A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The act of BREATHING out.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.
Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.

Nitric oxide stimulates the stress-activated protein kinase p38 in rat renal mesangial cells. (1/20782)

Nitric oxide (NO) has gained increased attention as a diffusible universal messenger that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we reported that exogenous NO is able to activate the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascade in mesangial cells. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of glomerular mesangial cells to compounds releasing NO, including spermine-NO and (Z)-1- (N-methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]diazen)-1-ium-1,2-diolate (MAHMA-NO), results in an activation of the stress-activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) cascade as measured by the phosphorylation of the activator of transcription factor-2 (ATF2) in an immunocomplex kinase assay. Activation of the p38-MAPK cascade by a short stimulation (10 min) with the NO donor MAHMA-NO causes a large increase in ATF2 phosphorylation that is several times greater than that observed after stimulation with interleukin-1beta, a well-known activator of the p38-MAPK pathway. Time course studies reveal that MAHMA-NO causes rapid and maximal activation of p38-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation and that activation declines to basal levels within 60 min. The longer-lived NO donor spermine-NO causes a comparable rapid activation of the p38-MAPK pathway; however, the increased activation state of p38-MAPK was maintained for several hours before control values were reattained after 24 h of stimulation. Furthermore, the NO donors also activated the classical extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) p44-MAPK cascade as shown by phosphorylation of the specific substrate cytosolic phospholipase A2 in an immunocomplex kinase reaction. Both MAHMA-NO and spermine-NO cause a rapid activation of p44-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation. Interestingly, there is a second delayed peak of p44-MAPK activation after 4-24 h of stimulation with NO donors. These results suggest that there is a differential activation pattern for stress-activated and mitogen-activated protein kinases by NO and that the integration of these signals may lead to specific cell responses.  (+info)

Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats. (2/20782)

The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (3/20782)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Evidence for a vasopressin system in the rat heart. (4/20782)

Traditionally, a hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system is thought to be the exclusive source of arginine vasopressin (AVP), a potent antidiuretic, vasoconstricting, and growth-stimulating neuropeptide. We have identified de novo synthesis of AVP in the heart as well as release of the hormone into the cardiac effluents. Specifically, molecular cloning of sequence tags amplified from isolated, buffer-perfused, and pressure-overloaded rat hearts allowed the detection of cardiac AVP mRNA. Subsequent experiments revealed a prominent induction of AVP mRNA (peak at 120 minutes, 59-fold, P<0. 01 versus baseline) and peptide (peak at 120 minutes, 11-fold, P<0. 01 versus baseline) in these isolated hearts. Newly induced vasopressin peptide was localized most prominently to endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells of arterioles and perivascular tissue using immunohistochemistry. In addition to pressure overload, nitric oxide (NO) participated in these alterations, because inhibition of NO synthase by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester markedly depressed cardiac AVP mRNA and peptide induction. Immediate cardiac effects related to cardiac AVP induction in isolated, perfused, pressure-overloaded hearts appeared to be coronary vasoconstriction and impaired relaxation. These functional changes were observed in parallel with AVP induction and largely prevented by addition of a V1 receptor blocker (10(-8) mol/L [deamino-Pen1, O-Me-Tyr2, Arg8]-vasopressin) to the perfusion buffer. Even more interesting, pressure-overloaded, isolated hearts released the peptide into the coronary effluents, offering the potential for systemic actions of AVP from cardiac origin. We conclude that the heart, stressed by acute pressure overload or NO, expresses vasopressin in concentrations sufficient to cause local and potentially systemic effects.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation in the rat. (5/20782)

We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide discovered in pheochromocytoma cells, stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in the rat kidney. To further investigate whether the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanisms of AM-induced vasodilation, we examined the effects of E-4021, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on AM-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings and perfused kidneys isolated from Wistar rats. We also measured NO release from the kidneys using a chemiluminescence assay. AM (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) relaxed the aorta precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. Denudation of endothelium (E) attenuated the vasodilatory action of AM (10(-7) mol/L AM: intact (E+) -25.7+/-5.2% versus denuded (E-) -7. 8+/-0.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with 10(-8) mol/L E-4021 augmented AM-induced vasorelaxation in the intact aorta (-49. 0+/-7.9%, P<0.05) but not in the denuded one. E-4021 also enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in the rat intact aorta (10(-7) mol/L ACh -36.6+/-8.4% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-7) mol/L ACh -62.7+/-3.1%, P<0.05). In perfused kidneys, AM-induced vasorelaxation was also augmented by preincubation with E-4021 (10(-9) mol/L AM -15.4+/-0.6% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L AM -23.6+/-1.2%, P<0.01). AM significantly increased NO release from rat kidneys (DeltaNO: +11.3+/-0.8 fmol. min-1. g-1 kidney at 10(-9) mol/L AM), which was not affected by E-4021. E-4021 enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9) mol/L ACh -9.7+/-1.7% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L ACh -18.8+/-2.9%, P<0.01) but did not affect ACh-induced NO release from the kidneys. In the aorta and the kidney, 10(-4) mol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor, and 10(-5) mol/L of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the vasodilatory effect of AM. These results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanism of AM-induced vasorelaxation, at least in the rat aorta and kidney.  (+info)

Overexpression of CuZn superoxide dismutase protects RAW 264.7 macrophages against nitric oxide cytotoxicity. (6/20782)

