Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An enzyme found primarily in BACTERIA and FUNGI that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonium hydroxide to nitrite. It is an iron-sulfur HEME; FLAVOPROTEIN containing siroheme and can utilize both NAD and NADP as cofactors. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.4.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Methemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin where the iron within the heme group is in the ferric (Fe3+) state, unable to bind oxygen and leading to impaired oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
An IRON-containing protein that uses siroheme and 4Fe-4S iron-sulfur centers as prosthetic groups. It catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of AMMONIA to nitrite.
Nitroso compounds are organic or inorganic substances containing the nitroso functional group, which consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom through a single covalent bond, often abbreviated as -NO.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (1/3043)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (2/3043)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (3/3043)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the nitrite-reducing system of Staphylococcus carnosus. (4/3043)

Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme prosthetic group; and NirR, which revealed no convincing similarity to proteins with known functions. We suggest that NirR is essential for nir promoter activity. In the absence of NirR, a weak promoter upstream of sirA seems to drive transcription of sirA, nirB, nirD, and sirB in the stationary-growth phase. In primer extension experiments one predominant and several weaker transcription start sites were identified in the nir promoter region. Northern blot analyses indicated that anaerobiosis and nitrite are induction factors of the nir operon: cells grown aerobically with nitrite revealed small amounts of full-length transcript whereas cells grown anaerobically with or without nitrite showed large amounts of full-length transcript. Although a transcript is detectable, no nitrite reduction occurs in cells grown aerobically with nitrite, indicating an additional oxygen-controlled step at the level of translation, enzyme folding, assembly, or insertion of prosthetic groups. The nitrite-reducing activity expressed during anaerobiosis is switched off reversibly when the oxygen tension increases, most likely due to competition for electrons with the aerobic respiratory chain. Another gene, nirC, is located upstream of the nir operon. nirC encodes a putative integral membrane-spanning protein of unknown function. A nirC mutant showed no distinct phenotype.  (+info)

Nonanticoagulant heparin prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion injury in the dog. (5/3043)

BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion (IR) remains a clinical problem. We investigated the role of heparin and N-acetylheparin, a nonanticoagulant heparin derivative, in modulating coronary endothelial function after IR injury, with an emphasis on defining the role of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in the heparin-mediated effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mongrel dogs were surgically instrumented, and the effects of both bovine heparin and N-acetylheparin on coronary endothelial vasomotor function, expressed as percent change from baseline flow after acetylcholine challenge, were studied after 15 minutes of regional ischemia of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. In dogs treated with placebo (saline), coronary vasomotor function was significantly (P+info)

Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in beta cells by environmental factors: heavy metals. (6/3043)

The expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in pancreatic islet beta cells modulates endocrine cell functions and, at very high levels of NO production causes beta-cell death. We tested the hypothesis that environmental factors such as heavy-metal salts modulate iNOS expression in beta cells. A rat beta-cell line (insulinoma RINm5F) was cultured in the presence of low-dose interleukin (IL)-1beta for suboptimal induction of iNOS. PbCl2 (0. 1-10 microM) dose-dependently increased NO (measured as nitrite) formation (P<0.001). In contrast, HgCl2 suppressed nitrite production (0.1-10 microM, P<0.05). Measurements of iNOS activity by determining citrulline levels confirmed the potentiating effect of PbCl2 (P<0.05). There was a narrow time window of heavy-metal actions, ranging from -24 h (Hg2+) or -3 h (Pb2+) to +2 h, relative to the addition of IL-1beta. By semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, enhanced levels of iNOS mRNA were found in the presence of Pb2+ (P<0.05) and decreased levels in the presence of Hg2+. The amount of iNOS protein as determined by Western blotting was increased in the presence of Pb2+. We conclude that Pb2+ upregulates and Hg2+ suppresses iNOS gene expression at the level of transcription, probably by acting on the signalling pathway. These observations may have important implications for understanding pathological effects of environmental factors on endocrine organ functions.  (+info)

Homocysteine increases nitric oxide synthesis in cytokine-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells. (7/3043)

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be an independent risk factor for vascular disease. However, there have been no reports concerning the effects of homocysteine on the production of nitric oxide (NO), another modulator of vascular function and proliferation, by the vascular smooth muscle. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of homocysteine on NO synthesis by measuring the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of NO, in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Incubation of cultures with interleukin (IL)-1beta 10 ng/mL for 24 hours caused a significant increase in nitrite generation. The IL-1beta-induced nitrite production by VSMCs was significantly increased by homocysteine in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of homocysteine was significantly inhibited in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine or actinomycin D. The homocysteine-induced nitrite production was accompanied by increased inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein accumulation. Cysteine, glutathione, or hydrogen peroxide also increased nitrite accumulation in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs. Coincubation with the radical scavenger catalase or superoxide dismutase markedly reduced homocysteine-induced nitrite accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Homocysteine enhances NO synthesis in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs, and oxidative products are involved in the effect of homocysteine.  (+info)

Hypotension induced by exercise is associated with enhanced release of adenyl purines from aged rat artery. (8/3043)

To determine whether the antihypertensive effects of exercise are associated with release of ATP and its metabolites from arteries, we assayed blood pressure and the release of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides from the caudal arteries of exercised and sedentary aged hypercholesterolemic rats. Exercise on a treadmill for 12 wk significantly decreased the rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7.5 and 15.9%, respectively, with advanced age. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids in the caudal artery decreased significantly with exercise, demonstrating an association between exercise and the unsaturation index of caudal arterial fatty acids. The amounts of total adenyl purines released by the arterial segments from exercised rats, both spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine, were significantly greater by 80.0 and 60.7%, respectively, than those released by tissues from sedentary rats. These results suggest that exercise alters the membrane fatty acid composition in aged rats as well as the release of ATP from vascular endothelial cells and that these factors are associated with the regression of the rise in blood pressure normally observed with advanced age.  (+info)

In a medical context, nitrites are typically referred to as organic compounds that contain a functional group with the formula R-N=O, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. They are commonly used in medicine as vasodilators, which means they widen and relax blood vessels, improving blood flow and lowering blood pressure.

One example of a nitrite used medically is amyl nitrite, which was previously used to treat angina pectoris, a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. However, its use has largely been replaced by other medications due to safety concerns and the availability of more effective treatments.

It's worth noting that inorganic nitrites, such as sodium nitrite, are also used in medicine for various purposes, including as a preservative in food and as a medication to treat cyanide poisoning. However, these compounds have different chemical properties and uses than organic nitrites.

Sodium nitrite is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2. Medically, it is used as a vasodilator and an antidote for cyanide poisoning. It is a white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder that is very soluble in water and moderately soluble in alcohol. In solution, it is easily oxidized to sodium nitrate (NaNO3), which is stable and less toxic.

In the food industry, sodium nitrite is used as a preservative and coloring agent in meat and fish products. It helps prevent the growth of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism. However, under certain conditions, sodium nitrite can react with proteins in food to form potentially carcinogenic compounds, so its use is regulated.

Nitrite reductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to nitric oxide (NO). This reaction is an important part of the nitrogen cycle, particularly in denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) processes. Nitrite reductases can be classified into two main types based on their metal co-factors: copper-containing nitrite reductases (CuNiRs) and cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases. CuNiRs are typically found in bacteria and fungi, while cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases are primarily found in bacteria. These enzymes play a crucial role in the global nitrogen cycle and have potential implications for environmental and medical research.

Nitrates are chemical compounds that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to three oxygen atoms (NO3-). In the context of medical science, nitrates are often discussed in relation to their use as medications or their presence in food and water.

As medications, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain) caused by coronary artery disease. Nitrates work by relaxing and widening blood vessels, which improves blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Some examples of nitrate medications include nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, and isosorbide mononitrate.

In food and water, nitrates are naturally occurring compounds that can be found in a variety of vegetables, such as spinach, beets, and lettuce. They can also be present in fertilizers and industrial waste, which can contaminate groundwater and surface water sources. While nitrates themselves are not harmful, they can be converted into potentially harmful compounds called nitrites under certain conditions, particularly in the digestive system of young children or in the presence of bacteria such as those found in unpasteurized foods. Excessive levels of nitrites can react with hemoglobin in the blood to form methemoglobin, which cannot transport oxygen effectively and can lead to a condition called methemoglobinemia.

Amyl nitrite is a volatile, light-colored liquid with an fruity or floral smell. It is a type of alkyl nitrite that is commonly used as a recreational drug, often inhaled for its ability to produce a brief sense of euphoria and relaxation, as well as to enhance sexual experiences.

In a medical setting, amyl nitrite has been used in the past as a vasodilator, a medication that widens blood vessels and improves circulation. It was traditionally used to treat angina pectoris, a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. However, its use in this context is now rare due to the availability of safer and more effective medications.

It's important to note that amyl nitrite can be dangerous if used improperly or in large quantities. It can cause a rapid and dangerous drop in blood pressure, which can lead to fainting, seizures, or even death in extreme cases. Additionally, the use of amyl nitrite can interact with certain medications, such as Viagra, and increase the risk of life-threatening side effects.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

Nitrate reductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-). This process is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle, where nitrate serves as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration for many bacteria and archaea. In plants, this enzyme plays a crucial role in nitrogen assimilation by reducing nitrate to ammonium (NH4+), which can then be incorporated into organic compounds. Nitrate reductases require various cofactors, such as molybdenum, heme, and/or FAD, for their activity. There are three main types of nitrate reductases: membrane-bound (which use menaquinol as an electron donor), cytoplasmic (which use NADH or NADPH as an electron donor), and assimilatory (which also use NADH or NADPH as an electron donor).

