A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.

Inducible NO synthase: role in cellular signalling. (1/5912)

The discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and its identification as nitric oxide (NO) was one of the most exciting discoveries of biomedical research in the 1980s. Besides its potent vasodilatory effects, NO was found under certain circumstances to be responsible for the killing of microorganisms and tumour cells by activated macrophages and to act as a novel, unconventional type of neurotransmitter. In 1992, Science picked NO as the 'Molecule of the Year', and over the past years NO has become established as a universal intercellular messenger that acutely affects important signalling pathways and, on a more long-term scale, modulates gene expression in target cells. These actions will form the focus of the present review.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (2/5912)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model. (3/5912)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury was studied in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. The inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically detected on hepatocytes around blood vessels in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS not on hepatocytes in mice injected with D-GalN or LPS alone, although mRNA for iNOS was found in those mice. Nitrotyrosine (NT) was also found in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. The localization of NT was consistent with that of iNOS, and the time courses of NT and iNOS expression were almost the same. Expression of iNOS and NT was detected exclusively in the hepatic lesions of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody inhibited iNOS and NT expression and hepatic injury. The results suggested that NO from iNOS may play a role in LPS-induced hepatic injury on D-GalN-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.  (+info)

Gamma interferon stimulates rat alveolar macrophages to kill Pneumocystis carinii by L-arginine- and tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanisms. (4/5912)

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia remains a serious complication for immunocompromised patients. In the present study, P. carinii organisms interacted with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs) to activate the L-arginine-dependent cytocidal pathway involving reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that were assayed as nitrite (NO2-). Unstimulated cultures of AMs produced negligible quantities of RNI. Addition of P. carinii organisms to IFN-gamma-primed AMs resulted in greatly enhanced production of RNI. NO2- levels increased from 0.8 +/- 0.4 to 11.1 +/- 3.8 microM as early as 6 h after P. carinii organisms were incubated with IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs and to 35.1 +/- 8.9 microM after a 24-h incubation, a near-maximum level. High levels of NO2- were produced by AMs primed with as little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml in the presence of P. carinii, and a 20-fold increase in IFN-gamma concentration resulted in only a further 65% increase in NO2- production. RNI-dependent killing of P. carinii was demonstrated by both a 51Cr release assay and a [35S]methionine pulse immunoprecipitation assay. Addition of either monoclonal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing antibody or 200 microM NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NGMMA), a competitive inhibitor of the L-arginine-dependent pathway, significantly decreased NO2- production and reduced P. carinii killing. TNF-alpha alone had no effect on P. carinii viability. These results suggest that (i) the specific interaction of P. carinii organisms with IFN-gamma-primed AMs triggers the production of RNI, (ii) RNI are toxic to P. carinii, and (iii) TNF-alpha likely plays a central role in mediating P. carinii killing by IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs.  (+info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (5/5912)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

Nitric oxide in the endometrium. (6/5912)

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of paracrine interactions, especially within the vascular system. It is a powerful inhibitor of platelet aggregation and a potent vasodilator. NO is also a neurotransmitter and it plays a role in cell-mediated cytotoxicity. NO-generating enzymes (nitric oxide synthases, NOS) have been described in the endometrium of a number of species, suggesting that NO might be involved in endometrial function. In human endometrium, endothelial NOS and inducible NOS have been localized to glandular epithelium in the non-pregnant uterus. Weak inducible NOS immunoreactivity has been observed in decidualized stromal cells. NO might participate in the initiation and control of menstrual bleeding. Furthermore, it may play a part in the inhibition of platelet aggregation within the endometrium, where menstrual haemostasis is thought to occur primarily by vasoconstriction rather than clot organization. Endometrially derived NO could also suppress myometrial contractility. Recent attention has focused on the part that NO might play in maintaining myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. NO also appears to relax the non-pregnant myometrium, an action which could be exploited for the medical treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea.  (+info)

The cerebral metabolic consequences of nitric oxide synthase deficiency: glucose utilization in endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase null mice. (7/5912)

Nitric oxide has multiple physiologic roles in the CNS. Inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis might therefore alter functional activity within the brain. We used [14C]-2-deoxyglucose in vivo autoradiography to measure local CMRglc in "knockout" mice lacking the genes for either the endothelial (eNOS) or neuronal (nNOS) isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, and in the progenitor strains (SV129, C57B1/6). Glucose utilization levels did not significantly differ between nNOS and eNOS knockout mice and C57B1/6 mice in any of the 48 brain regions examined, but were relatively lower in some subcortical regions in SV129 mice.  (+info)

Impairment of neocortical long-term potentiation in mice deficient of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (8/5912)

The role of the possible retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was studied in supragranular layers of somatosensory cortical slices obtained from adult mice. High-frequency stimulation produced a slowly rising, long-lasting (50 min) and significant (P < 0.001) increase in the extracellular synaptic response by 23%. The induction of LTP was independent from activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but prevented by bath application of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), indicating that one or several of the different NO synthases (NOS) produced NO within the postsynaptic neuron. No LTP could be induced in knockout mice lacking the endothelial NOS (eNOS) isoform. These data suggest that eNOS is involved in an NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP in the rodent cerebral cortex.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 92143 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibitory activity against human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoenzyme..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural stem cell transplantation in the stomach rescues gastric function in neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice. AU - Micci, Maria Adelaide. AU - Kahrig, Kristen M.. AU - Simmons, Rochelle S.. AU - Sarna, Sushil K.. AU - Espejo-Navarro, M. Rosario. AU - Pasricha, Pankaj Jay. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - Background & Aims: Nitric oxide is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system. Loss or dysfunction of nitrinergic neurons is associated with serious disruptions of motility, intractable symptoms, and long-term suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intrapyloric transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) on gastric emptying and pyloric function in nNOS-/- mice, a well-established genetic model of gastroparesis. Methods: NSCs were isolated from embryonic mice transgenically engineered to express green fluorescent protein and transplanted into the pylorus of nNOS-/- mice. Grafted cells were visualized in pyloric sections ...
Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Luteal Cell DNA Fragmentation of Porcine Cyclic Corpora Lutea - Nitric Oxide Synthase;Corpora Lutea;Apoptosis;Estrous Cycle;
Purpose: To investigate the effects of loss of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS2) in the healing of an injured corneal stroma in mice. Cell culture experiments were also conducted to clarify the effects of lacking NOS2 on ocular fibroblast gene expression.. Methods: The effect of lacking NOS2 on corneal stroma wound healing following an incision injury was evaluated by using NOS2-null (KO) mice. Histological, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression analyses were performed. Ocular fibroblasts from wild type (WT) and KO mice were used to study the role of NOS2 on fibrogenic gene expression.. Results: Healing of an incision injury in corneal stroma was delayed with less invasion of macrophages and reduction in expression of aSMA and fibronectin in a KO mouse as compared with a WT mouse. In vitro experiments showed that the loss of NOS2 suppressed mRNA expression of TGFb1 and collagen Ia1, but not MCP-1, in ocular fibroblasts. Being inconsistent with the in vivo finding, lacking NOS2 upregulated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapamycin inhibits lipopolysaccharide induction of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in macrophages by reducing the levels of octamer-binding factor-2. AU - Chou, Yuan Yi. AU - Gao, Jhen I.. AU - Chang, Shwu Fen. AU - Chang, Po Yuan. AU - Lu, Shao Chun. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - This article reports an inhibitory effect of rapamycin on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in macrophages and its underlying mechanism. The study arose from an observation that rapamycin inhibited the LPS-induced increase in octamer-binding factor-2 (Oct-2) protein levels through a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. As both iNOS and G-CSF are potential Oct-2 target genes, we tested the effect of rapamycin on their expression and found that it reduced the LPS-induced increase in iNOS and ...
Read Characteristics of nitric oxide synthase type I of rat cerebellar astrocytes, Glia on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
1. Agrawal N, Dasaradhi PV, Mohmmed A, Malhotra P, Bhatnagar RK, Mukherjee SK. RNA interference: biology, mechanism, and applications. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2003;67:657-85 2. Xia XG, Zhou H, Xu Z. Promises and challenges in developing RNAi as a research tool and therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegener Dis. 2005;2:220-31 3. Grimm D, Streetz KL, Jopling CL, Storm TA, Pandey K, Davis CR, Marion P, Salazar F, Kay MA. Fatality in mice due to oversaturation of cellular microRNA/short hairpin RNA pathways. Nature. 2006;441:537-41 4. Xia XG, Zhou H, Xu Z. Multiple shRNAs expressed by an inducible pol II promoter can knock down the expression of multiple target genes. Biotechniques. 2006;41:64-8 5. Lipton P. Ischemic cell death in brain neurons. Physiol Rev. 1999;79:1431-568 6. Zhao X, Ross ME, Iadecola C. L-Arginine increases ischemic injury in wild-type mice but not in iNOS-deficient mice. Brain Res. 2003;966:308-11 7. Garcia-Bonilla L, Moore JM, Racchumi G, Zhou P, Butler JM, Iadecola ...