Initiation of nitric oxide (NO.)-mediated apoptotic cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages is associated with up-regulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) and down-regulation of cytosolic copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) at their individual mRNA and protein levels. To evaluate the decreased CuZnSOD expression and the initiation of apoptosis we stably transfected macrophages to overexpress human CuZnSOD. Individual clones revealed a 2-fold increase in CuZnSOD activity. Expression of a functional and thus protective CuZnSOD was verified by attenuated superoxide (O2(.)-)-mediated apoptotic as well as necrotic cell death. In this study we showed that SOD-overexpressing macrophages (R-SOD1-12) were also protected against NO.-initiated programmed cell death. Protection was substantial towards NO. derived from exogenously added NO donors or when NO. was generated by inducible NO synthase activation, and was evident at the level of p53 accumulation, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Stimulation of parent and SOD-overexpressing cells with a combination of lipopolysaccharide and murine interferon gamma produced equivalent amounts of nitrite/nitrate, which ruled out attenuated inducible NO. synthase activity during protection. Because protection by a O2(.)--scavenging system during NO. -intoxication implies a role of NO. and O2(.)- in the progression of cell damage, we used uric acid to delineate the role of peroxynitrite during NO.-elicited apoptosis. The peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid left S-nitrosoglutathione or spermine-NO-elicited apoptosis unaltered, blocking only 3-morpholinosydnonimine-mediated cell death. As a result we exclude peroxynitrite from contributing, to any major extent, to NO. -mediated apoptosis. Therefore protection observed with CuZnSOD overexpression is unlikely to stem from interference with peroxynitrite formation and/or action. Unequivocally, the down-regulation of CuZnSOD is associated with NO. cytotoxicity, whereas CuZnSOD overexpression protects macrophages from apoptosis.  (+info)

Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like-tyrosine kinase is mediated by nitric oxide in rat renal mesangial cells. (7/20782)

Under conditions associated with local and systemic inflammation, mesangial cells and invading immune cells are likely to be responsible for the release of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the glomerulus. To further define the mechanisms of NO action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes which are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT-1) to be under the regulatory control of exogenously applied NO in these cells. Using S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) as an NO-donating agent, VEGF expression was strongly induced, whereas expression of its FLT-1 receptor simultaneously decreased. Expressional regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA was transient and occurred rapidly within 1-3 h after GSNO treatment. Expression of a second VEGF-specific receptor, fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1/KDR), could not be detected. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta mediated a moderate increase in VEGF expression after 24 h and had no influence on FLT-1 expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor had no effect on VEGF expression, but strongly induced FLT-1 mRNA levels. Obviously, there is a differential regulation of VEGF and its receptor FLT-1 by NO, cytokines and growth factors in rat mesangial cells.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model. (8/20782)

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury was studied in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. The inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically detected on hepatocytes around blood vessels in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS not on hepatocytes in mice injected with D-GalN or LPS alone, although mRNA for iNOS was found in those mice. Nitrotyrosine (NT) was also found in livers of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. The localization of NT was consistent with that of iNOS, and the time courses of NT and iNOS expression were almost the same. Expression of iNOS and NT was detected exclusively in the hepatic lesions of mice injected with D-GalN and LPS. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing antibody inhibited iNOS and NT expression and hepatic injury. The results suggested that NO from iNOS may play a role in LPS-induced hepatic injury on D-GalN-sensitized mice as an experimental endotoxic shock model.  (+info)

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

The symptoms of PFCS can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes)
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Poor feeding and weight gain
* Fatigue and lethargy
* Low blood pressure
* Abnormal heart rhythms

PFCS is often diagnosed during the newborn period, and treatment may involve a combination of medications, oxygen therapy, and surgical interventions. In some cases, PFCS may be associated with other congenital anomalies, such as heart defects or intestinal atresias.

The prognosis for PFCS varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any additional anomalies. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Example Sentence: The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and began treatment with medication to lower her blood pressure and improve her symptoms.

Word class: Noun phrase / medical condition

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

In some cases, hyperemia can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. For example, if hyperemia is caused by an inflammatory or infectious process, it may lead to tissue damage or organ dysfunction if left untreated.

Hyperemia can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, muscles, organs, and other tissues. It is often diagnosed through physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for hyperemia depends on its underlying cause, and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery.

In the context of dermatology, hyperemia is often used to describe a condition called erythema, which is characterized by redness and swelling of the skin due to increased blood flow. Erythema can be caused by various factors, such as sun exposure, allergic reactions, or skin infections. Treatment for erythema may include topical medications, oral medications, or other therapies depending on its underlying cause.

Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.

Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:

1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.

Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

Shock refers to a severe and sudden drop in blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. There are several types of shock, including hypovolemic shock (caused by bleeding or dehydration), septic shock (caused by an overwhelming bacterial infection), and cardiogenic shock (caused by a heart attack or other cardiac condition).

Septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms including fever, chills, and confusion. Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, which is the body's systemic inflammatory response to an infection. Septic shock is characterized by severe vasopressor (a medication used to increase blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure), and it can lead to multiple organ failure and death if not treated promptly and effectively.

In summary, shock refers to a drop in blood pressure, while septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream. Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, and it can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly and effectively.

MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.

The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.

The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.

The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.

Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.

In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

Endotoxemia can occur in individuals who have a severe bacterial infection, such as pneumonia or meningitis, or those who have a prosthetic device or other foreign body that becomes infected with gram-negative bacteria. Treatment of endotoxemia typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In severe cases, medications such as corticosteroids and vasopressors may be used to help reduce inflammation and improve blood flow.

Endotoxemia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients.

Types of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus include:

1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of streptozotocin, a chemical that damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of alloxan, a chemical that also damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
3. Pancreatectomy-induced diabetes: In this type of EDM, the pancreas is surgically removed or damaged, leading to loss of insulin production and high blood sugar levels.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus has several applications in research, including:

1. Testing new drugs and therapies for diabetes treatment: EDM allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments on blood sugar control and other physiological processes.
2. Studying the pathophysiology of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the progression of diabetes and its effects on various organs and tissues.
3. Investigating the role of genetics in diabetes: Researchers can use EDM to study the effects of genetic mutations on diabetes development and progression.
4. Evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic techniques: EDM allows researchers to test new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels.
5. Investigating the complications of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the development of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

In conclusion, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus is a valuable tool for researchers studying diabetes and its complications. The technique allows for precise control over blood sugar levels and has numerous applications in testing new treatments, studying the pathophysiology of diabetes, investigating the role of genetics, evaluating new diagnostic techniques, and investigating complications.

