A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Estrogenic potential of certain pyrethroid compounds in the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line. (1/3723)

Estrogens, whether natural or synthetic, clearly influence reproductive development, senescence, and carcinogenesis. Pyrethroid insecticides are now the most widely used agents for indoor pest control, providing potential for human exposure. Using the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line, we studied the estrogenic potential of several synthetic pyrethroid compounds in vitro using pS2 mRNA levels as the end point. We tested sumithrin, fenvalerate, d-trans allethrin, and permethrin. Nanomolar concentrations of either sumithrin or fenvalerate were sufficient to increase pS2 expression slightly above basal levels. At micromolar concentrations, these two pyrethroid compounds induced pS2 expression to levels comparable to those elicited by 10 nM 17ss-estradiol (fivefold). The estrogenic activity of sumithrin was abolished with co-treatment with an antiestrogen (ICI 164,384), whereas estrogenic activity of fenvalerate was not significantly diminished with antiestrogen co-treatment. In addition, both sumithrin and fenvalerate were able to induce cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-response fashion. Neither permethrin nor d-trans allethrin affected pS2 expression. Permethrin had a noticeable effect on cell proliferation at 100 microM, whereas d-trans allethrin slightly induced MCF-7 cell proliferation at 10 microM, but was toxic at higher concentrations. Overall, our studies imply that each pyrethroid compound is unique in its ability to influence several cellular pathways. These findings suggest that pyrethroids should be considered to be hormone disruptors, and their potential to affect endocrine function in humans and wildlife should be investigated.  (+info)

Androgen-independent induction of prostate-specific antigen gene expression via cross-talk between the androgen receptor and protein kinase A signal transduction pathways. (2/3723)

Transcription of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene escapes regulation by androgens in advanced prostate cancer. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of androgen-independent regulation of the PSA gene, the possibility that the androgen receptor (AR) is activated in the absence of androgen by stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) was investigated. Activation of PKA by forskolin resulted in elevated expression of the PSA gene in androgen-depleted LNCaP cells, an effect that was blocked by the antiandrogen, bicalutamide. Further evidence that induction of PSA gene expression was dependent on AR was obtained from experiments using PC3 cells devoid of AR. Neither PSA, PB, nor ARR3 androgen-responsive reporters could be induced by activation of PKA in the absence of transfected AR. In addition, when nuclear AR from forskolin-treated LNCaP cells was incubated with oligonucleotides encoding an androgen response element of the PSA promoter and examined by electromobility shift assay, an increase in AR-androgen response element complex formation was observed. Lastly, cotransfection of an expression vector for a chimeric protein encoding the amino-terminal domain of the human AR linked to Gal4 and a 5xGal4UAS reporter gene construct resulted in activation of the amino-terminal domain of the AR by stimulation of PKA activity. These results demonstrate androgen-independent induction of PSA gene expression in prostate cancer cells by an AR-dependent pathway.  (+info)

Rational design and synthesis of a novel anti-leukemic agent targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), LFM-A13 [alpha-cyano-beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-N-(2, 5-dibromophenyl)propenamide]. (3/3723)

In a systematic effort to design potent inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic tyrosine kinase BTK (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) as anti-leukemic agents with apoptosis-promoting and chemosensitizing properties, we have constructed a three-dimensional homology model of the BTK kinase domain. Our modeling studies revealed a distinct rectangular binding pocket near the hinge region of the BTK kinase domain with Leu460, Tyr476, Arg525, and Asp539 residues occupying the corners of the rectangle. The dimensions of this rectangle are approximately 18 x 8 x 9 x 17 A, and the thickness of the pocket is approximately 7 A. Advanced docking procedures were employed for the rational design of leflunomide metabolite (LFM) analogs with a high likelihood to bind favorably to the catalytic site within the kinase domain of BTK. The lead compound LFM-A13, for which we calculated a Ki value of 1.4 microM, inhibited human BTK in vitro with an IC50 value of 17.2 +/- 0.8 microM. Similarly, LFM-A13 inhibited recombinant BTK expressed in a baculovirus expression vector system with an IC50 value of 2.5 microM. The energetically favorable position of LFM-A13 in the binding pocket is such that its aromatic ring is close to Tyr476, and its substituent group is sandwiched between residues Arg525 and Asp539. In addition, LFM-A13 is capable of favorable hydrogen bonding interactions with BTK via Asp539 and Arg525 residues. Besides its remarkable potency in BTK kinase assays, LFM-A13 was also discovered to be a highly specific inhibitor of BTK. Even at concentrations as high as 100 micrograms/ml (approximately 278 microM), this novel inhibitor did not affect the enzymatic activity of other protein tyrosine kinases, including JAK1, JAK3, HCK, epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, and insulin receptor kinase. In accordance with the anti-apoptotic function of BTK, treatment of BTK+ B-lineage leukemic cells with LFM-A13 enhanced their sensitivity to ceramide- or vincristine-induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, LFM-A13 is the first BTK-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the first anti-leukemic agent targeting BTK.  (+info)

Oxidation of low density lipoprotein and plasma by 15-lipoxygenase and free radicals. (4/3723)

It is generally accepted that the oxidation of pentadiene structures of polyunsaturated lipids by lipoxygenase (LOX) is regio- and enantio-specific, while the free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation gives stereo-random racemic products. It was confirmed that the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) by 15-LOX from rabbit reticulocytes gave phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesteryl ester (CE) hydroperoxides regio-, stereo- and enantio-specifically. 15-LOX also oxidized human plasma to give specific PC and CE hydroperoxides in spite of the presence of high concentrations of antioxidants. More CE hydroperoxides were formed than PC hydroperoxides from LDL, but the reverse order was observed for plasma oxidation. The S/R ratio of the hydroperoxides decreased during long time incubation but remained significantly larger than one, while free radical-mediated oxidation of LDL and plasma gave racemic products.  (+info)

Control of malaria vectors: cost analysis in a province of northern Vietnam. (5/3723)

The cost of permethrin-treated bednets (50% EC; 0.2 g/m2, 2 rounds per year) was compared to the cost of residual spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10% WP (0.03 g/m2, once yearly) in Hoa Binh, a mountainous province in northern Vietnam. Calculations of the amounts of insecticides needed were based on national guidelines, on data from a cross-sectional survey and on district activity reports. The actual cost of insecticide required per person per year was lower for impregnation (US$ 0.26) than for spraying (US$ 0.36), but the difference was smaller than expected. The total cost for impregnated bednets per person per year amounted to US$ 0.90 compared to USS 0.47 for spraying. The determining factor was the cost of the net, amounting to US$ 0.58 per person per year, assuming a 5-year life of the net. Other material (excluding nets), labour and transport combined, accounted for only 17% of the impregnation cost and 23% of spraying expenses. However, for the National Malaria Control Programme of Vietnam, the cost per person per year for impregnated bednets amounted to US$ 0.32 only, because the vast majority of nets are bought by the population. For spraying, the programme had to bear the entire cost.  (+info)

Molecular characterisation of a novel thermophilic nitrile hydratase. (6/3723)

The thermophilic soil isolate, Bacillus pallidus Dac521, expresses a constitutive nitrile hydratase. The purified enzyme was found to be a 110 kDa tetramer composed of two alpha and two beta subunits with molecular masses of 27 kDa and 29 kDa, respectively. The enzyme electrophoresed as a single protein band on native PAGE but two protein bands with isoelectric points of 4.7 and 5.5 on isoelectric focusing suggested the presence of isozymes. The purified enzyme was moderately thermostable up to 55 degrees C and the enzyme activity was stable over a broad pH range. Comparisons of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the nitrile hydratase subunits with those of other nitrile hydratases showed up to 90% identity for the beta subunit sequence but no significant identity for the alpha subunit. The enzyme hydrolysed a narrow range of aliphatic substrates and did not hydrolyse any of the cyclic, hydroxy-, di- or aromatic nitriles tested. The activity was irreversibly inhibited by the aromatic nitrile, benzonitrile. The kinetic constants for acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and propionitrile compared favourably with those of mesophilic nitrile hydratases.  (+info)

Role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in methacrylonitrile metabolism and disposition. (7/3723)

Methacrylonitrile (MAN) is a widely used aliphatic nitrile and is structurally similar to the known rat carcinogen and suspected human carcinogen acrylonitrile (AN). There is evidence that AN is metabolized via the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2E1. Recently, we identified two biliary conjugates originating from the interaction of MAN and its epoxide with glutathione. Mercapturic acids formed via the degradation of the two conjugates were also identified in rat and mouse urine. Additionally, a significant portion of MAN was eliminated in the expired air as CO2 (formed via the epoxide pathway) and unchanged MAN. The objective of the present work was to determine whether CYP2E1 is involved in the oxidative metabolism of MAN as was suggested for AN. 2-14C-MAN was administered to CYP2E1-null or wild-type mice by gavage at 12 mg/kg. Although total urinary and fecal excretion of MAN-derived radioactivity was slightly different in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice, the ratio of mercapturic acids originating from the epoxide-glutathione versus MAN-glutathione conjugates were lower in urine of CYP2E1-null mice than in that of wild-type animals. Exhalation of MAN-derived organic volatiles (primarily parent MAN) was 12- and 42-fold greater in female and male CYP2E1-null mice than in wild-type mice, respectively. Additionally, exhalation of CO2 derived from metabolism of MAN via the CYP2E1 pathway was 3- to 5-fold greater in wild-type than in CYP2E1-null animals. Although these data indicate that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for the oxidative metabolism of MAN, other cytochrome P-450 enzymes may be involved. Assessment of MAN metabolism in CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole (CYP inhibitor) resulted in a further decrease in oxidative metabolites of MAN. Comparison of the tissue concentrations of MAN-derived radioactivity in mouse tissues revealed that MAN-derived radioactivity is generally higher in wild-type > CYP2E1-null mice > CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, suggesting a direct relationship between MAN oxidative metabolism and the half-life of MAN and/or its metabolites in various tissues. It is therefore concluded that MAN oxidative metabolites such as the epoxide intermediate have greater reactivity than parent MAN.  (+info)