These studies support the hypothesis that the protective effects of CFA preimmunization require functional NOS2. CFA-preimmunized NOS2 knockout mice fail to be protected from the development of EAE. Wild-type mice protected by CFA demonstrate several alterations in their immune response to MOG that may be relevant to the mechanism of protection. The augmentation of anti-MOG IgG1 titers is likely an epiphenomenon rather than responsible for disease protection, as antibodies are not major effector mechanisms of disease in the MOG peptide model of EAE 26. It is interesting that NOD mice treated with CFA demonstrate an augmented IgG1 response to GAD67, consistent with our observation 27. The NO-dependent inhibition of IL-6 production with CFA treatment is highly significant. IL-6-deficient mice are entirely resistant to MOG-induced EAE 28,29,30. Furthermore, the mice that have been genetically modified to overexpress IL-6 in the CNS develop EAE spontaneously 31. The mechanism by which NO inhibits ...
Exposure to CFA can impair the subsequent expression of autoimmune disease in small rodents. This observation, also referred to as adjuvant immunotherapy, was first described over 40 years ago and found to be dependent on the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within the adjuvant (1). This immunoprotective effect of CFA has been subsequently demonstrated in multiple autoimmune disease models, both spontaneous and induced, and in multiple species, including rats (2)(3)(4)(5), mice (6), and guinea pigs (1)(7)(8). In each case, preimmunization with CFA alone 21-40 d before attempted disease induction by immunization resulted in a decreased incidence and severity of disease (1)(2)(3)(7)(8).. Much of our current understanding of the CFA effect is derived from rodent models of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes mellitus. A single injection of CFA into nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice between the ages of 4 and 12 wk prevents the development of clinical diabetes indefinitely and extends NOD life span ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exogenous and endogenous nitric oxide but not iNOS inhibition improves function and survival of ischemically injured livers. AU - Rivera-Chavez, F. A.. AU - Toledo-Pereyra, L. H.. AU - Dean, R. E.. AU - Crouch, L.. AU - Ward, P. A.. PY - 2001/11/20. Y1 - 2001/11/20. N2 - The role of nitric oxide (NO) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains controversial and few works have shed more information regarding the effect of exogenous (EX) and/or endogenous NO (EN) under conditions of I/R of the liver. We investigated the role of exogenous and endogenous NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibition in liver function, neutrophil infiltration, and animal survival after liver I/R. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to total hepatic ischemia for 90 min using an extracorporeal porto-systemic shunt. The animals were divided into five groups, including the sham porto-systemic shunt with no ischemia, the control ischemic group, the L-arginine-treated group, the sodium ...
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Annoying problems with the specificity of iNOS immunostains have recently been reported.22 The main conclusion was that it is essential to include appropriate controls for the species studied, and if possible, to confirm the immunostaining by another technique such as RT-PCR. Hence, we carefully controlled our iNOS immunostains by using appropriate negative (naïve rabbit carotid artery and omission of the primary antibody) and positive controls as well as RT-PCR.. Previously, the presence of iNOS in the intimal thickening induced by a periarterial collar in the rabbit carotid artery had been reported.13 In that study, a rabbit polyclonal iNOS antiserum (primary antibody) and a donkey anti-rabbit IgG-peroxidase (secondary antibody) were used. However, we found that omitting the primary antibody yielded an identical result. Inthe absence of the primary antibody, the immunoreactivity in the intima can be explained by reaction of the secondary antibody with IgG that has infiltrated into the intima ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Mice deficient in the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), constructed by gene-targeting, were significantly more susceptible to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection, displayed a delayed clearance of virus from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and exhibited an increase in the frequency of virus reactivation in DRG compared with similarly infected heterozygous mice. The infected iNOS-deficient mice developed enhanced Th1-type immune responses and their spleen cells produced higher concentrations of IL-12 than similarly infected heterozygous mice. This finding suggests that iNOS plays an important role in resistance against HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) may block the development of Th1 cells via inhibition of IL-12 synthesis and thereby play a role in immune regulation.
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, lethal disease of childhood. One of 3500 new-born males suffers from this universally-lethal disease. Other than the use of corticosteroids, little is available to affect the relentless progress of the disease, leading many families to use dietary supplements in hopes of reducing the progression or severity of muscle wasting. Arginine is commonly used as a dietary supplement and its use has been reported to have beneficial effects following short-term administration to mdx mice, a genetic model of DMD ...
AR-C 102222 is an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor; selective for iNOS over eNOS (IC50 values are 0.037 and ,100 μM for iNOS and eNOS respectively) and exhibits antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity in rodent pain models. Learn More ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of nitric oxide synthase induction in vascular smooth muscle cells by microtubule depolymerizing agents. AU - Marczin, Nándor. AU - Papapetropoulos, Andreas. AU - Jilling, Tamás. AU - Catravas, John D.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We investigated the role of microtubules in the induction of nitric oxide synthase in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that like interleukin‐1α, lipopolysaccharide elicited a time and concentration‐dependent accumulation of cyclic GMP via induction of nitric oxide synthase. Nocodazole and colchicine, two chemically distinct microtubule depolymerizing agents, completely prevented lipopolysaccharide‐ and interleukin‐induced (and nitric oxide‐mediated) cyclic GMP generation. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide and interleukin‐1α, cyclic GMP accumulation in response to sodium nitroprusside, an exogenous nitrovasodilator, was not altered by either nocodazole or colchicine. Our findings demonstrate that ...
Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Oct DNA motif participates in the alcohol inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene promoter in rat C6 glioma cells. AU - Sanchez, Alma C.. AU - Davis, Randall L.. AU - Syapin, Peter J.. PY - 2007/11/7. Y1 - 2007/11/7. N2 - Induction of nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS) by cytokines and bacterial products is associated with protein binding at the proximal promoter and in an upstream enhancer region of the Nos2 gene. To clarify how ethanol suppresses rat iNOS activity, we constructed several deletion mutants of the Nos2 promoter fused to the luciferase gene and transfected the constructs into C6 glial cells. Acute ethanol exposure of stably transfected cells for 24 h inhibits induced activity of Nos2 promoter constructs containing deletions in the 5′ flanking region, including a 94 bp promoter that lacks any known NF-κB site but which carries a C/EBPβ and overlapping γ-IRE, GAS and Oct motifs. Ethanol failed to inhibit the endogenous activity of a smaller, 78 bp ...
Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and explored its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced DNA binding activity of RelA/p65 was significantly inhibited by chamomile, an effect that was mediated through the inhibition of IKKβ, the upstream kinase regulating NF-κB/Rel activity, and degradation of inhibitory factor-κB. These results demonstrate that chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wogonin but not Nor-wogonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid-induced iNOS gene expression and NO production in macrophages. AU - Huang, Guan Cheng. AU - Chow, Jyh-Ming. AU - Shen, Shing-Chuan. AU - Yang, Liang-Yo. AU - Lin, Cheng-Wei. AU - Chen, Yen-Chou. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Wogonin (Wog; 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxy flavone) has been shown to effectively inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression and nitric oxide production in our previous study. In the present study, we found that Nor-wogonin (N-Wog; 5,7,8-trihydroxyl flavone), a structural analogue of Wog with an OH substitution at C8, performed different effect on LPS- or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced iNOS gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. Wog, but not N-Wog, significantly inhibits LPS- or LTA-induced NO production through suppressing iNOS gene expression at both protein and mRNA without affecting NO donor sodium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloperoxidase up-regulates the catalytic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase by preventing nitric oxide feedback inhibition. AU - Galijasevic, Semira. AU - Saed, Ghassan M.. AU - Diamond, Michael P.. AU - Abu-Soud, Husam M.. PY - 2003/12/9. Y1 - 2003/12/9. N2 - Kinetic and structure analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) revealed that, in addition to the increase of iNOS expression in inflamed areas, the major pathway causing overproduction of NO is destabilization of the iNOS-nitrosyl complex(es) that form during steady-state catalysis. Formation of such a complex allows iNOS to operate at only a fraction (20-30%) of its maximum activity. Thus, bioavailability of NO scavengers at sites of inflammation may play an essential role in up-regulation of the catalytic activity of iNOS, by preventing the catalytic activity inhibition that is attributed to nitrosyl complex formation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major NO scavenger, is a pivotal enzyme involved in ...
PURPOSE: Inducible nitric oxide synthase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic damage, in the angiogenic process and in diabetic vascular damage. This study was undertaken to determine whether inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in the retinas from human subjects with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was an experimental immunohistochemical prospective study. Ten postmortem eyes from five subjects with diabetes mellitus, 10 eyes from five subjects without diabetes and without known ocular disease, and two eyes from one subject with unilateral ocular ischemic syndrome secondary to severe carotid artery obstruction were examined. We used immunohistochemical techniques and antibodies directed against inducible nitric oxide synthase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and vimentin. The main outcome measure was immunoreactivity for these antibodies. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity for inducible nitric oxide synthase was not observed in retinas from all subjects without diabetes ...
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2015 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]. Interferon-γ-Induced Nitric Oxide Synthase-2 Contributes to Blood/Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Acute Mortality in Experimental Streptococcus pneumoniaeMeningitis.. Yau B1, Mitchell AJ1,2, Too LK1, Ball HJ1, Hunt NH1.. Author information. Abstract. The proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recently was shown to play a crucial role in experimental pneumococcal meningitis (PM) pathogenesis, and we aimed in this study to investigate IFNγ-driven nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2)-mediated pathogenesis of murine PM. We demonstrate that costimulation of toll-like receptors and IFNγ receptors was synergistic for NOS2 expression in cultured murine microglia. Using an experimental PM model, wild-type mice treated with anti-IFNγ antibody, as well as IFNγ and NOS2 gene knockout (GKO) mice, were inoculated intracerebroventricularly with 103 colony-forming units of Streptococcus pneumoniae (WU2 strain). Mice were monitored daily ...