... of Nitric Oxide in the Diabetic Foot New Discoveries About Nitric Oxide Can Provide Drugs For Schizophrenia Nitric Oxide at the ... The binding of nitric oxide to the heme region of the enzyme leads to activation, in the presence of iron. Nitric oxide is ... Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO. It is one of the principal oxides of ... A sample containing nitric oxide is mixed with a large quantity of ozone. The nitric oxide reacts with the ozone to produce ...
In humans, nitric oxide is produced from L-arginine by three enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS): inducible (iNOS), ... September 2004). "Epithelial inducible nitric oxide synthase activity is the major determinant of nitric oxide concentration in ... "Effect of an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on differential flow-exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic patients and ... standardized procedures for the online and offline measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide and nasal nitric oxide ...
Biological functions of nitric oxide Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) Nitric oxide synthase 2 (inducible) PDB: 3N5P​; ... Nitric oxide synthases (EC (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L- ... "Nitric oxide: cytokine-regulation of nitric oxide in host resistance to intracellular pathogens" (PDF). Immunol. Lett. 43 (1-2 ... "Nitric oxide down-regulates hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression". Arch Surg. 132 (11): 1177-83. doi: ...
... may refer to: Nitric oxide synthase Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) This set index page lists ...
... (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate (NO− 3) . ... "Nitric-oxide dioxygenase activity and function of flavohemoglobins. sensitivity to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide inhibition ... "Constitutive and adaptive detoxification of nitric oxide in Escherichia coli. Role of nitric-oxide dioxygenase in the ... A 'nitric oxide dioxygenase' is an enzyme that is capable of carrying out this reaction. NO dioxygenase belongs to the family ...
Nitric oxide reductase, an enzyme, catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). The enzyme participates ... Nitric oxide reductase is in Class 1, therefore it is an oxidoreductases. Nitric oxide reductase belongs to the family of ... Shiro Y (October 2012). "Structure and function of bacterial nitric oxide reductases: nitric oxide reductase, anaerobic enzymes ... Nitric oxide reductase (cytochrome c)), NADPH (EC:, or Menaquinone (EC: Nitric oxide reductase was assigned ...
Nitric Oxide is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society. The journal covers the ... Official website Nitric Oxide Society v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 8 ... broad field of nitric oxide and other similar gaseous signaling molecules such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide. ...
... (SNOE ("snowy"), also known as Explorer 72, STEDI-1 and UNEX-1), was a NASA small scientific ... satellite which studied the concentration of nitric oxide in the thermosphere. It was launched in 1998 as part of NASA's ...
... (EC is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 2 nitric ... oxide + menaquinol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } nitrous oxide + menaquinone + H2O Nitric oxide reductase contains ... Nitric+oxide+reductase+(menaquinol) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC ... Al-Attar S, de Vries S (July 2015). "An electrogenic nitric oxide reductase". FEBS Letters. 589 (16): 2050-7. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... and potential therapeutic applications of nitric oxide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and related nitric oxide- ... COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs), also known as NO-NSAIDs, are a new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ... CINODs are compounds generated by the fusion of an existing NSAID with a nitric oxide (NO)-donating moiety by chemical means, ... COX-Inhibiting Nitric Oxide-Donator (CINOD) for Relief of Pain and Inflammation "NicOx pipeline: product portfolio". Archived ...
... (EC is an enzyme with systematic name nitrous oxide:ferricytochrome-c ... Nitric+oxide+reductase+(cytochrome+c) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ... Heiss B, Frunzke K, Zumft WG (June 1989). "Formation of the N-N bond from nitric oxide by a membrane-bound cytochrome bc ... Cheesman MR, Zumft WG, Thomson AJ (March 1998). "The MCD and EPR of the heme centers of nitric oxide reductase from Pseudomonas ...
Nitric oxide synthase is expressed in epithelial cells of the liver, lung and bone marrow. It is inducible by a combination of ... Nitric oxide synthase, inducible is an enzyme which is encoded by the NOS2 gene in humans and mice. Three related pseudogenes ... "Entrez Gene: NOS2A nitric oxide synthase 2A (inducible, hepatocytes)". Nathan, C. (2006-06-30). "Role of iNOS in Human Host ... They lack the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) and are susceptible to murine CMV infection. In February 2020, the ...
In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase, (although the ... Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) synthesize the metastable free radical nitric oxide (NO). Three isoforms are known for the NOS ... Monitoring nitric oxide status by saliva testing detects the bioconversion of plant-derived nitrate into nitric oxide. A rise ... Nitric oxide is a potential therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic lung infections. Nitric oxide is a compound produced ...
... (EC, nitric oxide synthetase, NO synthase) is an enzyme with systematic ... 2 nitric oxide + NAD(P)+ + 2 H2O Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) binds heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) and ... "Bacterial flavodoxins support nitric oxide production by Bacillus subtilis nitric-oxide synthase". The Journal of Biological ... Nitric-oxide+synthase+(NAD(P)H-dependent) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ...
... (EC, fungal nitric oxide reductase, cytochrome P450nor, NOR ( ... "Spectroscopic and kinetic studies on reaction of cytochrome P450nor with nitric oxide. Implication for its nitric oxide ... Nitric+oxide+reductase+(NAD(P),+nitrous+oxide-forming) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... ambiguous)) is an enzyme with systematic name nitrous oxide:NAD(P) oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. H.K. Kalant; W.H.E. Roschlau ( ... and nitrogen oxides, but lower levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study found that directly ...
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis modulation. Both differential inhibition and activation of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms is reported. ... Satriano J (July 2004). "Arginine pathways and the inflammatory response: interregulation of nitric oxide and polyamines: ... Nitric Oxide. 35: 65-71. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2013.08.005. PMC 3844099. PMID 23994446. Demady DR, Jianmongkol S, Vuletich JL, ... nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this provides bases for further research into potential applications. ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. v t e (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. Russo EB (February 2008). " ...
