of nitrogen. All vegetables apart from nitrogen ... Nitrogen deficiency is a deficiency of nitrogen in plants. This can occur when organic matter with high carbon content, such as ... This makes it crucial that the fields have enough nitrogen in the soil to grow a prosperous crop. However, excess nitrogen in ... Nitrogen fixation Protein deficiency "Compost Fundamentals: Compost Needs - Carbon Nitrogen Relationships". Pandey, S N; Sinha ...
... ("Nr"), also known as fixed nitrogen, refers to all forms of nitrogen present in the environment except for ... Containing reduced nitrogen, these compounds are components of fertilizers. All of these compounds enter into the nitrogen ... This also means that nitrogen-related problems need to be looked at in an integrated manner. Human impact on the nitrogen cycle ... While reactive nitrogen is eventually converted back into molecular nitrogen via denitrification, an excess of reactive ...
A nitrogen washout can be performed with a single nitrogen breath, or multiple ones. Both tests use similar tools, both can ... A plot of the nitrogen concentration (as a % of total gas) vs. expired volume is obtained by increasing the nitrogen ... Individuals with high resistance in their airways can take longer than seven minutes to remove all the nitrogen. A nitrogen ... Nitrogen washout (or Fowler's method) is a test for measuring anatomic dead space in the lung during a respiratory cycle, as ...
... can refer to: Nitrogen trifluoride, NF3 Nitrogen difluoride radical, ·NF2 Nitrogen monofluoride, NF Nitrogen ...
There are 3 main forms of nitrogen: Molecular nitrogen Mineral nitrogen Organic nitrogen Molecular nitrogen is the gas form of ... Fish and humans are more tolerant of nitrate nitrogen than they are of ammonium nitrogen. In well aerated water, most of the ... The chemical structure for nitrogen gas is N2. The mineral forms of nitrogen are: Nitrate with the chemical structure of NO− 3 ... Ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) is a measure for the amount of ammonia, a toxic pollutant often found in landfill leachate and in ...
CS1 errors: missing periodical, Dating methodologies in archaeology, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen). ... and the presence of microorganism that digest nitrogen rich elements, like collagen. Some studies compare nitrogen dating ... Nitrogen dating is a form of relative dating which relies on the reliable breakdown and release of amino acids from bone ... For human bones, the assumption of about 5% nitrogen in the bone, mostly in the form of collogen, allows fairly consistent ...
... is formed during the function of a xenon monofluoride excimer laser. Nitrogen trifluoride is the halide ... Nitrogen difluoride can be consumed further to yield nitrogen monofluoride. NF2 + e− → NF + F− Trainor, Daniel W. (February ... Nitrogen difluoride, also known as difluoroamino, is a reactive radical molecule with formula NF2. This small molecule is in ... molecule dimensions and angles "Nitrogen difluoride NF2(g)". Brown, R.D.; Burden, F.R.; Godfrey, P.D.; Gillard, I.R. (August ...
... (13N) is a radioisotope of nitrogen used in positron emission tomography (PET). It has a half-life of a little ... Nitrogen-13 is used to tag ammonia molecules for PET myocardial perfusion imaging. Nitrogen-13 is used in medical PET imaging ... Nitrogen-13 plays a significant role in the CNO cycle, which is the dominant source of energy in main-sequence stars more ... Lightning may have a role in the production of nitrogen-13. PET site of the University of Melbourne Islam, M. R.; Beni, M. S.; ...
... biological production of nitrogen Nitrogen cycle: the flow and transformation of nitrogen through the environment Nitrogen ... Nitrogen can be fixed by lightning converting nitrogen gas (N 2) and oxygen gas (O 2) in the atmosphere into NOx (nitrogen ... species that use diatomic nitrogen as a step in the complete nitrogen cycle. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) occurs when ... For example, nitrogen fixation by red clover can range from 50 to 200 lb/acre (56 to 224 kg/ha). The ability to fix nitrogen in ...
... nitrogen(II) oxide, or nitrogen monoxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrogen trioxide (NO3), or nitrate radical ... nitrogen(II,IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen(IV) oxide dimer Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), nitrogen(V) oxide, or ... Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), ... Nitrate Nitrogen oxide sensor Sulfur nitrides, which are valence isoelectronic with nitrogen oxides United States Clean Air Act ...
... or nitrogen hydrate is a clathrate consisting of ice with regular crystalline cavities that contain nitrogen ... Since the air for burning also contains nitrogen, the fumes from combustion contain mostly nitrogen, and so nitrogen clathrate ... On Mars the nitrogen pressure is far too low to produce nitrogen clathrate itself, but nitrogen likely makes up a small ... Nitrogen clathrate hydrate has a density range of 0.95 to 1.00 gcm−3 varying depending on how full of the nitrogen the cavities ...
... was considered for use as a solid rocket fuel for research in 1966. Some studies believe that nitrogen ... A compound that is similar to nitrogen pentahydride is the theretical nitrogen pentafluoride. Its structure is assumed to be ... it is a compound of nitrogen and five of the same atom, but nitrogen pentafluoride is also a hypothetical compound, still never ... H2 Several papers have conducted theoretical calculations on nitrogen pentahydride, and believe that nitrogen pentahydride is ...
For example, the nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 have an odd number of nitrogens but even masses of 30 and 46, respectively. Mass ( ... The nitrogen rule states that organic compounds containing exclusively hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphorus ... with the exception of nitrogen, which has a nominal (or integer) mass of 14, but has a valency of 3. The nitrogen rule is only ... then the nitrogen rule becomes reversed (odd numbered masses indicate even numbers of nitrogens and vice versa). However, for ...
Cinesite Vancouver (formerly known as Nitrogen Studios Canada, Inc., commonly referred to as Nitrogen Studios) is a Canadian ... Refused to Credit Artists Nitrogen Studios info on VFX World Map Nitrogen Studios Canada, Inc. on Internet Movie DataBase ... Nitrogen had also provided CGI animation and concept art for a planned second theatrical Thomas & Friends film with the title ... The show was still using models up until 2009, and Nitrogen Studios would animate CGI faces onto the models using tracking ...
