An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
The act of BREATHING out.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.1.20.
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.

Inducible NO synthase: role in cellular signalling. (1/10638)

The discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and its identification as nitric oxide (NO) was one of the most exciting discoveries of biomedical research in the 1980s. Besides its potent vasodilatory effects, NO was found under certain circumstances to be responsible for the killing of microorganisms and tumour cells by activated macrophages and to act as a novel, unconventional type of neurotransmitter. In 1992, Science picked NO as the 'Molecule of the Year', and over the past years NO has become established as a universal intercellular messenger that acutely affects important signalling pathways and, on a more long-term scale, modulates gene expression in target cells. These actions will form the focus of the present review.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/10638)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (3/10638)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model. (4/10638)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury was studied in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. The inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically detected on hepatocytes around blood vessels in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS not on hepatocytes in mice injected with D-GalN or LPS alone, although mRNA for iNOS was found in those mice. Nitrotyrosine (NT) was also found in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. The localization of NT was consistent with that of iNOS, and the time courses of NT and iNOS expression were almost the same. Expression of iNOS and NT was detected exclusively in the hepatic lesions of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody inhibited iNOS and NT expression and hepatic injury. The results suggested that NO from iNOS may play a role in LPS-induced hepatic injury on D-GalN-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.  (+info)

Gamma interferon stimulates rat alveolar macrophages to kill Pneumocystis carinii by L-arginine- and tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanisms. (5/10638)

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia remains a serious complication for immunocompromised patients. In the present study, P. carinii organisms interacted with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs) to activate the L-arginine-dependent cytocidal pathway involving reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that were assayed as nitrite (NO2-). Unstimulated cultures of AMs produced negligible quantities of RNI. Addition of P. carinii organisms to IFN-gamma-primed AMs resulted in greatly enhanced production of RNI. NO2- levels increased from 0.8 +/- 0.4 to 11.1 +/- 3.8 microM as early as 6 h after P. carinii organisms were incubated with IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs and to 35.1 +/- 8.9 microM after a 24-h incubation, a near-maximum level. High levels of NO2- were produced by AMs primed with as little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml in the presence of P. carinii, and a 20-fold increase in IFN-gamma concentration resulted in only a further 65% increase in NO2- production. RNI-dependent killing of P. carinii was demonstrated by both a 51Cr release assay and a [35S]methionine pulse immunoprecipitation assay. Addition of either monoclonal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing antibody or 200 microM NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NGMMA), a competitive inhibitor of the L-arginine-dependent pathway, significantly decreased NO2- production and reduced P. carinii killing. TNF-alpha alone had no effect on P. carinii viability. These results suggest that (i) the specific interaction of P. carinii organisms with IFN-gamma-primed AMs triggers the production of RNI, (ii) RNI are toxic to P. carinii, and (iii) TNF-alpha likely plays a central role in mediating P. carinii killing by IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs.  (+info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (6/10638)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase. (7/10638)

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle is activated by vigorous exercise and ischaemic stress. Under these conditions AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase causing increased oxidation of fatty acids. Here we show that AMPK co-immunoprecipitates with cardiac endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylates Ser-1177 in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) to activate eNOS both in vitro and during ischaemia in rat hearts. In the absence of Ca2+-calmodulin, AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS at Thr-495 in the CaM-binding sequence, resulting in inhibition of eNOS activity but Thr-495 phosphorylation is unchanged during ischaemia. Phosphorylation of eNOS by the AMPK in endothelial cells and myocytes provides a further regulatory link between metabolic stress and cardiovascular function.  (+info)

The stimulatory effects of Hofmeister ions on the activities of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Apparent substrate inhibition by l-arginine is overcome in the presence of protein-destabilizing agents. (8/10638)

A variety of monovalent anions and cations were effective in stimulating both calcium ion/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-independent NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of, and Ca2+/CaM-dependent nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis by, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The efficacy of the ions in stimulating both activities could be correlated, in general, with their efficacy in precipitating or stabilizing certain proteins, an order referred to as the Hofmeister ion series. In the hemoglobin capture assay, used for measurement of NO. production, apparent substrate inhibition by L-arginine was almost completely reversed by the addition of sodium perchlorate (NaClO4), one of the more effective protein-destabilizing agents tested. Examination of this phenomenon by the assay of L-arginine conversion to L-citrulline revealed that the stimulatory effect of NaClO4 on the reaction was observed only in the presence of oxyhemoglobin or superoxide anion (generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase), both scavengers of NO. Spectrophotometric examination of nNOS revealed that the addition of NaClO4 and a superoxide-generating system, but neither alone, prevented the increase of heme absorption at 436 nm, which has been attributed to the nitrosyl complex. The data are consistent with the release of autoinhibitory NO. coordinated to the prosthetic group of nNOS, which, in conjunction with an NO. scavenger, causes stimulation of the reaction.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution and function of recombinant endothelial nitric oxide synthase in transplanted hearts. AU - Yap, J.. AU - OBrien, T.. AU - Pellegrini, C.. AU - Barber, D. A.. AU - Tazelaar, H. D.. AU - Severson, S. R.. AU - Miller, V. M.. AU - McGregor, C. G.A.. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - Introducing recombinant genes into donor hearts may offer a therapeutic intervention that could potentially attenuate the complications of heart transplantation, including rejection, infection and accelerated atherosclerosis. In the cardiovascular system, reduced bioactivity of endothelial nitric oxide is a feature of atherosclerosis and vascular injury. Nitric oxide is an arterial vasodilator that also inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and platelet aggregation. Experiments were designed to determine the distribution of adenoviral-mediated transfer of recombinant endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and the effect of recombinant gene expression on the function ...
A new use for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is provided. In the instant invention, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity through a mechanism other than preventing the formation of oxidative-LDL. As a result, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are useful in treating or preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase. Such conditions include pulmonary hypertension, ischemic stroke, impotence, heart failure, hypoxia-induced conditions, insulin deficiency, progressive renal disease, gastric or esophageal motility syndrome, etc. Subjects thought to benefit mostly from such treatments include nonhyperlipidemics and nonhypercholesterolemics, but not necessarily exclude hyperlipidemics and hypercholesterolemics.
A use for rho GTPase function inhibitors is provided. In the instant invention, rho GTPase function inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. As a result, rho GTPase function inhibitors are useful in treating or preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase. Such conditions include pulmonary hypertension, ischemic stroke, impotence, heart failure, hypoxia-induced conditions, insulin deficiency, progressive renal disease, gastric or esophageal motility syndrome, etc. Subjects thought to benefit mostly from such treatments include nonhyperlipidemics and nonhypercholesterolemics, but do not necessarily exclude hyperlipidemics and hypercholesterolemics.
Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) is expressed constitutively, although it might be induced. Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiological regulator of mitochondrial respiration. Melatonin prevents mitochondrial oxidative damage and inhibits iNOS expression induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The loss of melatonin with age may be related to the age-dependent mitochondrial damage. Thus, we examined the protective role of melatonin against the effects of LPS on mtNOS and on respiratory complexes activity in liver and lung mitochondria from young and old rats. The activity of mtNOS in control lung was low and did not change with age. LPS administration (10 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased mtNOS expression and activity and NO production in lung mitochondria, and the effect was greater in old rats. LPS administration also reduced the age-dependent decrease of the respiratory complexes I and IV. Melatonin administration (60 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the LPS toxicity, decreasing ...
Curcumin inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression. Curcumin is a naturally occurring, dietary polyphenolic phytochemical that has been shown to inhibit cancer among other things. With respect to inflammation, it inhibits the activation of free radical activated transcription factors, and reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin-1 and interleukin-8). Upon inflammation, an enzyme is induced (nitric oxide synthase) that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), a molecule that may lead to carcinogenesis. In this study in mouse immune cells curcumin reduced the production of nitric oxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, curcumin reduced nitric oxide expression in the livers of mice by 50-70%. Investigators were able to obtain potency at nanomoles per gram of body weight, even though it is believed that curcumin needs to be given at dosages that are unattainable through diet to produce an in vivo effect. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of nitric oxide synthase induction in vascular smooth muscle cells by microtubule depolymerizing agents. AU - Marczin, Nándor. AU - Papapetropoulos, Andreas. AU - Jilling, Tamás. AU - Catravas, John D.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We investigated the role of microtubules in the induction of nitric oxide synthase in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that like interleukin‐1α, lipopolysaccharide elicited a time and concentration‐dependent accumulation of cyclic GMP via induction of nitric oxide synthase. Nocodazole and colchicine, two chemically distinct microtubule depolymerizing agents, completely prevented lipopolysaccharide‐ and interleukin‐induced (and nitric oxide‐mediated) cyclic GMP generation. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide and interleukin‐1α, cyclic GMP accumulation in response to sodium nitroprusside, an exogenous nitrovasodilator, was not altered by either nocodazole or colchicine. Our findings demonstrate that ...
1.Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. The hyperdynamic circulation of cirrhosis has been linked to nitric oxide.. 2.We measured neutrophil nitric oxide synthase activity in relation to the level of hepatic dysfunction in patients with liver disease of varying aetiology and severity.. 3.Neutrophils were isolated from 21 patients (7 Child-Pugh score A, 6 grade B and 8 grade C) aged 28-76 (median 49) years. Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured using the conversion of oxyhaemoglobin to methaemoglobin by nitric oxide and expressed in terms of cell protein. Blood pressure and biochemical indices were recorded. Data were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test or Pearson correlation as appropriate.. 4.Systolic, mean arterial and diastolic blood pressures decreased with increasing hepatic damage (P = 0.031, P = 0.01 and P = 0.038 respectively). Nitric oxide synthase activity increased with the ...
Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS
Effects of Nerve Growth Factor and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors on Amyloid Precursor Protein mRNA Levels and Protein Stability
This study demonstrates for the first time that expression of a recombinant protein in the adventitia by in vivo adenovirus-mediated gene transfer can result in a biological effect. Our results indicate that delivery of adenoviral vectors encoding the β-galactosidase and eNOS genes to the periarterial sheath of rabbit carotid arteries results in adventitia-specific gene transfer and expression. Expression of recombinant eNOS in the adventitia resulted in marked increase in calcium-dependent NOS activity, an elevation of cGMP levels, and a diminished sensitivity to phenylephrine. Furthermore, the recombinant eNOS is responsive to stimulation by calcium ionophore and acetylcholine, as manifested by enhanced relaxations to these agents.. Gene transfer to the adventitia by adenoviral vectors has been demonstrated by Rios and coworkers9 in monkey femoral and carotid arteries. We obtained similar adventitia-specific gene transfer in rabbit carotid arteries by instilling adenoviral vectors into the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway contributes to inflammation-induced osteoporosis by suppressing bone formation and causing osteoblast apoptosis. AU - Armour, K. J.. AU - Armour, K. E.. AU - Van T Hof, Robert Jurgen. AU - Reid, David M. AU - Wei, X.. AU - Liew, F. Y.. AU - Ralston, S. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objective. Osteoporosis is a major clinical problem in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism of bone loss in this condition remains unclear, but previous studies have indicated that depressed bone formation plays a causal role. Since cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production has been shown to inhibit osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro, this study was undertaken to investigate the role of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammation-mediated osteoporosis (IMO) by studying mice with targeted inactivation of the iNOS gene (iNOS knockout [iNOS KO] mice).Methods. IMO was ...
This study shows that adult hypertensive SHR exhibit higher cNOS activity in the heart than normotensive WKY rats. In contrast, in young SHR, in which high blood pressure is not yet established, cNOS activity was similar to that in young and adult WKY rats. These findings indicate that increased cNOS activity in the heart is related to hypertension and not to differences in age or strain. The left and right ventricles hold the highest differential pressure in the cardiovascular system18 ; this difference is higher in hypertension.18 19 The cNOS activity, selectively assessed in both sides of the heart, indicated that in hypertensive animals the left side has higher enzyme activity than the right side. In normotensive rats, on the other hand, the activities of the enzyme were similar in both sides of the heart. Whole hearts of adult WKY rats showed no enhanced cNOS activity compared with those of young rats, while blood pressure was significantly higher. These observations suggest that within the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Oct DNA motif participates in the alcohol inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene promoter in rat C6 glioma cells. AU - Sanchez, Alma C.. AU - Davis, Randall L.. AU - Syapin, Peter J.. PY - 2007/11/7. Y1 - 2007/11/7. N2 - Induction of nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS) by cytokines and bacterial products is associated with protein binding at the proximal promoter and in an upstream enhancer region of the Nos2 gene. To clarify how ethanol suppresses rat iNOS activity, we constructed several deletion mutants of the Nos2 promoter fused to the luciferase gene and transfected the constructs into C6 glial cells. Acute ethanol exposure of stably transfected cells for 24 h inhibits induced activity of Nos2 promoter constructs containing deletions in the 5′ flanking region, including a 94 bp promoter that lacks any known NF-κB site but which carries a C/EBPβ and overlapping γ-IRE, GAS and Oct motifs. Ethanol failed to inhibit the endogenous activity of a smaller, 78 bp ...
PURPOSE: Inducible nitric oxide synthase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic damage, in the angiogenic process and in diabetic vascular damage. This study was undertaken to determine whether inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in the retinas from human subjects with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was an experimental immunohistochemical prospective study. Ten postmortem eyes from five subjects with diabetes mellitus, 10 eyes from five subjects without diabetes and without known ocular disease, and two eyes from one subject with unilateral ocular ischemic syndrome secondary to severe carotid artery obstruction were examined. We used immunohistochemical techniques and antibodies directed against inducible nitric oxide synthase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and vimentin. The main outcome measure was immunoreactivity for these antibodies. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity for inducible nitric oxide synthase was not observed in retinas from all subjects without diabetes ...