Wareham, Lauren K.; Southam, Hannah M.; Poole, Robert K. (2018-09-06). "Do nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide ... Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. ISSN 1089-8603. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. Stromeyer, ... which releases CO and leaves behind zinc oxide and calcium oxide: Zn + CaCO3 → ZnO + CaO + CO Silver nitrate and iodoform also ... One method developed at DTU Energy uses a cerium oxide catalyst and does not have any issues of fouling of the catalyst. 2 CO2 ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. Nowak, Josef (1881). Lehrbuch der ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. "APS Member History". search. ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. Rideal, Samuel (1895). Disinfection and Disinfectants, p. 59. J.B ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. Retrieved 6 November 2022 - via ... Carbon monoxide causes endothelial cell and platelet release of nitric oxide, and the formation of oxygen free radicals ... Haldane J (November 1895). "The Action of Carbonic Oxide on Man" (PDF). The Journal of Physiology. 18 (5-6): 430-62. doi: ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. Klein, Andy (December 2, 1999). " ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. ISSN 1089-8603. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. Chen H (2018). " ... process through a chemical reaction between nicotine and other compounds contained in the uncured leaf and various oxides of ...
Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. "Father Arsene did cut his stick ...
... is a nitric oxide donor. Also, Roussin's Black Salt exhibits antibacterial activity in some food ... Nitric Oxide. 10 (1): 42-50. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2004.01.009. PMID 15050534. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). ...
carbonous oxyd The name carbonous oxyd relative to carbonic acid was once considered analogous to nitrous oxide to nitric acid ... September 2016). "The emerging role of gasotransmitters in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis". Nitric Oxide. 59: 28-41. doi: ... Nitric Oxide. 111-112: 45-63. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2021.04.001. PMID 33838343. S2CID 233205099. Beddoes, T (1797). The Analytical ... Cavendish essentially defined potassium oxide or calcium oxide as a base, which can contain a fixated air within its ...
"The direct release of nitric oxide by gypenosides derived from the herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum". Nitric Oxide. 3 (5): 359-365 ...
Observations Concerning the Photochemical Decomposition of Nitric Oxide (PhD thesis). California Institute of Technology. ...
Other natural soil gases include nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ammonia. Some environmental contaminants below ... Furthermore, concentration of other gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide, are relatively minor yet significant in ...
All the precipitates, except for HgS, are soluble in dilute nitric acid. HgS is soluble only in aqua regia, which can be used ... The compounds formed are, respectively, copper(II) carbonate, iron(II) carbonate, iron(III) oxide, calcium carbonate, zinc ... Sulfuric acid may lead to the precipitation of the 5th group cations, whereas nitric acid oxidises the sulfide ion in the ...
... partially decomposed a sample of cerium nitrate by roasting it in air and then treating the resulting oxide with dilute nitric ... Like its neighbor praseodymium, it readily burns at about 150 °C to form neodymium(III) oxide; the oxide peels off, exposing ... Cette raison a engagé M. Mosander à donner au nouveau métal le nom de Lantane." (The oxide of cerium, extracted from cerite by ... Between 1839 and 1843, ceria was shown to be a mixture of oxides by the Swedish surgeon and chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander, who ...
Wakayama Y, Inoue M, Kojima H, Murahashi M, Shibuya S, Oniki H (Nov 2001). "Localization of sarcoglycan, neuronal nitric oxide ...
... and prostaglandins and nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, the UPS also plays a role in inflammatory responses as regulators of ...
... causing skin and white parts of the eyes to turn yellow Inhibits urinary nitrous oxide production and may inhibit nitric oxide ... C at which it starts to emit toxic vapors such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The drug fits inside the protease, ...
Some of these adaptations include unique hemoglobin-binding capacity and doubled nitric oxide production. On 18 April 2014, a ...
Manukhina EB, Downey HF, Mallet RT (April 2006). "Role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular adaptation to intermittent hypoxia". ...
Nitric oxide, NO, is a special case as the molecule is paramagnetic, with one unpaired electron. Coupling of the electron spin ... "The Fundamental Rotation-Vibration Band of Nitric Oxide". Phys. Rev. 56 (11): 1113-1119. Bibcode:1939PhRv...56.1113G. doi: ... The N-N-O bending mode of nitrous oxide, at ca. 590 cm−1 is an example. The spectra of centrosymmetric molecules exhibit ... and nitrous oxide, NNO. Centrosymmetric linear molecules have a dipole moment of zero, so do not show a pure rotation spectrum ...
HAP1 also shows a similar CNS distribution pattern to that of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNos), especially in both of the ... The possible significance of this interaction is that increased HAP1 interaction with muHtt may also increase nitric oxide (NO ... discrete neuronal localizations in the brain resemble those of neuronal nitric oxide synthase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
In 1995, Inspec bought BP's ethylene oxide, and glycol, businesses for £78 million, to become Inspec Ethylene Oxide ... ammonia/nitric acid, Baleycourt, chlorotoluenes, compounds, ethanol, melamines, paraform, salt, solvents and sulphur chemicals ... Ineos is derived from INspec Ethylene Oxide and Specialities, a previous name of the business. It also incorporates one Latin ... In 1998, Ratcliffe, then a director of Inspec, established Ineos for the purpose of purchasing Inspec's ethylene oxide facility ...
... and transformation of ethylene oxide to ethylene glycol in the early 1950s. Ethylene oxide, a gas, was used for synthesis of ... At the time, oxidation processes tended to use expensive oxidants such as nitric acid, chlorine, and pure oxygen. Landau saw ... Propylene oxide is used in polyurethane foams and in rigid polymers. The side products of the reaction include styrene and tert ... In the late 1970s Halcon and Arco planned to build two new plants at Channelview, Texas, one for propylene oxide processing, ...
Accordingly, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity does not directly lead to SNO formation, but rather requires an additional ... Wang, P. G.; Xian, M.; Tang, X.; Wu, X.; Wen, Z.; Cai, T.; Janczuk, A. J. (2002). "Nitric Oxide Donors: Chemical Activities and ... Ernst van Faassen; Anatoly Fyodorovich Vanin (7 May 2007). Radicals for life: the various forms of nitric oxide. Elsevier. pp. ... S-Nitrosylated proteins (SNO-proteins) serve to transmit nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity and to regulate protein function through ...