A new strategy for treating nets. Part 1: formulation and dosage. (8/3723)

The conventional dosages of pyrethroid insecticides on mosquito nets assume that nets will be retreated at 6-12 month intervals. However, dosage should be related to washing of nets; if nets are only washed once or twice a year, their dosage requirements will be different to those which are washed fortnightly. A 'low-dose, frequent-wash' retreatment system might be technically more appropriate and more affordable where nets are washed frequently, as they are in Dar es Salaam. Moreover, for use as a domestic insecticide, water-based formulations of pyrethroid are preferable to the more commonly used emulsifiable concentrates (ECs). This paper reports laboratory evaluations of three formulations (ECs, Flowable, CS) of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin). Insecticidal activity was tested using serial bioassays at a range of dosages using Anopheles gambiae. The water-based formulations were no less effective than the ECs, even at the lowest dosages. Nets treated with 3 mg/m2 and then repeatedly washed and retreated after each wash with either 3 mg/m2 or 1 mg/m2 were subjected to gas chromatography analysis. This showed that the amounts of pyrethroid in the nets accumulated rapidly over the first few wash-retreatment cycles and then remained fairly stable over subsequent cycles. These nets gave consistently high bioassay mortalities throughout the experiment, while the mortality declined rapidly after several washes with the nets that were treated at 3 mg/m2 but not retreated. Experimental huts were used to compare the effectiveness of these 2 net retreatment regimes and nets which were not retreated. All nets caused high mortality rates amongst Anopheles females, but had negligible effects on culicines; either in killing them or in preventing feeding. Therefore use of a high 'loading' dose for initial treatment with lower 'maintenance' doses for retreatment may be preferable to ensure that net users promptly perceive the benefits of the insecticide against culicines.  (+info)