DescriptionMacrophage origin and activity is complex in response to acute lung injury. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has a divergent role in the stages following intratracheal bleomycin mediated lung injury (ITB). We hypothesize iNOS is necessary for macrophage activation during the inflammatory and resolution phases that follow ITB. Further, recruited macrophages classically activate during inflammation and resident macrophages alternatively activate during resolution. To test these hypotheses, iNOS was manipulated via scavenge of products, systemic selective iNOS inhibition and chimeric mice in which particular populations were NOS2-/-. C57/BL6 mice were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin and samples collected 8 and 15 days following instillation. This work identified oxidants to promote inflammation during the early stages following ITB. Systemic iNOS inhibition reduced classical activation of recruited macrophages during inflammation and alternative activation of recruited ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lethal prostate cancer (PCa) by studying the iNOS immunoreactivity in tumor tissue from men diagnosed with localized PCa.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is nested within a cohort of men diagnosed with incidental PCa undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort). To investigate molecular determinants of lethal PCa, men who died from PCa (n = 132) were selected as cases; controls (n = 168) comprised men with PCa who survived for at least 10 years without dying from PCa during follow-up. The immunoreactivity of iNOS in prostate tumor epithelial cells and in cells of the surrounding stroma was scored as low/negative, moderate or high. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for lethal PCa according to iNOS category.. RESULTS: There was no association between iNOS immunoreactivity in stroma ...
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of nonylphenol (NP) on the expression of inflammation-related genes in the brains of mice. NP was given orally by gavages at 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/d. The expression of inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting assays. The nitric oxide (NO) level and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were also measured by biochemical analyses. The results showed that NP at a high dose (200 mg/kg/d) significantly increased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in both the hippocampus and cortex. In parallel with the increase in iNOS expression, the NO level was significantly greater at the dose of 200 mg/kg/d, compared to the control. The activity of NOS was also increased in the brain of mice at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/d. These findings demonstrate that NP may have the potential to induce the chronic inflammation or cause
Indirect evidence suggests that estrogen is involved in the etiology of breast cancer. Estrogen is also thought to modulate nitric oxide (NO) in human breast tumor tissue via regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Objectives of this study were to determine whether estradiol (E2) affects iNOS expression level in breast cancer cells and to study the effect of various concentrations of E2 on cell proliferation. Immunocytochemical technique was employed to assess iNOS expression level. Proliferation of parent and 10-6 M tamoxifen resistant cells (T47D/TAMR-6) were assessed by MTT assay in the presence of E2. Addition of E2 (10-12 to 10-8 M) increases the expression of iNOS in parent cells, but not T47D/TAMR-6, Further increase in concentrations of E2 (10-8 to 10-4 M) again decreases the expression of iNOS in parent cells, but increase that of the T47D/TAMR-6 cells. Expression of iNOS in parent cells in a medium containing 1% serum (low serum) is less than the cells grown in a medium
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a primary factor in the etiology of gastric disease and its early pathogenic effects are manifested by up-regulation in proinflammatory cytokine release, enhancement in nitric oxide generation, and amplification of apoptotic events. We applied the animal model of H. pylori -induced gastritis to study the effect of a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), SB 203580, on the mucosal apoptotic processes, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) activity and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Groups of rats were pretreated intragastrically with SB 203580 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or vehicle, followed 60 min later by intragastric application of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide at 50 μg/animal, and after 2 and 4 additional days on the twice daily regimen of SB 203580 or vehicle, the animals were killed and their gastric mucosal tissue subjected to histologic and biochemical assessment. In the absence of SB
BioAssay record AID 735304 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of iNOS-mediated nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated mouse RAW264.7 cells after 24 hrs by Griess reaction analysis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population dynamics of inducible nitric oxide synthase production by LPS- and LPS/IFNgamma-stimulated mouse macrophages. AU - Pace, J. L.. AU - Lowenstein, C. J.. AU - Phillips, T. A.. AU - Chen, L. C.. AU - Morrison, D. C.. AU - Hunt, J. S.. AU - Russell, S. W.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028189509&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028189509&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0028189509. VL - 1. SP - 227. EP - 233. JO - Innate Immunity. JF - Innate Immunity. SN - 1753-4259. IS - 4. ER - ...
Inducible nitric oxide synthase in response to bacterial challenge in nasal tissues of wild type, CX3CR1|sup|+/GFP|/sup| and CX3 CR1|sup|GFP/GFP|/sup| mice
Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) resulting in nitric oxide elevation represents an important component of inflammatory responses. We assess the effects of methylprednisolone (MPL) on these processes during endotoxin-induced acute inflammation and provide a mechanism-based model to
NF-κB is a ubiquitous dimeric transcription factor that exists in the cytosol complexed to an inhibitory κB (IκB) monomer. NF-κB complexes consist most commonly of p50/p65 dimers.26,27 Various stimuli activate NF-κB, leading to its translocation to the nucleus, where it binds to specific DNA binding sites, called κB, present within the promoter region of various genes including COX-2.27 Activation of NF-κB is controlled by site-specific phosphorylation and ubiquitination of IκB proteins.26 Among the known IκB proteins, IκBα and IκBβ have been studied most extensively and are thought to be the key regulators of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Phosphorylation of serine residues at positions 32 and 36 is critical for the ubiquitination and degradation of IκBα.16,28,29. Pharmacological studies have implicated NF-κB as a necessary transcription factor in the development of late PC.1,3,12,30 Unequivocal assessment of the functional contribution of NF-κB to this process, however, has ...
Animal, Base-Sequence, Chromosome-Mapping, Crosses-Genetic, Enzyme-Induction, Genes-Structural, Human, Hybridization, Mice: ge, Mice-Inbred-C57BL, Mice-Inbred-NOD: ge, Molecular-Sequence-Data, Muridae: ge, Rats, Rats-Wistar, SUPPORT-NON-U-S-GOVT, SUPPORT-U-S-GOVT-P-H-S. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokines and innate immunity of fish. AU - Secombes, C J. AU - Wang, T. AU - Hong, S. AU - Peddie, S. AU - Crampe, M. AU - Laing, K J. AU - Cunningham, C. AU - Zou, J. AU - Wang, Tiehui. PY - 2001/10. Y1 - 2001/10. KW - interleukin-1 beta. KW - tumor necrosis factor alpha. KW - chemokines. KW - cyclooxygenase. KW - nitric oxide synthase. KW - trout oncorhynchus-mykiss. KW - nitric-oxide synthase. KW - molecular-cloning. KW - chemokine receptors. KW - Japanese flounder. KW - expression. KW - interleukin-1-beta. KW - gene. KW - homolog. KW - organization. KW - Animals, Chemokines, Cytokines, Fishes, Humans, Interleukin-1, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II, Phylogeny, Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. U2 - 10.1016/S0145-305X(01)00032-5. DO - 10.1016/S0145-305X(01)00032-5. M3 - Article. C2 - 11602192. VL - 25. SP - 713. EP - 723. JO - Developmental and Comparative Immunology. JF - Developmental and Comparative Immunology. SN - ...
Here we demonstrated that aging increased iNOS expression, leading to insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle through the S-nitrosation mechanism. Genetic, pharmacological, and physiological iNOS inhibition reduced IRβ, IRS-1, and Akt S-nitrosation and increased insulin signaling in old mice. Our results reinforce the idea that iNOS plays a crucial role in inducing insulin resistance, as previously shown in different animal models such as diet-, lipopolysaccharide-, and lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance (3,13,15,16).. In contrast to our data, Cha et al. (17) reported that iNOS deficiency does not prevent age-associated insulin resistance. In contrast to the previous study, we did not observe an increase in TNF-α expression in the skeletal muscle of aged iNOS-null mice compared with the aged wild-type group; these data were confirmed by analyzing IKKβ phosphorylation. In accordance with our data, a previous study showed iNOS knockout mice were protected from insulin resistance ...
Rationale: We have previously shown that innate immunity is necessary for transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to endothelial cells. A major signaling molecule involved in innate immunity is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Accordingly, we hypothesized that iNOS-generated nitric oxide (NO) might enhance transdifferentiation. Objective: To elucidate the role of NO in epigenetic plasticity during transdifferentiation. Methods and Results: We exposed the BJ fibroblasts to transdifferentiation formulation that included endothelial growth factors and innate immune activator polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC) to induce endothelial cells (iECs). Generation of iECs was associated with iNOS expression and NO elaboration. In absence of PIC, or in presence of antagonists of NFκB or iNOS activity, NO synthesis and iEC generation was reduced. Furthermore, genetic knockout (in MEFs) or siRNA knockdown (in BJ fibroblasts) of iNOS nearly abolished transdifferentiation, an effect which could be ...
A novel role of interleukin-1-converting enzyme in cytokine-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression: Implications for neuroinflammatory disease
Neuroglia;Astrocytes;Microglia;Inflammation;AMP-Activated Protein Kinases;AICA ribonucleotide;NF-kappa B;Cytokines;Macrophages, Peritoneal;Cells, Cultured;Rats, Sprague-Dawley;Models, Animal;Nitric Oxide Synthase;Nitric Oxide Synthase Type ...