"Coexpressed nitric oxide synthase and apical beta(1) integrins influence tubule cell adhesion after cytokine-induced injury". ...
These endothelial products include nitric oxide and endothelin-1 that are released in response to either chemical stimuli, like ... While nitric oxide causes vasodilation, endothelin-1 causes vasoconstriction. Below are several examples of differing types of ...
The gasochromic technology is used commercially in reversible smart windows and gas sensing of oxygen, hydrogen, nitric oxide, ... The process involves the interaction of an electrochrome, usually a metal oxide, such as tungsten oxide, with an oxidizing or ...
... as well as nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. This, in summary, shows that meldonium given in acute doses could be beneficial ... which causes nitric oxide production via stimulation of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor or specific gamma- ... Meldonium's vasodilatory effects are thought to be due to the stimulation of the production of nitric oxide in the vascular ... It also reduces the formation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a product of carnitine breakdown that has been implicated in ...
It induces endothelial nitric oxide synthesis by making endothelial cells more permeable to calcium ions, and also induces ...
Saraswati, Mounamurti (2000). "Some of the added benefits of nostril breathing and Nitric Oxide (NO)". New South Wales, ... Saraswati, Mounamurti (2000). "Some of the added benefits of nostril breathing and Nitric Oxide (NO)". New South Wales, ...
... a role for nitric oxide? Physiological importance of nitric oxide Exploring vascular nitric oxide in health and disease Nitric ... Moncada, Salvador (1999). "Nitric oxide: discovery and impact on clinical medicine". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. ... Prior to the discovery of the involvement of nitric oxide, it was believed that high blood pressure was usually a result of ... Vallance, Patrick (2002). "Nitric oxide in the human cardiovascular system-SKB lecture 1997". British Journal of Clinical ...
Sulfuric acid emissions are tens of times lower, and nine times less nitric oxides (NOx) are emitted. Carbon dioxide (CO2) ...
... is difficult to convert to oxides, but the combustion of ammonia gives nitric oxide, which further reacts with oxygen: 4 NH 3 ... Although most metal oxides are crystalline solids, some oxides are molecules. Examples of molecular oxides are carbon dioxide ... One exception is copper, for which the highest oxidation state oxide is copper(II) oxide and not copper(I) oxide. Another ... This applies to binary oxides, that is, compounds containing only oxide and another element. Far more common than binary oxides ...
Nitrogen oxides can be formed as kinetic products in the presence of appropriate catalysts, a reaction of great industrial ... It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ... Ethanolamine is prepared by a ring-opening reaction with ethylene oxide, and when the reaction is allowed to go further it ... Dinitrogen is the thermodynamic product of combustion: all nitrogen oxides are unstable with respect to N2 and O2, which is the ...
This led to a collaboration with Michael Marletta, whose discovery of the enzymatic source of nitric oxide revealed the source ... the role of endogenous nitric oxide in inflammation, cytotoxicity, and DNA damage; and development of new tools for drug ... and the role of nitric oxide in brain pathology, including Alzheimer's Disease and ASD. The Tannenbaum laboratory has made ... Most important was the first discovery of the mammalian synthesis of nitrogen oxides, and its linkage to inflammation and ...
Meurer S, Pioch S, Wagner K, Müller-Esterl W, Gross S (Nov 2004). "AGAP1, a novel binding partner of nitric oxide-sensitive ...
Caranto, Jonathan D.; Lancaster, Kyle M. (2017-08-01). "Nitric oxide is an obligate bacterial nitrification intermediate ... Other evidence reveals that AOB are a possible source of nitric oxide via the oxidation of ammonia. Nitrosomonas europaea is ... Nitrosomonas europaea is also accountable for nitric acid production which can cause the dissolution of some stone and other ... Evidence suggests that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) contribute significantly to the global production of nitrous oxide ( ...
It was also obtained commercially from gasworks spent oxide (purification of city gas from hydrogen cyanide). Treatment of ... potassium ferrocyanide with nitric acid gives H2[Fe(NO)(CN)5]. After neutralization of this intermediate with sodium carbonate ...
Miyagoe-Suzuki Y, Takeda SI (2002). "Association of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with alpha1-syntrophin at the ...
Reacts with water to form nitric acid. Rapidly converted in air to nitrogen dioxide.] ...
Nitric Oxide (UNII: 31C4KY9ESH) (Nitric Oxide - UNII:31C4KY9ESH) Nitric Oxide. 5 mL in 1 L. ... Nitric Oxide Nitrogen Mix. CareFusion. ViaNOx-H 5000ppm Nitric Oxide 5000ppm (0.5% v/v). CAUTION: Contains a New Drug - Limited ... NITRIC OXIDE NITROGEN MIX - nitric oxide nitrogen mix gas Airgas Specialty Gases. ... Compressed Gases, N.O.S. (Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen) UN1956. Topical, Rx Only NOT FOR INHALATION BEYOND THE NASOPHARYNX. Label No ...
A FeNO test measures the amount of nitric oxide, a byproduct of inflammation, in the air you breathe out. Your health care ... A FeNO test measures the amount of nitric oxide, a byproduct of inflammation, in the air you breathe out. Your health care ...
blow air out using maximum effort Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) tests to measure levels of nitric oxide in your breath ... arginine into cells to make a compound called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is important for regulating blood flow and blood ... ... converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to open wider for improved ... ... may reduce the production of a compound called nitric oxide (NO). Normally, nitric oxide causes blood vessels to expand (dilate ...
"nitric oxide"[MeSH Terms] OR ("nitric"[All Fields] AND "oxide"[All Fields]) OR "nitric oxide"[All Fields]. Search. ...
Learn more about nitric oxide and how it might affect type 2 diabetes. ... Make nitric oxide naturally Overall, its not clear that nitric oxide supplements help manage type 2 diabetes. You also might ... Nitric oxide is a gas your body naturally produces. Certain enzymes called nitric oxide synthase break down an amino acid ... Nitric oxide is naturally found in your body and is important for blood vessel health. Nitric oxide supplements help lower ...
The aim of this study was to determine whether we could measure exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels in children, and whether the ... Exhaled nitric oxide measurements in normal and asthmatic children Pediatr Pulmonol. 1997 Nov;24(5):312-8. doi: 10.1002/(sici) ... The aim of this study was to determine whether we could measure exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels in children, and whether the ...