Nitrate reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-). It is widely distributed in nature and plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle, particularly in the process of nitrate assimilation by plants, fungi, and some bacteria.

In plants, nitrate reductase is primarily located in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts of plant cells. It requires reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) as electron donors to facilitate the reduction of nitrate to nitrite.

The reaction catalyzed by nitrate reductase can be summarized as follows:
NO3- + NAD(P)H + H+ -> NO2- + NAD(P)+ + H2O

It is worth noting that there are different types of nitrate reductases, each with distinct properties and functions. For example, some nitrate reductases require molybdenum cofactor as a prosthetic group for their catalytic activity, while others do not. Additionally, some nitrate reductases are membrane-bound, while others are soluble enzymes.

Overall, nitrate reductase is an essential enzyme in the global nitrogen cycle and has significant implications for agriculture, environmental science, and microbiology.

"Nitrobacter" is a genus of bacteria that are capable of oxidizing nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-), which is the second step in the nitrogen cycle. These bacteria are chemolithotrophs, meaning they obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic compounds. They play an essential role in wastewater treatment and natural environments by helping to remove excess nutrients and prevent eutrophication. Nitrobacter species are commonly found in soil, fresh water, and marine environments, where they exist in close association with other nitrogen-cycling bacteria.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) is a group of enzymes that catalyze the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. There are three distinct isoforms of NOS, each with different expression patterns and functions:

1. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS or NOS1): This isoform is primarily expressed in the nervous system and plays a role in neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory processes.
2. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS or NOS2): This isoform is induced by various stimuli such as cytokines, lipopolysaccharides, and hypoxia in a variety of cells including immune cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. iNOS produces large amounts of NO, which functions as a potent effector molecule in the immune response, particularly in the defense against microbial pathogens.
3. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS or NOS3): This isoform is constitutively expressed in endothelial cells and produces low levels of NO that play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasodilation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation.

Overall, NOS plays an essential role in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, immune response, cardiovascular function, and respiratory regulation. Dysregulation of NOS activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Methemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin in which the iron within the heme group is in the ferric (Fe3+) state instead of the ferrous (Fe2+) state. This oxidation reduces its ability to bind and transport oxygen effectively, leading to methemoglobinemia when methemoglobin levels become too high. Methemoglobin has a limited capacity to release oxygen to tissues, which can result in hypoxia (reduced oxygen supply) and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes).

Methemoglobin is normally present in small amounts in the blood, but certain factors such as exposure to oxidizing agents, genetic predisposition, or certain medications can increase its levels. Elevated methemoglobin levels can be treated with methylene blue, which helps restore the iron within hemoglobin back to its ferrous state and improves oxygen transport capacity.

Ferredoxin-nitrite reductase is an enzyme found in certain bacteria, archaea, and organelles of plants such as chloroplasts. The enzyme plays a crucial role in the nitrogen fixation process, where it catalyzes the reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to ammonia (NH3) using ferredoxin as the electron donor. This reaction is a part of the nitrogen cycle and is essential for the assimilation of nitrogen into organic compounds by plants and microorganisms. The enzyme contains iron-sulfur clusters and siroheme as cofactors, which facilitate the electron transfer process during the reduction of nitrite to ammonia.

Nitroso compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain a nitroso functional group, which is composed of a nitrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom with a single covalent bond. The general formula for nitroso compounds is R-N=O, where R represents an organic group such as an alkyl or aryl group.

Nitroso compounds are known to be reactive and can form under various physiological conditions. They have been implicated in the formation of carcinogenic substances and have been linked to DNA damage and mutations. In the medical field, nitroso compounds have been studied for their potential use as therapeutic agents, particularly in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, their use is limited due to their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity.

It's worth noting that exposure to high levels of nitroso compounds can be harmful to human health, and may cause respiratory, dermal, and ocular irritation, as well as potential genotoxic effects. Therefore, handling and storage of nitroso compounds should be done with caution, following appropriate safety guidelines.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Denitrification is a microbial process that involves the reduction and conversion of nitrate (NO3-) or nitrite (NO2-) to gaseous forms of nitrogen, such as molecular nitrogen (N2) or nitrous oxide (N2O). This process occurs in anaerobic environments or in areas with low oxygen levels. It is a significant component of the nitrogen cycle and helps to regulate the amount of fixed nitrogen in the environment. Denitrification can also contribute to the degradation of certain pollutants, such as nitrate-contaminated water.

Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II (NOS2), also known as Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. Unlike other isoforms of NOS, NOS2 is not constitutively expressed and its expression can be induced by various stimuli such as cytokines, lipopolysaccharides, and bacterial products. Once induced, NOS2 produces large amounts of NO, which plays a crucial role in the immune response against invading pathogens. However, excessive or prolonged production of NO by NOS2 has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as inflammation, septic shock, and neurodegenerative disorders.

'Alcaligenes' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the respiratory and intestinal tracts of animals. These bacteria are capable of using a variety of organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Some species of Alcaligenes have been known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, they are not considered major human pathogens.

The name 'Alcaligenes' comes from the Latin word "alcali," meaning "alkali," and the Greek word "genos," meaning "kind" or "race." This is because many species of Alcaligenes can grow in alkaline environments with a pH above 7.

It's worth noting that while Alcaligenes species are not typically harmful to healthy individuals, they may be resistant to certain antibiotics and can cause serious infections in people with compromised immune systems. Therefore, it is important for healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of Alcaligenes infection in patients who are at risk and to choose appropriate antibiotic therapy based on laboratory testing.

"Nitrosomonas europaea" is not a medical term, but rather a specific type of bacteria known as a nitrifying bacterium. It is commonly found in soil, freshwater, and wastewater environments. This bacterium plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle by converting ammonia into nitrites through a process called nitrification.

While not directly related to human health, Nitrosomonas europaea can have indirect effects on public health. For example, when present in wastewater treatment systems, it helps convert harmful ammonia into less toxic nitrite, which is then further converted into nitrate by other bacteria. This process helps protect aquatic environments from the negative impacts of excess nutrient pollution.

However, when nitrate accumulates in drinking water, it can pose health risks, particularly for infants under six months old, who may develop a condition called blue baby syndrome (methemoglobinemia) if exposed to high levels of nitrate. Therefore, monitoring and controlling nitrifying bacteria in wastewater treatment systems is essential to protect both the environment and public health.

"Nitrosomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of oxidizing ammonia to nitrite as part of the nitrogen cycle. These bacteria play a crucial role in nitrification, a process that converts harmful ammonia into less toxic forms. They are commonly found in various environments such as soil, freshwater, and oceans, where they help maintain nutrient balance. The genus "Nitrosomonas" belongs to the family Methylocystaceae within the class Alphaproteobacteria. It's important to note that while these bacteria have medical relevance in understanding environmental and ecological systems, they are not typically associated with human diseases or infections.

Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a colorless and non-flammable gas with a slightly sweet odor and taste. In medicine, it's commonly used for its anesthetic and pain reducing effects. It is often used in dental procedures, surgery, and childbirth to help reduce anxiety and provide mild sedation. Nitrous oxide works by binding to the hemoglobin in red blood cells, which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, but this effect is usually not significant at the low concentrations used for analgesia and anxiolysis. It's also considered relatively safe when administered by a trained medical professional because it does not cause depression of the respiratory system or cardiovascular function.

Hydroxylamines are organic compounds that contain a hydroxy group (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2) in their structure. More specifically, they have the functional group R-N-OH, where R represents a carbon-containing radical. Hydroxylamines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia (NH3), where one hydrogen atom is replaced by a hydroxy group.

These compounds are important in organic chemistry and biochemistry due to their ability to act as reducing agents, nitrogen donors, and intermediates in various chemical reactions. They can be found in some natural substances and are also synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other industrial applications.

Examples of hydroxylamines include:

* Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) itself, which is a colorless liquid at room temperature with an odor similar to ammonia.
* N-Methylhydroxylamine (CH3NHOH), which is a solid that can be used as a reducing agent and a nucleophile in organic synthesis.
* Phenylhydroxylamine (C6H5NHOH), which is a solid used as an intermediate in the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals.

It's important to note that hydroxylamines can be unstable and potentially hazardous, so they should be handled with care during laboratory work or industrial processes.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of disinfectants and antiseptics that contain a nitrogen atom surrounded by four organic groups, resulting in a charged "quat" structure. They are widely used in healthcare settings due to their broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to their death. Common examples include benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. It is important to note that some microorganisms have developed resistance to QACs, and they may not be effective against all types of pathogens.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

"Paracoccus" is not a medical term itself, but it is a genus name in the family of bacteria called "Paracoccaceae." The bacteria belonging to this genus are typically found in various environments such as soil, water, and sewage. Some species of Paracoccus have been reported to cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, such infections are rare.

In a medical context, if a patient has an infection caused by a bacterium identified as Paracoccus, it would typically be described using the specific species name (e.g., Paracoccus yeei) and information about the site of infection, symptoms, and treatment approach.

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions.

The bacteria are generally not harmful to healthy individuals, but they have been associated with various types of infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treating infections caused by this bacteria challenging. It is important to identify the specific species of bacteria causing an infection so that appropriate antibiotic therapy can be administered.

Nitrosation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of a nitrosonium ion (NO+) to another molecule. In the context of medicine, particularly in relation to gastroenterology and oncology, nitrosation is often discussed in terms of its potential role in the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs).

These NOCs can be formed when nitrites (compounds containing a nitrite ion, NO2-) or nitrous acid (HNO2) react with secondary amines or other amino compounds under acidic conditions. This reaction can occur in the stomach after the ingestion of foods or beverages that contain both nitrites and amines, such as processed meats and certain alcoholic beverages.