Argon, however, has 2.33 times the narcotic effect of nitrogen, and is a poor choice as a breathing gas for diving (it is used ... 1977,1978). The non-helium portion (i.e., the sum of the oxygen and the nitrogen) is to be regarded as having the same narcotic ... The most straightforward way to avoid nitrogen narcosis is for a diver to limit the depth of dives. The other main preventive ... The noble gases argon, krypton, and xenon are more narcotic than nitrogen at a given pressure, and xenon has so much anesthetic ...
High nitrogen purity: PSA nitrogen generator plants allow production of high-purity nitrogen from air, which membrane systems ... The net cost of nitrogen produced by nitrogen generators is significantly less than the cost of bottled or liquefied nitrogen. ... The net cost of nitrogen produced by nitrogen complexes is significantly less than the cost of cylinder or liquefied nitrogen. ... Nitrogen generators and stations are stationary or mobile air-to-nitrogen production complexes. The adsorption gas separation ...
Cold nitrogen is a better medium than hot nitrogen, and this appears to be part of the reason that the pulse energy and power ... The nitrogen laser is a three-level laser. In contrast to more typical four-level lasers, the upper laser level of nitrogen is ... A nitrogen laser is a gas laser operating in the ultraviolet range (typically 337.1 nm) using molecular nitrogen as its gain ... The wall-plug efficiency of the nitrogen laser is low, typically 0.1% or less, though nitrogen lasers with efficiency of up to ...
... is produced when radical species (H, O, N, CH3) abstract a fluorine atom from nitrogen difluoride (NF2). ... Nitrogen monofluoride (fluoroimidogen) is a metastable species that has been observed in laser studies. It is isoelectronic ... It is unstable with respect to its formal dimer, dinitrogen difluoride, as well as to its elements, nitrogen and fluorine. ... Compounds with Oxygen and Nitrogen. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 263-271. ISBN 9783662063392. Avizonis, Petras V. ( ...
Kjeldahl nitrogen may refer to: Kjeldahl method Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ... the title Kjeldhal nitrogen. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the ...
... is used in a slush mixture with liquid nitrogen in order to cool faster than with liquid nitrogen alone, useful ... Solid nitrogen is a number of solid forms of the element nitrogen, first observed in 1884. Solid nitrogen is mainly the subject ... Solid nitrogen admits two phases at ambient pressure: α- and β-nitrogen. Below 35.6 K, nitrogen adopts a cubic structure with ... At these low pressures, nitrogen exists in only two known allotropes: α-nitrogen (below 35 K) and β-nitrogen (35-63 K). ...
... s are nonspecific DNA alkylating agents. During World War II nitrogen mustards were studied at the Yale School ... Due to its use in previous studies, the nitrogen mustard known as "HN2" became the first chemotherapy drug mustine. Nitrogen ... Nitrogen mustard gas was stockpiled by several nations during the Second World War, but it was never used in combat.Daniel C. ... The nitrogen mustard drug mustine (HN2), is no longer commonly in use in its original IV formulation because of excessive ...
Though nitrogen fixation is the primary source of plant-available nitrogen in most ecosystems, in areas with nitrogen-rich ... Blue represent nitrogen storage, green is for processes moving nitrogen from one place to another, and red is for the bacteria ... Nitrogen entering the euphotic zone is referred to as new nitrogen because it is newly arrived from outside the productive ... Nitrogen enters the water through the precipitation, runoff, or as N 2 from the atmosphere. Nitrogen cannot be utilized by ...
Although nitrogen is more electronegative than iodine, the compound was so named due to its analogy to the compound nitrogen ... See the explosion Nitrogen Tri-Iodide - explains why the compound is explosive Nitrogen Tri-Iodide Detonation on Youtube (All ... as are the other nitrogen trihalides and ammonia. The material that is usually called "nitrogen triiodide" is prepared by the ... Small amounts of nitrogen triiodide are sometimes synthesized as a demonstration to high school chemistry students or as an act ...
... may refer to: Nitric acid, HNO3 Nitrous acid, HNO2 Hyponitrous acid, H2N2O2 This set index page lists chemical ...
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is the proportion of nitrogen present that a plant absorbs and uses. Improving nitrogen use ... Nitrogen assimilation is the formation of organic nitrogen compounds like amino acids from inorganic nitrogen compounds present ... Other organisms, like animals, depend entirely on organic nitrogen from their food. Plants absorb nitrogen from the soil in the ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01435.x. (Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen, Metabolism, Plant physiology). ...
The amount of nitrogen in a chemical substance can be determined by the Kjeldahl method. In particular, nitrogen is an ... Nitrogen compounds also have an important role in organic chemistry, as nitrogen is part of proteins, amino acids and adenosine ... Five nitrogen fluorides are known. Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3, first prepared in 1928) is a colourless and odourless gas that is ... Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in organic chemistry. Many organic functional groups involve a carbon-nitrogen ...
... is a chemical compound with the formula NBr3. It is extremely explosive in its pure form, even at −100 °C, ... Nitrogen tribromide reacts instantly with ammonia in dichloromethane solution at −87 °C to yield NBrH2. NBr3 + 2 NH3 → 3 NH2Br ... Nitrogen halides, Substances discovered in the 1970s, Bromine(I) compounds). ...
The meaning of NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE is a pungent volatile explosive yellow oil NCl3 that was formerly used in bleaching and ... Post the Definition of nitrogen trichloride to Facebook Facebook Share the Definition of nitrogen trichloride on Twitter ... nitrogen tri·​chlor·​ide -(ˈ)trī-ˈklō(ə)r-ˌīd, -ˈklȯ(ə)r- ... Accessed 1 Feb. 2023. ...
The FAA requires that liquid nitrogen be packaged in a dry shipper when transported in checked baggage. See the FAA regulations ... The FAA requires that liquid nitrogen be packaged in a dry shipper when transported in checked baggage. See the FAA regulations ...
Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by ... Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. Contact with the skin or eyes can cause burns. ... Everybody is exposed to small amounts of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. Higher exposure may occur by burning wood or kerosene ... What are nitrogen oxides?. Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Two of the most ...