Neuroglia;Astrocytes;Microglia;Inflammation;AMP-Activated Protein Kinases;AICA ribonucleotide;NF-kappa B;Cytokines;Macrophages, Peritoneal;Cells, Cultured;Rats, Sprague-Dawley;Models, Animal;Nitric Oxide Synthase;Nitric Oxide Synthase Type ...
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Essential hypertension is a proinflammatory, proconstrictor disease coinciding with endothelial dysfunction and inward vessel remodeling. Using the skin circulation, our aim was to determine whether inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upregulation attenuate
M. avium TMC724 (originally obtained from the Trudeau Institute) was passaged in C57BL/6 mice and cultured in Middlebrook 7H9 (Difco) medium supplemented with oleic acid, albumin, dextrose, and catalase (Becton Dickinson) to a late logarithmic phase. Aliquots were frozen at -70°C until needed. An inoculum of bacteria was prepared by thawing several aliquots, washing them by centrifugation at 16,000 g for 15 min, and pooling the pellets in distilled water. Aerogenic infection was performed in a Glas-Col aerosol infection device (Glas-Col). Mice were exposed for 40 min to an aerosol generated by nebulizing ∼5.5 ml of a suspension containing 109 CFU/ml M. avium TMC724. Inoculum size (∼105 CFU/lung) was checked 24 h after infection by determining the bacterial load in the lungs of infected mice. Mice were scored as moribund and killed when weight loss was in excess of 30% compared with age-matched uninfected controls. Groups of 4-6 mice were anaesthetized and killed at indicated time points to ...
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Nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are increased in thyroid tumors from children and adolescents. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2002 ...
目的研究人工合成的植物雌激素-依普拉芬对去卵巢大鼠骨密度及生物力学的影响;同时与雌激素对照,探讨其骨保护效果及NO调控作用机制。方法60只6月龄SD雌性大鼠,随机分成6组:假手术组和手术切除大鼠双侧卵巢组,后者分为阴性对照组、依普拉芬低、中Selleck、高剂量组和雌激素对照组,分别给予基础饲料和不同剂量受试物,12周后进行骨密度、血清NO及NOS浓度测定;免疫组化方法检测股骨NOS表达。结果与假手术组相比,去卵巢大鼠阴性对照组股骨密度、生物力学指标和血清NO、eNOS浓度以及股骨eNOS表达明显降低,血清iNOS浓度以及股骨iNOS表达增加,依普拉芬组骨密度、生物力学指标血清NO、eNOS浓度以及股骨eNOS表达均高于阴性对照组,与假手术组差异无显著意义。同时低于雌激素组。. ...
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In the present study, we investigated the effect of tetraarsenic oxide (As4O6, 2,4,6,8,9,10-Hexaoxa-1,3,5,7-tetraarsatricyclo[3.3… Expand ...
വിവരങ്ങൾ ക്രിയേറ്റീവ് കോമൺസ് ആട്രിബ്യൂഷൻ-ഷെയർഎലൈക്ക് അനുമതിപത്ര പ്രകാരം ലഭ്യമാണ്; മേൽ നിബന്ധനകൾ ഉണ്ടായേക്കാം. കൂടുതൽ വിവരങ്ങൾക്ക് ഉപയോഗനിബന്ധനകൾ കാണുക ...
"Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and arginase-1 by type 1/type 2 cytokines in vivo: granulomatous pathology ... Trypanosoma cruzi-infected macrophages are defective in class II antigen presentation,' both from theUniversity of Washington. ... She has a MSc entitled 'Interleukin-2 production by transgenic Trypanosoma cruzi : molecular and biochemical characterization' ...
Jia Z, Zhang X, Kang S, Wu Y (2013). "Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes ... eNOS is a dimer containing two identical monomers of 134 kD constituted by a reductase domain, which displays binding sites for ... "The polymorphism for endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene, the level of nitric oxide and the risk for pre-eclampsia: a meta- ... "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and the risk of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Genetic ...
... nitric oxide synthase and neuropeptide-y. Recently, two types of neuropeptide-y expressing GABAergic interneurons have been ... Medium spiny neurons have two primary phenotypes (i.e., characteristic types): D1-type MSNs of the direct pathway and D2-type ... which have two primary phenotypes: "indirect" MSNs that express D2-type receptors and "direct" MSNs that express D1-type ... Two others comprise the output to the thalamus, forming two separate channels: one through the internal segment of the globus ...
2007). "Regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and sodium pump in type 1 diabetes". Med. Hypotheses 69 (2): 302-6. ... II". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (48): 30322-5. PMID 8939990. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.48.30322.. ... 2007). "Insulin-like growth factor type I biology and targeting in malignant gliomas". Neuroscience 145 (3): 795-811. PMID ... Sandhu MS (2005). "Insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease: molecular epidemiology ...
negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity. • negative regulation of mast cell activation. • cannabinoid signaling ... Oddi S, Spagnuolo P, Bari M, D'Agostino A, Maccarrone M (2007). "Differential modulation of type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid ... The cannabinoid receptor type 2, abbreviated as CB2, is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that ... from various donor types". In Friedman H, Klein TW, Madden JJ. Neuroimmune Circuits, Drugs of Abuse, and Infectious Diseases. ...
Nitric oxide synthase 2A, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Endothelin receptor type B, PDGFRB, PDGFRA, PTGS2, TRAF2, Estrogen ... By using alternative initiation codons in the same reading frame, two isoforms (alpha and beta) are encoded by a single ... García-Cardeña, G; Fan R; Stern D F; Liu J; Sessa W C (November 1996). "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is regulated by ... "Caveolin-1 down-regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase via the proteasome pathway in human colon carcinoma cells". Proc. ...
Regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and sodium pump in type 1 diabetes. Med. Hypotheses. 2007, 69 (2): 302-6. ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac ... Insulin-like growth factor type I biology and targeting in malignant gliomas. Neuroscience. 2007, 145 (3): 795-811. PMID ... Insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease: molecular epidemiology. Endocrine ...
... inducible nitric oxide synthase, proinflammatory nitric oxide (NO), and anti-apoptotic factors. Epidemiological studies have ... type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome X". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 17 (5): 350-64. doi:10.1016/S0889-1591(03)00048-5. ... plays a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial dysfunction as it inactivates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, ... The effect on vascular endothelium may eventually be mediated by the arsenic-induced formation of nitric oxide. It was ...
The enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase produces nitric oxide from arginine in endothelial cells. Argininosuccinate ... defects that cause incorrect localization of argininosuccinate synthetase to the outer mitochondrial membrane cause type II ... a byproduct of nitric oxide production, into arginine. Since nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule, this role of ASS ... a novel argininosuccinate synthase site at serine 328 during calcium-dependent stimulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase ...
... collagen type 1 A2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin receptor A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor. Mutations ... hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome types II and IV. Specific genes have also had reported ... Generally, about two-thirds of patients have a poor outcome, death, or permanent disability. The prevalence of intracranial ... Generally patients with Hunt and Hess grade I and II hemorrhage on admission to the emergency room and patients who are younger ...
Akt also contributes to angiogenesis by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which increases production of ... This has been linked to a range of diseases such as cancer and type II diabetes. A major antagonist of PI3K activity is PTEN ( ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is phosphorylated at Ser1177, leading to NO synthesis and endothelial cell migration. ... There are multiple types of phosphoinositide 3-kinase but only class I are responsible for lipid phosphorylation in response to ...
"Effect of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase on chronic tension-type headache: a randomised crossover trial". Lancet. 353 ( ... At least two of the following four characteristics: bilateral location pressing or tightening (non-pulsating) quality mild or ... The sensitization of pain pathways may be caused by or associated with activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the ... Recent studies of nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms suggest that NO may play a key role in the pathophysiology of CTTH. ...
... consuming two ATP equivalents. Citrulline can be derived from multiple sources: from arginine itself via nitric oxide synthase ... This is demonstrated by the fact that, in many cell types, NO synthesis can be supported to some extent by citrulline, and not ... Andrew PJ, Mayer B (Aug 1999). "Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases". (review). Cardiovascular Research. 43 (3): 521- ... It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), making it important in the regulation of blood pressure. Arginine's ...
Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). "Nitric oxide synthase regulatory sites. Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain (CAMKIIα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2A ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylates various types of non-epithelial intermediate filament proteins". Biochem ... Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. CAMK2A has been shown to interact with: ...
2002). "Protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase interacts with protein kinase A inhibitors". Brain Res. Mol. Brain ... 1999). "PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I". J. ... 1994). "Glutamic acid 203 of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit participates in the inhibition by two isoforms ... 99 (2): 145-9. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(02)00104-3. PMID 11978406. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ...
The rate-limiting step for the production of nitric oxide may well be the availability of L-arginine in some cell types. This ... The FMN binding domain is homologous to flavodoxins, and the two domain fragment containing the FAD and NADPH binding sites is ... Biological functions of nitric oxide Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) Nitric oxide synthase 2 (inducible) PDB: 3N5P​; ... Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L- ...
Other immune factors found in the testis include the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and its product nitric ... Bauché F, Stéphan JP, Touzalin AM, Jégou B (1995). "In vitro regulation of an inducible-type NO synthase in the rat ... There are two lines of evidence that restriction of mast cell activation in the testis could be beneficial during treatment of ... O'Bryan MK, Schlatt S, Gerdprasert O, Phillips DJ, de Kretser DM, Hedger MP (2000). "Inducible nitric oxide synthase in the rat ...