The formation of NOCs has been associated with an increased risk of various types of cancer, including gastric and esophageal cancer. However, it's important to note that the relationship between nitrosation and cancer is complex and not fully understood, as other factors such as the presence of antioxidants in the diet can also influence the formation of NOCs.

Heme is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of medicine and biology. Heme is a prosthetic group found in hemoproteins, which are proteins that contain a heme iron complex. This complex plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including oxygen transport (in hemoglobin), electron transfer (in cytochromes), and chemical catalysis (in peroxidases and catalases).

The heme group consists of an organic component called a porphyrin ring, which binds to a central iron atom. The iron atom can bind or release electrons, making it essential for redox reactions in the body. Heme is also vital for the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, proteins responsible for oxygen transport and storage in the blood and muscles, respectively.

In summary, heme is a complex organic-inorganic structure that plays a critical role in several biological processes, particularly in electron transfer and oxygen transport.

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of purines, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that form part of DNA and RNA. Specifically, XDH helps to break down xanthine and hypoxanthine into uric acid, a waste product that is excreted in the urine.

XDH can exist in two interconvertible forms: a dehydrogenase form (XDH) and an oxidase form (XO). In its dehydrogenase form, XDH uses NAD+ as an electron acceptor to convert xanthine into uric acid. However, when XDH is converted to its oxidase form (XO), it can use molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor instead, producing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. These reactive oxygen species can contribute to oxidative stress and tissue damage in the body.

Abnormal levels or activity of XDH have been implicated in various diseases, including gout, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of highly reactive gases, primarily composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). They are formed during the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, gas, or biomass, and are emitted from various sources, including power plants, industrial boilers, transportation vehicles, and residential heating systems. Exposure to NOx can have adverse health effects, particularly on the respiratory system, and contribute to the formation of harmful air pollutants like ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter.

Cytochrome c1 is a protein that is a part of the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is a component of Complex III, also known as the cytochrome bc1 complex. Cytochrome c1 contains a heme group and plays a role in the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c during oxidative phosphorylation, which is the process by which cells generate energy in the form of ATP. Defects in cytochrome c1 can lead to mitochondrial disorders and have been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy, also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy, is a technique used to investigate materials with unpaired electrons. It is based on the principle of absorption of energy by the unpaired electrons when they are exposed to an external magnetic field and microwave radiation.

In this technique, a sample is placed in a magnetic field and microwave radiation is applied. The unpaired electrons in the sample absorb energy and change their spin state when the energy of the microwaves matches the energy difference between the spin states. This absorption of energy is recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, producing an ESR spectrum.

ESR spectroscopy can provide information about the number, type, and behavior of unpaired electrons in a sample, as well as the local environment around the electron. It is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to study materials such as free radicals, transition metal ions, and defects in solids.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Hydroxylamine is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula NH2OH. It's used in some industrial processes and can also be found as a byproduct of certain metabolic reactions in the body. In a medical context, exposure to high levels of hydroxylamine may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, and it may have harmful effects on the nervous system and blood if ingested or absorbed in large amounts. However, it is not a substance that is commonly encountered or monitored in medical settings.

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the redox reaction between NADH or NADPH and various electron acceptors. These enzymes play a crucial role in cellular metabolism by transferring electrons from NADH or NADPH to other molecules, which is essential for many biochemical reactions.

NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) are coenzymes that act as electron carriers in redox reactions. They consist of a nicotinamide ring, which undergoes reduction or oxidation by accepting or donating electrons and a proton (H+).

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are classified based on their structure and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. Dehydrogenases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing an organic substrate. Examples include lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase.
2. Oxidases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing molecular oxygen (O2) to water (H2O). Examples include NADH oxidase and NADPH oxidase.
3. Reductases: These enzymes catalyze the reduction of various electron acceptors using NADH or NADPH as a source of electrons. Examples include glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and nitrate reductase.

Overall, NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are essential for maintaining the redox balance in cells and play a critical role in various metabolic pathways, including energy production, detoxification, and biosynthesis.

Anion transport proteins are specialized membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions, known as anions, across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ionic balance and regulating various physiological processes within the body.

There are several types of anion transport proteins, including:

1. Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (also known as anion exchangers or band 3 proteins): These transporters facilitate the exchange of chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions across the membrane. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the red blood cells, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, where they help regulate pH, fluid balance, and electrolyte homeostasis.
2. Sulfate permeases: These transporters facilitate the movement of sulfate ions (SO42-) across membranes. They are primarily found in the epithelial cells of the kidneys, intestines, and choroid plexus, where they play a role in sulfur metabolism and absorption.
3. Cl- channels: These proteins form ion channels that allow chloride ions to pass through the membrane. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as neuronal excitability, transepithelial fluid transport, and cell volume regulation.
4. Cation-chloride cotransporters: These transporters move both cations (positively charged ions) and chloride anions together across the membrane. They are involved in regulating neuronal excitability, cell volume, and ionic balance in various tissues.

Dysfunction of anion transport proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (due to mutations in the CFTR Cl- channel), distal renal tubular acidosis (due to defects in Cl-/HCO3- exchangers), and some forms of epilepsy (due to abnormalities in cation-chloride cotransporters).

S-Nitrosothiols (SNOs) are a type of organic compound that contain a nitroso (-NO) group attached to a sulfur atom in a thiol (-SH) group. They are formed by the reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and low molecular weight thiols, such as cysteine or glutathione. S-Nitrosothiols play an important role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression, and protein function. They also have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. SNOs can be measured in biological samples, such as blood or tissues, to evaluate nitrosative stress and oxidative damage.

Cytochromes are a type of hemeprotein found in the mitochondria and other cellular membranes of organisms. They contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom surrounded by a porphyrin ring. This structure allows cytochromes to participate in redox reactions, acting as electron carriers in various biological processes.

There are several types of cytochromes, classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra. Some of the most well-known cytochromes include:

* Cytochrome c: a small, mobile protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration.
* Cytochrome P450: a large family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, lungs, and skin.
* Cytochrome b: a component of several electron transport chains, including those found in mitochondria, bacteria, and chloroplasts.

Cytochromes play essential roles in energy production, detoxification, and other metabolic processes, making them vital for the survival and function of living organisms.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Oxyhemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin that is combined with oxygen in red blood cells. It's created when oxygen molecules bind to the iron-containing heme groups of the hemoglobin protein inside the lungs, allowing for the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to body tissues. The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is influenced by factors such as pH, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature, which can affect the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin in different parts of the body based on their specific needs.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Azurin is a small protein with a blue copper center, which is involved in electron transfer reactions. It is produced by the bacterium *Pseudomonas aeruginosa*, and has been studied for its potential role in wound healing and as an anticancer agent. The name "azurin" comes from the fact that this protein has a bright blue color due to its copper ion content.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are rod-shaped and can vary in size and shape. Bacteroidaceae are important breakdowners of complex carbohydrates and proteins in the gut, and play a significant role in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. Some members of this family can also be opportunistic pathogens and have been associated with various infections and diseases, such as abscesses, bacteremia, and periodontal disease.

Omega-N-Methylarginine (also known as NG, NG-dimethyl-L-arginine) is not a commonly used medical term and it's not a well-known compound in medicine. However, it is a form of methylated arginine that can be found in the body.

Methylated arginines are a group of compounds that are generated through the post-translational modification of proteins by enzymes called protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). These modifications play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression and signal transduction.

Omega-N-Methylarginine is a specific type of methylated arginine that has two methyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom at the end of the side chain (omega position) of the amino acid arginine. It can be formed by the action of PRMTs on proteins, and it may have various biological functions in the body. However, its specific medical significance is not well-established, and more research is needed to fully understand its role in health and disease.

Amino acid oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation and reduction reactions involving amino acids. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids by catalyzing the interconversion of L-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, while simultaneously reducing a cofactor such as NAD(P)+ or FAD.

The reaction catalyzed by these enzymes can be represented as follows:

L-amino acid + H2O + Coenzyme (Oxidized) → α-keto acid + NH3 + Coenzyme (Reduced)

Amino acid oxidoreductases are classified into two main types based on their cofactor requirements and reaction mechanisms. The first type uses FAD as a cofactor and is called amino acid flavoprotein oxidoreductases. These enzymes typically catalyze the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to form α-keto acids, ammonia, and reduced FAD. The second type uses pyridine nucleotides (NAD(P)+) as cofactors and is called amino acid pyridine nucleotide-dependent oxidoreductases. These enzymes catalyze the reversible interconversion of L-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, while simultaneously reducing or oxidizing NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+.

Amino acid oxidoreductases are widely distributed in nature and play important roles in various biological processes, including amino acid catabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of amino acid oxidoreductases is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these diseases.

Spectrophotometry is a technical analytical method used in the field of medicine and science to measure the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a substance at specific wavelengths. This technique involves the use of a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light as it passes through a sample.

In medical applications, spectrophotometry is often used in laboratory settings to analyze various biological samples such as blood, urine, and tissues. For example, it can be used to measure the concentration of specific chemicals or compounds in a sample by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted at specific wavelengths.

In addition, spectrophotometry can also be used to assess the properties of biological tissues, such as their optical density and thickness. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including skin disorders, eye diseases, and cancer.