... an inhibitor of nitric oxide production and a scavenger of nitric oxide and superoxide anions. Our laboratory has found that ... Nitric Oxide Inhibitor and Leihmania Pathogenesis. Grant Number: 1R21AI045555-01. PI Name: Marion Chan. Project Title: Nitric ... Current studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite are crucial for elimination of the Leishmania parasites. Rural ... Oxide Inhibitor and Leihmania Pathogenesis. Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a disease common in tropical and sub-tropical countries ...
In the brain, nitric oxide acts as a mediator of cell-cell signalling. In the peripheral nervous system nitr … ... The generation of nitric oxide by the vascular endothelium maintains a vasodilator tone that is essential for the regulation of ... In the brain, nitric oxide acts as a mediator of cell-cell signalling. In the peripheral nervous system nitric oxide is also ... PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE: The generation of nitric oxide by the vascular endothelium maintains a vasodilator tone ...
The mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase / Pedram Ghafourifar. Author: Ghafourifar, Pedram. National Institutes of Health (U.S ...
nitric oxide; nitrogen monoxide; Nitrogen oxide .... Source: ChemIDplus. Deposit Date: 2012-03-21. Available Date: 2012-03-21. ...
... Darko Modun. ,1Daniela Giustarini. ,2and ... Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule with multiple pivotal roles in the cardiovascular and neural systems, as ... With respect to the L-arginine/nitric oxide, children are not small adults [5]. N. K. Kanzelmeyer et al. quantified the L- ... Nitric Oxide-related Oxidative Stress and Redox Status in Health and Disease. View this Special Issue ...
Similar words for Nitric Oxide. Definition: adjective. [ˈnaɪtrɪk] of or containing nitrogen. ... vardenafil and tadalafil increase the amount of nitric oxide in your body. 4. Noun Phrase Your body contains nitric oxide ... Sentences with nitric-oxide 1. Noun Phrase Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid that may increase the amount of nitric ... Your body uses it to make nitric oxide, which helps expand blood vessels and regulate blood flow. 3. Noun Phrase Sildenafil, ...
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Nitric Oxide , NO , CID 145068 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
... inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) were ... The mechanism by which nitric oxide ripens the cervix is unclear. Data presented in chapter 5 demonstrate the effect of nitric ... The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate the potential role of the L-arginine-nitric oxide system in ... The nitric oxide donor isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) administered per vaginam has previously been shown to ripen the human ...
View Rat Genome Database annotations to nitric oxide transport ... 3 RGD objects have been annotated to nitric oxide transport (GO ... An association has been curated linking AQP1 and nitric oxide transport in Sus scrofa. *The association was inferred from ... An association has been curated linking AQP1 and nitric oxide transport in Sus scrofa. *The association was inferred from ... 3 RGD objects have been annotated to nitric oxide transport (GO:0030185). ...
Inhaled Nitric Oxide: Expensive Therapy or Smart Investment?. Aug 9, 2013 , Clinical, Pharmaceuticals, Therapy Devices , ... By having inhaled nitric oxide available, these problems might be diminished. There would be no delay in care, and the baby ... Use of inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatrics. 2000;106:344-345. *Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Levels of neonatal care. Pediatrics ... Efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide for hypoxic respiratory failure in term and late preterm infants by baseline severity of ...
... your body from running out of nitric oxide by providing it with the oxygen and nutrients it requires to boost nitric oxide ... CircO2 Reviews: does circo2 nitric oxide supplement work?. by Marianne Rendón , April 22, 2022 , Sponsored Content , 0 , ... CircO2s composition boosts the synthesis of nitric oxide in your body, which benefits all of your bodys parts, organs, and ... CircO2 increases the amount of nitric oxide in the blood and improves blood flow to all of your bodys organs. ...
Nitric oxide is a very commonly produced compound thats found in each and every cell of the body and is considered to be one ... Browse Articles » Health & Medical » Health Benefits Of Nitric - Oxide Supplements.... Health Benefits Of Nitric - Oxide ... which is another one of the amino acid produced in the body that is a nitric oxide booster. Nitric oxide is mandatory to aid in ... Nitric oxide is a very commonly produced compound thats found in each and every cell of the body and is considered to be one ...
1993) Nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the rat, mouse, cat and squirrel monkey spinal cord. Neuroscience 54:845-857. ... 1998) Nitric oxide mediates behavioral signs of neuropathic pain in an experimental rat model. NeuroReport 9:367-372. ... 1996) Nitric oxide enhances amino acid release from immature chick embryo retina. Neurosci Lett 219:79-82. ... 1994) Increased nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in rat dorsal root ganglia in a neuropathic pain model. Neurosci Lett ...
Nitric oxide (NO) serves either a universal signaling molecule or extremely toxic agent, depending on the dose. Up to date ... Resistance of E. coli cells to superoxide anion and nitric oxide is ... complexes are the most abundant nitric oxide- derived cellular adduct: Biological parameters of assembly and disappearance. ... application of PABA and iron-sulphur-nitrosyl complexes - nitric oxide donors, in which NO can be coordinated or bound with di ...
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Marked flow-dependence of exhaled nitric oxide using a new technique to exclude nasal nitric oxide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med ... exhaled nitric oxide. Asthma affects up to one fifth of children in the UK.1 It is primarily a disorder of allergic ... Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels have been studied by a number of groups as a possible inflammatory marker of asthma control.8- ... Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels. FeNO levels were measured using the single expiratory breath method with a ...
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose ... Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II (Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase). Subscribe to New Research on Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II ... Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase; INOS Enzyme; Inducible NOS Protein; NOS-II; Nitric Oxide Synthase II; Nitric Oxide Synthase, ... Nitric Oxide Synthase: 7043*Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: 3945*human NOS2A protein ...
Nitric oxide synthase-mediated early nitric oxide burst alleviates water stress-induced oxidative damage in ammonium-supplied ... AntioxidantsArginineCitrullineDehydrationNG-Nitroarginine Methyl EsterNitratesNitric OxideNitric Oxide DonorsNitric Oxide ... Role of nitric oxide dependence on nitric oxide synthase-like activity in the water stress signaling of maize seedling. ... TY - JOUR T1 - Nitric oxide synthase-mediated early nitric oxide burst alleviates water stress-induced oxidative damage in ...
Enantioselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of a key segment of neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and several related 3- ... Enantioselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of a key segment of neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and several related 3- ...
Molybdenum enzymes in thiol and nitric oxide signaling. FEBS Open Bio, 8. S. 58 - 59. HOBOKEN: WILEY. ISSN 2211-5463 ...
Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation.. P ... Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation.. P ... Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation.. P ... Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation. ...
  • Using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the expression and localisation of the enzymes responsible for the production of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) were determined in the human uterine cervix during pregnancy and parturition. (bl.uk)
  • Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This was start of a new avenue in my laboratory involving protein nitration, inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrite production in the context of signaling and gene expression in cancer cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Studies that used an NO-synthase inhibitor, which prevents the local conversion of precursor molecules as you can find them in our "Nitrix Oxide Booster" Patch to nitric oxide, found that a lack of nitric oxide production inhibits the release of neurotransmitters like serotonin, which makes you happy, and dopamine, which gets you going (Garthwaite. (rawgoods.org)
  • By increasing the activity of Nitric Oxide synthase, citrus fruits can help enhance the production of Nitric Oxide in the body. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and oxidation of lung proteins were observed. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase with 1400W (1 mg/kg) abrogated the Cl2-induced changes in responsiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase is involved in the induction of changes in responsiveness to methacholine. (cdc.gov)
  • Data are presented indicating that in vitro or in vivo exposure to selected occupational dusts, i.e., crystalline silica, organic dust contaminated with endotoxin, or asbestos , results in upregulation of inducible ntric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the production of NO by alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epitelial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, the efficacy of DFE in inhibiting both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were attributed to its phenolic content. (nih.gov)
  • Data presented in chapter 5 demonstrate the effect of nitric oxide donors administered in the first trimester of pregnancy on the secretion of MMPs (Matrix Metalloproteinases) -2 and -9 and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in the human cervix. (bl.uk)
  • Treatment with the nitric oxide donors spermine nonoate in vitro (non-pregnant cervical biopsies) and isosorbide mononitrate in vivo (pregnant cervical biopsies) had no effect on the secretion of MMPs and TIMPs studied. (bl.uk)
  • The mechanism of action of nitric oxide donors in inducing cervical ripening must therefore be attributable to other mechanisms. (bl.uk)
  • The mechanism of action of nitric oxide donors was further investigated in chapter 6. (bl.uk)
  • In E. coli cells with the combined action of PABA (0.01-5 mM) with nitric oxide donors we observed an inhibition of NO-signaling potency in the SOS (sfiA gene)- and the SoxRS (soxS gene) DNA repair pathway up to 3.5 fold, depending on the dose of PABA. (researchgate.net)
  • Coadministration of nitrates or nitric oxide donors is contraindicated due to risk of hypotension. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on arterial oxygenation and right to left vascular shunt in colic horses undergoing abdominal surgery. (slu.se)
  • Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the parasympathetic inhibitory neurotransmission to the internal and sphincter (IAS). (aspetjournals.org)
  • There is some evidence to suggest that nitric oxide levels can impact cognition and memory . (maleextra.com)
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  • Can Nitric Oxide Help with Erectile Dysfunction? (maleextra.com)
  • Common drugs for erectile dysfunction treatment including Viagra also work by improving nitric oxide levels in the body. (maleextra.com)
  • óxido nítrico)(TT: The year's molecule: 1998 Medicine Nobel Prize) (TA: oxide nitric): An article from: Siempre! (rawgoods.org)
  • Sonication induces vasorelaxation almost completely by time-dependent endothelial nitric oxide and prostacyclin release, which appears unrelated to tissue heating or endothelial architectural disruption. (elsevier.com)
  • Eventually, even the detrimental effects of smoking are partly mediated via the smoking-impaired reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis (Barua. (rawgoods.org)
  • Given this nitric oxide (NO), whereas endothelial derived relationship between endothelial dysfunction and contracting factors are increased 5 . (who.int)
  • In addition, RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary human macrophages equipped with NR β-Gal are able to intracellularly convert β-Gal-NONOate into nitric oxide. (au.dk)
  • Nitric oxide works as a natural vasodilator and can help protect your heart, increase athletic performance and overall energy levels. (maleextra.com)
  • Nitric oxide behaves as a natural vasodilator and expands your arteries for smoother blood flow. (maleextra.com)
  • INHALED nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator with therapeutic importance in pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure. (asahq.org)
  • The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate the potential role of the L-arginine-nitric oxide system in ripening the cervix in humans. (bl.uk)
  • Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a biomediator believed to be synthesized primarily from extracellular arginine. (medscimonit.com)
  • Material/Methods: The murine macrophage cell line N-9 was treated with either arginase or arginine deiminase to determine the effect on intracellular and extracellular arginine and nitric oxide production. (medscimonit.com)
  • It also showed that L-arginine , a precursor to the production of nitric oxide, plays a vital role in the management of age-related degenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. (maleextra.com)
  • It's crucial to choose Nitric Oxide supplements for ED that contain compounds like L-arginine, L-citrulline, and Pycnogenol, which are known to increase Nitric Oxide synthesis. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Nitric oxide-releasing silica nanoparticle inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth. (duke.edu)
  • Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nitric Oxide Support helps protect muscles from oxidation during intense exercise and delay the onset of muscle fatigue. (pureencapsulations.com.sg)