Nitrogen dioxide. CAS No: 10102-44-0. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Nitrogen dioxide. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Liquid nitrogen is a chemical that is extremely cold, about -328°F (-200°C). ... Liquid nitrogen will instantly freeze anything it touches. It is used to kill cells that make up diseased or cancerous tissue. ... Liquid nitrogen is a chemical that is extremely cold, about -328°F (-200°C). ...
How nitrogen mustards work *Adverse health effects caused by nitrogen mustards depend on the amount of nitrogen mustard to ... What nitrogen mustards are *Nitrogen mustards were produced in the 1920s and 1930s as potential chemical warfare weapons. They ... Where nitrogen mustards are found and how they are used *The nitrogen mustards were never used in warfare. ... How you could be exposed to nitrogen mustards *If nitrogen mustards are released into the air as a vapor, you could be exposed ...
Signs and symptoms The diagnosis of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) toxicity largely depends on the history of exposure. If possible, ... encoded search term (Nitrogen Dioxide Toxicity) and Nitrogen Dioxide Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Occupational risk for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure is high for the following workers:. * Farmers, particularly those who ... Nitrogen Dioxide Toxicity. Updated: Jan 26, 2021 * Author: Nader Kamangar, MD, FACP, FCCP, FCCM; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, ...
Nitrogen trifluoride. CAS No: 7783-54-2. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Nitrogen trifluoride. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
CHEBI:36937 - nitrogen-17 atom. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... Macronutrients are usually chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur) that humans consume in ...
Nitrogen Dioxide, Tetrachloroethylene. The ATSDR Interaction Profile succintly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health ... Carbon Monoxide, Formaldehyde, Methylene Chloride, Nitrogen Dioxide, Tetrachloroethylene. ... Carbon Monoxide, Formaldehyde, Methylene Chloride, Nitrogen Dioxide, Tetrachloroethylene. *Chloroform, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, ...
TagsStories About Nitrogen Removal. Stories About Nitrogen Removal Massachusetts Plan to Reduce Nitrogen Levels Receives EPA ... Plus, learn how the operations team slashed its nitrogen level with a few in-house adjustments to meet a fast-approaching ... Instead of waiting for tougher nitrogen permit limits, operators in Asheboro, N.C., proactively advanced the nutrient removal ... The Asheboro Team Meets New Nitrogen Limits Without A Costly Plant Upgrade ...
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Nitrogen oxides  Graham, J. A; Grant, L. D; Folinsbee, L. J; Kotchmar, D. J; Garner, J. H. B; World Health Organization (‎ ... Oxides of nitrogen / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health ... World Health Organization; WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen (‎Organisation mondiale de la ... World Health Organization; WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen (‎World Health ...
PSA: Something I am seeing more and more often, fishless cycling.... , Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle Forum , 477380 ...
Fertilizing the Earth with Nitrogen. Plants need nitrogen to grow. Plants get the nitrogen they need from the soil. In an ... Nitrogen. There is more nitrogen gas in the air than any other kind of gas. About four out of five of the molecules in Earths ... Nitrogen atoms may be very small, but changes in the nitrogen cycle are having a large impact on our planet. Lakes are clogged ... Releasing Nitrogen Pollutants to the Air. While most of the air in our atmosphere is made of nitrogen gas, there are other ...
Nitrogen trifluoride is already a strong oxidizing agent that must be stored in steel cylinders. A crystal of nitrogen ... Going against the grain - nitrogen turns out to be hypersociable!. Nitrogen is everywhere: even in the air there is four times ... The problem with nitrogen lies in the fact that when creating various compounds it trades electrons so as to always be ... "Nitrogen, however, behaves differently to phosphorus: in practice, it forms five bonds with at most four other atoms, and more ...
One way to help raise funds for drinking water costs could be to including a fee on nitrogen fertilizer, the report says. ... Nitrogen in organic and synthetic fertilizers has dramatically increased crop production in California in recent decades. ...
Although the agricultural nitrogen balance is decreasing in most Member States, it is still considered to be unacceptably high ... A country comparison of the average agricultural nitrogen balance for the years 2000-2003 and 2012-2015, shows that for the ... Even in countries with low national averages, there can be regions with high nitrogen loadings because of agricultural ... At the EU level, there has been a decrease in the agricultural nitrogen balance between 2000 and 2015, which is an indication ...
... shows that Nitrogen is a significant pollutant and shines a light on the way forward. Reactive nitrogen is produced mostly ... We are talking here of reactive nitrogen rather than the inert nitrogen which makes up 78% of the air we breathe and keeps ... Reactive Nitrogen pollution affects every part of the natural environment. 70% of the nitrogen comes from agricultural use, 21 ... recycling the nitrogen. 85% of the European nitrogen goes to feed animals and only 15% to feed people. Cutting down meat ...
... * 1. Ribbed mussels increase nitrogen removal in a Jamaica Bay salt ... 13. Ribbed mussels increase nitrogen removal via denitrification Zhu et al. In Press. Marine Ecology Progress Series ... Nitrogen Pollution and The Future of Long Island By Prof. Christopher Gobler ... Ribbed Mussel ability to remove Nitrogen from water bodies. Nov. 15, 2019 ...
Execution by nitrogen hypoxia is authorized under Alabama law, but the state has never put it into practice. ... He added: "If nitrogen hypoxia works as its proponents suggest, it may be a legitimate alternative to lethal injection. If it ... Alabama Has Nearly Finished Build for Nitrogen Gas Executions. By Khaleda Rahman On 6/10/21 at 4:40 AM EDT. ... "In a very real sense, execution by nitrogen hypoxia is experimental," he told Newsweek. "It has never been done before and no ...
... CMAJ. 1993 Apr 1;148(7):1181-2. ...
... was 74 Kilograms Per Hectare. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Sweden rank in Nitrogen Fertilizer use on Crops?. #. 153 Countries. Kilograms Per Hectare. Last. YoY. 5‑years CAGR. ... Since 2014, Sweden Nitrogen Fertilizer use on Crops grew 1.2% year on year. At 74.16 Kilograms Per Hectare in 2019, the country ... Sweden - Nitrogen Fertilizer use on Crops Kilograms Per Hectare - 1961 to 2019 ...