Schepens J, Cuppen E, Wieringa B, Hendriks W (Jun 1997). "The neuronal nitric oxide synthase PDZ motif binds to -G(D,E)XV* ... Yasugi T, Vidal M, Sakai H, Howley PM, Benson JD (Aug 1997). "Two classes of human papillomavirus type 16 E1 mutants suggest ... "Two classes of proteins dependent on either the presence or absence of thyroid hormone for interaction with the thyroid hormone ... "Identification of cyclophilin A as a CD99-binding protein by yeast two-hybrid screening". Immunology Letters. 95 (2): 155-9. ...
... role of nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and nox family nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. Basic & Clinical ... 2002). "Impaired NO-dependent vasodilation in patients with type II (non-insulin-dependent) by acute administration diabetes ... Association of type 1 diabetes vs type 2 diabetes diagnosed during childhood and adolescence with complications during teenage ... Ketoacidosis is much more common in type 1 diabetes than type 2. Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma (HNS) is an acute complication ...
... type I (IL1R1), also known as CD121a (C lustre of D ifferentiation 121a), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ... and co-edited two multi-authored books on pharmacogenomics and the biology of depression. Wong and Licinio have two adult ... "Inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the brain during systemic inflammation". Nature Medicine. 2 (5): 581-584. ... Licinio, J.; Wong, M.-L. (March 1994). "Localization of interleukin 1 type I receptor mRNA in rat brain". Neuroimmunomodulation ...
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process. • neuroinflammatory response. • negative regulation of ... IFNγ is the only Type II interferon and it is serologically distinct from Type I interferons; it is acid-labile, while the type ... Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.[5] The ... IFNγ, or type II interferon, is a cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral, some bacterial and ...
P. multistriata was found to uniquely encode nitric oxide synthase. Pseudo-nitzschia species can be found in coastal regions ... Upon mixing two strains of compatible mating type and of appropriate cell size for sexualization, cells align side by side and ... Sequencing of Three Pseudo-nitzschia Species Reveals Comparable Gene Sets and the Presence of Nitric Oxide Synthase Genes in ... suggesting that vegetative division is inhibited when the two strains of opposite mating type come in contact. Pseudo-nitzschia ...
In humans, nitric oxide is produced from L-arginine by three enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS): inducible (iNOS), ... Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous molecule produced by certain cell types in an inflammatory response. The fraction of exhaled NO ... endothelial (eNOS), and neuronal (nNOS). The latter two are constantly active in endothelial cells and neurons respectively, ... September 2004). "Epithelial inducible nitric oxide synthase activity is the major determinant of nitric oxide concentration in ...
... the expression of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzymes leading to augmented production of nitric oxide. ... In addition, it has been demonstrated that ACE inhibitors decrease Ang (1-7) expression whereas Angiotensin II receptor type 1 ... upregulates cardiac nitric oxide synthase in spontaneously hypertensive rats". AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 299 (4): ... In blood vessels, Ang (1-7) induces the release of vasodilators such as prostanoids and nitric oxide. ...
... arginase II) and comparison of its induction with nitric oxide synthase in a murine macrophage-like cell line". FEBS Letters. ... it is thought to play a role in nitric oxide and polyamine metabolism. Transcript variants of the type II gene resulting from ... At least two isoforms of mammalian arginase exists (types I and II, this enzyme) which differ in their tissue distribution, ... Arginase, type II is an arginase protein that in humans is encoded by the ARG2 gene. Arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of ...
Liu J, Sessa WC (1994). "Identification of covalently bound amino-terminal myristic acid in endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... Lee PP, Linial ML (1994). "Efficient particle formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Zhou W, Resh MD (1997). "Differential membrane binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein". J. Virol. 70 ... "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein ...
These transcription factors cause the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) ... and intermediate types, while not affecting early neuronal type cells; suggesting ethanol treatment alters the precursor cell ... One of the proposed mechanisms for alcohol's neurotoxicity is the production of nitric oxide (NO), yet other studies have found ... Blanco Am, V. S. S.; Vallés, S. L.; Pascual, M.; Guerri, C. (2005). "Involvement of TLR4/type I IL-1 receptor signaling in the ...
A type (Kv4.3; Shal-related subfamily, member 3) voltage-gated potassium channels Nitric oxide synthase TRPC5 channel Ric8a Frq ... NCS-1 also contains at least two known protein binding domains, and a large surface exposed hydrophobic crevice containing EF- ... The designation 'NCS-1' came from the assumption that the protein was expressed only in neuronal cell types, which is not the ... type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this activity is inhibited by lithium - a drug used for the treatment ...
Nitric oxide Granule neurons have high levels of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. This enzyme is dependent on the ... There are two types of excitatory inputs received by GABAergic granule cells; those activated by an AMPA receptor and those ... Each granule cell is receiving an input from two different mossy fibre inputs. The input is thus coming from two different ... The principal cell type of the dentate gyrus is the granule cell. The dentate granule cell has an elliptical cell body with a ...
Formation of Donors of Nitric and Nitrous Oxides and Possible Relevance to Nitrous Oxide Formation by Nitric Oxide Synthase". ... "Contribution of different vegetable types to exogenous nitrate and nitrite exposure". Food Chemistry. 120 (4): 960-966. doi: ... Nitric Oxide. 2 (4): 270-86. doi:10.1006/niox.1998.0187. PMID 9851368.. ... Southan, G; Srinivasan, A (1998). "Nitrogen Oxides and Hydroxyguanidines: ...
Corpas FJ, Barroso JB, del Río LA (Apr 2001). "Peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signal ... A peroxisome (IPA: [pɛɜˈɹɒksɪˌsoʊm])[1] is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.[2 ... Two common examples are X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and peroxisome biogenesis disorders.[16][17] ... and nitric oxide (•NO) radicals.[10][11] The peroxisome of plant cells is polarised when fighting fungal penetration. Infection ...
Corpas FJ, Barroso JB, del Río LA (Apr 2001). "Peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signal ... Types[edit]. General[edit]. Irwin Fridovich and Joe McCord at Duke University discovered the enzymatic activity of superoxide ... holo SOD1 unfolds by a two-state mechanism: from dimer to two unfolded monomers.[24] In chemical denaturation experiments, holo ... Isopenicillin N synthase. *Columbamine oxidase. *Reticuline oxidase. *Sulochrin oxidase *(+)-bisdechlorogeodin-forming. *(-)- ...
The generation of animals that lack both Endothelium Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1, a protein that ... C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been shown to exert a variety of cardiovascular effects including vasodilation and ... There are two general pathways that explain EDH. *Diffusible factors are endothelium-derived substances that are able to pass ... Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of arteries, increased evidence for the role of another ...
Activation of CB1 enhances AMT activity through increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and subsequent increase of NO ... dependent modulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors in nerve cells". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 81 (2): 275-283. doi: ... Others: 2-PG (directly potentiates activity of 2-AG at CB1 receptor) ... The endocannabinoids (anandamide, AEA, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG) on the other hand, are non-charged lipids that readily ...
... superoxide is often produced with nitric oxide. In the presence of nitric oxide, the reduction of cytochrome c3+ is inhibited.[ ... protein phosphatase type 2A complex. • mitochondrion. • mitochondrial inner membrane. • respiratory chain. • nucleus. • ... Class II includes the highspin cytochrome c'. It has the heme-attachment site close to the N terminus of histidine. ... an intermediate made through the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide.[36] Presence of peroxynitrite, H2O2, or nitrogen ...
Exposure of red blood cells to physiological levels of shear stress activates nitric oxide synthase and export of nitric oxide, ... The blood type (A, B, AB, or O) or the blood product is identified. This relates to the presence of antigens on the cell's ... Two drops of blood are shown with a bright red oxygenated drop on the left and a deoxygenated drop on the right. ... 2006). "Red blood cells express a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Blood. 107 (7): 2943-51. doi:10.1182/blood- ...
... of GAD autoantibodies to animals increases the excitability of motoneurons and impairs the production of nitric oxide (NO), a ... In mammals, GAD exists in two isoforms with molecular weights of 67 and 65 kDa (GAD67 and GAD65), which are encoded by two ... Both GAD67 and GAD65 are targets of autoantibodies in people who later develop type 1 diabetes mellitus or latent autoimmune ... "Diamyd announces completion of type 1 diabetes vaccine trial with long term efficacy demonstrated at 30 months". Press Release ...
"Nitric oxide and cardiovascular effects: new insights in the role of nitric oxide for the management of osteoarthritis". ... Types[edit]. Kidney[edit]. Renovascular hypertension[edit]. It has two main causes: fibromuscular dysplasia and atherosclerosis ... the Gene mutated will result in an aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive, which is normally not.[22][23][24][25][26] GRA ... It seems that inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis may also play a role in cortisol induced hypertension.[21] ...
"Nos2 - Nitric Oxide Synthase". Uniprot.org. Uniprot Consortium. Retrieved 10 February 2015.. ... Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, catalyzed ... which is then further oxidized to citrulline concomitant with release of nitric oxide. ... 6 (2): 181-191. doi:10.1177/2050640617737632. PMC 5833233. PMID 29511548.. *^ Crenn, P.; et al. (2000). "Post-absorptive plasma ...
... collagen type 1 A2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin receptor A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor. Mutations ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome types II and IV.. Specific genes have also had reported association with the development of intracranial ... Generally, about two-thirds of patients have a poor outcome, death, or permanent disability.[12][31][32] ... Currently there are two treatment options for securing intracranial aneurysms: surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. If ...