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: To determine the anti-tumor effect of the combinations of endocrine therapy with BYL719 in post-menopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer by assessing:. I. Progression free survival (PFS). II. Objective response rate (ORR). III. Clinical benefit rate (complete response [CR]+partial response [PR]+stable disease [SD] ,= 6 months).. EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVES:. I. Pharmacokinetics of BYL719 in combination with letrozole: Plasma concentration-time profiles and derived basic pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of BYL719 and letrozole, including but not limited to area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-tlast), AUC curve to infinite time (AUC0-inf), maximum observed concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax), clearance over bioavailability (CL/F), apparent volume of distribution (Vz/F) and the terminal half-life (t1/2) and other PK parameters if deemed appropriate.. II. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Updated results from MONALEESA-2, a phase III trial of first-line ribociclib plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. AU - Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.. AU - Stemmer, S. M.. AU - Burris, H. A.. AU - Yap, Y. S.. AU - Sonke, G. S.. AU - Paluch-Shimon, S.. AU - Campone, M.. AU - Petrakova, K.. AU - Blackwell, K. L.. AU - Winer, E. P.. AU - Janni, W.. AU - Verma, S.. AU - Conte, P.. AU - Arteaga, C. L.. AU - Cameron, D. A.. AU - Mondal, S.. AU - Su, F.. AU - Miller, M.. AU - Elmeliegy, M.. AU - Germa, C.. AU - OShaughnessy, J.. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - Background: The phase III MONALEESA-2 study demonstrated significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and a manageable toxicity profile for first-line ribociclib plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole in patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. Here, we ...
Purpose The Letrozole (Femara) Versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation (FACE) study compared the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole versus anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor (HR) -positive and node-positive early breast cancer (eBC). Methods Postmenopausal women with HR-positive and node-positive eBC were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant therapy with either letrozole (2.5 mg) or anastrozole (1 mg) once per day for 5 years or until recurrence of disease. Patients were stratified on the basis of the number of lymph nodes and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. The primary end point was 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), and the key secondary end points were overall survival and safety. Results A total of 4,136 patients were randomly assigned to receive either letrozole (n = 2,061) or anastrozole (n = 2,075). The final analysis was done at 709 DFS events (letrozole, 341 [16.5%]; anastrozole, 368 [17.7%]). The 5-year estimated DFS rate was 84.9% for ...
The drug palbociclib, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6, significantly improved progression-free survival when administered as a first-line treatment in patients with hormone receptor-positive, metastatic ...
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This was the first clinical trial initiated to explore the hypothesis that activation of the HER pathway during tamoxifen treatment in ER-positive tumors contributes to acquired resistance. It was further hypothesized that simultaneous blockade of HER receptors and ER may delay this resistance even in tumors with low initial levels of EGFR/HER2 because expression of these proteins can increase when ER is blocked. The EGFR inhibitor gefitinib was chosen because it inhibits signaling from EGFR homo- and heterodimers and because it was effective in preclinical studies in which upregulation of EGFR was a dominant characteristic of tamoxifen-resistant tumors (16-18, 20, 21).. This randomized phase II trial was not designed to show a statistically significant advantage for the addition of gefitinib to tamoxifen, but rather to determine whether the addition of gefitinib resulted in a numerical advantage compared with placebo of sufficient interest to warrant further study. This proof-of-concept trial ...
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Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara) can reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence even when initiated one to seven years after a course of tamoxifen therapy. The results of a study involving women originally in the placebo arm of an international trial of letrozole will appear in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and are receiving early online release. Among those who chose to begin letrozole treatment after the initial trial was halted, the risk that their cancer would recur was cut in half compared with those who never received letrozole. In addition, the risk of metastasis was 60 percent lower with letrozole, and the chance that a new tumor would develop in the unaffected breast dropped more than 80 percent.
Letrozole Femara Powder Product Name:Letrozole Key words:Letrozole,Letrozole,Letrozole,Letrozole,Femara,Femara,Femara Alias:Femara CAS No.:112809-51-5 Molecular Formula:C17H11N5 Molecular Weight:285.3 Purity:99% Appearance:White power . Use:pharmaceutical intermediates, after menopause advanced breast cancer, - Letrozole Femara Powder Details.
In a randomized, Phase III trial led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, ribociclib, in combination with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, dramatically improved progression-free survival (PFS) of post-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, compared to the hormone therapy alone.
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The investigators propose to conduct a Phase I/randomized Phase II study design in order to test the tolerability and efficacy of AZD0530 when used together with anastrozole in therapy for ER+ and/or PR+, postmenopausal breast cancer. The Phase I pharmacokinetic (PK) cohort of the study (cohort A) in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer 2008-2009 showed initial safety,tolerability and good bioavailability of both drugs and determined the doses for use in the ongoing Phase II trial. In the randomized Phase II cohort of the study (cohort B), postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed, previously untreated ER+, HER2 negative breast cancer that is at least 2 cm or more in diameter by clinical exam or radiology will be randomized to either neoadjuvant treatment with anastrozole plus placebo, or anastrozole in combination with AZD0530. The Phase II cohort will permit extended assays of tolerability, initial estimates of efficacy, and the investigation of molecular predictors of drug ...
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Many important food crops produce cyanogenic glucosides as natural defense compounds to protect against herbivory or pathogen attack. It has also been suggested that these nitrogen-based secondary metabolites act as storage reserves of nitrogen. In sorghum, three key genes, CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and UGT85B1, encode two Cytochrome P450s and a glycosyltransferase, respectively, the enzymes essential for synthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Here, we report the use of targeted induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) to identify a line with a mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the N-terminal region of UGT85B1. Plants homozygous for this mutation do not produce dhurrin and are designated tcd2 (totally cyanide deficient 2) mutants. They have reduced vigor, being dwarfed, with poor root development and low fertility. Analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) shows that tcd2 mutants accumulate numerous dhurrin pathway-derived metabolites, some of which are ...
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This study compared the efficacy, tolerability and quality-of-life (QoL) effects of adjuvant anastrozole then letrozole versus letrozole then anastrozole in
A class of oral drugs for treating breast cancer known as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors are generally well-tolerated, with a manageable toxicity profile for most patients. This is the conclusion of a comprehensive review of toxicities and drug interactions related to this class of drugs, published by Spring et al in The Oncologist.. The excitement surrounding CDK4/6 inhibitors is due to their potential for treating hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, the most common form of the disease. The first CDK4/6 inhibitors were recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), with palbociclib (Ibrance) approved in February 2015 and ribociclib (Kisqali) approved in March 2017. A third, abemaciclib, is currently undergoing phase III trials. All three CDK4/6 inhibitors have received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA.. CDK inhibitors have changed the landscape of management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, said Aditya Bardia, MBBS, MPH, ...
Although there was less toxicity, neoadjuvant letrozole plus palbociclib had similar response and BCS rates when compared with chemotherapy.
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Letz from Chemech, Letrozole - Anolet to Oncolet | Letrozole is an oral non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer after surgery. Use of Letz from Chemech, Pregnancy, lactation in childrens and special precautions for Letz from Chemech, prices of Letz from Chemech . Estrogens are produced by the conversion of androgens through the activity of the aromatase enzyme. Estrogens then bind to an estrogen receptor, which causes cells to divide. Letrozole prevents the aromatase from producing estrogens by competitive, reversible binding to the heme of its cytochrome P450 unit. The action is specific, and letrozole does not reduce production of mineralo- or corticosteroids.In contrast, tamoxifen interferes with the estrogen receptor. Tamoxifen is also used to treat hormonally- responsive breast cancer. However, letrozole is effective only in post-menopausal women, in whom estrogen is produced predominantly by the adrenal glands. In pre-menopausal women, estrogen is
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Lee S. Schwartzberg, MD, of the West Cancer Center, discusses phase III results from the CONTESSA study, which showed that an all-oral regimen of tesetaxel plus a reduced dose of capecitabine significantly improved progression-free survival compared with capecitabine alone in patients with HER2-negative, hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with a taxane (Abstract GS4-01).. Editors note: On March 22, 2021, Odonate Therapeutics announced it was discontinuing the development of tesetaxel and will close the companys operations. Read more here.. ...
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Full Reference: Overall Survival with Fulvestrant plus Anastrozole in Metastatic Breast Cancer, Rita S. Mehta, Et al, N Engl J Med 2019; 380:1226-1234, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1811714 Web link to Paper This weeks blog is brought to you by: Dr Tim Wilson Authors conclusion In this trial, we found that combination therapy with anastrozole plus fulvestrant significantly prolonged, as compared with treatment with anastrozole alone, the primary and secondary end points of progression-free survival (P=0.007) and long-term overall survival (P=0.03) when used as first-line therapy for hormone-receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women. 3VH - Implications for value Another promising treatment emerges for breast cancer. Not a cure, but one that prolongs survival from 42 to 49.8 months in women [...]. ...
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ARIMIDEX is approved for adjuvant treatment (treatment following surgery with or without radiation) of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer.. ARIMIDEX is approved for the initial treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive or hormone receptor-unknown locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer and for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that has progressed following treatment with tamoxifen. Patients with hormone receptor-negative disease and patients who did not previously respond to tamoxifen therapy rarely responded to ARIMIDEX.. For more information, see your doctor. Please see full Prescribing Information.. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.FDA.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.. ...