I love gardening. I grow vegetables and flowers of all kinds.
Nitrogen dioxide exposure from domestic gas cooking and airway response in asthmatic women T P Ng, C S R Seet, W C Tan, S C Foo ... Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure and ascorbic acid supplementation on exhaled nitric oxide in healthy human subjects D C ... Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and risk of airflow obstruction in asthmatic children with upper respiratory infection C ...
How nitrogen mustards work *Adverse health effects caused by nitrogen mustards depend on the amount of nitrogen mustard to ... What nitrogen mustards are *Nitrogen mustards were produced in the 1920s and 1930s as potential chemical warfare weapons. They ... Where nitrogen mustards are found and how they are used *The nitrogen mustards were never used in warfare. ... How you could be exposed to nitrogen mustards *If nitrogen mustards are released into the air as a vapor, you could be exposed ...
Nitrogen is the most expensive material of all to purchase. It exists in commercial fertilisers in two conditions, soluble and ... 1913 NITROGEN FERTILISERS., Narandera Argus and Riverina Advertiser (NSW : 1893 - 1953), 28 March, p. 3. , viewed 28 Nov 2022 ... NITROGEN FERTILISERS. (1913, March 28). Narandera Argus and Riverina Advertiser (NSW : 1893 - 1953), p. 3. Retrieved November ... Nitrogen is the most expensive material of all to purchase. It exists in commercial fertilisers in two conditions, soluble and ...
Witnesses to a deadly nitrogen leak at the Foundation Food Group plant in Gainesville are describing the frightening chaos that ... "We have a nitrogen leak in here, we have people down inside," the audio says. "Weve got an active nitrogen leak, we have ... Witness describes chaos of deadly Gainesville nitrogen leak: People were gasping for air. In all, six people died - five inside ... Witnesses to a deadly nitrogen leak at a Gainesville poultry plant are describing the frightening chaos that unfolded Thursday ...
The DEMON Nitrogen Removal Treatment System helps achieve energy self-sufficiency, reduces costs, and optimizes footprint. ... DEMON Nitrogen Removal Treatment System. World Water Works DEMON treatment system for removal of nitrogen from wastewater ... biological process uses Anammox bacteria to convert the combination of nitrite and remaining ammonia directly into nitrogen gas ...
Nitrogen fixation J. Chatt and G. J. Leigh, Chem. Soc. Rev., 1972, 1, 121 DOI: 10.1039/CS9720100121 ...
  • Nitrogen in the form of ammonia was first produced industrially using the Haber Bosch process developed in 1909. (
  • We provide accurate, globally accepted nitrogen and ammonia analysis services in accordance with international standards. (
  • World Water Works' DEMON treatment system for removal of nitrogen from wastewater provides reliable performance and numerous benefits over traditional nitrification-denitrification systems, making it ideal for municipal and industrial clients that have wastewater streams with high ammonia concentrations. (
  • A second anaerobic biological process uses Anammox bacteria to convert the combination of nitrite and remaining ammonia directly into nitrogen gas. (
  • In nitrogen fixation, atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to biologically useful ammonia (NH 3 ) by the activity of prokaryotes utilizing nitrogenase. (
  • Some forms of nitrogen can be changed to ammonia gas (NH 3 ). (
  • The process of ammonia volatilization commonly takes place when nitrogen is in an organic form known as urea. (
  • Ammonia volatilization results in a net loss of nitrogen from the soil system. (
  • THE HAGUE, Netherlands (AP) - An independent expert appointed to mediate in the bitter dispute between the Dutch government and the nation's farmers over plans to drastically slash emissions of nitrogen and ammonia presented a report Wednesday that included a suggestion that the government buy out hundreds of the heaviest polluters. (
  • The government says emissions of nitrogen and ammonia produced by livestock, as well as by heavy industry and the transport sector, must be drastically reduced close to nature areas that are part of a network of protected habitats for endangered plants and wildlife stretching across the 27-nation European Union. (
  • Nitrogen solution fertilizers are generally more expensive per pound of N than anhydrous ammonia or urea. (
  • Here, we investigate the current state of the art of coupled cluster modeling of nitrogen K-edge X-ray absorption of aqueous ammonia and ammonium based on quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics, where both the level of coupled cluster calculations and polarizable embedding are scrutinized. (
  • This concentrated (15,000 mg/L) blend of nitrogen sources provides essential nitrogen in both the nitrate form as well as the plant-preferred ammonium form.To make things even safer, absolutely no harmful free ammonia is released because the ammonium in Seachem Flourish Nitrogen is complexed and wholly unavailable for consumption until utilized by the plants themselves. (
  • A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. (
  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine tests can be used together to find the BUN-to-creatinine ratio (BUN:creatinine). (
  • Blood samples were taken before and after haemodialysis to measure blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels. (
  • We suggest that a feedback relationship exists between the major end catabolic products (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) and thyroid hormone serum levels. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine serum levels in patients with chronic renal failure, before and after haemodialysis. (
  • A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your kidney function. (
  • Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema following exposure to nitrogen dioxide. (
  • One way to help raise funds for drinking water costs could be to including a fee on nitrogen fertilizer, the report says. (
  • Since 2014, Sweden Nitrogen Fertilizer use on Crops grew 1.2% year on year. (
  • At 74.16 Kilograms Per Hectare in 2019, the country was number 46 among other countries in Nitrogen Fertilizer use on Crops. (
  • A high rate of soil applied calcium nitrate fertilizer increased juice primary amino nitrogen (PAN) by 103% relative to the Control. (
  • Rentech Nitrogen Partners, L.P. ( ) was formed by Rentech, Inc. to own, operate and expand its nitrogen fertilizer business. (
  • Rentech Nitrogen's principal asset is a nitrogen fertilizer facility located in East Dubuque, Illinois. (
  • Title : Self-evaluation instrument--nitrogen fertilizer industry Personal Author(s) : Godbey, Frank W.;Hatch, Loren L.;Massie, James D.;Gentry, Arthur N.;Mueller, George;Porter, William B.;Shurter, Robert A. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. (
  • Macronutrients are usually chemical elements (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur) that humans consume in the largest quantities. (
  • Nitrogen is everywhere: even in the air there is four times as much of it as oxygen. (