In previous studies, we showed that in vivo infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) to adult rats induced vascular changes in gene expression, and this effect did not depend solely on blood pressure elevation. To determine whether nitric oxide can influence the effects of Ang II on the vessel wall, we administered to rats Ang II separately or in combination with the arginine analogue N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, which inhibits nitric oxide synthase chronically when given in vivo. We measured changes in aortic medial thickness, the association of macrophages with the endothelial surface of the aorta, the presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the intima and adventitia as an index of aortic cell cycle changes, and the expression of immunodetectable fibronectin as an index of changes in the extra-cellular matrix. After 18 days of nitric oxide inhibition, the major changes were increased medial thickness and a 3.5-fold increase in the number of adherent macrophages. Rats treated with two
Looking for online definition of Nitrogen monoxide in the Medical. peripheral nerves by a constitutive nitric oxide synthase,. (see SILDENAFIL). nitric oxide.Background Inhaled nitric oxide improves gas exchange in neonates, but the efficacy of low-dose inhaled nitric oxide in reducing the need for extracorporeal membrane.The inhalation of nitric oxide. Saleh D. Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in. et al. Hemodynamic response to sildenafil, nitric oxide,.PubMed comprises more than 26 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension With Sildenafil:. of sildenafil.. The Internet Journal of Pulmonary Medicine. 2005 Volume 6 Number 1. Abstract.Endothelial Dysfunction in the Human Umbilical Artery due to Preeclampsia.Top online canadia pharmacy - cialis, viagra, propecia, diflucan and other tablets.When you feel fatigued in the gym, do you think of taking a nitric oxide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased organ blood flow in chronic endotoxemia is reversed by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. AU - Meyer, J.. AU - Hinder, F.. AU - Stothert, J.. AU - Traber, L. D.. AU - Herndon, David. AU - Flynn, J. T.. AU - Traber, D. L.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - We evaluated regional blood flows in a hyperdynamic sepsis model and the reversal of increased flows by blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Seven awake sheep were continuously infused with Escherichia coli endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 10 ng · kg-1 · min-1] for 48 h. The NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 mg/kg) was injected after 24 h. Blood flows to systemic organs were determined with the radioactive microsphere technique. LPS induced elevation of cardiac index by 36% (P , 0.05) and a fall in systemic vascular resistance index by 37% (P , 0.05) at 0 h [time of L-NAME administration, 24 h after infusion of LPS had begun]. L-NAME administration normalized cardiac index [6.1 ± ...
Exposure of mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increases nitric oxide (NO) production, which is proposed to play a role in the resulting pulmonary damage and inflammation. To determine the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO in this lung reaction, the responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOS KO) versus C57BL/6J wild-type (WT)
Abstract: Treatment of rat cerebellar astrocyte-enriched primary cultures with dexamethasone enhances the nitric oxide-dependent cyclic GMP formation induced by noradrenaline in a time-(,6 h) and concentration-dependent manner (half-maximal effect at 1 nM). Stimulation of cyclic GMP formation by the calcium ionophore A23187 is similarly enhanced. In contrast, cyclic GMP accumulation in cells treated with lipopolysaccharide is inhibited by dexamethasone. The potentiating effect of dexamethasone is prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and is not due to increased soluble guanylate cyclase activity. Agonist stimulation of [3H]arginine to [3H]citrulline conversion is enhanced by dexamethasone in astrocytes but not in cerebellar granule cells. These results indicate that glucocorticoids may up-regulate astroglial calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase while preventing expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and are the first report of a differential long-term regulation of ...
As described in Chapter 42, niric oxide (NO) is synthesized from the amino acid l-arginine by the actions of a family of enymes, the NO synthases (NOS), each isoform of which is encoded by a separate gene. Two NOS isoforms are calcium-dependent and constitutively expressed and produce low levels of NO: NOS1 (neuronal NOS or nNOS), which is found mostly in neurons and skeletal muscle, and NOS3 (endothelial NOS or eNOS), which is found mostly in endothelial cells. NOS1 is critical for neurotransmission and learning, and NOS3 regulates vascular tone and adhesion of circulating cells. Inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2) is transcriptionally induced by proinflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) and microbial products (e.g., lipoplysaccharide [LPS]). iNOS is calciumindependent, expressed by many cell types (especially mononuclear phagocytes, hepatocytes, chondrocytes and smooth muscle cells) and is responsible for high output NO production (1-3). While ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloperoxidase up-regulates the catalytic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase by preventing nitric oxide feedback inhibition. AU - Galijasevic, Semira. AU - Saed, Ghassan M.. AU - Diamond, Michael P.. AU - Abu-Soud, Husam M.. PY - 2003/12/9. Y1 - 2003/12/9. N2 - Kinetic and structure analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) revealed that, in addition to the increase of iNOS expression in inflamed areas, the major pathway causing overproduction of NO is destabilization of the iNOS-nitrosyl complex(es) that form during steady-state catalysis. Formation of such a complex allows iNOS to operate at only a fraction (20-30%) of its maximum activity. Thus, bioavailability of NO scavengers at sites of inflammation may play an essential role in up-regulation of the catalytic activity of iNOS, by preventing the catalytic activity inhibition that is attributed to nitrosyl complex formation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major NO scavenger, is a pivotal enzyme involved in ...
This study tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO)-mediated renal vasodilation due to the activity of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contributes to glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetic rats. Two weeks after induction of diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin, mean arterial BP (MAP), GFR (inulin clearance), and renal plasma flow (RPF) (para-aminohippurate clearance) were measured in conscious instrumented rats. Diabetic rats had elevated GFR (3129 +/- 309 microl/min versus 2297 +/- 264 microl/min in untreated control rats, P , 0.05) and RPF (10526 +/- 679 microl/min versus 8005 +/- 534 microl/min), which was prevented by chronic insulin treatment. Intravenous administration of 0.1 and 1 mg of L-imino-ethyl-lysine (L-NIL), an inhibitor of iNOS, did not affect MAP, GFR, or RPF, either in diabetic or control rats. A higher L-NIL dose (10 mg) increased MAP and decreased RPF in diabetic rats significantly (n = 6, P , 0.05), but not in controls (n = 6). In addition, 0.1 mg of ...
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of nonylphenol (NP) on the expression of inflammation-related genes in the brains of mice. NP was given orally by gavages at 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/d. The expression of inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting assays. The nitric oxide (NO) level and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were also measured by biochemical analyses. The results showed that NP at a high dose (200 mg/kg/d) significantly increased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in both the hippocampus and cortex. In parallel with the increase in iNOS expression, the NO level was significantly greater at the dose of 200 mg/kg/d, compared to the control. The activity of NOS was also increased in the brain of mice at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/d. These findings demonstrate that NP may have the potential to induce the chronic inflammation or cause
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the human cerebral blood vessels and brain tissues. AU - Tomimoto, Hidekazu. AU - Nishimura, Masaki. AU - Suenaga, Toshihiko. AU - Nakamura, Sinichi. AU - Akiguchi, Ichiro. AU - Wakita, Hideaki. AU - Kimura, Jun. AU - Mayer, Bernd. PY - 1994/11. Y1 - 1994/11. N2 - The distribution of nitric oxide synthase was investigated in human cerebral blood vessels and brain tissues. NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, which is a marker for nitric oxide synthase in neurons and endothelial cells, revealed periadventitial nerve fibers in the arteries of the circle of Willis and their cortical branches, as well as the common carotid and subclavian arteries. The fibers were mostly nonvaricose in the periadventitial nerve trunk and were varicose within the adventitia. Patchy reaction products were distributed in the perinuclear region of each endothelial cell. Smooth muscle cells in the tunica media were weakly stained. Staining was particularly intense in ...
MACIEL, IZAQUE DE SOUSA... Nitric Oxide Synthase inhibition counteracts the stress-induced DNA methyltransferase 3b expression in the hippocampus of rats. European Journal of Neuroscience n. p. DEC 2020. Journal article.
The roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and its putative association with protein kinase B (PKB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are not well characterized in hypoxic cardiac cells and there is a lack of studies that measure nitric oxide (NO) directly. Objective: To measure NO production in cardiomyocytes and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) under baseline and hypoxic conditions and to evaluate the expression, regulation and activation of eNOS, iNOS and PKB. The effect of PI3-K/PKB inhibition on NO production and eNOS expression/activation was also investigated. Methods: Adult rat cardiomyocytes and rat CMECs were made hypoxic by cell pelleting and low PO2 incubation. Intracellular NO was measured by FACS analysis of DAF-2/DA fluorescence, and eNOS, iNOS and PKB were evaluated by Western blotting or flow cytometry. Upstream PKB inhibition was achieved with wortmannin. Results: (1) NO levels increased in both cell types after exposure to hypoxia. (2) In ...
The long range goal of this project is to study structure-function relationships in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and to develop isoform selective NOS inhibitors...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lethal prostate cancer (PCa) by studying the iNOS immunoreactivity in tumor tissue from men diagnosed with localized PCa.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is nested within a cohort of men diagnosed with incidental PCa undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort). To investigate molecular determinants of lethal PCa, men who died from PCa (n = 132) were selected as cases; controls (n = 168) comprised men with PCa who survived for at least 10 years without dying from PCa during follow-up. The immunoreactivity of iNOS in prostate tumor epithelial cells and in cells of the surrounding stroma was scored as low/negative, moderate or high. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for lethal PCa according to iNOS category.. RESULTS: There was no association between iNOS immunoreactivity in stroma ...
Nitric oxide synthase oxygenase. Computer model showing the dimeric structure of murine nitric oxide synthase oxygenase (yellow, pink-red). The heme groups (green) assist in creating nitric oxide. This enzyme catalyses the production of nitric oxide. - Stock Image C035/5452
Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Nitrotyrosine in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions: Nitric oxide generated by the inducible form of nitric oxide synt
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a primary factor in the etiology of gastric disease and its early pathogenic effects are manifested by up-regulation in proinflammatory cytokine release, enhancement in nitric oxide generation, and amplification of apoptotic events. We applied the animal model of H. pylori -induced gastritis to study the effect of a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), SB 203580, on the mucosal apoptotic processes, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) activity and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Groups of rats were pretreated intragastrically with SB 203580 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or vehicle, followed 60 min later by intragastric application of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide at 50 μg/animal, and after 2 and 4 additional days on the twice daily regimen of SB 203580 or vehicle, the animals were killed and their gastric mucosal tissue subjected to histologic and biochemical assessment. In the absence of SB
Indirect evidence suggests that estrogen is involved in the etiology of breast cancer. Estrogen is also thought to modulate nitric oxide (NO) in human breast tumor tissue via regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Objectives of this study were to determine whether estradiol (E2) affects iNOS expression level in breast cancer cells and to study the effect of various concentrations of E2 on cell proliferation. Immunocytochemical technique was employed to assess iNOS expression level. Proliferation of parent and 10-6 M tamoxifen resistant cells (T47D/TAMR-6) were assessed by MTT assay in the presence of E2. Addition of E2 (10-12 to 10-8 M) increases the expression of iNOS in parent cells, but not T47D/TAMR-6, Further increase in concentrations of E2 (10-8 to 10-4 M) again decreases the expression of iNOS in parent cells, but increase that of the T47D/TAMR-6 cells. Expression of iNOS in parent cells in a medium containing 1% serum (low serum) is less than the cells grown in a medium
The results of the present study indicate that administration of bacterial endotoxin LPS to experimental animals resulted in an increase in the extent of cell injury as well as an increase in inducible NOS activity in epithelial cells harvested from the colonic mucosa. This confirms previous findings that LPS treatment would activate iNOS and the resultant NO thus liberated could account for the increase in colonic cellular damage (Tepperman et al., 1994). Furthermore, the present data indicate that LPS treatment results in an increase in the activity of PKC in the cells isolated from the colonic mucosa. The increase in PKC occurs within the 1st h after LPS treatment, whereas the increase in iNOS activity was not observed until 4 h after LPS injection, a time that corresponded to the increase in the extent of cell injury. This temporal relationship suggests that the increase in PKC may mediate the cellular injury via activation of iNOS. This suggestion is further supported by the finding that ...
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the main source of nitric oxide (NO) in the vascular wall, a molecule with anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, vasorelaxant, antioxidant and finally antiatherogenic properties. eNOS is expressed in vascular endothelium, and it uses l-arginine as a substrate, while it also requires the presence of multiple co-factors such as tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) and others. In the presence of BH4 deficiency, this enzyme becomes uncoupled, and it is turned into a source of superoxide radicals instead of NO. Therefore, under these conditions which are present in patients with advanced atherosclerosis, eNOS in human vascular endothelium is largely a source of reactive oxygen species, inducing in this way atherogenesis. Therefore, the aim of future therapeutic strategies targeting atherosclerosis through regulation of eNOS physiology, should take into account that up-regulation of this enzyme in the vascular wall may
Nerve growth factor (NGF) increases expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes leading to enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO). NOS inhibitors attenuate NGF-mediated increases in cholinergic gene expression and neurite outgrowth. Mechanisms underlying this are unknown, but the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway plays an important role in NGF signaling. Like NGF, NO donors activate Ras leading to phosphorylation of MAP kinase. The present study investigated the role of NO in NGF-mediated activation of MAP kinase in PC12 cells. Cells were treated with 50 ng/mL NGF to establish the temporal pattern for rapid and sustained activation phases of MAP kinase kinase (MEK)-1/2 and p42/p44-MAP kinase. Subsequently, cells were pretreated with NOS inhibitors Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester and s-methylisothiourea and exposed to NGF for up to 24 h. NGF-induced activation of MEK-1/2 and p42/p44-MAP kinase was not dependent on NO, but sustained phosphorylation of MAP kinase was modulated by
Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. NO is an important cellular signaling molecule. It helps modulate vascular tone, insulin secretion, airway tone, and peristalsis, and is involved in angiogenesis and neural development. It may function as a retrograde neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS). The inducible isoform, iNOS, is involved in immune response, binds calmodulin at physiologically relevant concentrations, and produces NO as an immune defense mechanism, as NO is a free radical with an unpaired electron. It is the proximate cause of septic shock and may function in autoimmune disease. NOS catalyzes the reaction: 2 L-arginine + 3 NADPH + 1 H+ + 4 O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2 citrulline +2 nitric oxide + 4 H2O + 3 NADP+ NOS isoforms catalyze other leak and side reactions, ...
Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is primarily attributable to constitutive expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene. Although a more comprehensive understanding of transcriptional regulation of eNOS is emerging with respec
Inducible synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages is an important mechanism of the host defense against intracellular infection in mice, but the evidence for significant levels of inducible NO production by human macrophages is controversial. Here we report that the human promyelocytic cell line HL-60, when differentiated to a macrophage-like phenotype, acquires the ability to produce substantial amounts of NO on stimulation with LPS or 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) in the absence of activating factors such as gamma interferon. Expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) was confirmed by sequencing of the reverse transcription-PCR product from stimulated HL-60 cells. Kinetic studies after lipopolysaccharide stimulation show that NOS2 mRNA levels rise within 3 to 6 h, that conversion of [14C]arginine to [14C]citrulline is maximal at 5 to 6 days, and that levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates stabilize at around 20 microM at 7 to 8 days. We find that 1,25-D3 acts to suppress
Inducible synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages is an important mechanism of the host defense against intracellular infection in mice, but the evidence for significant levels of inducible NO production by human macrophages is controversial. Here we report that the human promyelocytic cell line HL-60, when differentiated to a macrophage-like phenotype, acquires the ability to produce substantial amounts of NO on stimulation with LPS or 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) in the absence of activating factors such as gamma interferon. Expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) was confirmed by sequencing of the reverse transcription-PCR product from stimulated HL-60 cells. Kinetic studies after lipopolysaccharide stimulation show that NOS2 mRNA levels rise within 3 to 6 h, that conversion of [14C]arginine to [14C]citrulline is maximal at 5 to 6 days, and that levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates stabilize at around 20 microM at 7 to 8 days. We find that 1,25-D3 acts to suppress
Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived biologic mediator that is shown to be induced in various cell types and to cause many metabolic changes in target cells. Inhibition of tumor cell growth and antimicrobial activity has been attributed to the stimulation of the inducible type of the NO synthase (NOS). However, there is limited evidence for the existence of such inducible NOS in a human cell type. We show here the induction of NO biosynthesis in freshly isolated human hepatocytes (HC) after stimulation with interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IFN-gamma, and endotoxin. Increased levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in culture supernatants were associated with NADPH-dependent NOS activity in the cell lysates. The production of NO2- and NO3- was inhibited by NG-monomethyl L-arginine and was associated with an increase in cyclic guanylate monophosphate release. The data presented here provide evidence for the existence of typical inducible NO biosynthesis in a human cell type. ...
Nitric oxide is an important molecule produced inside the human body whose synthesis is a vital biochemical process involving nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme family. It has been established that the phagocytes, monocytes, and macrophages which take part in the physiological immune response, the innate or nonspecific immune response, inside the body have this NOS enzyme. There are three known types of NOS: constituent or calcium-dependent isoforms that are primarily present in the endothelial cells and neuronal cells (eNOS and nNOS) and the inducible or calcium-independent isoform (iNOS). The isoform that lines the respiratory system can perform multiple functions which may be the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) type especially in the case of immunologic response. The activity of this enzyme has been seen in a variety of microbial infections. This enzyme is stimulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) which commences the production of nitric oxide by these white IL-10 and transforming ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population dynamics of inducible nitric oxide synthase production by LPS- and LPS/IFNgamma-stimulated mouse macrophages. AU - Pace, J. L.. AU - Lowenstein, C. J.. AU - Phillips, T. A.. AU - Chen, L. C.. AU - Morrison, D. C.. AU - Hunt, J. S.. AU - Russell, S. W.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028189509&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028189509&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0028189509. VL - 1. SP - 227. EP - 233. JO - Innate Immunity. JF - Innate Immunity. SN - 1753-4259. IS - 4. ER - ...
Inducible nitric oxide synthase in response to bacterial challenge in nasal tissues of wild type, CX3CR1|sup|+/GFP|/sup| and CX3 CR1|sup|GFP/GFP|/sup| mice
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NO-mediated toxicity contributes to neuronal damage after hypoxia; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are still a matter of controversy. Since mitochondria play a key role in signalling neuronal death, we aimed to determine the role of nitrative stress in hypoxia-induced mitochondrial damage. Therefore, we analysed the biochemical and ultrastructural impairment of these organelles in the optic lobe of chick embryos after in vivo hypoxia?reoxygenation. Also, we studied the NO-dependence of damage and examined modulation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) after the hypoxic event. A transient but substantial increase in mtNOS content and activity was observed at 0?2 h posthypoxia, resulting in accumulation of nitrated mitochondrial proteins measured by immunoblotting. However, no variations in nNOS content were observed in the homogenates, suggesting an increased translocation to mitochondria and not a general de novo synthesis. In parallel with mtNOS kinetics, mitochondria ...
Functional reconstitution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase reveals the importance of serine 1179 in endothelium-dependent vasomotion. Circ Res. 2002 May 03; 90(8):904-10 ...
4K5I: Structure of bovine endothelial nitric oxide synthase heme domain in complex with (R)-1,2-bis((2-amino-4-methylpyridin-6-yl)-methoxy)-propan-3-amine
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1d1x: Bovine Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Heme Domain Complexed With 1, 4-Pbitu (H4B Bound)
BioAssay record AID 92143 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibitory activity against human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoenzyme..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and function contribute to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension. AU - Afolayan, Adeleye J.. AU - Eis, Annie. AU - Alexander, Maxwell. AU - Michalkiewicz, Teresa. AU - Teng, Ru Jeng. AU - Lakshminrusimha, Satyanarayana. AU - Konduri, Girija G.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Impaired vasodilation in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the hypothesis that a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a lamb model of PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction. We ventilated PPHN lambs with 100% O2 alone or with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We treated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from normal and PPHN lambs with detaNONOate, an NO donor. We observed decreased mitochondrial (mt) DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, arterial hemodynamics, and subclinical vascular disease. T2 - The PREVENCION study. AU - Chirinos, Julio A.. AU - David, Robert. AU - Bralley, J. Alexander. AU - Zea-Díaz, Humberto. AU - Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar. AU - Corrales-Medina, Fernando. AU - Cuba-Bustinza, Carolina. AU - Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio. AU - Medina-Lezama, Josefina. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - Endogenous NO synthase inhibitors (end-NOSIs) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis. In addition, end-NOSIs may directly cause hypertension through hemodynamic effects. We aimed to examine the association between end-NOSI asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-guanidino-monomethyl-arginine (NMMA), subclinical atherosclerosis, and arterial hemodynamics. We studied 922 adults participating in a population-based study (PREVENCION Study) and examined the correlation between end-NOSI/L-arginine and arterial hemodynamics, carotid-femoral ...
Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Luteal Cell DNA Fragmentation of Porcine Cyclic Corpora Lutea - Nitric Oxide Synthase;Corpora Lutea;Apoptosis;Estrous Cycle;
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in the paraventricular nucleus buffers central endothelin-1-induced pressor response and vasopressin secretion. AU - Rossi, Noreen F.. AU - Black, Stephen M.. AU - Telemaque-Potts, Sabine. AU - Chen, Haiping. PY - 2004/11/1. Y1 - 2004/11/1. N2 - Endothelin 1 (ET-1) injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle increases sympathetic output, arterial pressure and plasma vasopressin (AVP). These responses are mediated by glutamatergic inputs and inhibited by γ-amino-butyric acidergic inputs in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been suggested that nitric oxide enhances these γ-amino-butyric acidergic inhibitory inputs. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that decreasing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity within the PVN will potentiate ET-1-induced increases in arterial pressure and alter plasma AVP secretion. Male Long Evans rats underwent adenoviral gene transfer of β-galactosidase, Ad.CMV.β-gal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperbaric oxygen upregulates cochlear constitutive nitric oxide synthase. AU - Lin, Chia Der. AU - Wei, I. Hua. AU - Lai, Chih Ho. AU - Hsia, Te Chun. AU - Kao, Ming Ching. AU - Tsai, Ming Hsui. AU - Wu, Ching Hsiang. AU - Tsai, Mang Hung. PY - 2011/2/22. Y1 - 2011/2/22. N2 - Background: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a known adjuvant for treating ischemia-related inner ear diseases. Controversies still exist in the role of HBOT in cochlear diseases. Few studies to date have investigated the cellular changes that occur in inner ears after HBOT. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is an important signaling molecule in cochlear physiology and pathology. Here we investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eardrum morphology, cochlear function and expression of NOS isoforms in cochlear substructures after repetitive HBOT in guinea pigs.Results: Minor changes in the eardrum were observed after repetitive HBOT, which did not result in a ...
Inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression during development of transplant arteriosclerosis in rat aortic grafts. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase expression in acute human renal allograft rejection. AU - Albrecht, EWJA. AU - van Goor, H. AU - Tiebosch, ATMG. AU - Moshage, H. AU - Tegzess, Adam. AU - Stegeman, CA. PY - 2000/12/15. Y1 - 2000/12/15. N2 - Background Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which are either constitutively expressed in the kidney or inducible, in resident and infiltrating cells during inflammation and allograft rejection. NO is rapidly degraded to the stable end products nitrite and nitrate, which can be measured in serum and urine, and may serve as noninvasive markers of kidney allograft rejection.Methods. Total nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) were measured in serum and urine thrice meekly after an overnight fast in 18 consecutive patients following renal cadaveric transplantation. Inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression was immunochemically determined in renal biopsy specimens with or without acute ...
Title: Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition and Renal Injury. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Joel D. Starnes and Sharma S. Prabhakar. Affiliation:Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601, 4th Street Suite 4C-178, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA.. Keywords:Nitric oxide, nephropathy, nitric oxide synthase, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes, acute kidney injury. Abstract: The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of literature related to the role of nitric oxide (NO) in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Alterations of renal NO generation have been incriminated in various renal disorders. Excessive production of NO by NOS II in infiltrating immune cells and mesangial cells was described in acute glomerulonephritides and inhibition of NOS II resulted in protection from such renal injury [1]. Sustained high output generation of NOS II mediated NO, often accompanied by consequent suppression of NOS III derived NO is characteristic of endothelial ...
Does the Inhibitory Action of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) on the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity Explain Its Importance in the Cardiovascular System? The ADMA Paradox
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived superoxide contributes to hypereactivity in small mesenteric arteries from a rat model of chronic heart failure. AU - Miller, A A. AU - Megson, I L. AU - Gray, G A. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The aims of this study were to (a) determine whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in small mesenteric arteries from rats with chronic heart failure (CHF), (b) investigate the functional significance of this potential source of nitric oxide (NO) on vascular responsiveness and (c) investigate the role that superoxide plays in modulating vascular function in these arteries. CHF was induced in male Wistar rats by coronary artery ligation (CAL). In sham-operated rats the ligature was not tied but pulled under the artery. Six weeks after surgery CAL rats had left ventricular (LV) infarctions and elevated LV end-diastolic pressures. Immunoreactive iNOS was found in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and in the adventitia of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway in lipopolysaccharide preconditioning-induced hypoxic-ischemic tolerance in the neonatal rat brain. AU - Lin, Hsiang Yin. AU - Wu, Chao Liang. AU - Huang, Chao Ching. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - Background and purpose: Low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning provides neonatal rats long-term neuroprotection against hypoxic ischemia (HI). Upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protects against cerebral ischemia; however, whether eNOS is required for LPS preconditioning-induced protection in neonatal rats is unknown. We hypothesized that Akt activation, which upregulates eNOS in neurons and endothelial cells, is required for LPS preconditioning-induced tolerance against HI in the neonatal brain. Methods: Six-day-old rat pups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (0.05 mg/kg) or normal saline 24 hours before HI. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the phospho-Akt (pAkt Ser473), ...
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in regulation of endothelial function and in the control of blood pressure. However, the results from some studies on the association between three clinically relevant eNOS gene polymorphisms (G894T, T786C and intron 4b/a) and essential hypertension are unclear. We designed a case-control study to evaluate the influence of eNOS polymorphisms on target organ damage in 127 hypertensives and 67 normotensives. Clinical evaluation, biochemical parameters, Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE) and echocardiogram were performed to characterize target organ damage. eNOS polymorphism were recognized by PCR method. The distribution of eNOS genotypes was similar in hypertensives and normotensives but 4aa was present in the 2.5% of hypertensives and completely absent in normotensives. Subjects with 4bb, G894T, and T786C genotypes showed an increased prevalence of target organ damage. Moreover prevalence of G894T and introne
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about CONSTITUTIVE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE CNOS. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease potentially through its effect on specific endothelial-derive compounds. We tested the hypothesis that ethanol increases the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS and nitric oxide NO production in bovine aortic endothelial cells BAEC. Primary...
UNSPECIFIED (2001) Association of the 894G-T polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene with acute myocardial infarction. Final results of the GEMIG study. In: UNSPECIFIED. Published in: EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, 22 (Suppl. S). p. 382 ...
A neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has recently been located to the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Subcellular localization of a constitutive NOS in the proximity of an activating source of Ca2+ suggests that cardiac nNOS-derived NO may regulate contraction by exerting a highly specific and localized action on ion channels/transporters involved in Ca2+ cycling. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated myocardial Ca2+ handling and contractility in nNOS knockout mice (nNOS-/-) and in control mice (C) after acute nNOS inhibition with 100 micromol/L L-VNIO. nNOS gene disruption or L-VNIO increased basal contraction both in left ventricular (LV) myocytes (steady-state cell shortening 10.3+/-0.6% in nNOS-/- versus 8.1+/-0.5% in C; P|0.05) and in vivo (LV ejection fraction 53.5+/-2.7 in nNOS-/- versus 44.9+/-1.5% in C; P|0.05). nNOS disruption increased ICa density (in pA/pF, at 0 mV, -11.4+/-0.5 in nNOS-/- versus -9.1+/-0.5 in C; P|0.05) and prolonged the slow time constant of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central nicotinic acetylcholine receptor involved in Ca 2+- calmodulin-endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway modulated hypotensive effects. AU - Cheng, Pei Wen. AU - Lu, Pei Jung. AU - Chen, Siang Ru. AU - Ho, Wen Yu. AU - Cheng, Wen Han. AU - Hong, Ling Zong. AU - Yeh, Tung Chen. AU - Sun, Gwo Ching. AU - Wang, Ling Lin. AU - Hsiao, Michael. AU - Tseng, Ching Jiunn. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence has suggested that nicotine decreases blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), indicating that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in BP control in the NTS. However, the signalling mechanisms involved in nAChR-mediated depressor effects in the NTS are unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate these signalling mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Depressor responses to nicotine microinjected into the NTS of Wistar-Kyoto rats were elicited in the absence and ...
Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is mediated by release of nitric oxide formed by constitutively expressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS). We explored the distribution of polymorphism ecNOS4a/b in 549 subjects with, and 153 without, coronary artery disease in relation to smoking. In c …
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Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by numerous different cell types, and it is an important regulator and mediator of many processes including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and murine macrophage- mediated cytotoxicity for microbes and tumor cells. Although murine macrophages produce NO readily after activation, human monocytes and tissue macrophages have been reported to produce only low levels of NO in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine if stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes produce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity. By reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we show that human monocytes can be induced to express iNOS mRNA after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). By immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, we show monocytes and peritoneal macrophages contain detectable levels of iNOS antigen after stimulations with cytokines in vitro. Control monocytes ...
Chronic inflammation is a leading cause of neoplastic transformation in many human cancers and especially in colon cancer (CC), in part due to tumour promotion by nitric oxide (NO) generated at inflammatory sites. It has also been suggested that high NO synthesis, secondary to inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, is a distinctive feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subset of tumour cells with self-renewal capacity. In this study we explored the contribution of NO to the development of colon CSC features and evaluated potential strategies to treat CC by modulating NO production. Our data show an integral role for endogenous NO and iNOS activity in the biology of colon CSCs. Indeed, colon CSCs with high endogenous NO production (NO(high)) displayed higher tumourigenic abilities than NO(low) fractions. The blockade of endogenous NO availability, using either a specific iNOS inhibitor or a genetic knock-down of iNOS, resulted in a significant reduction of colon CSC tumourigenic ...
P57 Nitric oxide(NO)released by endothelial NO synthase(eNOS)is impaired during the development of heart failure (HF). We tested the hypotheses that 1)lack of eNOS (-/-) may affect cardiac function and remodeling after MI induced by coronary ligation; and 2) the cardioprotective efffect of ACEi will be lessened or absent in -/- mice. 1 month after MI, mice were treated with either vehicle or the ACEi enalapril (20 mg/kg) and this was continued for 3 months. C57BL6J (+/+) mice were used as controls. LV ejection fraction (LVEF), shortening fraction (SF), LV mass (LVm) and diastolic dimension (LVDd) were evaluated by echocardiography before and after MI. We found that LVEF (figure) and SF were decreased, and LVDd and LVm increased significantly after MI and slowly progressed with time. No difference was detected between the two strains. ACEi improved LVEF in +/+, but not in -/-; and they also decreased LVm and LVDd, and these effects were diminished in -/- mice. Our data suggest that eNOS may not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in motor neuron mitochondria and Schwann cells and contributes to disease mechanisms in ALS mice. AU - Chen, Kevin. AU - Northington, Frances. AU - Martin, Lee J. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons (MNs). The molecular pathogenesis of ALS is not understood, thus effective therapies for this disease are lacking. Some forms of ALS are inherited by mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. Transgenic mice expressing human Gly93? Ala (G93A) mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) develop severe MN disease, oxidative and nitrative damage, and mitochondrial pathology that appears to involve nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. We used G93A-mSOD1 mice to test the hypothesis that the degeneration of MNs is associated with an aberrant up-regulation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) activity within MNs. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intra- and inter-molecular effects of a conserved arginine residue of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases on FMN and calmodulin binding. AU - Panda, Satya Prakash. AU - Polusani, Srikanth R.. AU - Kellogg, Dean L.. AU - Venkatakrishnan, Priya. AU - Roman, Madeline G.. AU - Demeler, Borries. AU - Masters, Bettie Sue S.. AU - Roman, Linda J.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors wish to thank Dr. Jung-Ja Kim, Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI-53226 for her critical reading of the manuscript and suggestions. Supported by NIH GM052419 to BSSM and LJR. BSSM is the Robert A. Welch Distinguished Professor in Chemistry (AQ-0012). The development of the UltraScan software is supported by the National Institutes of Health through grant RR022200 (to BD). Supercomputer time allocations were provided through National Science Foundation grant TG-MCB070038 (to BD). We acknowledge the support of the San Antonio Cancer Institute grant P30 CA054174 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS3) Polymorphisms in African Americans With Heart Failure. T2 - Results From the A-HeFT Trial. AU - McNamara, Dennis M.. AU - Tam, S. William. AU - Sabolinski, Michael L.. AU - Tobelmann, Page. AU - Janosko, Karen. AU - Venkitachalam, Lakshmi. AU - Ofili, Elizabeth. AU - Yancy, Clyde. AU - Feldman, Arthur M.. AU - Ghali, Jalal K.. AU - Taylor, Anne L.. AU - Cohn, Jay N.. AU - Worcel, Manuel. N1 - Funding Information: Supported in part by a research grant from NitroMed Inc. and grants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, contracts K24 HL 69912 and RO1 HL75038. Additonal support was received from the National Center for Research Resources, contract 5P20RR011104. Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - Background: Genetic heterogeneity at the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) locus influences heart failure outcomes. The prevalence of NOS3 variants differs in black and ...
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) promoter CCTTT repeat polymorphism: relationship to in vivo nitric oxide production/NOS activity in an asymptomatic malaria-endemic population.
Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide (NO), is expressed in skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that NO can modulate glucose metabolism in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles. Calcium-dependent NOS was detected in skeletal muscle, and the enzyme activity was greater in fast-type extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles than in slow-type soleus muscles. Both the neuronal-type (nNOS) and endothelial-type (eNOS) enzymes are expressed in resting skeletal muscles. However, nNOS protein was only detected in EDL muscles, whereas eNOS protein contents were comparable in soleus and EDL muscles. NOS expression in muscle cryosections (diaphorase histochemistry) was located in vascular endothelium and in muscle fibers, and the staining was greater in type lib than in type I and Ha fibers. The macrophage-type inducible NOS (iNOS) was not detected in resting muscle, but endotoxin treatment ...
Objectives In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between T-786C polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and slow coronary flow (SCF). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FK506 binding protein 12/12.6 depletion increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase threonine 495 phosphorylation and blood pressure. AU - Long, Cheng. AU - Cook, Leslie G.. AU - Hamilton, Susan L.. AU - Wu, Gang Yi. AU - Mitchell, Brett M.. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. N2 - Chronic treatment with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin leads to hypertension; however, the mechanisms are unknown. Rapamycin binds FK506 binding protein 12 and its related isoform 12.6 (FKBP12/12.6) and displaces them from intracellular Ca release channels (ryanodine receptors) eliciting a Ca leak from the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum. We tested whether this Ca leak promotes conventional protein kinase C-mediated endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation at Thr495, which reduces production of the vasodilator NO. Rapamycin treatment of control mice for 7 days, as well as genetic deletion of FKBP12.6, increased systolic arterial pressure significantly compared with controls. Untreated aortas from FKBP12.6 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide synthase gene therapy in vascular pathology. AU - Kibbe, Melina R.. AU - Tzeng, Edith. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) is intimately involved in vascular homeostasis through its antiplatelet, antiproliferative, and vasodilating actions. Because of these beneficial properties, methods of harnessing NO for the prevention of vascular injury responses, such as intimal hyperplasia, are being explored. One such method involves gene transfer of an NO synthase (NOS) to sites of vascular injury to provide for local NO synthesis. Gene delivery of the inducible NOS (iNOS) cDNA to sites of vascular injury in animal models dramatically reduced smooth muscle proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. The cellular mechanisms by which NO inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation appear to be independent of cyclic guanosine monophosphate production but are linked to the upregulation of the cell cycle ...
This study investigated vascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine, in the presence of acute inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, in the carotid artery and aorta of obese C57Bl6/J mice fed on a high-fat diet for 30 weeks, and of control mice. A subgroup of obese animals was also treated with the ETA receptor antagonist darusentan (50mg·kg-1·day-1). In vascular rings from control animals, acetylcholine caused endothelium-dependent contractions in the carotid artery, but not in the aorta. In vascular rings from obese mice, contractility to acetylcholine was also evident in the aorta, and that in the carotid artery was increased compared with control mice. ETA receptor blockade by darusentan treatment of the obese mice prevented enhanced vasoconstriction to acetylcholine, resulting in mild vasodilatation. Thus obesity increases endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction in the absence of endothelial nitric oxide. This effect can be completely prevented by chronic ETA receptor blockade, ...
This study investigated whether the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) would alter blood flow and oxygen balance in the ischemic cerebrocortex of isoflurane-anesthetized Long-Evans rats.. Fifteen minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, L-NAME (1.5 mg/min per kilogram) was infused intravenously to the L-NAME group (n = 14), and normal saline was given to the control group (n = 14) for 45 minutes. In each group, regional cerebral blood flow was determined with [14C]iodoantipyrine, and arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined by microspectrophotometry.. In both groups regional cerebral blood flow of the ischemic cortex was significantly lower than that of the contralateral cortex ([mean +/- SD] 55 +/- 13 versus 110 +/- 29 mL/min per 100 g in the control group and 35 +/- 13 versus 90 +/- 24 mL/min per 100 g in the L-NAME group). Compared with the blood flow in the ischemic cortex of the control group, L-NAME significantly reduced ischemic ...
WONG, MUI-YUN. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Nitric Oxide Synthase During Bacterial Infection of Pea (Pisum sativum L.). (Under the direction of Jeng- Sheng Huang and Eric L. Davis.) Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species are two key components in the induction of the hypersensitive response (HR) during plant defense against pathogen infection. In animal cells, the production of NO is catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Although NOS activity has been documented in plants, the process of NO synthesis in plants is not well understood. Isolation of the NOS protein and/or cloning of the corresponding gene will greatly facilitate the understanding of NO synthesis and its role in plant defense. The objectives of this research were to analyze the physiological and biochemical properties of a NOS-like protein (peaNOS) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), to purify and characterize peaNOS, and to clone the gene(s) encoding peaNOS and relate its expression to NOS activity in pea-bacteria ...
Zinc is an important trace element in biological systems; however, excessive extracellular zinc could lead to neuronal cell death following ischemia, seizures, and brain trauma. In this study, we investigated whether the intracortical injection of zinc sulphate (200 mu g/kg, i.c.) changes total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and whether different types nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. N-(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), aminoguanidine and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), have protective effects against zinc neurotoxicity in Wistar albino rat;. Animals were divided into 6 groups: control, zinc, zinc + L-NAME (100 mg/kg, i.p.), zinc + L-NNA (100 mg/kg, i.p.), zinc + 7-NI (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and zinc + aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) groups. Total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum was estimated using unbiased stereological technique as 318,947 +/- 20,549, 123,483 +/- 23,762, 206,537 +/- 43,128, 178,135 +/- 26,635, 193,148 +/- 46,104 and ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous compound that serves as a signaling molecule in cellular interactions. In the vasculature, NO is synthesized from endogenous agents by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) where it plays key roles in several functions related to homeostasis, adaptation, and development. Recent experimental studies have revealed cycles of increasing and decreasing NO production when eNOS is stimulated by factors such as glucose or insulin. We offer a mathematical model of a generic amino acid receptor site on eNOS wherein this species is subject to activation/deactivation by a pair of interactive kinase and phosphatase species. The enzyme kinetic model is presented as a system of ordinary differential equations including time delay to allow for various intermediate, unspecified complexes. We show that under conditions on the model parameters, varying the delay time may give rise to a Hopf bifurcation. Properties of the bifurcating solutions are explored via a center manifold reduction,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Concomitant transcriptional activation of nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase genes during nitric oxide-mediated macrophage cytostasis. AU - Kurata, Shun Ichi. AU - Matsumoto, Midori. AU - Yamashita, Uki. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - During in vitro activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), their synthesis of peroxynitrite and their cytostatic activity against mouse lymphocytic leukemia (L1210) cells were examined. The activation of the genes for nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) was also determined during the activation of the macrophages. Results showed that activation of peroxynitrite synthesis in macrophages was accompanied by the transcriptional activation of iNOS and HO-1 genes. Both genes seem to be activated simultaneously upon activation of the macrophages. Simultaneous activation of iNOS and HO-1 genes may be important because degradation of heme by HO-1 is one of the most important ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exogenous and endogenous nitric oxide but not iNOS inhibition improves function and survival of ischemically injured livers. AU - Rivera-Chavez, F. A.. AU - Toledo-Pereyra, L. H.. AU - Dean, R. E.. AU - Crouch, L.. AU - Ward, P. A.. PY - 2001/11/20. Y1 - 2001/11/20. N2 - The role of nitric oxide (NO) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains controversial and few works have shed more information regarding the effect of exogenous (EX) and/or endogenous NO (EN) under conditions of I/R of the liver. We investigated the role of exogenous and endogenous NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibition in liver function, neutrophil infiltration, and animal survival after liver I/R. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to total hepatic ischemia for 90 min using an extracorporeal porto-systemic shunt. The animals were divided into five groups, including the sham porto-systemic shunt with no ischemia, the control ischemic group, the L-arginine-treated group, the sodium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrastructural localization and comparative distribution of nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the shell of the rat nucleus accumbens. AU - Gracy, K. Noelle. AU - Pickel, Virginia M.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by grants from NIMH (MH40342) and NIDA (DA 04600) awarded to V.M.P. whose salary was provided by a Career Award from NIMH (MHOQO?g)T. he authors thank Joy Homung for her photographic assistance. Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1997/2/7. Y1 - 1997/2/7. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO), the diffusible gas formed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in the enhanced locomotor activity attributed mainly to increased dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (Acb). Furthermore, the release of both NO and dopamine are known to be altered by agonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors in this region. We examined the cellular sites of NO synthesis and the ...