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.. There are certain circumstances and medical conditions where this medication is not recommended, or should be taken with caution. Be sure to inform your physician of all your medical conditions before you begin therapy.. Bone mineral density: Long-term use of anastrozole may decrease the density of bones, thereby increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Your doctor will order bone mineral density tests periodically while you are taking anastrozole.. Drowsiness/dizziness: Anastrozole may cause dizziness or drowsiness. If you experience either or both of these side effects, you should not drive, use machinery, or perform any other activities that require alertness.. Heart disease: This medication ...
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After a median follow-up of five years, 40 women in the Arimidex group (2%) and 85 women in the placebo group (4%) had developed breast cancer. The predicted cumulative incidence of all breast cancers after seven years was 5.6 percent in the placebo group and 2.8 percent in the Arimidex group. The number needed to treat was 36 to prevent one breast cancer in seven years of follow-up. Side effects associated with estrogen deprivation, were only slightly more frequent in the Arimidex group than in the placebo group. ...
BACKGROUND: The aromatase inhibitor letrozole is a more effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer and more effective in the neoadjuvant setting than tamoxifen. We compared letrozole with tamoxifen as adjuvant treatment for steroid-hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. METHODS: The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a randomized, phase 3, double-blind trial that compared five years of treatment with various adjuvant endocrine therapy regimens in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer: letrozole, letrozole followed by tamoxifen, tamoxifen, and tamoxifen followed by letrozole. This analysis compares the two groups assigned to receive letrozole initially with the two groups assigned to receive tamoxifen initially; events and follow-up in the sequential-treatment groups were included up to the time that treatments were switched. RESULTS: A total of 8010 women with data that could be assessed were enrolled, 4003 in the letrozole ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cost-effectiveness of letrozole in the extended adjuvant treatment of women with early breast cancer. AU - Ouagari, Khalid El. AU - Karnon, Jonathan. AU - Delea, Thomas. AU - Talbot, Willena. AU - Brandman, Jane. PY - 2007/1. Y1 - 2007/1. N2 - Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for 5 years reduces recurrence in hormone receptor positive, post-menopausal women with early breast cancer, but offers no advantage when prolonged to another 5 years, during which the risk of recurrence remains high. Treating patients, who remain disease-free after 5 years of tamoxifen, with letrozole significantly reduces recurrence, regardless of nodal status. This study evaluated the life-time cost-utility of extended adjuvant letrozole therapy in 62-year-old patients from a third-party payer perspective. A Markov model incorporated locoregional, contralateral, and metastatic recurrences. The comparator was placebo. Event rates were based on published trials. Utility values were taken from a clinical trial and ...
SAN ANTONIO — Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole improved DFS compared with placebo among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who completed previous adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor, according to 10-year results from the randomized NRG Oncology/NSABP B-42 trial presented at San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.Extended letrozole also
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Exemestane (Aromasin) is an oral steroidal aromatase inhibitor, but unlike letrozole and anastrozole it permanently binds to the active site of the aromatase enzymes thus blocking their function of converting androgens into estrogens. This is known as Type I or suicide inhibition because the inhibitor becomes inactive due to the mechanism of its actions. A permanent bond with the aromatase enzyme complex is formed and prolonged effects may be experienced even after the drug has cleared from circulation. The aromatase enzymes activity can only be restored by new enzyme synthesis.. Type II aromatase inhibitors (letrozole and anastrozole) inhibit the enzyme by binding reversibly to the aromatase enzyme through competitive inhibition which does not destroy the enzyme and inhibition are stopped upon clearance of the drug.. For bodybuilders this is of significant value because it means that estrogenic rebound is not possible upon the removal of exemestane. Other aromatase inhibitors will disassociate ...
Arimidex® does not possess progestogen, androgenic and estrogenic activity. Arimidex® in daily doses up to 10 mg does not have an effect on the secretion of cortisol and aldosterone, therefore, when using Arimidex®, no substitution corticosteroids are required.. Effect on bone mineral density. It has been shown that in patients with hormone-positive early postmenopausal breast cancer who are taking Arimidex®, changes in the bone system can be prevented in accordance with the standards established to treat patients with a certain risk of fractures. Thus, the advantage of Arimidex ® in combination with bisphosphonates (in comparison with Arimidex ® only) in patients with an average and high risk of fracture was demonstrated after 12 months in terms of bone mineral density, structural changes in bone tissue and markers of bone resorption. Moreover, in the low-risk group, there was no change in the mineral bone density index against the background of therapy with one preparation of Arimidex® ...
PI3K-mTOR pathway genes are commonly mutated in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, and preclinical and clinical data have indicated that PI3K-mTOR pathway inhibition may enhance endocrine therapy, prompting Schmid and colleagues to perform a phase II preoperative window-of-opportunity study investigating the effects of the PI3K inhibitor pictilisib in combination with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole on tumor cell proliferation. This study randomly assigned 75 postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed operable ER+, HER2− breast cancer to receive anastrozole alone (26 patients) or anastrozole plus pictilisib (49 patients). Treatment was given for 14 days prior to surgical resection and adjuvant therapy. At least two tumor biopsies were taken at baseline and at the end of treatment, and used for immunohistochemistry. The primary end point was inhibition of tumor cell proliferation measured by change in Ki67 staining before and after treatment. Ki67 staining decreased in all but 3 ...
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Pharmacodynamics: Anastrozole is a potent and selective non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of advanced breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following tamoxifen therapy. Many breast cancers have estrogen receptors and growth of these tumors can be stimulated by estrogens. In post-menopausal women, the principal source of circulating estrogen (primarily estradiol) is conversion of adrenally-generated androstenedione to estrone by aromatase in peripheral tissues, such as adipose tissue, with further conversion of estrone to estradiol. Many breast cancers also contain aromatase; the importance of tumor-generated estrogens is uncertain. Treatment of breast cancer has included efforts to decrease estrogen levels by ovariectomy premenopausally and by use of anti-estrogens and progestational agents both pre- and post-menopausally, and these interventions lead to decreased tumor mass or delayed progression of tumor growth in some women. Anastrozole is ...
Background: In preclinical studies, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is associated with estrogen-independent tumor growth and resistance to endocrine therapies. This study investigated whether the addition of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, to letrozole enhanced the antitumor activity of the letrozole in the preoperative setting. Methods: Postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed stage 2 or 3 estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned (2:1) between letrozole 2.5 mg PO daily plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks (Let/Bev) and letrozole 2.5 mg PO daily (Let) for 24 weeks prior to definitive surgery. Primary objective was within-arm pathologic complete remission (pCR) rate. Secondary objectives were safety, objective response, and downstaging rate. Results: Seventy-five patients were randomized (Let/Bev n = 50, Let n = 25). Of the 45 patients evaluable ...
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This research has been highlighted as a practice changing update by DynaMed Plus. It concludes that Fulvestrant has superior efficacy and is a preferred treatment option for patients with hormone receptor-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who have not received previous endocrine therapy compared with a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, a standard of care for first-line trea...
1. The metabolism of 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile was studied in rabbits and rats. Oral administration caused an increased urinary excretion of glucuronides and ethereal sulphates. There was also an indication of mercapturic acid formation. 2,6-Dichloro-3-hydroxybenzonitrile and its 4-hydroxy analogue were identified as metabolites in the urine. A small amount of the unchanged substance was recovered from the faeces. 2. By using 2,6-dichlorobenzo[(14)C]nitrile the phenolic metabolites were determined quantitatively and some other possible metabolic routes were excluded. 3. Incubation of 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile with enzyme preparations (papain and high-speed supernatant of rat-liver homogenate plus glutathione) gave no indications for a reaction with thiol compounds.. ...
Letrozole, sold under the brand name Femara among others, is an aromatase inhibitor which is used in the treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer after surgery. Letrozole is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of local or metastatic breast cancer that is hormone receptor positive or has an unknown receptor status in postmenopausal women. Tamoxifen is also used to treat hormonally-responsive breast cancer, but it does so by interfering with the estrogen receptor. However, letrozole is effective only in post-menopausal women, in whom estrogen is produced predominantly in peripheral tissues (i.e. in adipose tissue, like that of the breast) and a number of sites in the brain. In pre-menopausal women, the main source of estrogen is from the ovaries not the peripheral tissues, and letrozole is ineffective. In the BIG 1-98 Study, of post-menopausal women with hormonally-responsive breast cancer, letrozole reduced the recurrence of cancer, but did ...
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INDIANAPOLIS, April 24, 2017 /PRNewswire/ - Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) today announced that following a pre-planned interim analysis for MONARCH 3, the trial met its primary endpoint of demonstrating statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, improvement was shown in a key secondary endpoint of objective response rate (ORR). The Phase 3 study evaluated abemaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 and CDK6 inhibitor, in combination with an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole or anastrozole) compared to treatment with an aromatase inhibitor alone in women with hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. Detailed efficacy and safety results will be presented at a medical meeting in the second half of the year.. Today marks another important milestone in our clinical development program for abemaciclib, a drug we believe has the potential to be best in class, said Levi Garraway, ...
The medicine ribociclib (LEE011) may extend progression-free survival when given with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara) in women with metastatic breast cancer, a phase III trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine found.Background and Goals