  • Others, such as the cyanobacteria Nostoc form special cells with thick cell walls to exclude oxygen, allowing the cell to provide fixed nitrogen to its neighbors. (
  • Upon heating, Nitrogen Dioxide decomposes back into lower oxides of Nitrogen (NO) as well as Oxygen. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide is normally made by oxidation of nitric oxide by oxygen in air. (
  • This is one reason why nitrogen is so enriched in the atmosphere relative to oxygen. (
  • The other primary reason is that, unlike oxygen, nitrogen is very stable in the atmosphere and is not involved to a great extent in chemical reactions that occur there. (
  • It is important to know that both nitrogen and oxygen are intimately involved with the cycle of life on the planet, but that chemicals cycle through this material on a short time scale relative to the geological processes that have, over time, made the earth what it is today (compositionally and physically). (
  • Nitrogen hypoxia is a proposed execution method in which death would be caused by forcing the inmate to breathe only nitrogen, thereby depriving him or her of the oxygen needed to maintain bodily functions. (
  • Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air inhaled by humans and is harmless when inhaled with oxygen. (
  • The theory behind the execution method is that changing the composition of the air to 100% nitrogen would cause the inmate to pass out and then die from lack of oxygen. (
  • Air Products developed the microbulk supply option as a cost-effective, reliable alternative to high-pressure cylinders for nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and carbon dioxide supply. (
  • While this wastewater typically passes through a treatment facility, residual nutrients like nitrogen can stimulate algae blooms that deplete oxygen levels when they decompose, suffocating fish and resulting in dead zones. (
  • Blown film extrusion depends on nitrogen gas to prevent discoloration materials affected by the presence of oxygen. (
  • Outside air consists of 79.2% nitrogen and 20.8% oxygen. (
  • The remaining nitrogen is then transported to a cold store ('injected') with the aim of lowering the oxygen there. (
  • Because the incoming air already has a lower oxygen value while circulating (certainly as the pulldown progresses), it is becoming easier to make pure nitrogen from it. (
  • In a very real sense, execution by nitrogen hypoxia is experimental," he told Newsweek . (
  • Breathing high levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) has been previously linked with triggering and exacerbating asthma in childhood . (
  • Based on measurements gathered by the Copernicus Sentinel-5P mission between April and September 2018, the image shows high levels of nitrogen dioxide in London, Paris, Brussels, western Germany, Milan and Moscow. (
  • Based on measurements gathered by the Copernicus Sentinel-5P mission between April and September 2018, the image shows high levels of nitrogen dioxide in Cairo, Lebanon, Dubai and other parts of the Middle East. (
  • The FAA requires that liquid nitrogen be packaged in a dry shipper when transported in checked baggage. (
  • Nitric oxide is a sharp sweet-smelling gas at room temperature, whereas nitrogen dioxide has a strong, harsh odor and is a liquid at room temperature, becoming a reddish-brown gas above 70°F. (
  • If you were to come into skin or eye contact with high concentrations of nitrogen oxide gases or nitrogen dioxide liquid, you would likely experience serious burns. (
  • Liquid nitrogen is a chemical that is extremely cold, about -328°F (-200°C). (
  • Liquid nitrogen will instantly freeze anything it touches. (
  • Nitrogen mustards can be clear, pale amber, or yellow-colored when in liquid or solid form. (
  • You could be exposed by coming in direct contact with liquid nitrogen mustards. (
  • Exposure to nitrogen mustard liquid is more likely to produce second- and third- degree burns and later scarring than is exposure to nitrogen mustard vapor. (
  • Goldfish Frozen In Liquid Nitrogen and Then Revived! (
  • This Goldfish was fine after it got frozen in liquid nitrogen, however after the experiment they fed it to turtles which is why the fish was bought in the first place. (
  • In all, six people died - five inside the plant - from a believed liquid nitrogen leak. (
  • How can liquid nitrogen result in death? (
  • Remember the scene in Terminator 2 when the liquid police officer (the bad guy) get caught up in liquid nitrogen and freezes and then breaks? (
  • FLASK Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream' is a lab-themed ice cream parlor in Busan, South Korea, specializing in liquid nitrogen ice cream. (
  • Staff in this ice cream parlor sport white lab coats as they concoct delectable ice cream poured out of lab flasks and test tubes, freshly mixed and frozen using liquid nitrogen. (
  • FLASK Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream is open nine hours a day, but often sells out. (
  • Nitrogen - When does on-site nitrogen generation make sense versus liquid nitrogen delivery? (
  • There are several mechanisms of action, but most of them fall off immediately, usually because they are outdated (liquid nitrogen, membrane systems, VSA). (
  • Objective: to report the diagnosis and treatment of a possible squamous papilloma in a child using cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen. (
  • Hence, the instruments used for the technique were very simple and relatively inexpensive, such as a thermos bottle for conditioning of the liquid nitrogen, and a clinical swab to be applied on the lesion. (
  • The organs were transported in liquid nitrogen to the laboratory. (
  • Note that it is important to take a series of 3-4 years instead of individual years as reference when identifying trends in the development of nitrogen surplus, as factors such as extreme weather conditions can influence annual nitrogen surplus rates (Eurostat, 2018). (
  • Alabama, along with Oklahoma and Mississippi, passed legislation authorizing the use of nitrogen hypoxia in 2018, with proponents arguing that it offered a more humane way of putting inmates to death. (
  • Miller maintains that prison staff lost paperwork he returned in 2018 requesting nitrogen hypoxia, an execution method that the state has authorized but never used. (
  • In 2018 Alabama became the third state - along with Oklahoma and Mississippi - to authorize the untested use of nitrogen gas to execute prisoners. (
  • Measurements gathered by the Copernicus Sentinel-5P mission between April and September 2018 have been averaged to reveal nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. (
  • Now measurements gathered between April and September 2018 have been averaged to show exactly where nitrogen dioxide is polluting the air. (
  • Establishing a whole-economy Nitrogen Balance Sheet is a requirement under the Climate Change (Emissions Reduction Targets) (Scotland) Act 2019. (
  • The importance of nitrogen across Scotland's economy and environment was recognised by the Scottish Parliament during the scrutiny of the Bill that became the Climate Change (Emissions Reduction Targets) (Scotland) Act 2019. (