1. Agrawal N, Dasaradhi PV, Mohmmed A, Malhotra P, Bhatnagar RK, Mukherjee SK. RNA interference: biology, mechanism, and applications. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2003;67:657-85 2. Xia XG, Zhou H, Xu Z. Promises and challenges in developing RNAi as a research tool and therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegener Dis. 2005;2:220-31 3. Grimm D, Streetz KL, Jopling CL, Storm TA, Pandey K, Davis CR, Marion P, Salazar F, Kay MA. Fatality in mice due to oversaturation of cellular microRNA/short hairpin RNA pathways. Nature. 2006;441:537-41 4. Xia XG, Zhou H, Xu Z. Multiple shRNAs expressed by an inducible pol II promoter can knock down the expression of multiple target genes. Biotechniques. 2006;41:64-8 5. Lipton P. Ischemic cell death in brain neurons. Physiol Rev. 1999;79:1431-568 6. Zhao X, Ross ME, Iadecola C. L-Arginine increases ischemic injury in wild-type mice but not in iNOS-deficient mice. Brain Res. 2003;966:308-11 7. Garcia-Bonilla L, Moore JM, Racchumi G, Zhou P, Butler JM, Iadecola ...
"Nos2 - Nitric Oxide Synthase". Uniprot.org. Uniprot Consortium. Retrieved 10 February 2015. Cox M, Lehninger AL, Nelson DR ( ... catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase. Citrulline is made from ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate in one of the central reactions ... Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, ... which is then further oxidized to citrulline concomitant with release of nitric oxide. Citrulline is also made by enterocytes ...
Knowles, R. G.; Moncada, S. (1994-03-01). "Nitric oxide synthases in mammals". The Biochemical Journal. 298 (2): 249-258. doi: ... Nitric Oxide (NO), is reported to be a key modulator of endocrine cell function and has been shown that FS cells (and some ... endocrine cells) contain neuronal NO synthase, a key NO production enzyme which is responsible for the production of NO from L- ...
Komeima K, Hayashi Y, Naito Y, Watanabe Y (2000). "Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin- ... 1999). "Regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calmodulin kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (29): 20597-602. doi:10.1074/ ... "Nitric oxide synthase regulatory sites. Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/ ...
... from arginine itself via nitric oxide synthase, as a byproduct of the production of nitric oxide for signaling purposes from ... Andrew PJ, Mayer B (August 1999). "Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases". (review). Cardiovascular Research. 43 (3): ... It is the precursor for the biosynthesis of nitric oxide. It is encoded by the codons CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, and AGG. ... This allows citrulline, a byproduct of the NOS-catalyzed production of nitric oxide, to be recycled to arginine in a pathway ...
Alderton, W.K. (2001). "Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition". Biochem. J. 357 (3): 593-615. doi:10.1042/ ... and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The word haem is derived from Greek αἷμα haima meaning "blood". Hemoproteins have ... synthase 1 ALAS2: aminolevulinate, δ-, synthase 2 (deficiency causes sideroblastic/hypochromic anemia) CPOX: coproporphyrinogen ... Hegg, Eric L. (2004). "Heme A Synthase Does Not Incorporate Molecular Oxygen into the Formyl Group of Heme A". Biochemistry. 43 ...
Leonard, T.O.; Lydic, R. (1995). "Nitric oxide synthase inhibition decreases pontine acetylcholinerelease". NeuroReport. 6 (11 ... Nitroxergic neurons use nitric oxide (NO) as a neurotransmitter. In theory, the increase of nitric oxide is seen as an ... This stems from animal testing that has shown increases in PGO waves as nitric oxide levels were increased in the pons. GABA- ...
Chambliss, Ken L.; Shaul, Philip W. (October 2002). "Estrogen Modulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase". Endocrine ...
Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of synthases that catalyze the production of nitric oxide (NO) from ... NOS1 Nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal)". Grasemann H, Yandava CN, Drazen JM (December 1999). "Neuronal NO synthase (NOS1) is a ... Nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal), also known as NOS1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NOS1 gene. ... Kishimoto J, Spurr N, Liao M, Lizhi L, Emson P, Xu W (November 1992). "Localization of brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to ...
"Pin1 prolyl isomerase regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 31 (2 ...
GATA5 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the ascending aorta is related to aortic size and valve morphology. ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in bicuspid aortic valve disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007; 83:1290-4 Henn D, Perttunen H, Gauer ...
"Potent and selective inhibition of human nitric oxide synthases. Inhibition by non-amino acid isothioureas" (PDF). The Journal ... Proskuriakov SI, Ulianova LP, Skvotsov VG, Budagov RS (2005). "[The estimation of the nitric oxide role in the aggravation of ... Budagov RS, Ulianova LP, Proskuryakov SY (2006). "Nitric Oxide Level Increasing and Hyperfibrinogenemia in the Pathogenesis of ... S-Ethylisothiouronium diethylphosphate is a specific inhibitor of inducible NO synthase on hepatic NO production level. S- ...
N-Methylarginine is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Chemically, it is a methyl derivative of the amino acid arginine. It ... and other endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors as an important cause of vascular insulin resistance". Hormone and ... an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, suppresses the development of adjuvant arthritis in rats". Arthritis & Rheumatology. 37 ... is used as a biochemical tool in the study of physiological role of nitric oxide. The inhibiting effect of N-methylarginine on ...
Babbedge RC; Bland-Ward PA; Hart SL; Moore PK (September 1993). "Inhibition of rat cerebellar nitric oxide synthase by 7-nitro ... converts arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide can diffuse through the plasma membrane into neighbouring ... which is activated by nitric oxide produced by eNOS tetrahydrobiopterin, cofactor to several enzymes including nitric oxide ... Moore PK; Babbedge RC; Wallace P; Gaffen ZA; Hart SL (February 1993). "7-Nitro indazole, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase ...
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyses the conversion of a guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine (L-Arg) to nitric oxide (NO). Among ... uncoupling of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme and reduced bioavailability of the vasodilator nitric oxide ... and is a cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide syntheses. Chemically, its structure is that of a ... In the endothelial cell lining of blood vessels, endothelial nitric oxide synthase is dependent on tetrahydrobiopterin ...
Zhang R, Min W, Sessa WC (June 1995). "Functional analysis of the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase promoter. Sp1 and ...
Barañano DE, Snyder SH (2001). "Neural roles for heme oxygenase: Contrasts to nitric oxide synthase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... "Expression of heme oxygenase isozyme mRNAs in the human brain and induction of heme oxygenase-1 by nitric oxide donors". J. ...
Inhibition is probably achieved by enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity. Calcium is a cofactor (ligand) in this activity. ...
Bogdan, Christian (2015-03-01). "Nitric oxide synthase in innate and adaptive immunity: an update". Trends in Immunology. 36 (3 ...
Nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) also known as carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase ... "Entrez Gene: NOS1AP nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein". Arking DE, Pfeufer A, Post W, Kao WH, Newton-Cheh C, ... This gene encodes a cytosolic protein that binds to the signaling molecule, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This protein ... Jaffrey SR, Benfenati F, Snowman AM, Czernik AJ, Snyder SH (March 2002). "Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase localization mediated ...
Structure of nitric oxide synthase oxygenase dimer with pterin and substrate. Science. 1998 Mar 27;279(5359):2121-6. According ...
"Hydrogen sulfide cytoprotective signaling is endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide dependent". PNAS. 111 (Early ... Alp, Nicholas; Channon (2003). "Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by tetrahydrobiopterin in vascular disease". ... nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO).) The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and ... Though both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide have been shown to relax blood vessels, their mechanisms of action are ...
Exposure of red blood cells to physiological levels of shear stress activates nitric oxide synthase and export of nitric oxide ... 2006). "Red blood cells express a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Blood. 107 (7): 2943-51. doi:10.1182/blood- ... Red blood cells can also synthesize nitric oxide enzymatically, using L-arginine as substrate, as do endothelial cells. ... Ulker P, Sati L, Celik-Ozenci C, Meiselman HJ, Baskurt OK (2009). "Mechanical stimulation of nitric oxide synthesizing ...
Rho-kinase also decreases nitric oxide synthase activity, which reduces nitric oxide concentrations. Lower levels of nitric ... "Rho-kinase mediates hypoxia-induced downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Circulation. 106 (1): 57-62. doi: ... "Nitric oxide activity is deficient in spasm arteries of patients with coronary spastic angina". Circulation. 94 (3): 266-71. ... oxide are present in spastic coronary arteries. L-type calcium channel expression increases in spastic vascular smooth muscle ...
... is also known to indirectly inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase. A trial found no difference between ... Effects on nitric oxide synthases". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93 (24): ...
... the vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase produces nitric oxide from L-arginine in the presence of oxygen. This nitric ... Förstermann U, Münzel T (April 2006). "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular disease: from marvel to menace". ... Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP in cell signaling and drug development". The New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (19): 2003-11. ... Nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase signaling also leads to anti-inflammatory effects. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), ...
"Potentiometric Analysis of the Flavin Cofactors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase†". Biochemistry. 38 (50): 16413-8. doi: ...
... functions as an inhibitor of diamine oxidase and nitric oxide synthase. It acts to reduce levels of advanced ...
Sun Youn, Hyung (2011). "Mercury induces the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase". Biomedical ... "Cigarette smoke induces cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase in human lung fibroblasts: Implications for ...
Li, Erqiu; Zhou, Ping; Singer, Steven M. (2005-12-19). "Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Necessary for Elimination ofGiardia ... Nitric oxide does not kill the parasite, but it inhibits the growth of trophozoites as well as excystation and encystation. The ... Giardia protects its own growth by reducing the formation of the gas nitric oxide by consuming all local arginine, which is the ... Host defense against Giardia consists of natural barriers, production of nitric oxide, and activation of the innate and ...
"PDZ-dependent activation of nitric-oxide synthases by the serotonin 2B receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (13 ...
Liu J, Sessa WC (1994). "Identification of covalently bound amino-terminal myristic acid in endothelial nitric oxide synthase ...
Regunathan S, Piletz JE: Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and agmatine synthesis in macrophages and astrocytes. ... Role of nitric oxide in additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and morphine. Physiol Behav. 2013 May 14;118C:52-57. doi: ...
... γ-hydroxybutyrate receptor function studied by the modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in rat frontal cortex punches ...
... an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity". International ...
Formation of Donors of Nitric and Nitrous Oxides and Possible Relevance to Nitrous Oxide Formation by Nitric Oxide Synthase". ... Nitric Oxide. 2 (4): 270-86. doi:10.1006/niox.1998.0187. PMID 9851368.. ... Southan, G; Srinivasan, A (1998). "Nitrogen Oxides and Hydroxyguanidines: ...
Another theory about the cause of HACE is that hypoxia may induce nitrous oxide synthase.[24] Vasodilation is caused by the ... release of nitric oxide and adenosine.[12] This in turn can increase vascular permeability and causes edema. This may combine ...
It has been demonstrated that peroxisomes generate superoxide (O2•−) and nitric oxide (•NO) radicals.[10][11] ... Corpas FJ, Barroso JB, del Río LA (Apr 2001). "Peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signal ... "Functional implications of peroxisomal nitric oxide (NO) in plants". Frontiers in Plant Science. 5: 97. doi:10.3389/fpls. ... "Cellular and subcellular localization of endogenous nitric oxide in young and senescent pea plants". Plant Physiology. 136 (1 ...
Corpas FJ, Barroso JB, del Río LA (Apr 2001). "Peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signal ... Isopenicillin N synthase. *Columbamine oxidase. *Reticuline oxidase. *Sulochrin oxidase *(+)-bisdechlorogeodin-forming. *(-)- ... or with another biological radical such as nitric oxide (NO) or with a transition-series metal. The superoxide anion radical (O ...
The generation of animals that lack both Endothelium Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1, a protein that ... Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of arteries, increased evidence for the role of another ...
Activation of CB1 enhances AMT activity through increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and subsequent increase of NO ...