After surgery, women diagnosed with breast cancer face the risk of the breast cancer coming back (recurrence). Recurrence can happen at any time. But the risk of recurrence is highest during the first 3 years after treatment. To lower the risk of recurrence in postmenopausal women diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer, hormonal therapy usually is prescribed for 5 years after the initial treatment. Treatment that comes after surgery or another initial treatment is called adjuvant therapy.. For years, tamoxifen was the hormonal therapy of choice for women diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer. But in 2005, large clinical studies showed that aromatase inhibitors worked better than tamoxifen to reduce the risk of the cancer coming back in postmenopausal women diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. So aromatase inhibitors - Arimidex (chemical name: anastrozole), Aromasin (chemical name: exemestane), and Femara (chemical name: letrozole) - ...
Palbociclib is a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 that acts by reducing phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor gene Retinoblastoma. When added to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole in a randomized phase II trial for first-line therapy of estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, palbociclib significantly increased progression-free survival compared to letrozole alone (palbociclib + letrozole: 26.1 months (95% CI, 12.7-26.1), letrozole: 7.5 months (95% CI, 5.6-12.6)). Based on these results the drug was recently granted accelerated approval by the FDA, and confirmatory studies are ongoing. Since this drug has a rational target in an oncologic pathway, concurrent biomarker development is of interest. In breast cancer, the most useful predictive biomarkers identified thus far are estrogen receptor and HER2 receptor status, although additional studies are ongoing. In this article, we review the development of palbociclib and its use in treatment of ...
The primary efficacy parameter was the analysis of lumbar spine bone mass density using DEXA scanning. All patients received treatment with vitamin D and calcium. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mass density at 12 months. These findings were mirrored in the secondary efficacy variable of change from baseline in total hip BMD at 12 months. This study provides evidence that the use of bisphosphonates could be considered in the management of possible bone mineral loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer scheduled to be treated with Arimidex.. Paediatric populationArimidex is not indicated for use in children and adolescents. Efficacy has not been established in the paediatric populations studied (see below). The number of children treated was too limited to draw any reliable conclusions on safety. No data on the potential long-term effects of Arimidex treatment in children and adolescents are available (see gyno arimidex for section Program arimidex ...
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effect on the lipid‐profile due to a lack of estrogen as op-posed to tamoxifen which has an agonistic estrogen effect outside of the breast.10 Furthermore, a meta‐analysis from 2008 demonstrated an increase in cardiovascular events in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors compared to tamoxifen,11 and a recent study found that aromatase in- ...
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LETROZOLE THERAPY Limited Benefit of Extended Letrozole Therapy BY CATLIN NALLEY ata from the NSABP B-42 (NRG Oncology) trial was pre-sented at the 2016 San Antonio Best Cancer Symposium that determined an additional 5 years of hormone ther-apy with letrozole following an initial 5 years of aro-matase inhibitor-based adjuvant hormone therapy did not result in statistically signifi cant improvement in disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS) in postmenopausal women with early-stage hor-mone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, we found that, while extended letrozole therapy demonstrated a trend toward improved disease-free survival, the difference was not statisti-cally signifi cant, Terry Mamounas, MD, MPH, Medical Director of the Comprehensive Breast Program at UF Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health and Chair of the NRG Oncology Breast Committee, explained in a press release. Overall survival benefi t with ...
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The analysis presented at AIDS 2016 involved participants in a phase 1 study of long-acting rilpivirine first given to men and women in a single 600- or 1200-mg dose. In a multiple-dose phase of the trial, participants receive 1200 mg of long-acting rilpivirine. A secondary objective of this trial is to determine plasma, cervical, vaginal, and rectal tissue secretion pharmacokinetics after single and multiple intramuscular rilpivirine injections. Assays used to detect rilpivirine had lower quantitation limits of 0.5 ng/mL in plasma, 0.025 ng/sample in fluids, and 0.05 ng/sample in tissue ...
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I had the results of my latest MRI scan yesterday. I have been on hormone therapy - aromatase inhibitor Letrozole - since the end of June. The news is encouraging. The tumour on the right hand side of my pelvis has shrunk so that it is not visible. The tumour on the left has also shrunk, but is still visible. The tumours had beeen pressing on one of my ureters and constricting it, but that has now resolved and the kidney is draining freely. So I dont now need to have a stent inserted to keep it open ...
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From nitriles[edit]. The use of catalytic amounts of ZnCl2 to generate oxazolines from nitriles was first described by Witte ... Mediated Nitrile−Amino Alcohol Coupling and Their Zn(II)-Catalyzed Conversion into Oxazolines". Inorganic Chemistry. 42 (8): ...
Nitriles[edit]. The principle fragmentation mode is the loss of an H-atom (M - 1) from the carbon next to the CN group due to ...
"Nitriles". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_363. Bisschopinck, L ... Schaefer, Fred C.; Peters, Grace A. (1961). "Base-Catalyzed Reaction of Nitriles with Alcohols. A Convenient Route to Imidates ... As a bifunctional compound, trichloroacetonitrile can react at both the trichloromethyl and the nitrile group. The electron- ... The electron-withdrawing effect of the trichloromethyl group activates the nitrile group of trichloroacetonitrile for the ...
A di-nitrile with 3 carbon atoms Glutaronitrile - A di-nitrile with 5 carbon atoms Adiponitrile - A di-nitrile with 6 carbon ... Succinonitrile, also butanedinitrile, is a nitrile, with the formula of C2H4(CN)2. It is a colorless waxy solid which melts at ... "Nitriles". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.). Retrieved 2007-09-10. WebBook page for C4H4N2 CDC - NIOSH ...
"Nitriles". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.). Retrieved 2007-09-10. "Electronic Control Modules (ECU) - ...
It is unstable at room temperature, owing to the incompatibility of the amine nucleophile and the nitrile electrophile. For ... Pollak, Peter; Romeder, Gérard; Hagedorn, Ferdinand; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter (2002). "Nitriles". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
... nitriles >> alkenes Generally the OA-RE mechanism is analogous to that of palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions. One ...
Pollak, Peter; Romeder, Gérard; Hagedorn, Ferdinand; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter (2000). "Nitriles". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
This colourless liquid is the simplest organic nitrile (hydrogen cyanide is a simpler nitrile, but the cyanide anion is not ... "Nitriles". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_363. US 4179462, Olive ... Acetonitrile has a free electron pair at the nitrogen atom, which can form many transition metal nitrile complexes. Being ... The metabolism of acetonitrile is much slower than that of other nitriles, which accounts for its relatively low toxicity. ...
... undergoes many reactions characteristic of nitriles. It can be hydrolyzed to give phenylacetic acid or it can be ... Benzyl cyanide can be produced via Kolbe nitrile synthesis between benzyl chloride and sodium cyanide and by oxidative ... Hiegel, Gene; Lewis, Justin; Bae, Jason (2004). "Conversion of α‐Amino Acids into Nitriles by Oxidative Decarboxylation with ... Berkoff, Charles E.; Rivard, Donald E.; Kirkpatrick, David; Ives, Jeffrey L. (1980). "The Reductive Decyanation of Nitriles by ...
Pollak, Peter; Romeder, Gérard; Hagedorn, Ferdinand; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter (2000). "Nitriles". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
5) Nitriles may be released in rDA reactions of DA adducts of pyrimidines or pyrazines. The resulting highly substituted ... nitriles > methacrylate > maleimides > cyclopentadiene, imines, alkenes > alkynes Because the Diels-Alder reaction exchanges ...
Examples of electron withdrawing groups are halogens (F, Cl); nitriles CN; carbonyls RCOR'; nitro groups NO2. An electron ...
Furthermore nitriles are versatile functional groups. Typically, alkyl nitriles are formed via SN1 or SN2-type cyanation with ... Cyanation of arenes offers access to benzoic acid derivatives, as well as the utility of aryl nitriles themselves in as fine ... Mowry, David T. (1948). "The Preparation of Nitriles". Chemical Reviews. 42 (2): 189-283. doi:10.1021/cr60132a001. ISSN 0009- ... A Practical Method for Aryl Nitrile Synthesis". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 137: 9481. doi:10.1021/jacs.5b06136. ...
glycolonitrile acetone cyanohydrin mandelonitrile Halohydrin David T. Mowry (1948). "The Preparation of Nitriles". Chem. Rev. ... An Efficient Intermediate for the Chemoselective Conversion of Carbonyl Compounds to Nitriles. J. Org. Chem. 1991, 56 (5), 1827 ...
... hydrocyanation of butadiene to a mixture of 2-methyl-butene-3-nitrile (2M3BM) and pentene-3-nitrile (3PN), an isomerization ... 6) Esters, nitriles and other carbonyl derivatives also undergo conjugative hydrocyanation. When alkali metal cyanides are used ... The cycle is completed by the reductive elimination of the nitrile. Lewis acids, such as B(C6H5)3 induce reductive elimination ... Usually the substrate is an alkene and the product is a nitrile. Industrially, hydrocyanation is commonly performed on alkenes ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GTP and H2O, whereas its 3 products are formate, 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine, and diphosphate.. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (diphosphate-forming). Other names in common use include guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase II, and GTP-8-formylhydrolase. This enzyme participates in riboflavin metabolism.. ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate and H2O, whereas its two products are succinate and LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate amidohydrolase. This enzyme is also called N-succinyl-L-alpha,epsilon-diaminopimelic acid deacylase. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis. ...
Nitriles. Hidden categories: *Articles without KEGG source. *Articles without UNII source. *ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata ...
Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class II of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. This protein does not bind DNA directly but through transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. It seems to interact in a multiprotein complex with RbAp48 and HDAC3.[7] Furthermore, HDAC4 is required for TGFbeta1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation.[8] ...
... should not be confused with nitrile hydratase (nitrile hydro-lyase; EC 4.2.1.84) which hydrolyses nitriles to amides ... Nitrilase enzymes (nitrile aminohydrolase; EC 3.5.5.1) catalyse the hydrolysis of nitriles to carboxylic acids and ammonia, ... nitrile hydratase) activity exhibited by nitrilase. That is, amide compounds could also be formed via nitrile hydrolysis. ... Nitrile hydratases are almost invariably co-expressed with an amidase, which converts the amide to the carboxylic acid. ...
With nitrile electrophiles, nucleophilic addition take place by: hydrolysis of a nitrile to form an amide or a carboxylic acid ... the (same) nitrile α-carbon in the Thorpe reaction. The intramolecular version is called the Thorpe-Ziegler reaction. Grignard ... Weiberth, Franz J.; Hall, Stan S. (1986). "Tandem alkylation-reduction of nitriles. Synthesis of branched primary amines". ...
The Ritter reaction proceeds by the electrophilic addition of either a carbenium ion or covalent species to the nitrile. The ... A wide range of nitriles can be used. In particular, formonitrile (hydrogen cyanide) can be used to prepare formamides, which ... Ritter, John J.; Minieri, P. Paul (1948). "A New Reaction of Nitriles. I. Amides from Alkenes and Mononitriles". Journal of the ... Ritter, John J.; Kalish, Joseph (1948). "A New Reaction of Nitriles. II. Synthesis of t-Carbinamines". Journal of the American ...