  • The nitrogen cycle begins with nitrogen fixation. (
  • SciDev.Net]A large-scale research and development project has shown that giving farmers resources and advice on nitrogen fixation through legume plants can double yields and boost incomes in Africa. (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified nitrogen oxides for potential carcinogenicity. (
  • Another element with similar properties is phosphorus, which is adjacent to nitrogen in the periodic table. (
  • Nitrogen, however, behaves differently to phosphorus: in practice, it forms five bonds with at most four other atoms, and more usually with three, as in the popular nitric acid HNO3. (
  • Nitrogen is one of the main three main macro nutrients, alongside phosphorus and potassium, that are required by aquatic plants, with their absence becoming a limiting factor to healthy growth and development. (
  • We are talking here of ''reactive nitrogen'' rather than the inert nitrogen which makes up 78% of the air we breathe and keeps it stable. (
  • Alabama has nearly finished construction of the "physical build" needed to use nitrogen hypoxia for executions. (
  • A federal judge had ordered the Alabama Department of Corrections to provide information about its plans for nitrogen executions in a lawsuit filed by a death row inmate who is seeking to have a spiritual adviser present at his execution, The Montgomery Advertiser reported. (
  • Alabama wants executions by nitrogen hypoxia: What is it? (
  • U.S. District Judge R. Austin Huffaker Jr. asked whether Alabama was ready to carry out executions by nitrogen hypoxia. (
  • Oklahoma, which in 2015 was the first state to approve the use of nitrogen gas for use in executions, has not finalized plans to use it. (
  • OKLAHOMA CITY (AP) Oklahoma has missed a self-imposed deadline to finish creating a new execution protocol involving nitrogen gas, and it"s unclear when executions will resume in the state. (
  • Attorney General Mike Hunter and Department of Corrections Director Joe Allbaugh announced in March that they intended to switch to nitrogen hypoxia for executions in Oklahoma. (
  • Johan Remkes, an independent mediator, delivers his report into the Dutch government's plans to drastically reduce emissions of nitrogen pollutants by the country's agricultural sector during a press conference in The Hague, Netherlands, Wednesday, Oct. 5, 2022. (
  • Bad Bunny en concierto en el Estadio Azteca de la Ciudad de México el viernes 9 de diciembre de 2022. (
  • The Department of Corrections "is nearing completion of the initial physical build for the nitrogen hypoxia system and its safety measures," Alabama Attorney General Steve Marshall said in a court filing on Tuesday, the newspaper reported. (
  • The "nitrogen hypoxia execution protocol is still under development, and the physical building modifications to the execution chamber are still in process," the Alabama Department of Corrections said in a statement. (
  • He added: "If nitrogen hypoxia works as its proponents suggest, it may be a legitimate alternative to lethal injection. (
  • MONTGOMERY, Ala. (AP) - Alabama told a federal judge that it could soon be ready to use a new, untried execution method called nitrogen hypoxia to carry out a death sentence. (
  • No. No state has used nitrogen hypoxia to carry out a death sentence. (
  • States began proposing nitrogen hypoxia as an alternate execution method because of difficulty obtaining lethal injection drugs and ongoing litigation over the humaneness of lethal injection. (
  • Proponents have theorized that nitrogen hypoxia would be a simpler and more humane execution method. (
  • Air pollution that contains nitrogen makes the air quality worse. (
  • Reactive Nitrogen pollution affects every part of the natural environment. (
  • Cutting down meat consumption would reduce nitrogen pollution by a considerable amount. (
  • The change is apparent in NASA satellite images that demonstrate the country's reduction of air pollution, or more specifically, nitrogen dioxide. (
  • In an assessment of water pollution produced by 98 large meat-processing facilities across the United States, the Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit Environmental Integrity Project found that a plant in Beardstown, Ill., owned by meat-processing giant JBS released about 1,850 pounds of nitrogen on average each day into a tributary of the Illinois River. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is a reddish-brown gas that has a sharp, harsh odor at higher concentrations but may be clear and odorless at lower, but still harmful, concentrations. (
  • Nitrogen Dioxide is a reddish-brown gas with a distinct, pungent odor similar to that of Chlorine. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are also used in rocket fuels, nitration of organic chemicals, and the manufacture of explosives. (
  • Nitrogen in organic and synthetic fertilizers has dramatically increased crop production in California in recent decades. (
  • Organic nitrogen is then transformed by organisms to NH 4 . (
  • This process is known as mineralization the conversion of organic nitrogen into inorganic nitrogen. (
  • Immobilization is another step in this cycle and is the conversion of nitrate to organic nitrogen. (
  • It is present in various forms such as dinitrogen gas, organic nitrogen, and ammonium and nitrate ions. (
  • Ammonification or gross nitrogen mineralization is the conversion of organic-nitrogen compounds to ammonium. (
  • First organic nitrogen is broken down by extracellular enzyme. (
  • Reactive nitrogen'' is produced mostly by industrial processes and is in fertilisers and chemical pollutants like those given off by car exhausts and power stations. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide can impact the respiratory system, and it also contributes to the formation of other pollutants including ground-level ozone and particulates. (
  • These harms include contributions to climate change through emissions of greenhouse gases, impacts on human health through emissions of air quality pollutants, and impacts on biodiversity in terrestrial, freshwater and coastal ecosystems through excess nutrient inputs from both atmospheric nitrogen deposition and leaching/run-off. (
  • Those pollutants include nitrogen, which is a chronic water pollutant across the U.S., especially in rural areas. (
  • Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. (
  • When released to soil, small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate into air. (
  • Plants get the nitrogen they need from the soil. (
  • Although nitrogen is quite stable in the atmosphere, the form of nitrogen in the soil can change very easily. (
  • Therefore, indirectly it will result in less soil nitrogen being converted into the nitrate form. (
  • Nitrogen mineralization is the sum of concurrent ammonium production and consumption processes. (
  • It is sometimes used in a generic sense for the production of inorganic nitrogen, both ammonium and nitrate (Sylvia et al, 2005). (