... superoxide is often produced with nitric oxide. In the presence of nitric oxide, the reduction of cytochrome c3+ is inhibited.[ ... an intermediate made through the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide.[36] Presence of peroxynitrite, H2O2, or nitrogen ... implications for superoxide measurements in nitric oxide-producing biological systems". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics ... Citrate synthase. *Aconitase. *Isocitrate dehydrogenase. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. *Succinyl CoA synthetase. *Succinate ...
Exposure of red blood cells to physiological levels of shear stress activates nitric oxide synthase and export of nitric oxide, ... 2006). "Red blood cells express a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Blood. 107 (7): 2943-51. doi:10.1182/blood- ... Red blood cells can also synthesize nitric oxide enzymatically, using L-arginine as substrate, as do endothelial cells.[35] ... Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin, nitric oxide, catecholamines and high concentrations of urea. ...
Inhibition by N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine of nitric oxide synthase expression in cultured cells and in the anaesthetized rat ...
Nitric oxide. Granule neurons have high levels of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. This enzyme is dependent on ... the presence of calcium and is responsible for the production of nitric oxide (NO). This neurotransmitter is a negative ...
... of GAD autoantibodies to animals increases the excitability of motoneurons and impairs the production of nitric oxide (NO), a ...
Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation. *Methylidyne radical. *Nitric oxide. *Nitrogen (molecular) ... SAM is then converted to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by the enzyme ACC synthase (ACS). The activity of ACS ... Ethylene oxide is also hydrolyzed to produce ethylene glycol, widely used as an automotive antifreeze as well as higher ... Ethylene is oxidized to produce ethylene oxide, a key raw material in the production of surfactants and detergents by ...
"Nitric oxide and cardiovascular effects: new insights in the role of nitric oxide for the management of osteoarthritis". ... the Gene mutated will result in an aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive, which is normally not.[22][23][24][25][26] GRA ... It seems that inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis may also play a role in cortisol induced hypertension.[21] ...
... endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin receptor A and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor. Mutations in interleukin 6 may ...
... role of inducible nitric oxide synthase". Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 57 Suppl 5 (5): 125-36. PMID 17218764.. ... "15-epi-lipoxin A4-mediated induction of nitric oxide explains how aspirin inhibits acute inflammation". The Journal of ... Almost any buffering agent used in antacids can be used; Bufferin, for example, uses magnesium oxide. Other preparations use ... officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, PTGS) enzyme required for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. ...
Water-soluble derivatives of C60 were discovered to exert an inhibition on the three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, with ... Alexandru D.P. Papoiu: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by water-soluble derivatives of C60. PhD dissertation, Rutgers ...
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. • ... nitric oxide metabolic process. • response to fatty acid. • leukotriene metabolic process. • toll-like receptor 2 signaling ...
Further, our studies established the dependence of the central CB1R-mediated pressor response on neuronal nitric oxide synthase ...
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (endothelial NOS). *Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3). *Angiotensin converting enzyme ... but through mediation of shear stress-induced nitric oxide release. Another protective function throughout the cardiovascular ...
Biological functions of nitric oxide Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) Nitric oxide synthase 2 (inducible) PDB: 3N5P​; ... Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L- ... "Nitric oxide down-regulates hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression". Arch Surg. 132 (11): 1177-83. doi: ... which is then recaptured to enable nitric oxide release. The first nitric oxide synthase to be identified was found in neuronal ...
... and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells". J. Ethnopharmacol. 83 (1-2): 153-159. doi:10.1016/S0378- ...
Nitric oxide synthase *NOS1. *NOS2. *NOS3. *Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. *Methane monooxygenase ... Hydroxylation of Ring-Deuterated Phenylalanines by Tyrosine Hydroxylase Provide Evidence against Partitioning of an Arene Oxide ...
"Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha mediates redox sensitivity of inducible nitric-oxide synthase gene transcription". The Journal ...
Ascorbic acid attenuates aspirin-induced gastric damage: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006,. ... 血栓素合成酶抑制劑(英語:Thromboxane synthase inhibitors)(雙嘧達莫、吡考他胺(英語:Picotamide)) · 受體拮抗劑(英語:Thromboxane receptor antagonist)(Terutroban( ... 15-epi-lipoxin A4-mediated Induction of Nitric Oxide Explains How Aspirin Inhibits Acute Inflammation. J.
Biological functions of nitric oxide Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) Nitric oxide synthase 2 (inducible) PDB: 3N5P​; ... Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L- ... "Nitric oxide down-regulates hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression". Arch Surg. 132 (11): 1177-83. doi: ... which is then recaptured to enable nitric oxide release. The first nitric oxide synthase to be identified was found in neuronal ...
Structures: Nitric-oxide synthase, eukaryote (IPR012144). PDBe. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for the 3-D ...
Nitric oxide synthase activity in human breast cancer.. Thomsen LL1, Miles DW, Happerfield L, Bobrow LG, Knowles RG, Moncada S. ... Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by a family of isoenzymes (NO synthases) expressed in a wide range of mammalian cells. We have ... In this study we have assessed the activity and distribution of NO synthase in a series of human breast tumours and in normal ... Thus NO synthase is expressed in human breast tumours, where its presence correlates with tumour grade. ...
Proteins matched: Nitric oxide synthase, N-terminal (IPR004030) This domain is found in the following proteins: Showing 1 to 20 ... Nitric oxide synthase, endothelial. Ovis aries (Sheep). Loading... P79290 Nitric oxide synthase, inducible. Sus scrofa (Pig). ... Nitric oxide synthase, brain. Homo sapiens (Human). Loading... P29476 3D Nitric oxide synthase, brain. Rattus norvegicus (Rat) ... Nitric oxide synthase, inducible. Mus musculus (Mouse). Loading... P35228 3D Nitric oxide synthase, inducible. Homo sapiens ( ...
Dynamic activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by Hsp90.. García-Cardeña G1, Fan R, Shah V, Sorrentino R, Cirino G, ... Here we show that Hsp90 associates with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and is rapidly recruited to the eNOS complex ... Inhibition of signalling through Hsp90 attenuates both agonist-stimulated production of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent ... by agonists that stimulate production of nitric oxide, namely vascular endothelial growth factor, histamine and fluid shear ...
Nitric oxide is derived from L-arginine by isoforms of nitric-oxide synthase (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39): constitutive (cNOS; calcium- ... Inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase and nitric-oxide synthase in inflammation. J R Vane, J A Mitchell, I Appleton, A Tomlinson ... Inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase and nitric-oxide synthase in inflammation. J R Vane, J A Mitchell, I Appleton, A Tomlinson ... Inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase and nitric-oxide synthase in inflammation. J R Vane, J A Mitchell, I Appleton, A Tomlinson ...
Nitric oxide synthase is a small molecule with a double covalent bond between nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In most cases, nitric ... Its production in epithelial cells is controlled by epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Nitric oxide synthase is bound in ... Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is employed by the body to stall the growth of cells in gastric epithelial, breast, and ... Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is continuously recycled to produce NO, as the NO is stable for mere seconds before being ...
Term: nitric-oxide synthase, inducible. ID: PIRSF000333 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF ...
... synthase activities were measured in right ventricular tissue from 17 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). A significant ... activity of inducible enzyme was accompanied by a low activity of the constitutive NO synthase. Thus, the myocardium … ... Nitric oxide synthase activities in human myocardium Lancet. 1993 Jan 9;341(8837):84-5. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)92559-c. ... Myocardial constitutive and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase activities were measured in right ventricular tissue from 17 ...
... regulates nitric oxide (NO) synthesis that has dual biological activities: as an important signalling molecule in ... Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Nitric Oxide Synthase - Simple Enzyme-Complex Roles, Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, IntechOpen, ... Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Nitric Oxide Synthase - Simple Enzyme-Complex Roles, Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, IntechOpen, ... Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a flavo‐hemoprotein, regulates nitric oxide (NO) synthesis that has dual biological activities: as ...
It is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is found in main three isoforms, namely endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible ... Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenic product from plants, bacteria, and animal cells that has many important effects in those ... Bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) inhibitors. Bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) is present in many Gram-positive ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors, Nitric Oxide Synthase - Simple Enzyme-Complex Roles, Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, IntechOpen, ...
Nitric oxide synthase synonyms, Nitric oxide synthase pronunciation, Nitric oxide synthase translation, English dictionary ... definition of Nitric oxide synthase. n. See synthetase. n an enzyme that catalyses a process of synthesis ... Nitric oxide synthase - definition of Nitric oxide synthase by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Nitric+ ... redirected from Nitric oxide synthase). Also found in: Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to Nitric oxide ...
inducible nitric oxide synthase;. Mtb,. Mycobacterium tuberculosis;. BCG,. bacillus Calmette-Guérin;. IFN-γ,. interferon-γ;. ... Identification of nitric oxide synthase as a protective locus against tuberculosis. John D. MacMicking, Robert J. North, Ron ... Identification of nitric oxide synthase as a protective locus against tuberculosis. John D. MacMicking, Robert J. North, Ron ... Identification of nitric oxide synthase as a protective locus against tuberculosis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
... Mohammad Badran,1 Bisher Abuyassin,1 Saeid Golbidi ... U. Förstermann and T. Münzel, "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular disease: from marvel to menace," Circulation, vol ... A. Daiber, M. Oelze, S. Daub et al., "Vascular redox signaling, redox switches in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ... S. Varadharaj, K. Porter, A. Pleister et al., "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling: a novel pathway in OSA induced ...
Are nitric oxide synthase inhibitors good for depressed rodents? ... Bupropion and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. ... NO is synthesized from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), as a response to activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ... RATIONALE: There is some strong evidence about the role of nitric oxide (NO) as an intercellular messenger in central ...
Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide Synthase, and Superoxide Dismutase. A Matter of Imbalance Underlies Endothelial Dysfunction in ... Oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin leads to uncoupling of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase in hypertension. J Clin Invest. ... oxidase and uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). There is also increased expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1), ... effects on vascular tetrahydrobiopterin availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase coupling. Circulation. 2006; 114: ...
... ,The NOS assay kit measures NOS activity by monitoring the ... Mouse Anti-Thymidylate Synthase Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3A7.A11 from Abcam. 2. Mouse Anti-Bovine Complex V ( ... F1F0 ATP Synthase) Heart Mitochondria Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 12F4AD8AF8 from MitoScience LLC. 3. Histone ...
Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase attenuates the development of morphine tolerance in rats by. Santamarta MT, ... These results demonstrate that subchronic administration of a neuronal inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase attenuates the ... an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in vivo, on mu-opioid receptor tolerance induced by subchronic treatment with ... Our previous results have shown the involvement of nitric oxide in acute opioid desensitization of mu-opioid receptors in vitro ...
... ... "Cholecystokinin Inhibits Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages," ...
Designing inhibitors to specifically target one of the three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes that form nitric oxide from ... Nitric oxide is a key signaling molecule in many biological processes, making regulation of nitric oxide levels highly ... Nitric oxide is a key signaling molecule in many biological processes, making regulation of nitric oxide levels highly ... endothelial Nitric-oxide synthase. A, B. 415. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: NOS3. EC: 1.14.13.39. ...
Crystal structure of calmodulin-neuronal nitric oxide synthase complex. Valentine, K.G., Ng, H.L., Schneeweis, L., Kranz, J.K. ... Calmodulin bound to peptide from neuronal nitric oxide synthase. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2O60/pdb ... Peptide corresponding to calmodulin binding domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. B ...
The Structure of Nitric Oxide Synthase Oxygenase Domain and Inhibitor Complexes. By Brian R. Crane, Andrew S. Arvai, Ratan ... The Structure of Nitric Oxide Synthase Oxygenase Domain and Inhibitor Complexes. By Brian R. Crane, Andrew S. Arvai, Ratan ... The Structure of Nitric Oxide Synthase Oxygenase Domain and Inhibitor Complexes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... The nitric oxide synthase oxygenase domain (NOSox) oxidizes arginine to synthesize the cellular signal and defensive cytotoxin ...
Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases, which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two nitric ... which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two nitric oxide synthase isoforms (1 and 3) are normally expressed in the ... During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of nitric oxide synthase 2 in multiple cell types in the ... During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of nitric oxide synthase 2 in multiple cell types in the ...
Nitric oxide synthase, inducible. Details. Name. Nitric oxide synthase, inducible. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. Protein. ... Nitric oxide synthase, inducible. P35228. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. ...
Plasma nitric oxide concentrations and nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in coronary artery disease. Clin Chem. 2000; 46 ... Genetic contribution of the endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene to plasma nitric oxide levels. Arterioscler ... Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotype and Ischemic Heart Disease. Juan P. Casas, Leonelo E. Bautista, Steve E. Humphries ... Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotype and Ischemic Heart Disease. Juan P. Casas, Leonelo E. Bautista, Steve E. Humphries ...
... our appreciation of the diverse roles of nitric oxide (NO) continues to grow. Recent findings have not only expanded our ... understanding of the mechanisms controlling the expression of NO synthases (NOS) in innate and adaptiv … ... Nitric oxide synthase in innate and adaptive immunity: an update Trends Immunol. 2015 Mar;36(3):161-78. doi: 10.1016/j.it. ... Keywords: B cells; NOS2/iNOS; NOS3/eNOS); Th17 cells; antimicrobial activity; microenvironment; myeloid cells; nitric oxide ...
... rho GTPase function inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. As a result, rho GTPase ... preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase ... Nitric Oxide Synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that produces nitric oxide from the substrate L-arginine. As ... Nitric Oxide Synthase and/or a non-rho GTPase function inhibitor agent that increases endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase ...
Nitric Oxide Produced by THAL Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits TGF. Hong Wang, Oscar A. Carretero, Jeffrey L. Garvin ... Expression of immunoreactive nitric oxide synthase isoforms in rat kidney. Effects of dietary salt and losartan. Jpn Heart J. ... Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the macula densa is an important modulator of TGF. ... Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the macula densa decreases tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). NO ...