Via the process of hydrogenation, nitriles are reduced to amines using hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst. Reactions ... LiAlH4 is more commonly employed for the reduction of nitriles on the laboratory scale. Similarly, LiAlH4 reduces amides to ... For example, cuprous cyanide gives the corresponding nitriles: AN 2 + + Y − ⟶ AY + N 2 {\displaystyle {\ce {AN2+ + Y^- -> AY + ... "Tandem alkylation-reduction of nitriles. Synthesis of branched primary amines". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 51 (26): 5338- ...
Magat, Eugene E.; Faris, Burt F.; Reith, John E.; Salisbury, L. Frank (1951-03-01). "Acid-catalyzed Reactions of Nitriles. I. ... The Reaction of Nitriles with Formaldehyde1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 (3): 1028-1031. doi:10.1021/ ...
I. Pyrolytic decomposition to nitriles". J. Org. Chem. 34 (1): 155-157. doi:10.1021/jo00838a034. Taylor, Edward C.; McKillop, ...
Ritter JJ, Kalish J (December 1948). "A new reaction of nitriles; synthesis of t-carbinamines". Journal of the American ...
Magat, Eugene E.; Faris, Burt F.; Reith, John E.; Salisbury, L. Frank (1951-03-01). "Acid-catalyzed Reactions of Nitriles. I. ... The Reaction of Nitriles with Formaldehyde1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 (3): 1028-1031. doi:10.1021/ ... "Acid-catalyzed Reactions of Nitriles. II. Polyamides from Formaldehyde and Dinitriles". Journal of the American Chemical ...
It is a simple aliphatic nitrile. The compound is a colourless, water-soluble liquid. It is used as a solvent and a precursor ... The main industrial route to this nitrile is the hydrogenation of acrylonitrile. It is also prepared by the ammoxidation of ... "Nitriles" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_363 Willhite, ... Calvin C.; Ferm, Vergil H.; Smith, Roger P. (1981). "Teratogenic effects of aliphatic nitriles". Teratology. 23 (3): 317-323. ...
Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Nitriles. ...
Nitrile anions are nitriles lacking a proton at the position α to the nitrile group. They undergo nucleophilic addition and ... Nitrile anions are most often generated through the action of an appropriate base. However, the pKas of nitriles span a wide ... Although nitrile anions are functionally similar to enolates, the extra multiple bond in nitrile anions provides them with a ... Alternative methods to produce nitrile anions include conjugate addition to α,β-unsaturated nitriles, reduction, and ...
Nitrile ylides are isoelectronic with nitrile oxides. Nitrile ylides can be obtained by the addition of electrophilic carbenes ... However, a structure has been determined on a particularly stable nitrile ylide by X-ray crystallography. Another nitrile ylide ... Nitrile ylides react with weak acids like methanol by protonation finally leading to a methoxyimine. Escolano, C.; Duque, M. D ... Nitrile ylides also known as nitrilium ylides, or nitrilium methylides are generally reactive intermediates. With a few ...
... technology is used by 95% of the worlds acrylonitrile and is the worlds largest manufacture of acetonitrile, ... Nouryon and INEOS Nitriles break ground on new facilities in Germany * INEOS announces launch of consultation on the potential ... AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals signs co-operation agreement with INEOS Nitriles to expand chelates production ...
... technology is used by 95% of the worlds acrylonitrile and is the worlds largest manufacture of acetonitrile, ... AkzoNobel Specialty Chemicals signs co-operation agreement with INEOS Nitriles to expand chelates production ...
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Nitrile oxidesEdit. Nitrile oxides have the general structure R−CNO. R. −. C. ≡. N. ⊕. −. O. ⊖. {\displaystyle {\ce {R-C{\equiv ... Nitriles are found in many useful compounds, including methyl cyanoacrylate, used in super glue, and nitrile rubber, a nitrile- ... Nitrilases hydrolyze nitriles to carboxylic acids: RCN + 2 H2O → RCO2H + NH3. Nitrile hydratases are metalloenzymes that ... Alkyl nitriles are sufficiently acidic to form nitrile anions, which alkylate a wide variety of electrophiles.[28] Key to the ...
All the test nitriles liberated cyanide ions both in vivo and in vitro, with the exception... ... Acute toxicity and metabolism of 21 nitriles in mice were studied in relation to their chemical structures. ... All the test nitriles liberated cyanide ions both in vivo and in vitro, with the exception of benzonitrile, although the extent ... Double-reciprocal plots of enzyme activity showed a linear relationship for nitriles of group 1 and a non-linear one for group ...
Nitrile rubber definition is - any of a class of synthetic rubbers that are made by copolymerizing butadiene and acrylonitrile ... Share nitrile rubber Post the Definition of nitrile rubber to Facebook Share the Definition of nitrile rubber on Twitter ... Dictionary Entries near nitrile rubber. nitrifying bacteria nitrifying bacterium nitrile nitrile rubber nitrilo- nitrite ... Comments on nitrile rubber What made you want to look up nitrile rubber? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including ...
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Production of unsaturated nitriles using catalysts promoted with various metals. US4626521 *. Jul 27, 1984. Dec 2, 1986. ... Production of unsaturated nitriles using catalysts containing boron, gallium or indium. US4767878 *. Jul 7, 1986. Aug 30, 1988 ... Process for the production of nitriles from alkenes. US5268497 *. Feb 24, 1992. Dec 7, 1993. The Boc Group, Inc.. Process for ... Method for the preparation of nitriles. US3526675 *. Sep 28, 1967. Sep 1, 1970. Petro Tex Chem Corp. Dehydrogenation of organic ...
Addition reactions of malonic nitriles with alkanethiol in aqueous solution. Prebiotic synthesis of iminothioesters ... and the malonic nitriles which are generally considered as important intermediates in the Chemical Evolution, a kinetic study ... the formation of iminothioester will be discussed in terms of the respective pKa values of the thiol and of the malonic nitrile ...
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Nitrile is chemical resistant and helps dissipate electrostatic charges. Latex, powder, and allergen free. ... HomeStudio and Office SuppliesCleaning Supplies and MaterialsDisposable Gloves and Barrier CreamNitrile Powder-Free Disposable ... Ideal for working with solvents, Nitrile is chemical resistant and helps dissipate electrostatic charges. Latex, powder, and ...
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... method for the determination of vulcanized chloroprene/nitrile rubber (CR/NBR) material. The pyrol... ... method for the determination of vulcanized chloroprene/nitrile rubber (CR/NBR) material. The pyrolysis products of nitrile ... Quantitative analysis of nitrile rubber/chloroprene by pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. *Fuh M ... Fuh, M. R. S., & Wang, G. Y. (1998). Quantitative analysis of nitrile rubber/chloroprene by pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass ...
Heavyweight nitrile apron. Reinforced bib, and all edges turned and hemmed. Ideal for any situation where heavy-duty protective ... Heavyweight Nitrile Laboratory Apron. 2 Items Heavyweight Nitrile Laboratory Apron is rated 4.0 out of 5 by 1. ... Rated 4 out of 5 by Constance from Nitrile Aprons This apron is heavy duty and I expect it will last longer than previous ... Heavyweight nitrile apron. Reinforced bib, and all edges turned and hemmed. Ideal for any situation where heavy-duty protective ...
These nitrile gloves provide excellent protection against solvents, pesticides, oils, grease, acids, or caustics. Flock lined ... These nitrile gloves provide excellent protection against solvents, pesticides, oils, grease, acids, or caustics. ...
MIAMI FL, March 23, 2021 - V12 Health® has successfully launched a new line of Nitrile Medical Exam and TPE gloves. ... V12 Health® Launches New Line of Nitrile Medical Exam Gloves. March 24, 2021. iCrowdNewswire ... V12 Healths new state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities currently produce V12 PISTA, a Royal Blue Nitrile Medical Exam Glove ... The post V12 Health® Launches New Line of Nitrile Medical Exam Gloves appeared first on Financial Market Brief. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
DECKER BD513 has a lightweight polyester shell for high dexterity and great breathability and foam nitrile palm for great grip ... Blue Ladies Foam Nitrile Grip Glove. The BLACK+DECKER BD513 has a lightweight polyester shell for high dexterity and great ... breathability and foam nitrile palm for great grip in wet or dry conditions. ...
... and Industry Roadmap ,, Key Players: JSR Corporation, Kumho ... Global Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Market: Key Insights. The Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber market has grown ... It is also known as highly saturated nitrile. The hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber widely used in automotive industry to ... FactMR conveys vital insights on the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market in its report, entitled "Hydrogenated Nitrile ...
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A nitrile is a chemical compound with a -C=N functional group. ...
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  • V12 Health's new state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities currently produce V12 PISTA , a Royal Blue Nitrile Medical Exam Glove, which conforms with ASTM D6319, and V12 FORZA , a Lavender Nitrile Medical Exam Glove, which is approved for use with chemotherapy drugs and conforms with ASTM D6978. (ipsnews.net)
  • Iselin, NJ - Ansell, a global leader in safety solutions, announces the launch of MICROFLEX MidKnight XTRA, a nitrile exam glove that has been tested against both fentanyl and gastric acid to simulate real-world overdose situations. (policeone.com)
  • These disposable nitrile exam glove s are specially designed for medical use and better resistant to chemicals, oil, acids, and other material. (hoaxbuster.com)
  • If you are interested in a nitrile protective glove then I am pretty sure that The Safety Zone Nitrile Exam Glove will catch your attention. (edcmag.com)
  • I also agree to most of its users who say that this nitrile exam glove delivers incredible sensitivity, proper fit, and superior dexterity, which is good when trying to accomplish fine tasks. (edcmag.com)
  • ChemoPlus™ nitrile gloves are ambidextrous, 8 mil thick, textured at the fingertips and latex-free. (cardinalhealth.com)
  • While only a qualified clinician can diagnose the cause of an allergy or sensitivity, testing has shown that some of these cases involve chemical additives used to manufacture latex, nitrile and chloroprene gloves such as carbamates and thiurams-and rarely Natural Rubber Latex proteins. (prweb.com)
  • For the synthetic rubber product, see Nitrile rubber . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitriles are found in many useful compounds, including methyl cyanoacrylate , used in super glue , and nitrile rubber , a nitrile-containing polymer used in latex-free laboratory and medical gloves . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrile rubber is also widely used as automotive and other seals since it is resistant to fuels and oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • What made you want to look up nitrile rubber ? (merriam-webster.com)
  • This article describes a newly developed pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PY/GC/MS) method for the determination of vulcanized chloroprene/nitrile rubber (CR/NBR) material. (mendeley.com)
  • The pyrolysis products of nitrile rubber and chlorophrene are identified and a reaction mechanism is proposed. (mendeley.com)
  • In terms of revenue share, the global hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market is projected to enlarge at the growth CAGR of 7.6% over the forecast period (2018-2027), owing to abundant factors, about which FMR offers precise insights and forecast in our report. (openpr.com)
  • The global market for Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber was valued at US$ 10,582.4 Mn in 2017. (openpr.com)
  • Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber is the synthetic rubber having retention properties and physical strength after the long term exposure to chemicals, oils and heat. (openpr.com)
  • The hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber widely used in automotive industry to manufacture O-rings for air conditioning system. (openpr.com)
  • Thus, there is a shift towards synthetic rubbers such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber, especially in emerging economies. (openpr.com)