Overall, spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for medical professionals and researchers seeking to understand the composition and properties of various biological samples and tissues.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

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... and calcium nitrite are generally used in the construction industry as a means to protect reinforced concrete ... Lithium nitrite is exceptionally soluble in absolute alcohol. However, potassium nitrite is not very soluble. This makes ... This study concluded that a lithium nitrite dosage of 0.6 in the nitrite-chloride ion molar ratio is a successful dosage for ... Unlike calcium nitrite inhibitors, lithium nitrite is particularly valued for corrosion inhibition and resistance of ...
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... or silver nitrite with ammonium chloride, or ammonium perchlorate with potassium nitrite. The precipitate is filtered off and ... Ammonium nitrite, [NH4]NO2, is the ammonium salt of nitrous acid. It is not used in pure isolated form since it is highly ... Ammonium nitrite solution is stable at higher pH and lower temperature. If there is any decrease in pH lower than 7.0, it may ... Ammonium nitrite forms naturally in the air and can be prepared by the absorption of equal parts nitrogen dioxide and nitric ...
... can be prepared by the reaction of silver nitrite with iodomethane: Silver nitrite (AgNO2) exists in solution as ... Methyl nitrite is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH 3ONO. It is a gas, and is the simplest alkyl nitrite. At ... Methyl nitrite is a toxic asphyxiating gas, a potent cyanotic agent. Exposure may result in methemoglobinemia. Methyl nitrite ... The figure shows the two gas-phase structures of methyl nitrite, as determined by IR and microwave spectroscopy. Methyl nitrite ...
... has the formula C6H13NO2 and is a nitrite and more specifically, an alkyl nitrite. It is an ester of hexanol and ... Hexyl nitrite like other alkyl nitrites, is a vasodilator resulting in the expansion of blood vessels, thus lowering blood ... "Hexyl nitrite". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2023-05-18. "Hexyl nitrite". webbook.nist.gov. Retrieved ... It is the aliphatic analogue of cyclohexyl nitrite. Hexyl nitrite is one of the compounds used as poppers, an inhalant drug ...
NaNO2 Amyl nitrite, like other alkyl nitrites, reacts with carbanions to give oximes. Amyl nitrites are also useful as reagents ... Like other alkyl nitrites, amyl nitrite is bioactive in mammals, being a vasodilator, which is the basis of its use as a ... Amyl nitrite is employed medically to treat heart diseases as well as angina. Amyl nitrite is sometimes used as an antidote for ... Amyl nitrite, in common with other alkyl nitrites, is a potent vasodilator; it expands blood vessels, resulting in lowering of ...
Another frequently encountered nitrite is amyl nitrite (3-methylbutyl nitrite). Alkyl nitrites were initially, and largely ... Organic nitrites are prepared from alcohols and sodium nitrite in sulfuric acid solution. They decompose slowly on standing, ... Likewise pyrrolidine is a substrate for ethyl nitrite. Alkyl nitrites are also used in the formation of oximes with the ... Amyl nitrite is used medically as an antidote to cyanide poisoning, The light alkyl nitrites cause the formation of ...
... is produced from the reaction between silver nitrate and an alkali nitrite, such as sodium nitrite. Silver ... Silver nitrite is an inorganic compound with the formula AgNO2. Silver nitrite has many applications. Notable examples include ... it can be produced by the reaction between silver sulfate and barium nitrite. "Silver nitrite". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... and a solution of silver nitrate will readily precipitate silver nitrite upon addition of sodium nitrite: AgNO3 (aq) + NaNO2 (s ...
... (EC 1.7.6.1, Prolixin S, Nitrophorin 7) is an enzyme with systematic name nitrite:nitrite oxidoreductase. ... H2O Nitrite dismutase contains ferriheme b. He C, Knipp M (September 2009). "Formation of nitric oxide from nitrite by the ... Nitrite+dismutase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 1.7.6). ... He C, Ogata H, Knipp M (July 2010). "Formation of the complex of nitrite with the ferriheme b beta-barrel proteins nitrophorin ...
... and Nitrosococcus convert ammonia to nitrite, while nitrite oxidizers such as Nitrobacter and Nitrospira oxidize nitrite to ... Reaction nitrite + acceptor ↽ − − ⇀ nitrate + reduced acceptor {\displaystyle {\ce {{nitrite}+acceptor<=>{nitrate}+reduced\ ... Nitrite oxidoreductase (NOR or NXR) is an enzyme involved in nitrification. It is the last step in the process of aerobic ... MetaCyc Pathway: nitrite oxidation Portal: Biology v t e (Articles with short description, Short description with empty ...
A nitrite test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrite ion in solution. A simple nitrite test can be ... A nitrite test is a standard component of a urinary test strip. A positive test for nitrites in the urine is called nitrituria ... The reason for nitrites' existence in the presence of a UTI is due to a bacterial conversion of endogenous nitrates to nitrites ... In addition, a nitrite test does not detect organisms unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite, such as enterococci, staphylococci ( ...
A nitrate nitrite, or nitrite nitrate, is a coordination complex or other chemical compound that contains both nitrite and ... On heating, nitrate nitrites lose NO2 and NO and yield metal oxides. Other compounds having an element in two different anion ... Many nitrite nitrate compounds are coordination complexes of cobalt. Such a substance was discovered by Wolcott Gibbs and ...
... refers to any of several classes of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrite. There are two classes of ... Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNIR) is a multiheme enzyme that converts nitrite to ammonia on each active site. The active ... In the resting state, the Cu is also binding a water molecule that is displaced by nitrite. As nitrite displaces water, Cu is ... The nitrite is immediately reduced to ammonia (probably via hydroxylamine) by the activity of nitrite reductase. The term ...
... is a chemical compound with the molecular formula, classified as an alkyl nitrite, used as an antihypertensive ... Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health "Metabocard for Amyl Nitrite". ...
"Deepak Nitrite Share Price, Deepak Nitrite Stock Price, Deepak Nitrite Ltd. Stock Price, Share Price, Live BSE/NSE, Deepak ... Deepak Nitrite Limited (3 August 2021). "Deepak Nitrite Limited's PAT rises to 206% on a Y-o-Y basis". PR Newswire. Retrieved ... "Deepak nitrite" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021. "Deepak Nitrite Ltd posts ... "Deepak Nitrite Ltd". Business Standard India. Retrieved 27 April 2021. Press Trust of India (23 April 2020). "Deepak Nitrite ...
Like other nitrite salts such as sodium nitrite, potassium nitrite is toxic if swallowed, and laboratory tests suggest that it ... Nitrite is present at trace levels in soil, natural waters, plant and animal tissues, and fertilizer. The pure form of nitrite ... Interest in a medical role for inorganic nitrite was first aroused because of the spectacular success of organic nitrites and ... Potassium nitrite can be obtained by the reduction of potassium nitrate. The production of potassium nitrite by absorption of ...
Due to ethyl nitrite's high volatility and faint smell, in the presence of ethyl nitrite vapors, it is easy to breath a high ... The chemical compound ethyl nitrite is an alkyl nitrite with a chemical formula C2H5NO2. It may be prepared from ethanol. It is ... "Ethyl nitrite". Haz-Map. Retrieved 2020-08-08. Titov, V Yu; Petrenko, Yu M (2005). "Proposed mechanism of nitrite-induced ... Ethyl nitrite is the main ingredient in a traditional ethanol-based South African remedy for colds and flu known as Witdulsies ...
... is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(NO 2) 2. In this compound, as in all nitrites, nitrogen ... "Calcium nitrite MSDS sheet; Manufacturers". Retrieved 6 October 2012. "Calcium nitrite; a definition". Archived from the ... It is also characterized for its strong oxidizing character, which arises from the nitrite anion. Calcium nitrite can be ... Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P. (2011). "Calcium nitrite corrosion inhibitor in Portland cement: Influence of nitrite ...
... has largely replaced isobutyl nitrite in poppers. Isopropyl nitrite has been associated with eye maculopathy ... The chemical compound isopropyl nitrite (or 2-propyl nitrite) is an alkyl nitrite made from isopropanol. It is a clear pale ... Isopropyl nitrite is one of the compounds used as poppers, an inhalant drug that induces a brief euphoria. ...
Nitrite has the E number E250. Potassium nitrite (E249) is used in the same way. It is approved for usage in the EU, USA, and ... Sodium nitrite is toxic. The LD50 in rats is 180 mg/kg and in humans LDLo is 71 mg/kg. Yet, death by sodium nitrite ingestion ... Sodium nitrite is responsible for the desirable red color (or shaded pink) of meat. Very little nitrite is needed to induce ... Sodium nitrite has been used for homicide and suicide. To prevent accidental intoxication, sodium nitrite (blended with salt) ...
... is the organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)3ONO. It is an alkyl nitrite made from n-butanol. Butyl nitrite ... tert-butyl nitrite Noyes WA (1936). "N-Butyl Nitrite". Organic Syntheses. 16: 7. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.016.0007. Orlean SC (5 ... Synonyms include 1-butyl nitrite, n-butyl nitrite and nitrous acid butyl ester. It can be prepared by treating nitrous acid ( ... Butyl nitrite is one of the compounds used as poppers, inhalant drugs that induce brief euphoria. It was developed by Clifford ...
It is the ester of cyclohexanol and nitrous acid, i.e. it is an alkyl nitrite. Like amyl nitrite and butyl nitrite, it acts as ... Cyclohexyl nitrite". Japan Science and Technology Agency. Retrieved 2023-09-21. Shapiro H, Buckle J (6 January 2016). "Nitrites ... "Cyclohexyl nitrite". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Inhaling the cyclohexyl nitrite vapor can lead to headache and dangerously low blood pressure. Since early 2020 cyclohexyl ...
In enzymology, a ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction NH3 + 2 H2O + 6 ... Joy KW, Hageman RH (1966). "The purification and properties of nitrite reductase from higher plants, and its dependence on ... Ramirez JM, Del Campo FF, Paneque A, Losada M (1966). "Ferredoxin-nitrite reductase from spinach". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 118 ... whereas its 3 products are nitrite, reduced ferredoxin, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, ...