  • In an effort to grow more crops, people have been making nitrogen fertilizers and adding them to crops. (
  • We do not know if exposure to nitrogen oxides will result in reproductive effects in humans. (
  • Some evidence exists that prolonged or repeated exposures to nitrogen mustards cause leukemia in humans. (
  • As humans change the way we live on the planet, the way that nitrogen moves around the Earth also changes. (
  • Read on to explore two examples of how humans affect the nitrogen cycle and how the changing nitrogen cycle affects humans and ecosystems. (
  • About four out of five of the molecules in Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen gas! (
  • New work confirms that nitrogen, the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, becomes a metallic fluid when subjected to the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found deep inside the Earth and other planets. (
  • Washington, DC- New work from a team led by Carnegie's Alexander Goncharov confirms that nitrogen, the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, becomes a metallic fluid when subjected to the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found deep inside the Earth and other planets. (
  • Nitrogen could get into the Earth's mantle when one tectonic plate slides beneath another-a process called subduction-and could even make its way into the iron-rich core as an impurity," explained Carnegie's Shuqing Jiang, the paper's lead author, "or it could be a remnant from Earth's formation that didn't escape via volcanic activity to form the proto-atmosphere in Earth's babyhood. (
  • In Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is most-commonly bonded with itself in so-called diatomic, N2, molecules. (
  • This means that, theoretically, nitrogen would remain in its diatomic state in the Earth's mantle but would disassociate into a fluid metal in or just above the core, which potentially has implications for our understanding of the planet's deep nitrogen cycle," said Lobanov, who was at Stony Brook University when the research was conducted. (
  • Nitrogen is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, where it is most-commonly bonded with itself in diatomic N2 molecules. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), respectively. (
  • Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are found in tobacco smoke, so people who smoke or breathe in second-hand smoke may be exposed to nitrogen oxides. (
  • Canada's per capita nitrogen oxides emissions have been decreasing since 1990. (
  • How do Canada's nitrogen oxides emissions compare to those of other countries? (
  • In 2009, Canada's nitrogen oxides emissions were 60.2 kilograms per capita-more than five times the emissions of Switzerland, the leader on this indicator. (
  • What are the top performers doing to reduce nitrogen oxides emissions? (
  • Switzerland has the lowest nitrogen oxide emissions per capita among the peer countries. (
  • Has Canada made progress on reducing nitrogen oxides emissions? (
  • The good news is that Canada's per capita total nitrogen oxides emissions fell by 34 per cent between 1990 and 2009. (
  • Use the drop-down menu to compare the change in Canada's per capita nitrogen oxides emissions with that of its peer countries. (
  • Has Canada's report card on nitrogen oxides emissions improved? (
  • The U.S. also receives a "D" grade for the 1990s, but it managed to reduce per capita nitrogen oxides emissions more than Canada did. (
  • This suggests that Canada needs to do more to reduce nitrogen oxides emissions from its transportation, electricity, and industrial sectors. (
  • Can Canada solve the problem on nitrogen dioxide emissions unilaterally? (
  • In 1991, Canada and the United States entered into the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. (
  • Remkes held a series of meetings over the summer with farmers, government ministers, environmentalists and other sectors in a bid to soothe soaring tensions over the government's plans to halve nitrogen emissions by 2030. (
  • Every model in the Prestige gas boiler line is rated to an astounding 92-95% efficiency, and exceeds 2012 standards for nitrogen oxide emissions. (
  • But if you could, you would see that most of them are made of two atoms of nitrogen bonded together. (
  • Nitrogen atoms may be very small, but changes in the nitrogen cycle are having a large impact on our planet. (
  • A molecule of nitrogen gas is made up of two nitrogen atoms. (
  • Chemists have long known that nitrogen may occasionally have a valency of five, which means that it is potentially able to form bonds with five other atoms. (
  • We were completely unprepared for the fact that in one of the crystals we ran into ions with the formula NF6- in which the nitrogen atom bonds with as many as six fluorine atoms," says Dr. Patryk Zaleski-Ejgierd (IPC PAS). (
  • This constrains the total number of atoms bonded to nitrogen to no more than four. (
  • Nitrogen-doped Graphene (NG) is a novel nanomaterial based on graphene , a single sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice. (
  • Calculations indicate that at extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those found deep inside Earth, nitrogen should transform from an insulating-or non-electrically conductive-diatomic molecule to a metallic-or electrically conductive-fluid polymer, comprised of atoms linked by complex molecular bonds. (
  • Adverse health effects caused by nitrogen mustards depend on the amount of nitrogen mustard to which people are exposed, the route of exposure, and the length of time that people are exposed. (
  • Typically, signs and symptoms of nitrogen mustard exposure do not occur immediately. (
  • A weak or inaccurate analogy used by diving instructors to describe the symptoms of nitrogen narcosis causes divers to often fail in accurately diagnose its onset. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are released to the air from the exhaust of motor vehicles, the burning of coal, oil, or natural gas, and during processes such as arc welding, electroplating, engraving, and dynamite blasting. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is released during the combustion of fossil fuels, mainly by vehicles, electricity generation, and manufacturing processes. (
  • Microbially mediated processes transform nitrogen form one form to another. (
  • The element nitrogen is a basic building block of life, which underpins the production of food and appears in many other important processes. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide pollutes the air mainly as a result of traffic and the combustion of fossil fuel in industrial processes. (
  • Our efficient designs generate nitrogen from freely available air and allow you forgo traditional nitrogen delivery to simplify your business processes. (
  • The plastics industry depends on nitrogen gas for a variety of injection molding and blown film extrusion processes. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are broken down rapidly in the atmosphere by reacting with other substances commonly found in the air. (