  • Synthetic rubbers find widespread application in high-performance products directly contributing to the growth of the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market. (openpr.com)
  • Current and prospects of the Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber market, containing current as well as future projected values forecast, and analysis on region-wise demand trends have incorporated in the report. (openpr.com)
  • Market valuation at global and regional scale for the Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber is offered in terms of "US$ Mn. (openpr.com)
  • And A Y-o-Y growth comparison on key Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber market segments, along with the market attractiveness assessment quantifies insights delivered in the report. (openpr.com)
  • APEJ is estimated to account for considerable value share in the global Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber market in the year 2017, and the market share in US $ is anticipated to get near about one and half times during the forecast period, 2018-2027. (openpr.com)
  • The continent is steered by the maximum production of Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber and also continue to demand maximum for Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber. (openpr.com)
  • The prominent market players in hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market are concentrating on the extension of their production abilities and vertical integration for business development. (openpr.com)
  • The marketing strategy by manufacturers is expected to contribute for the growth of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market in the forecast period, 2018-2027. (openpr.com)
  • The Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber market has grown consistently at a growth rate of 7.6%, and the market has been escalating at a significant pace. (openpr.com)
  • The growth of the automotive industry and chemical industry impacts the demand for Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber and also increases the market competitiveness. (openpr.com)
  • Nitrile gloves are constructed from synthetic rubber and provide resistance against a number of hazards including oil, grease and chemicals. (screwfix.com)
  • The effects of nonpolymer constituents and antioxidants on the aging behavior of nitrile rubber polymers are discussed. (sae.org)
  • The paper covers experimental work carried out to develop a range of rubbers which are responsive to heat resistant curing systems, the optimization of these systems in terms of antioxidant protection, and the practical use of this type of nitrile rubber in compounding to meet critical specifications. (sae.org)
  • The authors conclude that nitrile rubber polymers produced according to the SP principle offer excellent heat resistance in a variety of curing systems. (sae.org)
  • They're made of thick nitrile rubber, meaning they offer more protection than comparable gloves. (webstaurantstore.com)
  • Nitrile is engineered synthetic rubber, which means they have high resistance to oil, chemical, acid, unlike natural rubber gloves like latex. (hoaxbuster.com)
  • The Small Size Nitrile Gloves consists of Nitrile Rubber. (qualitylogoproducts.com)
  • TMR's recent publication comprises an exhaustive analysis on the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market, where readers can get insightful information pertaining to the key aspects of the HNBR market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The study analyzes the impact of the historical and current trends on the future development of the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market. (bccresearch.com)
  • It sheds light on how the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market will unfold during the forecast period of 2019 to 2027. (bccresearch.com)
  • The hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market report gives readers an overview of the disruptive trends and technological developments brought in by the key players in the HNBR market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market has been analyzed in terms of volume (tons) and revenue (US$ thousand). (bccresearch.com)
  • Through this study on the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market, readers can acquire important qualitative and quantitative details pertaining to the regulatory scenario, investments, and price trends that influence the HNBR market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The report on the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market highlights key the trends in each segment and their impact on market players. (bccresearch.com)
  • It assesses the contribution of each region to the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market's growth. (bccresearch.com)
  • The report provides actionable insights pertaining to the key happenings in the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market in a comprehensible manner. (bccresearch.com)
  • What will be the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market's valuation by the end of the forecast period? (bccresearch.com)
  • What are the key strategies adopted by the big shots in the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market? (bccresearch.com)
  • What factors have helped the automotive segment gain a leading position in the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market? (bccresearch.com)
  • How will the growth of the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market unfold during the forecast period? (bccresearch.com)
  • How will historical trends impact the present and future of the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market? (bccresearch.com)
  • The analysts of the report on the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market have followed a bottom-up and top-down approach to gain exclusive data pertaining to the market's present and future. (bccresearch.com)
  • For primary research on the hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber market, analysts conducted one-to-one interviews with the brand managers, industry leaders, CEOs of leading companies, and key manufacturers. (bccresearch.com)
  • Nitrile Gloves have become the preferred synthetic alternative to natural rubber latex gloves given the durability and protection nitrile gloves provide. (magidglove.com)
  • Nitrile is superior to rubber or neoprene particularly with acids and bases and is also a good option for those with latex allergies. (flinnsci.com)
  • Nitrile is superior to rubber or neoprene, particularly with acids and bases. (flinnsci.com)
  • And since nitrile contains no natural rubber proteins, this glove is the ideal solution for individuals allergic to natural rubber latex. (flinnsci.com)
  • The Cobalt Blue Powder-Free Nitrile Gloves are 100% latex-free and contain no natural rubber proteins. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Nitrile rubber is produced by emulsion polymerization of butadiene and acrylonitrile. (tradekey.com)
  • Compared to natural rubber, nitrile is more resistant to oils and acids while providing superior strength and flexibility. (griotsgarage.com)
  • Powder-free natural rubber and synthetic elastomeric articles, in particular, gloves, having an inner coating of a nitrile rubber with an intermediate layer of a rubber blend comprised of natural or synthetic rubber and nitrile rubber interposed between the nitrile coating and the base glove and their. (google.com)
  • Powder-free natural rubber and synthetic elastomeric articles, in particular, gloves, having an inner coating of a nitrile rubber with an intermediate layer of a rubber blend comprised of natural or synthetic rubber and nitrile rubber interposed between the nitrile coating and the base glove and their method of manufacture are described. (google.com)
  • 1. A powder-free elastomeric glove having an internal surface comprising a first elastomeric layer, a second intermediate layer of a rubber blend comprised of a natural rubber and a nitrile rubber disposed on said first layer and a nitrile rubber coating disposed on said intermediate layer. (google.com)
  • 4. The glove of claim 1 wherein the first elastomeric layer is comprised of nitrile rubber. (google.com)
  • 6. The glove of claim 1 wherein the nitrile rubber coating is comprised of a carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. (google.com)
  • 7. The glove of claim 1 wherein the nitrile rubber in the second intermediate layer is comprised of a carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber having an acrylonitrile content of about 25 to about 40 parts, a butadiene content of about 55 to about 68 parts and a carboxylic acid content of about 3 to about 6 parts. (google.com)
  • 8. The glove of claim 6 wherein the nitrile rubber coating is comprised of a blend of two carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers with different acrylonitrile/butadiene/carboxylic acid ratios. (google.com)
  • SemperForce Black Nitrile Gloves are designed for demanding work environments where safety and comfort are a must. (dickblick.com)
  • These premium black nitrile gloves are ready for all your heavy-duty jobs. (woodcraft.com)
  • Aspen Black Nitrile Gloves are durable strength and examination grade. (revivalanimal.com)
  • 50% thicker than standard nitrile gloves, GlovePlus black nitrile hides dirt, grease, and grime for a professional look. (eastwood.com)
  • One of the nitrile gloves that caught my interest because of all the things it can do is the SAS Safety 66519 Raven Disposable Powder-free Black Nitrile Glove. (edcmag.com)
  • Our black Nitrile Gloves are the best on the market using a double polymer coating, which improves the strength, flexibility, comfort, and durability. (griotsgarage.com)
  • Black Nitrile Gloves Powd. (midwestsupplies.com)
  • Nitrile acid-resistant gloves for lab safety are unlined and have a reinforced cuff. (flinnsci.com)
  • Protect your hands from glue, paint, finishes and more with Venom Steel Heavy-Duty Nitrile Gloves. (woodcraft.com)
  • Browse companies that make Nitrile-Butadiene-Polymer Roofing and view and download their free cad details, revit BIM files, specifications and other content relating to Nitrile-Butadiene-Polymer Roofing as well as other product information formated for the architectural community. (arcat.com)
  • Microflex 5-mil, 10-1/2"L Orange Nitrile Gloves make your hands more visible to others, making them ideal for working around machinery. (gemplers.com)
  • Ammex 8 Mil Heavy-Duty Textured Orange Nitrile Gloves keep your hands clean and protected when doing the toughest jobs. (jamestowndistributors.com)
  • Ideal for working with solvents, Nitrile is chemical resistant and helps dissipate electrostatic charges. (dickblick.com)
  • As they are more puncture resistant than natural material gloves, dispensable varieties of nitrile work gloves are often the preferred choice for use in medical or food preparation environments due to their suitability to higher risk situations. (screwfix.com)
  • Nitrile coated palms are resistant to chemicals and provide a no-slip grip. (homedepot.com)
  • Disposable Nitrile Gloves are Extremely Puncture Resistant and are five-time stronger than disposable latex gloves as they boast the resistance. (hoaxbuster.com)
  • Nitrile thickness: 3 mil. (qualitylogoproducts.com)
  • I found them to be about standard thickness and stretch for a blue nitrile glove, nothing interesting to report there positive or negative. (homedepot.com)
  • As an added bonus, these items are made of nitrile, which means workers and patients with a latex allergy don't need to worry about flare-ups. (webstaurantstore.com)
  • Several professionals even depend on the sturdiness on gloves made of nitrile material, especially if they are exposed to blood-borne pathogens as well as other contaminants in the environment. (edcmag.com)
  • Eagle Protect nitrile gloves tested had surface free energy and transfer characteristics similar to Teflon®, due to quality raw material formulation and manufacturing processes. (scoop.co.nz)
  • This high performance Nitrile material provides superior resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as oil, fuels, and many types of solvents. (garlock.com)
  • What is great about the nitrile material is that it suits various work applications and industries. (edcmag.com)
  • It has a 6-mil nitrile material, making it possible for it to deliver superior comfort and dexterity. (edcmag.com)
  • Nitrile exam gloves are becoming the material of choice for many end users because of its chemical resistance, puncture resistance, comfort, cost-competitiveness and cleanness. (magidglove.com)