The Formate-Nitrite Transporter (FNT) Family belongs to the Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) Superfamily. FNT family members have ... NirC, from E. coli (TC# 1.A.16.3.1), a probable nitrite transporter. Nar1 (TC# 1.A.16.2.4) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( ... "1.A.16 The Formate-Nitrite Transporter (FNT) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group / ... the nitrite uptake permeases (NirC, TC#s 1.A.16.2.5, 1.A.16.3.1, and 1.A.16.3.4) of bacteria comprise cluster III, and a yeast ...
... is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CONO. A colorless liquid, it is the tert-butyl ester of ... It reacts with secondary amides to give N-nitroso amides: RC(O)N(H)R + (CH3)3CONO → RC(O)N(NO)R + (CH3)3COH Butyl nitrite "tert ... "Tert-Butyl Nitrite-Mediated Synthesis of N-Nitrosoamides, Carboxylic Acids, Benzocoumarins, and Isocoumarins from Amides". The ... nitrite". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2 February 2022. Di Qiu, He Meng, Liang Jin, Shengbo Tang, Shuai Wang, Fangyang ...
Nitrite reductase may also refer to: Nitrite reductase (NO-forming) Nitrite reductase (NAD(P)H) Cytochrome c nitrite reductase ... Look up nitrite reductase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Nitrite reductase refers to any of several classes of enzymes ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Nitrite reductase. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
Nickel nitrite was the second transition element anhydrous nitrite discovered after silver nitrite. Nickel nitrite decomposes ... Nickel(II) nitrite is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ni(NO2)2. Anhydrous nickel nitrite was first discovered ... Liquid dinitrogen tetroxide oxidises nickel nitrite to nickel nitrate. When nickel nitrite dissolves in water, different mixed ... The nitrite is covalently bonded to nickel, and the material is slightly volatile. The infrared spectrum of the solid has ...
Nitrite itself does not readily undergo redox reactions, but its metal complexes do. The molybdenum-containing enzyme nitrite ... The cycle begins with reduction of an iron-nitrite complex to a metal nitrosyl complex. The copper-containing enzyme nitrite ... such as sodium nitrite. At neutral pH, nitrite exists predominantly as the anion, not nitrous acid. Metal nitrosyl complexes ... The nitrite isomerizes to the N-bonded isomer, Fe(porph)NO2(L). The isomerization of [(NH3)5Co−ONO]2+ to [(NH3)5Co−NO2]2+ ...
Some traditional and artisanal producers avoid nitrites. Nitrites in the form of sodium nitrite and amyl nitrite are components ... Nitrites have the general formula RONO, where R is an aryl or alkyl group. Amyl nitrite and other alkyl nitrites have a ... The nitrite ion has the chemical formula NO− 2. Nitrite (mostly sodium nitrite) is widely used throughout chemical and ... Therefore, the nitrite ion is a Lewis base. In the gas phase it exists predominantly as a trans-planar molecule. Nitrite is the ...
Can I get a medical test to check for nitrate and nitrite?. There are tests that can detect nitrate and nitrite in the blood ... What are nitrate and nitrite?. Nitrate and nitrite are two nitrogen compounds that are needed by plants and animals to live and ... How can nitrate and nitrite affect my health?. Exposure to nitrate and nitrite mainly occurs through eating or drinking food ... What happens to nitrate and nitrite in the environment?. Nitrate and nitrite are naturally present in soils, water, air, and ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Deepak Nitrite Share Price Jumps; Check Out Analyst Ratings for Deepak Nitrite Shalini Kakkad 6 September 2023 ... Read more about Deepak Nitrite Share Price Jumps; Check Out Analyst Ratings for Deepak Nitrite ... Kushal Gupta: BUY Dabur, Texmaco Rail, Escorts Kubota and Aurobindo Pharma; SELL Deepak Nitrite Neeta Aurora 4 August 2023 ... Mitessh Thakkar: BUY Titan and Manappuram Finance; SELL Samvardhana Motherson and Deepak Nitrite Neeta Aurora 18 August 2023 ...
Nitrite. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Nitrite results for Revere Water ... Nitrite. Revere Water Department (MWRA). Nitrite, closely related to the fertilizer chemical nitrate, comes from urban runoff ... Nitrite is significantly more toxic than nitrate. Excessive nitrite in water can cause oxygen deprivation in infants and ... The legal limit for nitrite, established in 1991, was based on the rate of conversion of ingested nitrate into nitrite in ...
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If nitrites are present, it may be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Learn more. ... A nitrites in urine test is part of a urinalysis, a test that measures different substances in urine. ... If there are nitrites in your urine, it may mean that you have a UTI. But, even if no nitrites are found, you may still have an ... A test called a urinalysis checks a sample of your urine (pee) to see if it has nitrites. Nitrites in urine may be a sign of a ...
Inhaled Inorganic Nitrite No Help for HFpEF. - Exercise capacity not improved over placebo in randomized trial. by Ashley Lyles ... Inhaled inorganic nitrite did not enhance functional capacity for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction ... After a 2-week washout, participants received nitrite or placebo using micronebulizer device at 46 mg three times a day for 1 ... The studys findings are "in sharp contrast with the previously reported single-dose effects of sodium nitrite, and may be ...
Inhaling alkyl nitrites leads to a drop in blood pressure.. Though usually harmless in moderation, overuse can cause headaches ... These nitrites became especially popular in dance clubs, enhancing the sensory experience of light and sound and providing a ... Poppers, scientifically known as alkyl nitrites, are volatile liquids traditionally used as heart medicine and, oddly enough, ...
The effects of sodium nitrite were similar to those of potassium nitrite. The NOEL for potassium nitrite was 50mg/l in drinking ... The intakes of nitrite, nitrite and pre-formed NDMA from food were estimated from a food composition table compiled ad hoc. ... Erythrocytes in vitro took up 0.8 mmol/l nitrite with a half-time of 11 min. Nitrite uptake was sensitive to temperature and to ... Nitrite is readily converted to nitrate, the plasma half-life of nitrite in various species being estimated as , 30 min, while ...
Standard Test Methods for Nitrite-Nitrate in Water. Standard Test Methods for Nitrite-Nitrate in Water D3867-04 ASTM,D3867-04, ... Nitrite) and D 992. (Nitrate). The nitrite test method (Test Method D 1254. ) used a reagent that is considered to be a ... 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and combined nitrite-nitrate nitrogen in ... en-US Standard Test Methods for Nitrite-Nitrate in Water Standard D3867 Standard Test Methods for Nitrite-Nitrate in Water> new ...
Stability results for nitrates-nitrites containing food stuffs during freezethaw cycles. ... Table 4: Stability results for nitrates-nitrites containing food stuffs during freezethaw cycles.. ...
To achieve this goal we propose to undertake a comprehensive and detailed study of a series of related Nitrite Reductases (NiR ... In the mechanism of reduction of nitrite (N02-) to nitrous oxide (NO), both the substrate binding reaction and the electron ... The objectives of the project are (i) to characterise biochemically and kinetically several nitrite reductases (NiR) from ...
Nitrite reductaseCOPPER (II) IONNITRITE ION
Deepak Nitrite will continue to accrue benefits from the countrys growing demand and import substitutions. Being a basic ... Deepak Nitrites prospect continues to be driven by phenolics biz. 1 min read 02 Dec 2021, 09:56 AM IST Join us ... Deepak Nitrite is seeing strong investor confidence with its stock prices more than doubling year to date. The company, which ... Deepak Nitrites stock prices more than doubled year to date. REUTERS/Danish Siddiqui (REUTERS). ...
Since nitrite oxidizes readily to nitrate, it will support surface water eutrophication and, therefore, is treated as a de ... The Environmental Protection Agency standard threshold for nitrite-nitrogen in potable water is 1 mg/L, whereas naval boiler ... wash wastewater contains up to 250 mg/L. In addition to sodium nitrite, the wastewater stream also contains various heavy ... The Navy uses sodium nitrite solution extensively as a rust preventing fluid in marine boiler maintenance operations which ...
Nitrate and nitrite. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Nitrate and nitrite results for Lower ... Nitrate and nitrite. Lower Rio Grande Public Water Works Authority. Nitrate and nitrite enter water from fertilizer runoff, ... The health guideline of 0.14 parts per million, or ppm, for nitrate and nitrite is based on the equivalent health guideline for ... Nitrite is significantly more toxic than nitrate. Click here to read more about nitrate. ...
And I had 5 nitrate but zero nitrite which is weird because I thought... ... And I had 5 nitrate but zero nitrite which is weird because I thought nitrites come first. Am I wrong ? ... Nitrites do come first, but its a 30 day or so process so you might not have enough to register yet. They should start to show ... Nitrites do come first, but its a 30 day or so process so you might not have enough to register yet. They should start to show ...
Deepak C Mehta, Chairman and Managing Director of Deepak Nitrite. Deepak C Mehta, Chairman and Managing Director of Deepak ... Nitrite, chalks out roadmap for chemical sector and the companys themes of growth. He says that Deepak will try to dominate ...
Nitrates and Nitrites May Cause Alzheimers, Diabetes and Parkinsons Disease ... Nitrites and nitrates belong to a class of chemicals called nitrosamines that are created by a chemical reaction between ... That means the US population has been exposed to dramatic increase in foods loaded with nitrates and nitrites.. Bottom line: ... New Research: Nitrates and Nitrites May Cause Alzheimers, Diabetes and Parkinsons Disease. Reprinting this article: Non- ...
Surface Treatment: Titanium Nitrite Coated. Surface cover: 10nm. Shank Size: 1/4" hex shank. Sizes:. 1 x 1.5mm / 1/16" HSS ... Titanium nitrite coating facilitates faster penetration with less effort.. Specification:. Type: Drill Bit Quick Change (metric ... 13pcs x Drill Bit Set Titanium Nitrite Coated High-Speed Steel Hand Tools. 0994545 - 0932596 - 0303583946688E - 0372871642322E ...
Volatile Nitrites - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Nitrites (amyl, butyl, or isobutyl nitrite) are sold with street names such as "poppers," "Locker Room," and "Rush." ... See also Overview of Sexual Dysfunction in Men.) Every man occasionally has... read more ), these nitrite drugs may greatly ... Nitrites can also cause methemoglobinemia, which is a blood disorder that interferes with the ability of the blood to carry ...
Ammonia was 0 for a few days Nitrites was 2ppm And nitrates 20 I was informed to not add ammonia until nitrites were at zero. ... Nitrites was 2ppm And nitrates 20. I was informed to not add ammonia until nitrites were at zero. An bb wont starve.. Nothing ... What if my nitrites exceed 4ppm? Im told nitrites to high will stall a cycle by others and others will say no water changes ... Nitrites up to 15ppm will not adversely affect a cycle.. High nitrates will not stall a cycle but they will slow it down.. The ...