  • The air in the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen molecules. (
  • While most of the air in our atmosphere is made of nitrogen gas, there are other gases in our atmosphere that contain nitrogen too. (
  • Why is nitrogen the most common element in the earths atmosphere? (
  • New maps that use information from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite reveal nitrogen dioxide emission being released into the atmosphere in cities and towns across the globe. (
  • Vincent-Henri Peuch from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) says, "The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, known as CAMS, and operated by ECMWF on behalf of the European Union, is monitoring these nitrogen dioxide data in its daily operations. (
  • In old-fashioned low-efficiency boilers, all that gas - the CO2, the water vapor, and the nitrogen products (known collectively as "NOX"), went up the hot chimney into the atmosphere. (
  • The left hand bottle contains more nitrogen dioxide than the Tetroxide, whereas the Second bottle's contents' state favors the formation of more Dinitrogen Tetroxide (colorless) than Nitrogen Dioxide (Red/Brown). (
  • When Nitrogen Dioxide is compressed or cooled to near 0° C, two molecules of the Dioxide bond, forming the colorless Dinitrogen Tetroxide . (
  • The calculations and simulations associated with the search for hypervalent nitrogen were carried out at the IPC PAS using density functional theory, that is, the method normally used in solid state calculations. (
  • Belgium, Malta and the Netherlands, for example, show significant decreases between 2000-2003 and 2012-2015, yet the gross nitrogen balance in these countries remains much higher than the average across all countries. (
  • We've got an active nitrogen leak, we have multiple DOAs. (
  • Nitrogen fixed by prokaryotes constitutes the vast majority of all biologically active nitrogen on the planet. (
  • Denitrification is when nitrate gets converted into atmospheric nitrogen which is a greenhouse gas. (
  • Atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) is abundant, but unavailable for biological activity due to the high energy required to break the triple bond. (
  • About half the world's population depends on the nitrogen in fertilisers to live, according to Dr Mark Sutton, of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in a ground-breaking new report on the impact of nitrogen as a pollutant: European Nitrogen Assessment (ENA), unveiled at a conference in Edinburgh this week. (
  • Narandera Argus and Riverina Advertiser (NSW : 1893 - 1953), Fri 28 Mar 1913, Page 3 - NITROGEN FERTILISERS. (
  • The efficient use of nitrogen is important as it helps to both maximise economic benefits, for example for those producing our food through reducing wastage of nutrients contained in fertilisers, and minimise a range of harms that can occur through losses of nitrogen. (
  • Added Holtgrewe: "Our findings could inform the efforts to create forms of energetic nitrogen polymers as well as superconducting, metallic states of a sister diatomic molecule, hydrogen or H2, which could revolutionize the energy sector if reliably synthesized. (
  • My nitrogen-hydrogen flow control panel seems to be working properly, but is there anything I should be checking? (
  • We analyzed thousands of crystal structures of nitrogen compounds with fluorine arising at high pressures. (
  • The problem with nitrogen lies in the fact that when creating various compounds it 'trades' electrons so as to always be surrounded by eight of them. (
  • The nitrogen cycle is important because it results in important compounds being produced which are essential for proper growth of plants and other organisms. (
  • 2005). Nitrogen-fixers may be aerobic or anaerobic, and may be free-living or in a symbiotic relationship with a plant. (
  • Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules . (
  • Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. (
  • Breathing high levels of nitrogen oxides can cause rapid burning, spasms, and swelling of tissues in the throat and upper respiratory tract, reduced oxygenation of body tissues, a build-up of fluid in your lungs, and death. (
  • Nitrogen mustards are powerful irritants that damage the skin, eyes, and respiratory (breathing) tract. (
  • Nitrogen mustards are liquids at normal room temperature (70ºF). (
  • The carbon membranes are produced at room temperature using mixtures of argon (Ar), nitrogen (N 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) as precursors, and this procedure constitutes a simple solvent-free, waste-free scalable process. (
  • But what about how nitrogen behaves in the intense pressure and high temperatures found inside a planet? (
  • Nitrogen is important to your health as it is a critical component of proteins that form muscles and other tissues and nucleic acid including DNA and RNA, advises The Marine Biological Laboratory . (
  • Meat - especially lean meat - is primarily protein, which is made up of amino acids containing nitrogen, advises the U.S. National Library of Medicine . (
  • Molecular simulations indicate that nitrogen doping on the carbon-based membranes drastically modifies the pore distribution and avoids the formation of clustered regions of high-density carbons. (
  • If additional nitrogen or nitrous oxide is present, a newly developed technology combining both measuring principles is applied. (
  • This application report describes how dissolved nitrous oxide and nitrogen measurement with the patented technology from Anton Paar works. (
  • The resulting NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and NO (nitrous oxide) dissolve into the water vapor in the exhaust stream to form nitric acid. (
  • Previous experiments showed evidence of diatomic nitrogen molecules disassociating and changing states under extreme pressures and temperatures, but a greater range of conditions needed to be explored. (
  • Nonetheless, it remains a known neurological occurrence that affects any diver subjected to an elevated partial pressure of inspired nitrogen. (
  • At the same time of obtaining low nitrogen emission, the utilization efficiency of Industrial Steam Boiler Typical Cost - Horizontal Gas Boiler $6,500.00 Performance High Quality Coal Fired Boiler skid-mounted coal fired thermal oil boiler. (
  • Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772. (
  • Nitrogen was discovered in Scotland 250 years ago, by Daniel Rutherford, the nephew of Sir Walter Scott. (
  • Medical Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, (
  • We were hoping to see some structures containing nitrogen pentafluoride NF5 particles. (
  • CHEMOPROJECT NITROGEN, a provider of services in the field of design, engineering, and supplies of structures, has won a tender for the construction of a factory producing nitric acid in Sweden opened by Norwegian concern Yara. (
  • Nitrogen is found in two allotropic structures, that is, alpha nitrogen and beta nitrogen. (
  • Sometimes with argon supply, it is necessary to remove trace nitrogen impurities. (