  • Highly durable, disposable nitrile gloves are ideal for first aid and household tasks. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Made of 4 mil thick nitrile, these durable gloves keep you from getting enamel (powdered glass) under your fingernails and in the creases of your skin. (rings-things.com)
  • Nitrile Gloves are Hypo-allergenic and are more durable and robust, and can safely withstand many hazards in the medical industry. (hoaxbuster.com)
  • These Aloetouch Powder-Free Nitrile Gloves offer durable protection combined with the moisturizing benefits of aloe. (alimed.com)
  • Coated with nitrile for an impressive mix of strength and comfort, these durable Black Hawk gloves will be a key part of your everyday work gear. (marks.com)
  • Palms and fingers are coated with durable, incredibly thin nitrile for excellent protection without any heavy bulk. (stokeseeds.com)
  • MICROFLEX MidKnight XTRA's soft, flexible nitrile formulation ensures optimal worker comfort, and it is fully textured for a secure and consistent grip. (policeone.com)
  • In addition, MICROFLEX MidKnight XTRA meets or exceeds the NIOSH requirements for handling fentanyl and illicit drugs and complies with EN ISO Type B, EN ISO 374-5 and EN 421 standards. (policeone.com)
  • For more information about MICROFLEX MidKnight XTRA, visit https://www.ansell.com/us/en/products/microflex-midknight-xtra-93-862 . (policeone.com)
  • Henry Schein supplies Soft White Nitrile powder-free examination gloves from Microflex® to customers at the best possible value. (henryschein.com)
  • Soft white nitrile dental exam gloves from Microflex have textured fingertips and are chlorinated. (henryschein.com)
  • This soft and stretchy nitrile glove is the best-selling glove from Microflex ® brand of products. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • When performing light to mid-duty work, Microflex ® FreeForm ® is a nitrile glove that offers reliable protection and a secure grip. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Comfort, style and the distinctive COLOR PURPLE* distinguish SAFESKIN* PURPLE NITRILE* Sterile Singles. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These GEMPLER'S 13 inch L, 15-mil Nitrile Gloves give you excellent protection, plus they're unlined so you can wash and reuse them for added savings. (gemplers.com)
  • Nitriles can be prepared by the dehydration of primary amides . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a related dehydration , secondary amides give nitriles by the von Braun amide degradation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduction of nitriles and amides to the corresponding amines with tetra- n -butylammonium borohydride in dichloromethane has been reported, in which the other functional groups such as ester, nitro, and halogen attached to the aromatic ring are not affected. (erowid.org)
  • The reduction of nitriles and amides to the amines is a very important, but not so easy organic transformation. (erowid.org)
  • The improved methods for the reduction of nitriles 1 and amides 2 with complex metal hydrides have been so far reported. (erowid.org)
  • We wish herein to describe another convenient and efficient method for the reduction of nitriles and amides to the amines with tetra- n -butylammonium borohydride 3-6 in refluxing dichloromethane, in which the chemospecificity of tetra- n -butylammonium borohydride toward organic cyano and amide compounds was observed. (erowid.org)
  • Electron-poor aromatic compounds undergo nucleophilic aromatic substitution in the presence of nitrile anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thick, soft acrylic terry lining gives a cushiony feel while the nitrile double dip, sandy finish black palm and fingers help protect from icy conditions while offering excellent wet and dry grip. (impomag.com)
  • One reason behind this is that the best nitrile work gloves are perfect for tough jobs. (edcmag.com)
  • To gather more information about the best nitrile work gloves, we have compiled ten of the most popular and satisfying products in this industry. (edcmag.com)
  • Organic compounds containing multiple nitrile groups are known as cyanocarbons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inorganic compounds containing the −C≡N group are not called nitriles, but cyanides instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • He coined the name "nitrile" for the newfound substance, which became the name for this group of compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • After oral doses of each nitrile, the time course for cyanide levels in the liver varied among the compounds. (springer.com)
  • In order to evidence new reactions of prebiotic synthesis in aqueous solution between the S-containing compounds, such as alkanethiols, which can be obtained in gaseous phase during the simulation of the evolution of primitive atmosphere, and the malonic nitriles which are generally considered as important intermediates in the Chemical Evolution, a kinetic study on the eventual reactions of ethanethiol with cyanoacetaldehyde and malononitrile has been carried out. (springer.com)
  • Buy nitrile gloves that are disposable, powder and latex free with puncture resistance too. (lloydspharmacy.com)
  • Nitrile gloves offer up to three times better punture resistance than similar latex gloves and are also suitable for people who are allergic to latex. (diseno-art.com)
  • Furthermore, such polymers have an advantage over nitrile polymers produced with stabilizers which function as efficient antioxidants, since this latter type of polymer can detract from aging resistance, depending on the curing system used. (sae.org)
  • Nitrile Gloves have extra and super resistance to chemicals, unlike other gloves. (hoaxbuster.com)
  • Constructed out of nitrile, I can vouch for its great puncture-resistance and chemical-resistance. (edcmag.com)
  • ChemoPlus™ nitrile gloves have been tested for resistance to permeation of chemotherapy drugs and are ideal for chemotherapy compounding, administration, disposal and other actions involving chemotherapy drugs. (cardinalhealth.com)
  • 100% nitrile gloves offer superior resistance to punctures, abrasion, and chemicals. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • In the latter case, competitive addition of the alkyl group to the nitrile takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyanions of nitriles can also be generated by multiple deprotonations, and these species produce polyalkylated products in the presence of alkyl electrophiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • First up: a category of three alkyl nitriles. (edf.org)
  • The alkyl nitriles category is comprised of three chemicals: propionitrile (CAS# 107-12-0), butyronitrile (CAS# 109-74-0), and isobutyronitrile (CAS# 78-82-0). (edf.org)
  • Despite finding both high human health hazard and high potential exposures and therefore risks to workers, EPA considers the alkyl nitriles category to be of low priority. (edf.org)
  • Nitrile is even popular in several professions as a great substitute for latex gloves. (edcmag.com)
  • Considering the fact that it is nitrile-based, it is free of the most common threats and issues linked to latex gloves. (edcmag.com)
  • Ultra-soft and super-flexible nitrile gloves simulate the fit and feel of latex gloves. (enasco.com)
  • Enjoy the high level of barrier protection of nitrile with comfort and tactile sensitivity similar to latex. (alimed.com)
  • KleenGuard Kraken Grip Nitrile Gloves are fully textured gloves that help boost safety and performance by delivering strength and durability, as well as a wet or dry grip. (buildings.com)
  • The BLACK+DECKER BD513 has a lightweight polyester shell for high dexterity and great breathability and foam nitrile palm for great grip in wet or dry conditions. (blackanddecker.com)
  • The company said the glove's textured finger provides an enhanced grip compared to a traditional nitrile glove, calling it an environmentally friendly alternative to latex. (rubbernews.com)
  • These are a heavier gauge than the regular blue nitrile gloves and they have a raised-diamond texture provides powerful grip. (jamestowndistributors.com)
  • These Pac-Kit® powder-free, 100% latex-free, disposable nitrile exam/medical grade gloves in a dispenser box are handy for standalone first aid or as a refill for first aid kits or cabinets in industrial, food service, office, and other workplaces. (grainger.com)
  • 5 mil, 100% nitrile, latex and powder free. (bestbuyuniforms.com)
  • The 6-mil nitrile is tough and safe for most users as it is powder and latex free. (woodcraft.com)
  • Extra Large Disposable Nitrile Gloves are powder free and latex free. (rings-things.com)
  • Aloetouch® Powder-Free 12" Nitrile Exam Gloves provide additional protection for high-risk procedures. (alimed.com)
  • Nitrile gloves keep your hands free from dirt, grime, and most importantly-- harmful chemicals. (jensonusa.com)
  • Nitrile is a great, latex-free alternative for those with allergies. (homedepot.com)
  • The Small Size Nitrile Gloves is available in 1 color. (qualitylogoproducts.com)
  • The Small Size Nitrile Gloves is available in Blue. (qualitylogoproducts.com)
  • The Small Size Nitrile Gloves requires a minimum quantity of 400 pieces. (qualitylogoproducts.com)
  • Best Manufacturing Company Size "XXL" Disposable Nitrile Gloves protect users from all kinds of skin problems and damage when handling chemicals, oils and other dangerous liquids. (staples.com)
  • Reflection Sapphire Sensitive Nitrile Exam Gloves are a comfortable glove option for dental professionals who are sensitive to latex or the chemical additives used in many common dental office products. (prweb.com)
  • 89.99 //cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0073/1797/9225/products/8X797_web01.jpg?v=1564598981 https://gemplers.com/products/gemplers-15-mil-unlined-nitrile-gloves?variant=21291444404313 InStock L 36 pr. (gemplers.com)
  • 2.99 //cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0073/1797/9225/products/727G_01_bf88fa14-9a1c-467c-bea0-9d339c0e83d8.jpg?v=1564598981 https://gemplers.com/products/gemplers-15-mil-unlined-nitrile-gloves?variant=21291444535385 InStock L 1 pr. (gemplers.com)
  • 2.99 //cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0073/1797/9225/products/727G_01_bf88fa14-9a1c-467c-bea0-9d339c0e83d8.jpg?v=1564598981 https://gemplers.com/products/gemplers-15-mil-unlined-nitrile-gloves?variant=21291444633689 InStock XL 1 pr. (gemplers.com)
  • When your lab or facility's workers need protection against moderate to high exposure to fluids or chemicals along with improved instrument control, Kimberly-Clark Textured Blue Nitrile Gloves are an excellent choice. (kcprofessional.com)
  • Chitin-supported ruthenium (Ru/chitin) promotes the hydration of nitriles to carboxamides under aqueous conditions. (rsc.org)
  • Nitrile gloves are disposable gloves which offer superior protection to standard latex disposable gloves. (diseno-art.com)
  • The best nitrile gloves are perfect choices for anyone who is looking for superior protection and performance. (edcmag.com)
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  • [2] Though both nitriles and cyanides can be derived from cyanide salts, most nitriles are not nearly as toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hartung OR (1982) Cyanides and nitriles. (springer.com)
  • DUBLIN, Ohio-Cardinal Health Inc. has launched Flexal Feel Nitrile Exam Gloves, the lightest weight nitrile glove in its portfolio. (rubbernews.com)
  • 3M™ Nitrile High Performance Plastic Adhesive 1099 dries quickly with an open time of approximately 40 minutes. (3m.com)
  • Our 3M™ Nitrile High Performance Plastic Adhesive 1099 bonds to a variety of substrates - primarily leather and most vinyl sheeting as used in awnings, upholstery and faux leather - as well as plastics, for a strong, enduring bond. (3m.com)
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  • 5 MIL NO POWDER BLUE Nitrile Gloves Carton Qty: 1 bx/100 gloves. (bestbuyuniforms.com)
  • The distinctive blue nitrile glove color provides a visual cue if the gloves are used in the wrong place, which can help reduce the risk of cross-contamination. (kcprofessional.com)
  • What I like about these gloves is that they seem to have a little more texture on the palms than other blue nitrile gloves. (homedepot.com)
  • If you're wondering where to buy medium nitrile gloves, we have a large selection of medium nitrile gloves for sale at the lowest prices. (webstaurantstore.com)
  • The cyanohydrins are a special class of nitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrially, the main methods for producing nitriles are ammoxidation and hydrocyanation . (wikipedia.org)
  • This invention relates to the catalytic oxidation of olefins to aldehydes and conjugated dienes and to the catalytic ammoxidation of olefins to nitriles. (google.com)