Nitrite, usually ingested through water and food, can be harmful when taken in excess. Thus, its efficient and accurate on-site ... Highly Sensitive and Interference-Free Electrochemical Nitrite Detection in a 3D Printed Miniaturized Device IEEE Trans ... Herein, we demonstrate a simple and disposable 3D printed device, fabricated in single-step, as an electrochemical nitrite ... The device showed appreciable sensitivity and good selectivity towards nitrite having a limit-of-detection (LOD) of [Formula: ...
Nitrate and nitrite content of human, formula, bovine, and soy milks: implications for dietary nitrite and nitrate ... Nitrate / Nitrite belongs to this group or family:. *NoATC T02: Industrial, pesticides, toxic, environmental pollutants ... Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter ... Paszkowski T, Sikorski R, Kozak A, Kowalski B, Jakubik J. [Contamination of human milk with nitrates and nitrites]. Pol Tyg Lek ...
FRANCO-AVILA, Talia et al. Simple methods to decrease sodium and nitrite contents in hams. Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet [online]. 2015 ... Material and Methods: Content of sodium, nitrites, peroxides and total coliforms were compared after processes of Washing (W) ... Likewise, the higher percentage of nitrite reduction was 50.6% in pork ham with SC technique (p≤0.05). Peroxide index decreased ... Conclusions: W and SC techniques reduce sodium, nitrite and peroxide index without affecting the sanitation of hams. ...
Nitrite (NO2) is a harmful substance that can build up in an aquarium. It is produced as a result of biological processes, such ... What can you do to remove Nitrite?. *Use Swell Aquarium Nitrite Remover every day until nitrite levels are reduced ... What is Nitrite and why is it bad?. Nitrite is a harmful substance that builds up in an aquarium, it is produced as a result of ... Youre reviewing:Swell Aquarium Nitrite Remover. Your Rating. Rating. 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 5 stars ...
Sodium Nitrite Solution ► Flinn Scientific SDS Sheets ► Learn health and safety information about chemicals. ... ORL-RAT LD50: 85 mg/kg as sodium nitrite. IHL-RAT LC50: 5.5 mg/kg as sodium nitrite. SKN-RBT LD50: N.A. ... Sodium Nitrite Solution. Flinn Scientific, Inc. P.O. Box 219, Batavia, IL 60510 (800) 452-1261. Chemtrec Emergency Phone Number ... Flinn Suggested Chemical Storage Pattern: Inorganic #3. Store with amides, nitrates, nitrites and azides. ...
... i was hoping someone could give me some advice on how i can quickly and permanently lower my nitrites...For a while my nitrites ... i was hoping someone could give me some advice on how i can quickly and permanently lower my nitrites...For a while my nitrites ... i was hoping someone could give me some advice on how i can quickly and permanently lower my nitrites...For a while my nitrites ... when i do the nitrite test, its a very deep purple and according to the test card, thats 5 ppm. i add a ton of prime and the ...
  • Deepak Nitrite share price was trading firm in today's session and the stock is looking technically strong at current levels. (topnews.in)
  • Deepak Nitrite stock is hovering around its 52-week high of Rs 2356. (topnews.in)
  • Deepak Nitrite will continue to accrue benefits from the country's growing demand and import substitutions. (livemint.com)
  • Deepak Nitrite is seeing strong investor confidence with its stock prices more than doubling year to date. (livemint.com)
  • I am very confident that in the long term there will be more and more multinational companies looking at India particularly in the chemical space---said Deepak C Mehta, Chairman and Managing Director, Deepak Nitrite. (indiatimes.com)
  • Deepak C Mehta, Chairman and Managing Director of Deepak Nitrite , chalks out roadmap for chemical sector and the company's themes of growth. (indiatimes.com)
  • Here is the latest stock price and chart of DEEPAK NITRITE. (equitymaster.com)
  • For more details, see the DEEPAK NITRITE company fact sheet and quarterly results . (equitymaster.com)
  • DEEPAK NITRITE last traded price was down 1.5% to Rs 2,086.7 on the BSE. (equitymaster.com)
  • The current market capitalisation of DEEPAK NITRITE stands at Rs 284,611.27 m. (equitymaster.com)
  • As of June 2023, company promoters held 49.13% stake in DEEPAK NITRITE, with no shares having been pledged. (equitymaster.com)
  • To know more, check out the latest shareholding pattern of DEEPAK NITRITE . (equitymaster.com)
  • The last traded price of DEEPAK NITRITE was Rs 2,086.7 on the BSE, down 1.5% over the previous close. (equitymaster.com)
  • On the NSE, DEEPAK NITRITE last traded price was down 1.4% at Rs 2,090.2. (equitymaster.com)
  • What is the market cap of DEEPAK NITRITE? (equitymaster.com)
  • What is the Earnings per share (EPS) of DEEPAK NITRITE? (equitymaster.com)
  • DEEPAK NITRITE had an EPS of Rs 56.3 in the latest financial year. (equitymaster.com)
  • What is the PE Ratio and PB Ratio of DEEPAK NITRITE? (equitymaster.com)
  • At the current price of Rs 2,086.7, DEEPAK NITRITE trades at a PE ratio of 37.09 while its PB ratio stands at 6.82. (equitymaster.com)
  • What is the Dividend Yield of DEEPAK NITRITE? (equitymaster.com)
  • For the financial year 2023, DEEPAK NITRITE declared dividend amounting to Rs 7.5 per share. (equitymaster.com)
  • Maulik Mehta, CEO, Deepak Nitrite Limited shares his views on global trends, company's performance, R&D plans, supply chain plans, plans of DPL and DNL, expansion plans and CSR activities. (indianchemicalnews.com)
  • Investors should monitor Deepak Nitrite stock price closely in the coming days and weeks to see how it reacts to the news. (livemint.com)
  • On the last day, Deepak Nitrite opened at ₹ 2121.05 and closed at ₹ 2112.35. (livemint.com)
  • The market capitalization of Deepak Nitrite is ₹ 28942.6 crore. (livemint.com)
  • Deepak Nitrite stock closed at ₹ 2147.8 today, marking a 1.4% increase from the previous day's closing price of ₹ 2118.15. (livemint.com)
  • The current stock price of Deepak Nitrite is ₹ 2152.05. (livemint.com)
  • The current stock price of Deepak Nitrite is ₹ 2151.6, with a percent change of 1.58 and a net change of 33.45. (livemint.com)
  • The stock price of Deepak Nitrite is currently at ₹ 2129.4. (livemint.com)
  • The Deepak Nitrite stock price is currently at ₹ 2126.2 with a percent change of 0.38 and a net change of 8.05. (livemint.com)
  • The current stock price of Deepak Nitrite is ₹ 2120.5 with a percent change of 0.11. (livemint.com)
  • The current stock price of Deepak Nitrite is ₹ 2123.25 with a net change of 5.1, which represents a 0.24% increase. (livemint.com)
  • Several mechanisms for nitrite conversion to NO have been described, including enzymatic reduction by xanthine oxidoreductase, nitrite reductase, and NO synthase (NOS), as well as nonenzymatic acidic disproportionation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nitric Oxide Detection Kit is a colorimetric assay for the indirect determination of Nitric Oxide concentrations based on the enzymatic conversion of nitrate to nitrite by a nitrate reductase. (ozbiosciences.com)
  • Nitrite Reductase, an enzyme for which kinetics are different at rest than during turn over. (science24.com)
  • A combined fluorescence and electrochemical method is described that is used to simultaneously monitor the type-1 copper oxidation state and the nitrite turn-over rate of a nitrite reductase (NiR) from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6. (science24.com)
  • In animal studies, changes in thyroid function were seen in rats that were fed or drank high levels of nitrate or nitrite. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has not evaluated nitrate or nitrite for carcinogenicity (ability to cause cancer). (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has not classified nitrate or nitrite for carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Consider eating less of those foods that contain high levels of nitrate or nitrite, especially infants and small children. (cdc.gov)
  • Prior positive studies with inorganic nitrate or nitrite had been acute or short-term administration at single centers, Borlaug and co-authors noted. (medpagetoday.com)
  • For a control, the research team also looked at statistics on the consumption of watermelon and cantaloupe -- foods that not typically associated with nitrate or nitrite exposure. (naturalnews.com)
  • The Navy uses sodium nitrite solution extensively as a rust preventing fluid in marine boiler maintenance operations which include the following: hydroblast boiler tube cleaning, hydro-static pressure testing, boiler lay-up, and rinsing. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • Nitrite can be reduced to nitric oxide or ammonia by many species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia Adding To Nitrites? (fishlore.com)
  • I was informed to not add ammonia until nitrites were at zero. (fishlore.com)
  • Nothing was changeing, So I added another 2ppm ammonia, still same reading nitrates/nitrites as before. (fishlore.com)
  • if adding ammonia increases nitrites. (fishlore.com)
  • And ammonia will convert faster than nitrites too nitrates. (fishlore.com)
  • You'll be done if you put ammonia 1ppm one day, wait 24 hours, and have a reading of 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, and some levels of nitrate . (fishlore.com)
  • I checked them ph was a 7.6 ammonia was a .5-1 can't really tell nitrite is a 0 and nitrate is a .5. (fishlore.com)
  • Nitrite is created during bacterial degradation of proteins and ammonia. (mascotaplanet.com)
  • Nitrification is the two-step aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite in the nitrogen-cycle on earth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nitrification is of great importance in the nitrogen (N) cycle of agricultural ecosystems, including the oxidation processes of ammonia and nitrite. (frontiersin.org)
  • That's because some types of bacteria don't change nitrates into nitrites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Microbiological conversion of nitrates into nitrites can occur when fresh vegetables are stored, especially at room temperature. (differencebetween.net)
  • Nitrites (amyl, butyl, or isobutyl nitrite) are sold with street names such as "poppers," "Locker Room," and "Rush. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the IARC Monographs volume on isobutyl nitrite, β-picoline, and some acrylates is now available online. (who.int)
  • Isobutyl nitrite is an intermediate in the synthesis of solvents and fuels, and is used as a recreational drug. (who.int)
  • 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and combined nitrite-nitrate nitrogen in water and wastewater in the range from 0.05 to 1.0 mg/L nitrogen. (astm.org)