... role of inducible nitric oxide synthase". Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 57 Suppl 5 (5): 125-36. PMID 17218764.. ... At least two different types of cyclooxygenases, COX-1 and COX-2, are acted on by aspirin. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits COX-1 ... The form II is only stable at 100 K and reverts to form I at ambient temperature. In the (unambiguous) form I, two salicylic ... "15-epi-lipoxin A4-mediated induction of nitric oxide explains how aspirin inhibits acute inflammation". The Journal of ...
Water-soluble derivatives of C60 were discovered to exert an inhibition on the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, with ... 60 molecule has two bond lengths. The 6:6 ring bonds (between two hexagons) can be considered "double bonds" and are shorter ... 60 forms a brownish solid with an optical absorption threshold at ≈1.6 eV.[34] It is an n-type semiconductor with a low ... Alexandru D.P. Papoiu: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by water-soluble derivatives of C60. PhD dissertation, Rutgers ...
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. • ... A peculiarity first recognized in 2006 is the expression of TLR2 on Tregs (a type of T cell), which experience both TCR- ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • apoptotic process. • response to lipopolysaccharide. • ... nitric oxide metabolic process. • response to fatty acid. • leukotriene metabolic process. • toll-like receptor 2 signaling ...
Further, our studies established the dependence of the central CB1R-mediated pressor response on neuronal nitric oxide synthase ... Two of the most commonly noted functions of orexin peptides in the lateral hypothalamus are the promotion of feeding behavior ... mediated destruction of these neurons in analogy with the autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting β-islet cells in type I ... and with the two orexigenic peptides, melanin-concentrating hormone in the lateral hypothalamus and with pre-pro-orexin in the ...
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (endothelial NOS). *Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3). *Angiotensin converting enzyme ... This type of frictional stress is caused by the movement of viscous fluid (i.e. blood) along the lumen boundary. Another ... but through mediation of shear stress-induced nitric oxide release. Another protective function throughout the cardiovascular ... The glycocalyx is a type of identifier that the body uses to distinguish between its own healthy cells and transplanted tissues ...
Nitric oxide synthase *NOS1. *NOS2. *NOS3. *Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. *Methane monooxygenase ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • social organism behavior. • cellular response to manganese ion. • response to ether ... Phosphorylation at Ser19 causes a two-fold increase of activity, through a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3 proteins.[31] ... Tyrosine hydroxylase from rat showing two of its domains, the tetramerization domain (pink) and the catalytic domain (blue). ...
Ascorbic acid attenuates aspirin-induced gastric damage: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006,. ... 抑制 II、VII(英語:Factor VII)、IX(英語:Factor IX)、X(英語:Factor X)) ... Loder, E; Rizzoli, P. Tension-type headache. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2008-01-12, 336 (7635): 88-92. PMC 2190284. PMID ... 血栓素合成酶抑制劑(英語:Thromboxane synthase inhibitors)(雙嘧達莫、吡考他胺(英語:Picotamide)) · 受體拮抗劑
Kir channels are involved in regulation of nitric oxide synthase. kidneys. Kir export surplus potassium into collecting tubules ... To date, seven subfamilies have been identified in various mammalian cell types,[1] plants,[2] and bacteria.[3] They are the ... KirBac1.1, from Burkholderia pseudomallei, is 333 amino acyl residues (aas) long with two N-terminal TMSs flanking a P-loop ( ... This type of inward-rectifier channel is distinct from delayed rectifier K+ channels, which help repolarize nerve and muscle ...
Nitric oxide prodrugs (e.g., alkyl nitrites (poppers)). *NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., DXM, ketamine, methoxetamine, nitrous ... It is a chiral molecule and thus has two potential configurations, as (R)- and (S)-enantiomers.[13] ... on Respiration of Heart and Brain Mitochondria from Animals Exposed to Stress against the Background of Inducible NO-Synthase ... P-type-selective: ω-Agatoxin IVA. *ω-Agatoxin IVB. *R-type-selective: SNX-482 ...
2008). "Association of a 27-bp repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene with ... Butler J.M. (2005). Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers, Second Edition. New York: Elsevier ... 1991), and of the Auschwitz concentration camp doctor Josef Mengele who escaped to South America following World War II ( ... In Ewing's sarcoma (a type of painful bone cancer in young humans), a point mutation has created an extended GGAA ...
... and is activated primarily by the binding of nitric oxide (NO) to that heme.[5] sGC is primary receptor for nitric oxide (NO) a ... Types[edit]. There are membrane-bound (type 1, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor) and soluble (type 2, soluble guanylate ... Indirect/downstream NO modulators: ACE inhibitors/AT-II receptor antagonists (e.g., captopril, losartan) ... 4-cyclodiphosphate synthase. *Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase ...
The intensity of the stains for TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) of the myocardium was greater in patients with ... Braunwald's, Heart Disease A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Volume II, 1793-1805. Bijl M, Dieleman JP, Simoons M, et al. ... The most common type of HIV induced cardiomyopathy is dilated cardiomyopathy also known as eccentric ventricular hypertrophy ... Negative inotropic effects of cytokines on the heart mediated by nitric oxide. Science 1992;257:387-9. Yokohama T, Vaca L, ...
McGinn K, Reichert M (January 2016). "A Comparison of Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Inhaled Epoprostenol for Acute Pulmonary ... IP stimulates one or more of three types of G protein complexes, depending on cell type: a) Gs alpha subunit-Gβγ complexes ... Two other synonymous SNP variants, V53V and S328S, in PTGIR in an Italian population study were associated with enhanced ... Prostacyclin synthase, in their airway epithelial cells were protected against lung injury in this model.[6] ...
... and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 83 (1-2): 153-9. doi: ... The cause of the rapid widespread acceptance of Celebrex and Vioxx by physicians was the publication of two large trials, the ... Two of the metabolites of COX-2, prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) and A1 (PGA1), when present in high quantities bind to p53 in the ... encodes a novel prostaglandin synthase/cyclooxygenase homologue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (20): 12866-72. PMID ...
... lipoxygenase or inducible nitric oxide synthase, and to modify intracellular signaling pathways in immune cells, or in brain ... The main type of flavonoids consumed in the EU and USA were flavan-3-ols, mainly from tea, while intake of other flavonoids was ... Two apparent exceptions are gastric carcinoma and smoking-related cancers. Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with reduced ... Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes". Biotechnology Journal. 2 (10): 1235-49. doi:10.1002/ ...
Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation. *Methylidyne radical. *Nitric oxide. *Nitrogen (molecular) ... In the liver of vertebrates, glycine synthesis is catalyzed by glycine synthase (also called glycine cleavage enzyme). This ... In the second pathway, glycine is degraded in two steps. The first step is the reverse of glycine biosynthesis from serine with ... In the US, glycine is typically sold in two grades: United States Pharmacopeia ("USP"), and technical grade. USP grade sales ...
Purpose: To investigate the effects of loss of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS2) in the healing of an injured corneal stroma ... Impaired Wound Healing In Corneal Stroma Of A Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II -deficient Mouse ... Impaired Wound Healing In Corneal Stroma Of A Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II -deficient Mouse ... Impaired Wound Healing In Corneal Stroma Of A Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II -deficient Mouse. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ...
"Characteristics of nitric oxide synthase type I of rat cerebellar astrocytes, Glia" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... Characteristics of nitric oxide synthase type I of rat cerebellar astrocytes. Characteristics of nitric oxide synthase type I ... Characteristics of nitric oxide synthase type I of rat cerebellar astrocytes. Arbonés, Maria Lourdes; Ribera, Joan; Agulló, ... "Characteristics of nitric oxide synthase type I of rat cerebellar astrocytes." Glia 18.3 (1996): 224-232.. Reference Managers ...
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III ...
Does type II nitric oxide synthase expression correlate with cellular proliferation in oral squamous cell carcinoma and ... This study investigated whether type II nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression correlated with cell proliferation in oral ... Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated both in tumor progression and inhibition. ...
The lowest mRNA expression levels of nitric oxide synthase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 genes were noted in the sixth week of ... results suggest that the presence of low mycotoxin doses in feed slows down the mRNA expression of both nitric oxide synthase ... which probably lowers the concentrations of nitric oxide, a common precursor of inflammation. ... low doses of mycotoxins leads to changes in the mRNA expression levels of nitric oxide synthase-1 and nitric oxide synthase-2 ...
Inhibitory effect of IGF-I on type 2 nitric oxide synthase expression in Ins-1 cells and protection against activation- ... Inhibitory effect of IGF-I on type 2 nitric oxide synthase expression in Ins-1 cells and protection against activation- ... Inhibitory effect of IGF-I on type 2 nitric oxide synthase expression in Ins-1 cells and protection against activation- ... Inhibitory effect of IGF-I on type 2 nitric oxide synthase expression in Ins-1 cells and protection against activation- ...
Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits G12/13 and Rho-Kinase Activated by the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor. Implication ... Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits G12/13 and Rho-Kinase Activated by the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor ... Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits G12/13 and Rho-Kinase Activated by the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor ... Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits G12/13 and Rho-Kinase Activated by the Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor ...
... we aimed to test hypotheses of synergy between the common endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Asp298 allele and T2DM in ... Given the role of nitric oxide in the vascular system, ... Compared to wild-type non-diabetic subjects, all patients with ... Endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in atherosclerotic progression and cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes ... Metzger IF, Sertorio JT, Tanus-Santos JE: Modulation of nitric oxide formation by endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene ...