I-NOS stands for Inducible Form of Nitric-Oxide Synthase. I-NOS is defined as Inducible Form of Nitric-Oxide Synthase rarely. ... How is Inducible Form of Nitric-Oxide Synthase abbreviated? ... www.acronymfinder.com/Inducible-Form-of-Nitric_Oxide-Synthase-( ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Inducible-Form-of-Nitric_Oxide-Synthase-(I_NOS).html,I-NOS,/a,. ... 2019 https://www.acronymfinder.com/Inducible-Form-of-Nitric_Oxide-Synthase-(I_NOS).html ...
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity through a mechanism other ... preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase ... Nitric Oxide Synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction that produces nitric oxide from the substrate L-arginine. As ... cell Nitric Oxide Synthase and/or a nonHMG-CoA reductase inhibitor agent that increases endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase ...
  • Nitric oxide is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that Hsp90 associates with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and is rapidly recruited to the eNOS complex by agonists that stimulate production of nitric oxide, namely vascular endothelial growth factor, histamine and fluid shear stress. (nih.gov)
  • Its production in epithelial cells is controlled by epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). (wisegeek.com)
  • It is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is found in main three isoforms, namely endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). (intechopen.com)
  • In large measure it results from increased oxidative stress in the vascular wall mostly attributable to activation of vascular reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). (ahajournals.org)
  • Background- Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene may influence the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), but data from published studies with individually low statistical power are conflicting. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5,6 Also, mice in which the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene has been deleted have an increased susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis independently of blood pressure changes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chronic psychological stress cause erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering recent evidence that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels are increased in serum of patients with ED, the present study investigated the effects of infliximab (a TNF-α blocker) on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunoreactivity of rat penile corpus cavernosum in unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). (nature.com)
  • Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is primarily attributable to constitutive expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We sought to determine whether Pin1 interacts with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells in a manner that depends on proline-directed phosphorylation of the eNOS enzyme and whether this interaction influences basal or agonist-stimulated eNOS activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), through generation of the vasodilating and vasculoprotective molecule nitric oxide (NO), plays a key role in blood pressure control and in protection from atherosclerotic lesion formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In liver cirrhosis, down-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been implicated as a cause of increased intrahepatic resistance. (wiley.com)
  • In humans, there are three isoforms of NOS enzymes which function in different parts of the body: neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS or NOS-3) and a cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS-2). (biovision.com)
  • They use transgenic mice producing prolactin in the liver and show that overexpression of the prolactin transgene leads to higher circulating levels of the vasoinhibin, which upregulates blood pressure by modulating the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). (frontiersin.org)
  • The data suggesting that hyperprolactinemia results in higher circulating vasoinhibin levels which, in turn, induce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, lower eNOS phosphorylation/activation, and reduce nitric oxide production are novel, and they complement information regarding endocrine circuits in the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis and their relevance for cardiovascular function ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that NO produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) may regulate blood flow in addition to that produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Genetic polymorphisms in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are linked with expression and/or progression of renal disease. (rti.org)
  • The enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of arginine, oxygen and NADPH to NO and citrulline. (biologists.org)
  • In support of this hypothesis, the recycling enzymes, argininosuccinate synthase (AS) and argininosuccinate lyase (AL), have been shown to colocalize with eNOS in caveolae, a subcompartment of the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of NO from the amino acid arginine in endothelial cells, plays a key role in vasoregulation as well as in other important physiological processes such as angiogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • endothelial ( eNOS or nitric oxide synthase type III) which is a calcium -dependent form found primarily in endothelial cells . (emf-portal.org)
  • Popular Abstract in Swedish Septisk shock (shock utlöst av blodförgiftning) är en potentiellt dödlig komplikation till infektion med bakterier eller andra mikroorganismer. (dissertations.se)
  • Popular Abstract in Swedish Den första beskrivningen av diabetes mellitus gjordes redan 1500 före Kristus när en faraos läkare noterade att myror samlade sig omkring urin från vissa människor men inte andras. (dissertations.se)
  • article{3c8821f7-b937-4771-9421-6f8f45026837, abstract = {The present study examined the effects of exogenous insulin on C-peptide release in relation to islet activities of neural constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ncNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). (lu.se)
  • Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is continuously recycled to produce NO, as the NO is stable for mere seconds before being neutralized by water molecules. (wisegeek.com)
  • nitric oxide synthases (NOS1/nNOS. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the macula densa decreases tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). (ahajournals.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the macula densa is an important modulator of TGF. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using primary cortical cultures from transgenic neuronal NO synthase (NOS) null (nNOS-) mice, we definitively establish NO as a mediator of NMDA and hypoxic neurotoxicity. (jneurosci.org)
  • A newly synthesized isoquinolinesulfonamide, HMN-1180 (1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-7-methylhomopiperazine), was shown to have selective inhibitory action against rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with a K i value of 5.4 μM. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that inhibition of nNOS activity is due to direct binding of the compound to the l -arginine binding site of the synthase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To examine a putative role for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in early vertebrate development we investigated nNOS mRNA expression and cGMP production during development of the zebrafish Danio rerio. (lu.se)
  • Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase are neuroprotective, as they reduce the availability of the free radical NO. Compounds in this class include hydrophilic vitamin C and hydrophobic Vitamin E. These and other molecules have been investigated with the hope of slowing neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease. (wisegeek.com)
  • Designing inhibitors to specifically target one of the three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes that form nitric oxide from the L-Arg substrate poses a significant challenge due to the overwhelmingly conserved active sites. (rcsb.org)
  • In the instant invention, rho GTPase function inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • As a result, rho GTPase function inhibitors are useful in treating or preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase. (google.ca)
  • In the instant invention, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity through a mechanism other than preventing the formation of oxidative-LDL. (google.com)
  • Previous results on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Background -Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) causes endothelial dysfunction in part by decreasing the availability of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). Although HMG CoA reductase inhibitors restore endothelial function by reducing serum cholesterol levels, it is not known whether they can also directly upregulate endothelial NO synthase (ecNOS) activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Immune responses induced with Ag in CFA are markedly augmented in the presence of inducible NO synthase (NOS2) inhibitors or when using NOS2 −/ − mice. (rupress.org)
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase (NO synthase) Inhibitors - Pipeline Insights, 2017" provides in depth insights on the pipeline drugs and their development activities around the Nitric Oxide Synthase (NO synthase) Inhibitors. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This report also provides detailed information on the discontinued and dormant drugs that have gone inactive over the years for Nitric Oxide Synthase (NO synthase) Inhibitors. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This report also assesses the Nitric Oxide Synthase (NO synthase) Inhibitors therapeutics by Monotherapy, Combination products, Molecule type and Route of Administration. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The ability of IFN-gamma to inhibit replication of ectromelia, vaccinia, and herpes simplex-1 viruses in mouse macrophages correlated with the cells' production of nitric oxide (NO). Viral replication was restored in IFN-gamma-treated macrophages exposed to inhibitors of NO synthase. (sciencemag.org)
  • NOS catalyzes the reaction: 2 L-arginine + 3 NADPH + 1 H+ + 4 O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2 citrulline +2 nitric oxide + 4 H2O + 3 NADP+ NOS isoforms catalyze other leak and side reactions, such as superoxide production at the expense of NADPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular messenger nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized endogenously from l -arginine by three isoforms of the enzyme NO synthase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We evaluated the time course of changes in 3 isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) after SAH in monkeys. (ahajournals.org)
  • Insulin feedback actions: complex effects involving isoforms of islet nitric oxide synthase. (lu.se)
  • A common variant in exon 7 of the endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene: Identification by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Disruption of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene affects ovulation, fertilization and early embryo survival in a knockout mouse model," Reproduction, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several such pathways may function as activators of a common protective gene: inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). (pnas.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase, inducible is an enzyme which is encoded by the NOS2 gene in humans and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • They lack the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) and are susceptible to murine CMV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterial extracts can stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) gene transcription. (rupress.org)
  • Induction of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase gene by intratracheal instillation of silica, coal, titanium-dioxide and carbonyl iron. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of various respirable dusts on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was analyzed to determine if there is a difference in the ability each dust to increase expression of the iNOS gene in alveolar macrophages (AM) and neutrophils. (cdc.gov)
  • Epigenetic regulation of nitric oxide synthase-the gene responsible for nitric oxide production-may be affected by air pollutants and contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and wheeze. (harvard.edu)
  • Gene transfer of recombinant endothelial nitric oxide synthase to liver in vivo and in vitro. (labome.org)
  • Smith R, Agata J, Xia C, Chao L, Chao J. Human endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene delivery protects against cardiac remodeling and reduces oxidative stress after myocardial infarction. (labome.org)
  • Doshi A, Ziolo M, Wang H, Burke E, Lesinski A, Binkley P. A promoter polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein expression in failing human myocardium. (labome.org)
  • To clarify the role of this pathway, the growth levels of Chlamydia trachomatis organisms in normal (iNOS +/+ ) mice and in genetically engineered mice lacking the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene (iNOS −/− mice) were compared. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the association of inducible nitric oxide synthases ( iNOS) gene repeat polymorphisms with asthma. (bmj.com)
  • 30 mg/kg/12 h, i.p., 3 days), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in vivo, on mu-opioid receptor tolerance induced by subchronic treatment with morphine in rats. (opioids.com)
  • The nitric oxide synthase oxygenase domain (NOS ox ) oxidizes arginine to synthesize the cellular signal and defensive cytotoxin nitric oxide (NO). Crystal structures determined for cytokine-inducible NOS ox reveal an unusual fold and heme environment for stabilization of activated oxygen intermediates key for catalysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Computer model showing the dimeric structure of murine nitric oxide synthase oxygenase (yellow, pink-red). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Oxidative stress pathway genes can modify the effect of oxidative damage at many stages of carcinogenesis ( 4 ), including tumor initiation due to the genotoxicity of reactive oxygen species, tumor promotion by oxidants and free radicals, inflammatory responses mediated by oxide synthase and oxygenase, inhibition of intercellular communication regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation, and alteration of the extracellular matrix involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • administering to a subject in need of such treatment a rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject, provided that the rho GTPase function inhibitor is not an agent selected from the group consisting of a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, a protein kinase C inhibitor, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and cyclosporin. (google.ca)
  • Whereas the activity of the constitutive brain and endothelial cell NO synthases are mainly regulated posttranslationally by cytoplasmic Ca 2+ levels or phosphorylation by a variety of protein kinases, the inducible NO synthase is regulated primarily at a transcriptional level. (springer.com)
  • Before and during treatment nitric oxide synthase activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein, cGMP, nitrate plus nitrite and interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels were measured in urine. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Because of the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammatory states such as parasitic and hypersensitivity disorders and the fact that eosinophils are one of the cell types implicated, we asked whether eosinophils were able to express mRNA specific to inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and iNOS protein and to secrete nitric oxide. (jimmunol.org)
  • Conformational changes induced by this mechanism are initiated by proline-directed phosphorylation of serines or threonines immediately preceding proline in substrate proteins by one of a large family of proline-directed protein kinases, which include the cyclin-dependent kinases, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and glycogen synthase kinase 3. (ahajournals.org)
  • This report summarizes some of the current information regarding NO synthase structure-function, reaction mechanism, control of catalysis, and protein interactions. (labome.org)
  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase (i NOS ) has previously been shown to contribute to atherosclerotic lesion formation and protein nitration . (rsc.org)
  • Human chondrocytes were derived from OA cartilage and were treated with EGCG (100 microM) and IL-1beta (2 ng/ml) for different periods, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA and protein expression was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes produce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a flavo‐hemoprotein, regulates nitric oxide (NO) synthesis that has dual biological activities: as an important signalling molecule in vasodilatation and neurotransmission at low concentrations and at higher concentrations as a defensive cytotoxin. (intechopen.com)
  • The electron flow in the NO synthase reaction is: NADPH → FAD → FMN → heme → O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are multiple potential sources of reactive species in the myocardium including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, NADPH oxidases, and uncoupled nitric oxide synthases (NOS), while the antioxidant (reducing) defenses include glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and thioredoxin. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2 L-arginine + 3 NADPH + 4 O 2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + 3 NADP + + 4 H 2 O. (uniprot.org)
  • Organ-specific and stage-dependent control of Leishmania major infection by inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocyte NADPH oxidase. (ajtmh.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nifedipine inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Previous studies demonstrating a correlation between CD4 + -T-cell-mediated inhibition of chlamydial growth and gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-mediated induction of nitric oxide synthase suggested a potential role for the nitric oxide (NO) effector pathway in the clearance of Chlamydia from genital epithelial cells by the immune system. (asm.org)
  • Acute amelioration of diabetic endothelial dysfunction with a derivative of the nitric oxide synthase cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Peroxynitrite induces destruction of the tetrahydrobiopterin and heme in endothelial nitric oxide synthase: transition from reversible to irreversible enzyme inhibition. (labome.org)
  • This study determined the effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, progesterone, and interferon tau (IFNT) on expression of NO synthases ( NOS1 , NOS2 , and NOS3 ), guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase ( GCH1 , the key enzyme in de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, a cofactor for NO production), and ornithine decarboxylase ( ODC1 ) in uterine endometria in cyclic ewes (Days 10-16) and pregnant ewes (Days 10-20). (bioone.org)
  • After discovery of nitric oxide as a biological mediator many researchers have focused on the importance of nitric oxide in the physiology of the nervous system [ 1 - 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • 1,2 Nitric oxide (NO) from the endothelium is considered an important atheroprotective mediator, and acquired defects in NO generation associated with cardiovascular risk factors cause endothelial dysfunction and may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1993. Nitric oxide: An inflammatory mediator of glomerular mesangial cells. (springer.com)