  • to many heme groups-containing proteins, notably hemoglobin, and enzymes, predominantly soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), determines both the metabolic fate and the biological activity of NO. Nitric oxide tremendously activates the sGC which catalyses the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (hindawi.com)
  • NO and your metabolic health: Next to the previously discussed health effects, nitric oxide has also been identified as an important regulator of glucose control. (rawgoods.org)
  • Nitric oxide production is assocated temporarilly and anatomically with pulmonary damange, inflammation, and disease progression in response to occupational dusts. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. Rapid onset of pulmonary edema (Makes nitrogen oxides, yellow-brown, less likely. (cdc.gov)
  • The studies reported in chapter 4 were performed to investigate whether an increase in nitric oxide production occurs in the human cervix in conjunction with cervical ripening. (bl.uk)
  • 0.05) and concentration-dependent, reduced nitric oxide production from acterial-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells was observed with the addition of DFE. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule with multiple pivotal roles in the cardiovascular and neural systems, as well as in inflammatory response. (hindawi.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) serves either a universal signaling molecule or extremely toxic agent, depending on the dose. (researchgate.net)
  • One of the most vital processes in maintaining an erection involves the use of nitric oxide. (maleextra.com)
  • Nitric Oxide is an important component involved in attaining and maintaining an erection. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Recent animal studies have suggested that the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide is involved in this process. (bl.uk)
  • Conflicting evidence has been reported as to whether nitric oxide (NO) possesses anti-inflammatory or inflammatory properties. (cdc.gov)
  • 2001). There's no doubt about the important role of nitric oxide in the maintenance and function of our immune system. (rawgoods.org)
  • Nitric Oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the relaxation of blood vessels and the regulation of blood flow. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Objectives: The current study was designed to evaluate protective role of the ethanolic fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and potentiating its effects with nitric oxide (NO) modulators in experimental arthritis and its comparison with the standard drug methotrexate. (who.int)
  • Role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of dengue. (who.int)
  • Ongoing research continues to examine the role of nitric oxide. (medscape.com)
  • Role of nitric oxide in the progression of pneumoconiosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The measurement of Fractional Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) was one of two NHANES 2007-8 examination components on respiratory health sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institute of Health. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitric Oxide (NO) is a chemical normally produced in the respiratory tract and can be detected in the exhaled breath. (cdc.gov)
  • muscles in the penis require nitric oxide. (maleextra.com)
  • Nitric oxide increases nutrient rich blood flow to your muscles without increasing cardiac demand! (rawgoods.org)
  • Energy levels are boosted with the increase in nitric oxide levels. (maleextra.com)
  • A lack of L-citrulline can lead to depleted levels of nitric oxide indirectly causing your erections to be soft and inadequate. (maleextra.com)
  • NO and your cardiovascular health: Nitric oxide helps you maintain and achieve normal blood pressure levels. (rawgoods.org)
  • Garlic is known for its health benefits, and it also contains compounds that can increase Nitric Oxide levels in the body. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Citrus fruits high in Vitamin C , such as oranges, can increase Nitric Oxide levels in the body. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Dark chocolate is another food that can help boost Nitric Oxide levels. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Some studies have found that nitric oxide helps activate the computational skills of the brain. (maleextra.com)
  • Light-Triggered Nitric Oxide Release by a Photosensitizer to Combat Bacterial Biofilm Infections. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has frequently been associated with secondary damage after brain injury. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Dr. Louis Ignarro won the Nobel Prize for his work with Nitric Oxide. (rawgoods.org)
  • Finally, do Nitric Oxide supplements work for ED? (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • Although the potent antitumor activity of nitric oxide (NO) supports its promise as an antineoplastic agent, effective and selective delivery and action on tumor and not normal cells remains a limiting factor. (duke.edu)
  • born forces take perfectly now more in Moon with the read Nitric Oxide: Methods and Protocols Buckingham Palace is this experience to communicate, as and as), with William's desert to the Mount of Olives to increase his sound students to his racism, Princess Alice of Battenberg. (igel-motorsport.de)
  • Vasodilators or Nitric Oxide (NO2) producers open up (dilate) blood vessels for up to 24 hours. (supplementscanada.com)
  • Nitric oxide has been used by athletes since it was discovered to improve blood flow and overall cardiovascular health. (maleextra.com)
  • Nutritionists and doctors both support the fact that patients who suffer from high blood pressure have an impaired ability to utilize nitric oxide's bioavailability. (maleextra.com)
  • By widening blood vessels , nitric oxide helps improve blood circulation in the body. (maleextra.com)
  • Nitric Oxide supplements can improve blood flow and sexual function. (goodrxmedicine.com)
  • There are numerous health benefits of adding foods rich in nitric oxide in your diet. (maleextra.com)
  • What Are the Health Benefits of Nitric Oxide? (maleextra.com)
  • The studies reported in chapter 2 were performed in order to compare the effectiveness and side effect profile of the nitric oxide donor (IMN) with the prostaglandin analogue gemeprost. (bl.uk)
  • The objective of the nitric oxide data collection was to produce baseline FENO measurements and reference ranges for the U.S. healthy population as well as those with asthma and COPD, and those who are smokers. (cdc.gov)
  • During our very first meeting, he not only shared unresolved puzzles in Nitric Oxide (NO) research but also listened to my questions pointing to protein nitration and nitrosylation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The free radical nitric oxide (‎NO)‎ has emerged in recent years as a fundamental signalling molecule for the maintenance of homeostasis, as well as a potent cytotoxic effector involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. (who.int)
  • Without nitric oxide our brains' neurotransmitters system cannot function properly. (rawgoods.org)