... and nitric oxide levels, as well as higher HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) values than the double wild-type homozygotes, ... The two- and three-loci haplotype analysis showed that there is a statistically significant association between the eNOS ... The D298 and IVS18 + 27C alleles, but not the IVS23 + 10G--,T variant, were significantly more frequent in type 2 diabetic ... To evaluate whether eNOS gene variants are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we evaluated polymorphisms ...
Nitric oxide is known to be an important inflamm ... Nitric oxide synthase type-II is synthesized by human gingival ... Nitric oxide synthase type-II is synthesized by human gingival tissue and cultured human gingival fibroblasts.. Authors * ... inflamed and non-inflamed specimens of human gingivae was studied using a monoclonal antibody against nitric oxide synthase II ... Nitric oxide is known to be an important inflammatory mediator, and is implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of ...
2017 Dec;15(2):431-436. doi: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.05.001. Epub 2017 Jun 1. ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene is responsible for the bioavailability of nitric oxide and endothelial function. ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (T786C and G894T) polymorphisms in Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes.. Moguib O1, ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (T786C and G894T) polymorphisms in Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes ...
... our appreciation of the diverse roles of nitric oxide (NO) continues to grow. Recent findings have not only expanded our ... understanding of the mechanisms controlling the expression of NO synthases (NOS) in innate and adaptiv … ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics * Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / immunology* ... Nitric oxide synthase in innate and adaptive immunity: an update Trends Immunol. 2015 Mar;36(3):161-78. doi: 10.1016/j.it. ...
... in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but not with T2DM. However, no previous study has analyzed combinations of ... Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been associated with the development of diabetic ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase Glu298Asp, 4b/a, and T-786C polymorphisms in type 2 diabetic retinopathy. Ezzidi I, Mtiraoui ... Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotype and Haplotype Are Not Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetes Type 2 ...
Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase type II, Nitric oxide synthase type III, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine. ... Role of nitric oxide synthase types II and III in early protection against endotoxin-induced lung injury: DISCUSSION (part 3). ... Role of nitric oxide synthase types II and III in early protection against endotoxin-induced lung injury: RESULT (part 7) ... Role of nitric oxide synthase types II and III in early protection against endotoxin-induced lung injury: RESULT (part 9) ...
II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen expression.s profile, publications, research topics, and ... Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria. II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen ... Nitric Oxide * Nitric Oxide Synthase * Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II * Tumor Cells, Cultured ... Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria. ...
Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator molecule, is produced from L-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase 4a/b polymorphism and its interaction with G894T variants in type 2 diabetes mellitus: ... Patients and Methods: This study conducted on 45 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and 15 healthy subjects serving as a ...
Background: Nephropathy is the most important leading cause of end stage renal failure in type 2 diabetic patients, so numerous ... Correlation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (GG, TT and GT genotype) with proteinuria and retinopathy in ... Correlation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (GG, TT and GT genotype) with proteinuria and retinopathy in ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthetase gene polymorphism was evaluated in the case and control groups. Results: There was no ...
... the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS 1), the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, or NOS 2) and the endothelial ... 1.5 Nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cardiovascular function 1.5.1 Overview of NO and NOS In 1980, Furchgott ... 9 1.5 Nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cardiovascular function ................9 1.5.1 Overview of NO and NOS ... 2008 ii ABSTRACT Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and oxidative stress have been shown to be associated ...
Nitric Oxide Synthase. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. Mice, Inbred MRL lpr. Arthritis. Inflammation. Glomerulonephritis. ... Clinical and serologic manifestations of autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice lacking nitric oxide synthase type 2 ... Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of the inflammatory response. MRL-Ipr/lpr mice overexpress inducible nitric oxide ... Add tags for Clinical and serologic manifestations of autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice lacking nitric oxide synthase type ...
Supplemental material for Ablation of angiotensin type 2 receptor prevents endothelial nitric oxide synthase glutathionylation ... endothelial nitric oxide synthase peripheral arterial disease vascular endothelial growth factor ... supplementary_table - Supplemental material for Ablation of angiotensin type 2 receptor prevents endothelial nitric oxide ... Supplemental material, supplementary_table for Ablation of angiotensin type 2 receptor prevents endothelial nitric oxide ...
Spinal Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II Increases Neurosteroid-metabolizing Cytochrome P450c1 Spinal Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , ... Here we determined whether oxidative stress induced by the spinal activation of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS-II) ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Language: English Journal: Experimental Neurobiology Year: 2019 Type: Article ...
Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria: II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen ... Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria: II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen ... Systemic nitric oxide production in human malaria: II. Analysis of mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 antigen ... the NO synthases (NOS), each isoform of which is encoded by a separate gene. Two NOS isoforms are calcium-dependent and ...
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / antagonists & inhibitors * Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / drug effects ... and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Jan- ... and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental ... Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, ...
... is primarily attributable to constitutive expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene. Although a more ... Nitric Oxide Synthase / genetics*. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III. Plasmids. Promoter Regions, ... EC 1.14.13.39/Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39/Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39/Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III ... Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is primarily attributable to constitutive expression of the endothelial nitric oxide ...
Using the skin circulation, our aim was to determine whether inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upregulation attenuate ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism*. Nitroprusside / pharmacology. Reference Values. Regional Blood Flow / drug effects ... 169D1260KM/Nitroprusside; EC 1.14.13.39/Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; V55S2QJN2X/NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester ... Upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase contributes to attenuated cutaneous vasodilation in essential hypertensive ...
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II • North Carolina • Obesity • Orbit • Orthopedics • Osteoarthritis • Osteoarthritis, Knee • ... Type II • Reference Values • Regression Analysis • Risk Assessment • Risk Factors • Self Concept • Self Disclosure • Self ... Pt 2 (January, 2019) [doi] [abs] *Fabre, A-C; Granatosky, MC; Hanna, JB; Schmitt, D, Do forelimb shape and peak forces co-vary ... 2 (February, 2019), pp. 300-306 [doi] [abs] *Granatosky, MC; Schmitt, D; Hanna, J, Comparison of spatiotemporal gait ...
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II • North Carolina • Obesity • Orbit • Orthopedics • Osteoarthritis • Osteoarthritis, Knee • ... Type II • Reference Values • Regression Analysis • Risk Assessment • Risk Factors • Self Concept • Self Disclosure • Self ... Granatosky, MC; Schmitt, D, Forelimb and hind limb loading patterns during below branch quadrupedal locomotion in the two-toed ...
Effects of age and parasitemia on nitric oxide production/leukocyte nitric oxide synthase type 2 expression in asymptomatic, ... Two models were chosen for study, the CD1 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (NOS2-/-) mice. Infection of CD1 ... Nitric oxide, malaria, and anemia: inverse relationship between nitric oxide production and hemoglobin concentration in ... Nitric oxide (NO) decreases erythropoiesis, and it is likely an important mediator of anemia of chronic disease. Production of ...
Nitric oxide synthase type II; Occupational exposure; Parkinsonian disorders; Welding ... Inducible nitric oxide synthase, coded by NOS2, is involved in inflammation, and particulate exposure increases the genes ... Inducible nitric oxide synthase gene methylation and parkinsonism in manganese-exposed welders. ... Inflammation mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase may possibly contribute to the association between welding fume and ...
Budesonide treatment and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in colonic mucosa in collagenous colitis. Bonderup ... Bach, U., Jensen, H. N., Rasmussen, H. H., Fallingborg, J. & Holst, M., 2014, In: Food and Nutrition Sciences. 5, 2, p. 1945- ... 2, p. 433-439 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review ... Supplement 2, p. 117-118. Research output: Contribution to journal › Conference abstract in journal › Research › peer-review ...
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II). ... xido N trico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo. Obesidade/gen tica. ... There are two CD200 variants; truncated CD200 that lacks the part of N-terminal sequence necessary for CD200R binding (CD200S) ... In particular, multiple subsets of dendritic cells expressing CD11c, MHC class II, CD8, and/or CD103 were more abundant in C6-S ... All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The expression of Immunoscore-like metagenes was statistically significantly ...
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II); EC 1.14.14.1 (Aromatase); EC 1.15.1.1 (Superoxide Dismutase); GAN16C9B8O (Glutathione). ... Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB ... Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde ... 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Benzoquinones); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (Protective Agents); 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide); 490-91-5 (thymoquinone ...