  • Some people who ate food or drank fluids that contained unusually high levels of nitrite experienced methemoglobinemia (decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen to tissues). (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrites can also cause methemoglobinemia, which is a blood disorder that interferes with the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Title : Methemoglobinemia from eating meat with high nitrite content Personal Author(s) : Orgeron, J. D.;Martin, J. D.;Caraway, C. T.;Martine, Rose Mary;Hauser, George H. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, specific antidotes are methylene blue for methemoglobinemia and thiosulfate/sodium nitrite for cyanide (CN) poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • Adverse effects, blood pressure, heart rate, haemoglobin concentra-tion, per cent methaemoglobin in blood and plasma nitrite and nitrate concentration were recorded frequently for 24 h after each administration of sodium nitrite. (inchem.org)
  • The nitrite anion is a pervasive intermediate in the nitrogen cycle in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nitrite is later converted by other beneficial bacteria, in low concentrations, into harmless nitrate. (mascotaplanet.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Nitrite and nitrotyrosine concentrations in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and trabecular bone of normal juvenile, normal adult, and osteoarthritic adult equine metacarpophalangeal joints. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Discussing major findings from the database, the publication ' A Nitrite Excipient Database: A Useful Tool to Support N-Nitrosamine Risk Assessments for Drug Products ' offers a great insight into the database and how it constitutes a central platform to hold the data donated by the pharmaceutical company members on the nitrite concentrations in common excipients measured with validated analytical procedures. (lhasalimited.org)
  • Treat with high concentrations of humidified oxygen en route to the hospital. (medscape.com)
  • For example, oxidation with permanganate ion can be used for quantitative analysis of nitrite (by titration): 5 NO− 2 + 2 MnO− 4 + 6 H+ → 5 NO− 3 + 2 Mn2+ + 3 H2O The product of reduction reactions with nitrite ion are varied, depending on the reducing agent used and its strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the hydrazinium cation (N 2H+ 5) the product of nitrite reduction is hydrazoic acid (HN3), an instable and explosive compound: HNO2 + N 2H+ 5 → HN3 + H2O + H3O+ which can also further react with nitrite: HNO2 + HN3 → N2O + N2 + H2O This reaction is unusual in that it involves compounds with nitrogen in four different oxidation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mechanism of reduction of nitrite (N02-) to nitrous oxide (NO), both the substrate binding reaction and the electron transfer can be observed, and preliminary X-ray experiments using cryo-cooling diffraction indicate an important conformational control of the reaction and sufficiently long-lived intermediates to be caught by freesing. (europa.eu)
  • The 5,000 gallon centralized sodium nitrite recycle/treatment system has been erected as an integral part of the existing industrial wastewater treatment plant facility located at the Naval Air Station, North Island, San Diego, CA. This nitrite denitrifrication system has capabilities for recycling and storing the nitrite solution for reuse, nitrite reduction using sulfamic acid, heavy metal precipitation, and neutralization for discharge. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • Likewise, the higher percentage of nitrite reduction was 50.6% in pork ham with SC technique (p≤0.05). (isciii.es)
  • You should monitor the nitrite levels every day using commercially available test kits and continue treatment until you see a reduction in the levels. (swelluk.com)
  • Amyl nitrite and sodium nitrite convert a portion of circulating hemoglobin to methemoglobin. (medscape.com)
  • pKa ≈ 3.3 at 18 °C Nitrous acid is also highly volatile, tending to disproportionate: 3 HNO2 (aq) ⇌ H3O+ + NO− 3 + 2 NO This reaction is slow at 0 °C. Addition of acid to a solution of a nitrite in the presence of a reducing agent, such as iron(II), is a way to make nitric oxide (NO) in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under hypoxic conditions, nitrite may release nitric oxide, which causes potent vasodilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poppers, scientifically known as alkyl nitrites, are volatile liquids traditionally used as heart medicine and, oddly enough, to remove nail polish. (chartattack.com)
  • Nitrites and nitrates belong to a class of chemicals called nitrosamines that are created by a chemical reaction between nitrites or other proteins. (naturalnews.com)
  • A 2018 study by the British Meat Producers Association determined that legally permitted levels of nitrite have no effect on the growth of the Clostridium botulinum bacteria which causes botulism, in line with the UK's Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food opinion that nitrites are not required to prevent Clostridium botulinum growth and extend shelf life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these types of bacteria change a normal chemical in your urine, called nitrates, into another chemical, called nitrites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • catalyzed by nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) which can convert nitrite to nitrate ( Prosser, 1989 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • If your water supply is a domestic well, nitrites might be a sign of coliform bacteria or a compromised well. (aquaterratesting.com)
  • To achieve this goal we propose to undertake a comprehensive and detailed study of a series of related Nitrite Reductases (NiR). (europa.eu)
  • The results of carcinogenicity studies with nitrite were negative, except those in which extremely high doses of both nitrite and nitrosatable precursors were administered simultaneously or premixed in the diet. (inchem.org)
  • Exposure to nitrate and nitrite mainly occurs through eating or drinking food and water that contain these chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to nitrite exposure. (ewg.org)
  • In addition, the epidemiological data provided no evidence for an association between exposure of humans to nitrite and nitrate and the risk for cancer. (inchem.org)
  • They found convincing parallels between age adjusted rises in mortality from certain illnesses -- Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and diabetes -- and the steadily increasing human exposure to nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines through processed and preserved foods as well as fertilizers. (naturalnews.com)
  • In addition, exposure to nitrates and nitrites are widely found in fertilizers, pesticides and cosmetics. (naturalnews.com)
  • Nitrite is an ambidentate ligand and can form a wide variety of coordination complexes by binding to metal ions in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Method applied: In acidic solution nitrite ions react with sulfanilic acid to form a diazonium salt. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this work , condensation temperature , H2O vapor, SO2, SO3 and NH3 were studied to explore the formation mechanism of nitrate ions (NO3-) and nitrite ions (NO2-) in condensable particulate matter (CPM) discharged by ultra-low emission coal -fired power plants . (bvsalud.org)
  • The formal oxidation state of the nitrogen atom in nitrite is +3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrate and nitrite dissolve easily in water and will therefore move quickly through the soil into surface water and groundwater. (cdc.gov)
  • If you live near an agricultural field and use well water, have your water tested for nitrate and nitrite and, if necessary, take the needed steps to protect yourself. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrite, closely related to the fertilizer chemical nitrate, comes from urban runoff and from fertilizer applied to agricultural lands to pollute drinking water. (ewg.org)
  • Excessive nitrite in water can cause oxygen deprivation in infants and increase the risk of cancer. (ewg.org)
  • Nitrite occurs in the environment, in food and water, and is produced endogenous-ly. (inchem.org)
  • Since nitrite oxidizes readily to nitrate, it will support surface water eutrophication and, therefore, is treated as a "de facto" hazardous waste regardless of whether contaminants are taken up in its usage. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency standard threshold for nitrite-nitrogen in potable water is 1 mg/L, whereas naval boiler wash wastewater contains up to 250 mg/L. In addition to sodium nitrite, the wastewater stream also contains various heavy metals in ionic form. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • Nitrate and nitrite enter water from fertilizer runoff, septic tanks and urban runoff. (ewg.org)
  • I'm told nitrites to high will stall a cycle by others and others will say no water changes needed. (fishlore.com)
  • Nitrite, usually ingested through water and food, can be harmful when taken in excess. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the device has been shown to monitor nitrite in real soil and water samples with appreciable recovery values. (nih.gov)
  • If the nitrite levels are very high (above 0.50mg/l), you should first change 30-40% of the water by siphoning the gravel before using this treatment. (swelluk.com)
  • What troubles me is no change in nitrites, with all the Nitro-Zorb and water changes. (barrreport.com)
  • In aquarium and pond water, nitrite (NO2) should not be measurable. (mascotaplanet.com)
  • Make sure there is no toxic nitrite present in your aquarium water with the Aquarium Systems SeaTest Nitrite test. (mascotaplanet.com)
  • Fourteen office workers developed multiple symptoms of illness including vomiting, headache, dizziness, fatigue, rash, confusion, palpitations, or loss of consciousness following the unintentional addition of a corrosion inhibitor (39% sodium nitrite) to the hot water system instead of to the heating and cooling system. (cdc.gov)
  • Water samples as well as cream of wheat and oatmeal prepared with the water and consumed by some cases were tested for both nitrite and combined nitrate and nitrite. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrates and nitrites in water. (cdc.gov)
  • The higher plants can also assimilate nitrite from the soil. (differencebetween.net)
  • However, very limited information is available on how fertilizer regimes affect the distribution of nitrite oxidizers, which are involved in the second step of nitrification, across aggregate size classes in soil. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, the community compositions of nitrite oxidizers ( Nitrobacter and Nitrospira ) were characterized from a red soil amended with four types of fertilizer regimes over a 26-year fertilization experiment, including control without fertilizer (CK), swine manure (M), chemical fertilization (NPK), and chemical/organic combined fertilization (MNPK). (frontiersin.org)
  • Principal co-ordinate analysis revealed that Nitrobacter - and Nitrospira -like NOB communities under four fertilizer regimes were differentiated from each other, but soil aggregate fractions had less effect on the nitrite oxidizers community. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bernice died on March 21, 2021 after ingesting sodium nitrite while sleeping over at Sameer's house the night prior. (ctvnews.ca)