  • Nitric oxide as a mediator of relaxation of the corpus cavernosum in response to nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmission. (nature.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is known to act as a mediator of tissue injury as well as being a potent endogenous vasodilator. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived biologic mediator that is shown to be induced in various cell types and to cause many metabolic changes in target cells. (rupress.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO·), an important mediator of inflammation, and β-catenin, a component of the Wnt-adenomatous polyposis coli signaling pathway, contribute to the development of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO·) is a diverse biological mediator with important roles in vascular biology, inflammation, and cancer ( 1 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by numerous different cell types, and it is an important regulator and mediator of many processes including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and murine macrophage- mediated cytotoxicity for microbes and tumor cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Microdialysis fibers served as control, iNOS inhibited (1400 W), neuronal NO synthase inhibited (N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine), and nonselective NOS inhibited (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Immunohistochemical investigations revealed immunolabelling with a monoclonal antibody to murine inducible NO synthase predominantly within tumour-associated macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Thirty years after the discovery of its production by activated macrophages, our appreciation of the diverse roles of nitric oxide (NO) continues to grow. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence in animals and humans indicates that atherosclerosis and intimal thickening, evoked by mechanical injury of the media, lead to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or macrophages within the arterial wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • Compound was tested for inhibition of inducible Nitric oxide synthase in activated murine macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (ajtmh.org)
  • Significant interactions with vegetable and fruit intake were mainly found for genetic polymorphisms on nitric oxide synthase ( NOS ) genes among those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Terms used for the search (which were all MeSH terms) were "nitric oxide synthase," "ischemic heart disease," "coronary heart disease," and "myocardial infarction" combined with "genetic," "polymorphism," "mutation," or "genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methylation of 12 CpG sites in three NOS (nitric oxide synthase) genes was measured using a bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction Pyrosequencing assay. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions: \(PM_{2.5}\) exposure was associated with percent DNA methylation of several CpG loci in NOS genes, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism through which these pollutants may alter production of nitric oxide. (harvard.edu)
  • To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Inflammatory disorders can lead to carcinogenesis through activation of "prosurvival genes," including cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2 ) and inducible nitric oxide synthase ( iNOS ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BH4 is a cofactor for creating nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes necessary for creating nitric oxide (Alp, 2004). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In certain conditions, the NOS enzymes may become uncoupled, shifting from production of nitric oxide to superoxide anion, a potent free radical and oxidant. (frontiersin.org)
  • Long-term oral administration of L-arginine increases nitric oxide related enzymes and metabolites in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, which is associated with a decrease in interstitial cystitis related symptoms. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • RESULTS: After 2 weeks to 1 month of oral L-arginine treatment, urinary levels of nitric oxide synthase related enzymes and products increased significantly, while levels of the cytokine IL-8 were not changed significantly. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Since the quite recent characterization of the terminal and specific prostaglandin synthases, which act downstream of COX enzymes, the search for molecular targets which selectively suppress individual prostanoids has been intensified. (diva-portal.org)
  • an important mechanism is through vascular endothelial dysfunction characterized by impaired nitric oxide (NO) production, which can ultimately lead to atherosclerosis [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma-induced pulmonary inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • It is produced in the human body by a two-step synthesis from the amino acid arginine , catalyzed by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). (wisegeek.com)
  • NO is synthesized from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), as a response to activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by excitatory amino acids. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) (EC 1.14.14.47, nitric oxide synthetase, NO synthase) is an enzyme with systematic name L-arginine,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric-oxide-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • In paired studies, we exercised sheep on a treadmill at a speed of 4 mph, and measured blood flow and pressures across the pulmonary circulation with and without inhibition of NO synthase (N omega-nitro-L-arginine 20 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.]), alpha receptor blockade (phentolamine 5 mg i.v.), beta receptor blockade (propranolol 1 mg i.v.), and combined alpha and beta receptor blockade. (jci.org)
  • Effect of long-term oral L-arginine on the nitric oxide synthase pathway in the urine from patients with interstitial cystitis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • PURPOSE: We attempted to determine whether oral L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthase, increases nitric oxide synthase activity and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the urine from interstitial cystitis patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • N -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester ( l -NAME, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg iv) and N -monomethyl- l -arginine ( l -NMMA, 0.73 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) antagonists, caused insulin resistance in rats. (physiology.org)
  • L-NMMA (NG-Methyl-L-arginine, acetate salt) competitively inhibits nitric oxide synthase in a wide range of cells. (biotium.com)
  • Insulin release stimulated by L-arginine, the substrate for constitutive NO-synthase (cNOS)-catalyzed NO-production, was increased by the selective NOS-inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and suppressed by the intracellular NO donor hydroxylamine. (dissertations.se)
  • The effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G -monomethyl- L -arginine ( L -NMMA) on dynamic autoregulation was compared with that of noradrenaline titrated to result in a similar rise in blood pressure. (portlandpress.com)
  • Finally, as well established in murine cells, IFN-γ activates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of antimicrobial reactive nitrogen intermediates, including nitric oxide (NO) from l -arginine ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NO from L-arginine in biological systems, and has been a potential target for inhibition. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) generated through the cytokine-inducible pathway has been increasingly recognized to play an important role in immune regulation in models of autoimmune disease and T cell tolerance ( 17 )( 18 )( 19 )( 20 )( 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by a family of isoenzymes (NO synthases) expressed in a wide range of mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • Stuehr D. Mammalian nitric oxide synthases. (labome.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously produced in mammalian airways by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is known to regulate many aspects of human asthma, including the modulation of airway and vascular smooth muscle tone and the inflammation. (niscair.res.in)
  • The present study showed that vitamin D levels were deficient in schizophrenics and had an inverse correlation between vitamin D levels, thyroid antibodies, inflammatory markers and homocysteine levels while positive correlation between nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and glutathione. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO), a free-radical gas produced by many cell types, mediates blood vessel relaxation, functions as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system mediates macrophage cytotoxicity during host defence and leads to tissue injury in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (springer.com)
  • Nitric oxide synthase is expressed in epithelial cells of the liver, lung and bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, epithelial cells with no detectable NO synthesis restricted viral replication when transfected with a complementary DNA encoding inducible NO synthase or treated with organic compounds that generate NO. In mice, an inhibitor of NO synthase converted resolving ectromelia virus infection into fulminant mousepox. (sciencemag.org)
  • Asthmatic patients show an increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in airway epithelial cells and an increased level of NO in exhaled air. (niscair.res.in)
  • Exposure of mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increases nitric oxide (NO) production, which is proposed to play a role in the resulting pulmonary damage and inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO in this lung reaction, the responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOS KO) versus C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice to aspirated LPS + IFN-gamma were compared. (cdc.gov)
  • Protective vascular and cardiac effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with hyperhomocysteinemia. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mice deficient in phagocyte oxidase (phox) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which are primary macrophage killing mechanisms, generated tissue granulomas but showed unrestrained Leishmania donovani visceral replication and suboptimal initial responsiveness to antimony treatment. (ajtmh.org)
  • Here we show that uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase-3 (NOS3) plays a major role in pressure load-induced myocardial ROS and consequent chamber remodeling/hypertrophy. (jci.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase-1 (NOS1) is involved in several forms of plasticity including hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, experience-dependent plasticity in the barrel cortex, and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and neocortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • 13. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering an endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase substrate. (google.ca)
  • Nitric oxide is a key signaling molecule in many biological processes, making regulation of nitric oxide levels highly desirable for human medicine and for advancing our understanding of basic physiology. (rcsb.org)
  • The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of literature related to the role of nitric oxide (NO) in renal physiology and pathophysiology. (eurekaselect.com)
  • O ur previous results have shown the involvement of nitric oxide in acute opioid desensitization of mu-opioid receptors in vitro. (opioids.com)
  • The isoform most consistently associated with neoplasia is the inducible form, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent findings have not only expanded our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the expression of NO synthases (NOS) in innate and adaptive immune cells, but have also revealed new functions and modes of action of NO in the control and escape of infectious pathogens, in T and B cell differentiation, and in tumor defense. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Nitric oxide is a reactive free radical mediating in neurotransmission, antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of tumor cell growth and antimicrobial activity has been attributed to the stimulation of the inducible type of the NO synthase (NOS). (rupress.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces leg glucose uptake but not blood flow during dynamic exercise in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase activity in human breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we have assessed the activity and distribution of NO synthase in a series of human breast tumours and in normal breast tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium-dependent (constitutive) and -independent (inducible) NO synthase activity, as well as NO biosynthesis, was high in invasive tumours compared with benign or normal tissue. (nih.gov)
  • One fear is that by decreasing the activity of nitric oxide synthase, neurons may be protected but memories may be lost. (wisegeek.com)
  • A significant activity of inducible enzyme was accompanied by a low activity of the constitutive NO synthase. (nih.gov)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the amount is sufficient to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity above normal baseline levels. (google.ca)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein the subject has a condition comprising an abnormally low level of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity which is chemically induced. (google.ca)
  • 12. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering at least one different rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.ca)
  • 14. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering a non-rho GTPase function inhibitor agent that increases endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • administering to a nonhypercholesterolemic subject in need of such treatment a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.com)
  • In this study, we have investigated NO synthase activity and its cellular localization in malignant and nonmalignant human gynecological tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase activity was observed in malignant tissue, was highest (≥250 pmol/min/g tissue) in poorly differentiated tumors, and was below detectable levels in normal gynecological tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This was associated with NO synthase activity and localized to tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dail WG, Barba V, Leyba L, Galindo R . Neural and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in rat penile erectile tissue. (nature.com)
  • Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients. (bmj.com)
  • Chronic or dysregulated inflammation may contribute to tumour initiation and progression via the release and activity of various mediators - e.g. cytokines, prostaglandins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). (diva-portal.org)
  • Sullivan J, Smart E, Pollock D, Pollock J. Influence of salt on subcellular localization of nitric oxide synthase activity and expression in the renal inner medulla. (labome.org)
  • 7] Ehren, I., Adolfsson, J. and Wiklund, N.P. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the human urogenital tract. (degruyter.com)
  • Slc11a1 -mediated reistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Leishmania donovani infections do not require functional inducible nitric oxide synthase or phagocyte oxidase activity. (ajtmh.org)
  • The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induces the production of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) in human chondrocytes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In papers I-II, the role and regulation of inducible prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) synthase - mPGES-1 - were explored within the context of intestinal cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • Effects of inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on basal retinal blood flow regulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. (mdpi.com)
  • The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. (mdpi.com)
  • 2] Xie, Q. and Nathan, C. The high-output nitric oxide pathway: role and regulation. (degruyter.com)
  • Aminoguanidine selectively inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Dilek N, Dilek A, Taşkın Y, Erkinüresin T, Yalçın Ö, Saral Y. Contribution of myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase to pathogenesis of psoriasis. (termedia.pl)
  • Therefore, these results could be valuable in elucidating the role of nitric oxide in asthma pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Inhibition of signalling through Hsp90 attenuates both agonist-stimulated production of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • This enzyme catalyses the production of nitric oxide. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The hypothesis was tested that insulin sensitivity, previously shown to depend on a functional hepatic parasympathetic reflex, was mediated by hepatic production of nitric oxide (NO). Insulin sensitivity was measured using the rapid insulin sensitivity test. (physiology.org)
  • Lithium chloride (LiCl), an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, increased cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin level, NOS2 expression, and NO· production in primary human and rat hepatocytes and cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. (mdpi.com)
  • Islet constitutive nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production. (dissertations.se)
  • The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the transduction signalling of insulin and glucagon release by stimulating or inhibiting islet endogenous NO-production as well as by using NO donors. (dissertations.se)
  • 1994. Expression of nitric oxide synthase in rat glomerular mesangial cells mediated by cyclic AMP. (springer.com)
  • 1994. Two distinct signaling pathways trigger the expression of nitric oxide synthase in rat renal mesangial cells. (springer.com)
  • Stimulation of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in human hepatocytes by cytokines and endotoxin. (rupress.org)
  • These studies support the hypothesis that CFA immunization modulates immune responses through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. (rupress.org)
  • Because many cholinergic effects are mediated through nitric oxide (NO), we tested the hypothesis that this parasympathetic reflex control of HISS release is also mediated through NO in the liver. (physiology.org)
  • We used a recently described transcranial Doppler technique, which allows non-invasive measurement of dynamic cerebral autoregulation, to test the hypothesis that nitric oxide mediates cerebral autoregulation. (portlandpress.com)
  • The rise in COX and NOS activities in the skin during the acute phase reinforces the proinflammatory role for prostanoids and suggests one also for nitric oxide. (pnas.org)
  • R ATIONALE: There is some strong evidence about the role of nitric oxide (NO) as an intercellular messenger in central physiological mechanisms. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • In addition to its functions as a neuronal messenger molecule, nitric oxide (NO) has also been implicated in playing a major role in ischemic damage and glutamate neurotoxicity. (jneurosci.org)
  • 6 Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays an important role in determining nitrosative stress, as it produces large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in response to environmental stimuli. (bmj.com)
  • Reduced nitric oxide release may play a role in the impaired cerebral autoregulation seen in patients with, or at risk of, cerebral ischaemia. (portlandpress.com)
  • 7-NI is a selective inhibitor for the brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS). (biotium.com)
  • L-NIL (N6-(1-Iminoethyl)-lysine, hydrochloride) is a potent and selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that exhibits about 28-fold greater selectivity for inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50 = 3.3 uM) than for the rat brain constitutive enzyme (IC50 = 92 uM). (biotium.com)