  • We investigated the role of exogenous and endogenous NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibition in liver function, neutrophil infiltration, and animal survival after liver I/R. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to total hepatic ischemia for 90 min using an extracorporeal porto-systemic shunt. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of nitric oxide (NO) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains controversial and few works have shed more information regarding the effect of exogenous (EX) and/or endogenous NO (EN) under conditions of I/R of the liver. (elsevier.com)
  • There are many types of epilepsies, with diverse aetiologies, and many therapies that target ion channels as a means to combat neuronal hyper-excitability. (ubc.ca)
  • Challenge of Ins-1 cells, a rat beta-pancreatic cell line, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) promoted the expression of type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) in a cooperative way. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the localization and distribution of endothelial NOS (NOS-II) in human gingival tissue, and to ascertain if human gingival fibroblasts express NOS-II when stimulated with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (mysciencework.com)
  • The studies presented herein show that a broad spectrum of antimalarial drugs augmented the replication of SFV in mice, concomitant with greater tissue damage and up-regulation of mRNA levels of various inflammatory cytokine genes, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), II-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma inducing factor. (ajtmh.org)
  • Novel cell type-specific antiviral mechanism of interferon gamma action in macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma-induced pulmonary inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure of mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increases nitric oxide (NO) production, which is proposed to play a role in the resulting pulmonary damage and inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Lack of association between polymorphisms of catalase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), extracellular SOD and endothelial nitric oxide synthase genes and macroangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase haplotypes affect the susceptibility to hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (cdc.gov)
  • The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. (hindawi.com)
  • Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. (creative-biogene.com)
  • This enzyme is one of three isoforms that synthesize nitric oxide (NO), a small gaseous and lipophilic molecule that participates in several biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimerization of two oxygenase domains allows electrons to transfer from the flavins to the heme irons, which enables O 2 binding and NO synthesis from L-arginine. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of separate and combined administration of arginine and aminoguanidine were investigated by comparing plasma levels of arginine, expressions of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 in liver and lung, and nitrite + nitrate (NOx) excretion in urine, as well as neuroendocrine responses in urine in the early phase of sepsis. (elsevier.com)
  • Endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in atherosclerotic progression and cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes and the insulin resistance syndrome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (T786C and G894T) polymorphisms in Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic factors play important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients and Methods: This study conducted on 45 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and 15 healthy subjects serving as a control group. (journalcra.com)
  • AIMS: One-third of males with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have hypogonadism, characterized by low total and free testosterone concentrations. (bireme.br)
  • Evidence of increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk associated with potatoes consumption is equivocal. (magiran.com)
  • In this study, we investigated whether/how in aortas from ob/ob mice (a model of type 2 diabetes) GRK2 and β-arrestin 2 might regulate insulin-induced signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, and impaired endothelial function has been described in diabetic humans and animal models of this disease ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We discuss the functions of AMPK in different tissues and their relationship to type 2 diabetes. (intechopen.com)
  • AMPK substrates in different subcellular organelles and compartments are described, and we speculate how the localized action of AMPK could help to control type 2 diabetes. (intechopen.com)
  • Our review concludes with future directions that are based on the compartment-specific action of AMPK to develop new therapeutic strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. (intechopen.com)
  • Moreover, as essential regulator of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, AMPK has become an important therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes and obesity. (intechopen.com)
  • these drugs are used for therapeutic intervention in type 2 diabetes and lead to the activation of AMPK. (intechopen.com)
  • AMPK controls the physiology of multiple organs which are critical to type 2 diabetes, obesity and other metabolic diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un conjunto de enfermedades de gran prevalencia en la actualidad. (isciii.es)
  • Para ello se describen las diversas alteraciones funcionales y estructurales encontradas en el sistema digestivo tanto en el hombre como en diversos modelos animales de diabetes. (isciii.es)
  • The different types of diabetes display a hyperglycemic state that at high levels produces polyuria, polyfagia and polydipsia. (isciii.es)
  • Activation of RAGE is a significant pathogenetic mechanism for the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. (wiley.com)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthetase gene polymorphism was evaluated in the case and control groups. (ac.ir)
  • https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2. (ac.ir)
  • In the instant invention, rho GTPase function inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • Here, we describe a novel hybrid strategy that combines the pharmacokinetically promising thiophene-2-carboximidamide fragment and structural features of our previously reported potent and selective aminopyridine inhibitors. (rcsb.org)
  • We revealed that all the mouse Reg genes constitute a multigene family, Reg family, which consists of three subtypes (type I,II and III), and that all the Reg genes assigned to the adjacent site of chromosome 6C/D. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Two pathways lead to the delocalization of NF-κB dimers to the nucleus and consequent transcriptional regulation of target genes ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: Implications for endothelial injury from nitric oxide and Superoxide. (springer.com)
  • The term "ROI" refers to intermediate reduction products of O 2 en route to water, namely, superoxide (O 2⨪ ) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and hydroxyl radical (OH⋅), and reactive products of these with halides and amines. (pnas.org)
  • Macrophages have the opportunity to produce superoxide (O 2⨪ ) and nitric oxide ( ⋅ NO) in nearly equimolar amounts and thus can be prolific generators of their joint and particularly destructive product, peroxynitrite (OONO − ) (see Fig. 1 legend) ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and arginase-1 by type 1/type 2 cytokines in vivo: granulomatous pathology is shaped by the pattern of L-arginine metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings were paralleled by blunted nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced Salmonella ROS perception. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) ( 1 ) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) ( 2 ) can damage DNA and several chemical moieties on which its propagation and protection depend, including Fe-S clusters, tyrosyl radicals, hemes, sulfhydryls, thioethers, and alkenes. (pnas.org)
  • Nitric oxide is a reactive free radical which acts as a biologic mediator in several processes, including neurotransmission and antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. (creative-biogene.com)
  • This entry was posted in Lung injury and tagged 1-Amino-2-hydroxy-guanidine , Endotoxic shock , NG-nitro-L-arginine , Nitric oxide , Nitric oxide synthase type II , Nitric oxide synthase type III , S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine . (polaros.com)
  • As described in Chapter 42, niric oxide (NO) is synthesized from the amino acid l-arginine by the actions of a family of enymes, the NO synthases (NOS), each isoform of which is encoded by a separate gene. (edu.au)
  • The free radical nitric oxide (·NO) is the major form of the endothelial-derived relaxing factor that is enzymatically synthesized from arginine oxidation by an NADPH-dependent nitric oxide synthase. (springer.com)
  • Nitric oxide synthase enzymes catalyze the formation of nitric oxide from L-arginine through an NADPH- and oxygen-dependent mechanism. (thermofisher.com)
  • 2 L-arginine + 3 NADPH + 4 O 2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + 3 NADP + + 4 H 2 O. (uniprot.org)
  • After analyzing the data, it was clear that the effect of l -arginine persisted throughout the washout periods ( Tables 1 and 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the first visit, after baseline measurements were made each subject rubbed active cream (4 mg l -arginine/cm 2 ) into one foot and vehicle into the other. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: Inflammation mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase may possibly contribute to the association between welding fume and parkinsonism, but requires verification in a longitudinal study. (cdc.gov)
  • T-2 toxin induced skin inflammation and cutaneous injury in mice. (curehunter.com)
  • We investigated the biochemical and histological alterations behind inflammation and cutaneous injury caused by T-2 toxin . (curehunter.com)
  • All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Two of the major antimicrobial mechanisms of activated macrophages depend on the synthesis of inorganic radical gasses by immunologically regulated flavocytochrome complexes that use NADPH to reduce molecular oxygen. (rupress.org)
  • 2.Reg I deficient mice showed no morphological changes in various tissues including pancreatic beta cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Ala (G93A) mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) develop severe MN disease, oxidative and nitrative damage, and mitochondrial pathology that appears to involve nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • In combination, the contribution of these two enzymes appears to be greater than previously appreciated. (pnas.org)
  • 1-3 Importantly, in addition to vasoconstriction induced by AngII, other pathological effects of AngII such as induction of growth and migration are blocked by nitric oxide (NO) in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • Microscopic examination under the higher magnification revealed that pulmonary vessels were filled with positive-stained cells, which may suggest that the cellular source of NOS-II in early endotoxemia is the infiltrating cells rather than induction of NOS-II in the lung parenchyma. (polaros.com)
  • Induction of nitric oxide synthase mRNA expresson. (springer.com)
  • Induction of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase gene by intratracheal instillation of silica, coal, titanium-dioxide and carbonyl iron. (cdc.gov)
  • Kinetics of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production and formation of peroxynitrite during the respiratory burst of human neutrophils. (springer.com)
  • Nitric oxide-mediated protection of endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide is mediated by intracellular zinc and glutathione. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Compared to wild-type non-diabetic subjects, all patients with T2DM had a significantly increased risk of AMI regardless of genotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lane 2-8: 7 samples with the T/C genotype. (cdc.gov)
  • We observed a good association between the intronic 4 mutant a/b genotype and the combined Framingham risk factor score in our subjects (χ 2 = 3.2, P = 0.07). (springer.com)
  • Objective: We investigated endothelial dysfunction and the role of angiotensin (Ang)-II type I (AT1-R) and type II (AT2-R) receptor in the changes in the Ang-II sensitivity in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. (rug.nl)
  • Nitric oxide decreases cytokine-induced endothelial activation. (springer.com)
  • The endothelium does not demonstrate microscopical damage, 2 but immunohistochemical staining suggests endothelial activation 3 and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. (bmj.com)
  • Insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. (hindawi.com)
  • It is likely that this low NO bioavailability contributes directly to insulin resistance [ 2 , 4 ], potentially via disrupted lipid handling, increased fat mass, and/or decreased glucose delivery [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Improvement in pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia during nitric oxide inhalation in a patient with end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. (springer.com)
  • Chen, K , Northington, F & Martin, LJ 2010, ' Inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in motor neuron mitochondria and Schwann cells and contributes to disease mechanisms in ALS mice ', Brain Structure and Function , vol. 214, no. 2-3, pp. 219-234. (elsevier.com)
  • PDF] Circulating blood endothelial nitric oxide synthase contributes to the regulation of systemic blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most recent advances have moreover recognized that the complicity of all types of glial and inflammatory cells at both peripheral and central level indeed contributes to endangering and compromising the motor neuron function [9,10]. (thefreelibrary.com)