  • In nitrification, ammonium is converted to nitrite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein, we demonstrate a simple and disposable 3D printed device, fabricated in single-step, as an electrochemical nitrite sensor using commercially available carbon loaded polylactic acid (PLA) filament. (nih.gov)
  • The Committee at its forty-fourth meeting therefore based its safety evaluation on studies of toxicity with nitrite. (inchem.org)
  • Swell Aquarium Tonic Salt can be used to reduce the toxicity of nitrite. (swelluk.com)
  • It has been estimated that the total volume of sodium nitrite wastewater generated by all naval shipyards is about 3 million gallons annually, and that generated by Navy-wide boiler maintenance operations is 10 million gallons annually. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • An abstract entitled, "Full-Scale Demonstration of a Denitrification/Recycling System for Nitrite Wastewater. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • Nitrite is processed by several enzymes, all of which utilize coordination complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ToxFAQs™ information is taken from the 2017 Toxicological Profile for Nitrate and Nitrite produced by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in Atlanta, GA. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrite is significantly more toxic than nitrate. (ewg.org)
  • Background: In April 2013, a hospital in Suzhou City notified authorities of a patient with nitrite poisoning with two other family members who had similar toxic symptoms five days prior. (who.int)
  • Store with amides, nitrates, nitrites and azides. (flinnsci.com)
  • A test called a urinalysis checks a sample of your urine (pee) to see if it has nitrites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A urinalysis, which includes a test for nitrites in urine, is used to check your general health, including the health of your urinary tract and kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is no known risk to having a urinalysis or a nitrites in urine test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The use of dipstick urinalysis for detection of leukocyte esterase, nitrites, protein and blood has been shown to be of value in screening urine for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection [1-8]. (who.int)
  • As there was no quantitative evidence of the endogenous formation of carcinogenic N- nitroso compounds at the levels of intake of nitrite and nitrosatable precursors achievable in the diet, a quantitative risk assessment of nitrite on the basis of endogenously formed N- nitroso compounds was considered to be inappropriate. (inchem.org)
  • Scientists have found a strong link between increasing levels of nitrates and nitrites in our food supply and increasing death rates from Alzheimer's, diabetes mellitus and Parkinson's disease. (naturalnews.com)
  • The Nitrites in Excipients data sharing consortium is a collaborative data sharing initiative for assessing the levels of nitrites in excipients. (lhasalimited.org)
  • The serum levels of lipids, L-arginine, total NO metabolites (NOx), nitrite and nitrate were measured before and after the study. (ac.ir)
  • Inhaled inorganic nitrite did not enhance functional capacity for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a randomized controlled trial found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Now with the negative trial results, "inorganic nitrite should not be pursued as a potential clinically useful agent in HFpEF," Chirinos said to MedPage Today . (medpagetoday.com)
  • There are tests that can detect nitrate and nitrite in the blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • How Do You Test for Nitrites in Urine? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nitrites in urine may be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). (medlineplus.gov)
  • So, if you have nitrites in your urine, it usually means that you have a urinary tract infection (UTI). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do I need a nitrites in urine test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What happens during a nitrites in urine test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • You don't need any special preparations to test for nitrites in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If there are nitrites in your urine, it may mean that you have a UTI. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Is there anything else I need to know about a nitrites in urine test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • They check for nitrites and white blood cells in your urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Microscopic examination of urinary sediment and urine culture were also performed for positive dipstick results for haematuria and nitrites. (who.int)
  • Other bacterial species such as Nitrobacter, are responsible for the oxidation of the nitrite into nitrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Content of sodium, nitrites, peroxides and total coliforms were compared after processes of Washing (W) and Simple Cooking (SC) in turkey and pork ham in a cross-sectional analytical experimental study. (isciii.es)
  • Nitrite is a harmful substance that builds up in an aquarium, it is produced as a result of biological processes, such as the breakdown of fish and invertebrate waste, food scraps and plant matter. (swelluk.com)
  • Nitrite concentration seems to be a good indicator of tissue metabolic activity, but cannot discriminate between physiological (juvenile animals) and pathological (OA cases) processes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The serum level of nitrite was significantly higher in L-arginine treated group while serum level of nitrate and NOx was significantly lower than HC group. (ac.ir)
  • At its sixth meeting, the Committee allocated an ADI of 0 0.4 mg/kg bw to this substance, expressed as sodium nitrite. (inchem.org)
  • Nitrite was detected in a vomitus sample, the sugar substance and two leftover food samples. (who.int)
  • The name nitrite also refers to organic compounds having the -ONO group, which are esters of nitrous acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrites are chemical compounds, salts or esters of the nitrous acid. (differencebetween.net)
  • Hazardous to the human health are the nitrites and nitrosamines. (differencebetween.net)
  • In low acidity of gastric acid, nitrites can be converted to nitrosamines, which have a carcinogenic effect. (differencebetween.net)
  • The device showed appreciable sensitivity and good selectivity towards nitrite having a limit-of-detection (LOD) of [Formula: see text]. (nih.gov)
  • Nitrite (mostly sodium nitrite) is widely used throughout chemical and pharmaceutical industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrate and nitrite are also used in food preservation, some pharmaceutical drugs, and in the production of munitions and explosives. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk of High Nitrite Stalling Cycle? (fishlore.com)
  • The intramolecular electron transfer rate between the type-1 and type-2 copper site changes at high nitrite concentration (≥520 mM) resulting in an inhibition effect at low pH and catalytic gain in enzyme activity at high pH. (science24.com)
  • On a municipal line, nitrites are not as likely to be present at a high risk level, but it can happen. (aquaterratesting.com)
  • What can I do to mitigate a high Nitrogen - Nitrite result? (aquaterratesting.com)
  • Nitrite both with and without nitrosatable precursors was found to be genotoxic in vitro in several tests, but, with the exception of a test in Drosophila melanogaster, the results obtained in vivo were negative. (inchem.org)
  • Results: We identified three nitrite poisoning cases, one male and two females, from the same family. (who.int)
  • Contact with these gases results in the formation of oxides, nitrites, and undesirable gases. (cdc.gov)
  • Next the scientists looked at the growth of the US population and the annual use and consumption of nitrite-containing fertilizers, annual sales at popular fast food chains (which carry nitrate and nitrate containing foods), sales for a major meat processing company, and consumption of grain (often fertilized with nitrates). (naturalnews.com)
  • We recommend that sodium nitrite be dyed a bright colour to prevent such a mistake and that health departments strengthen food hygiene education to alert people about the danger of eating unidentified food from an unknown source. (who.int)
  • The nitrite ion has the chemical formula NO− 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that the intramolecular rate is significantly reduced in turn-over conditions compared to the enzyme at rest, with an exception at low pH / nitrite conditions. (science24.com)
  • Sodium nitrite is used to speed up the curing of meat and also impart an attractive colour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some meats and meat products contain sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite as preservatives. (cdc.gov)
  • And I had 5 nitrate but zero nitrite which is weird because I thought nitrites come first. (fishlore.com)
  • Sodium nitrite is made industrially by passing a mixture of nitrogen oxides into aqueous sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate solution: NO + NO2 + 2 NaOH → 2 NaNO2 + H2O NO + NO2 + Na2CO3 → 2 NaNO2 + CO2 The product is purified by recrystallization. (wikipedia.org)
  • mean weight, 68 3.3 kg) received a single oral dose of sodium nitrite at 0.06 or 0.12 mmol/mmol haemoglobin, corresponding to 140 190 mg or 290 380 mg, depending on the weight of the person, and 7 days later received one intravenous dose of sodium nitrite at 0.12 mmol/mmol haemoglobin, corresponding to 290 380 mg. (inchem.org)
  • The study's findings are "in sharp contrast with the previously reported single-dose effects of sodium nitrite, and may be related to its adverse pharmacokinetic profile with chronic administration," commented Julio Chirinos, MD, PhD, of University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine in Philadelphia, who was not involved in the study. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Nitrites damage the cellular structures of different organs and systems directly, depending on the dose. (differencebetween.net)
  • The maximum allowable dose of nitrite for 24 hours is 0.2 mg/kg. (differencebetween.net)
  • under these conditions, IARC determined that ingested nitrate and nitrite is probably carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: As the result of our study showed, nitrite is a useful marker of endogenous endothelial NO production and although frequently used, neither nitrate nor NOx are reliable markers of acute changes in endothelial NO synthase activity. (ac.ir)
  • Nitrate and nitrite are two nitrogen compounds that are needed by plants and animals to live and grow. (cdc.gov)