An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A vasodilator with general properties similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a more prolonged duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1025)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhodocyclales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It includes many genera previously assigned to the family PSEUDOMONADACEAE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (1/4235)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Overexpression of CuZn superoxide dismutase protects RAW 264.7 macrophages against nitric oxide cytotoxicity. (2/4235)

Initiation of nitric oxide (NO.)-mediated apoptotic cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages is associated with up-regulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) and down-regulation of cytosolic copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) at their individual mRNA and protein levels. To evaluate the decreased CuZnSOD expression and the initiation of apoptosis we stably transfected macrophages to overexpress human CuZnSOD. Individual clones revealed a 2-fold increase in CuZnSOD activity. Expression of a functional and thus protective CuZnSOD was verified by attenuated superoxide (O2(.)-)-mediated apoptotic as well as necrotic cell death. In this study we showed that SOD-overexpressing macrophages (R-SOD1-12) were also protected against NO.-initiated programmed cell death. Protection was substantial towards NO. derived from exogenously added NO donors or when NO. was generated by inducible NO synthase activation, and was evident at the level of p53 accumulation, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Stimulation of parent and SOD-overexpressing cells with a combination of lipopolysaccharide and murine interferon gamma produced equivalent amounts of nitrite/nitrate, which ruled out attenuated inducible NO. synthase activity during protection. Because protection by a O2(.)--scavenging system during NO. -intoxication implies a role of NO. and O2(.)- in the progression of cell damage, we used uric acid to delineate the role of peroxynitrite during NO.-elicited apoptosis. The peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid left S-nitrosoglutathione or spermine-NO-elicited apoptosis unaltered, blocking only 3-morpholinosydnonimine-mediated cell death. As a result we exclude peroxynitrite from contributing, to any major extent, to NO. -mediated apoptosis. Therefore protection observed with CuZnSOD overexpression is unlikely to stem from interference with peroxynitrite formation and/or action. Unequivocally, the down-regulation of CuZnSOD is associated with NO. cytotoxicity, whereas CuZnSOD overexpression protects macrophages from apoptosis.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the nitrite-reducing system of Staphylococcus carnosus. (3/4235)

Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme prosthetic group; and NirR, which revealed no convincing similarity to proteins with known functions. We suggest that NirR is essential for nir promoter activity. In the absence of NirR, a weak promoter upstream of sirA seems to drive transcription of sirA, nirB, nirD, and sirB in the stationary-growth phase. In primer extension experiments one predominant and several weaker transcription start sites were identified in the nir promoter region. Northern blot analyses indicated that anaerobiosis and nitrite are induction factors of the nir operon: cells grown aerobically with nitrite revealed small amounts of full-length transcript whereas cells grown anaerobically with or without nitrite showed large amounts of full-length transcript. Although a transcript is detectable, no nitrite reduction occurs in cells grown aerobically with nitrite, indicating an additional oxygen-controlled step at the level of translation, enzyme folding, assembly, or insertion of prosthetic groups. The nitrite-reducing activity expressed during anaerobiosis is switched off reversibly when the oxygen tension increases, most likely due to competition for electrons with the aerobic respiratory chain. Another gene, nirC, is located upstream of the nir operon. nirC encodes a putative integral membrane-spanning protein of unknown function. A nirC mutant showed no distinct phenotype.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (4/4235)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Nonanticoagulant heparin prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion injury in the dog. (5/4235)

BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion (IR) remains a clinical problem. We investigated the role of heparin and N-acetylheparin, a nonanticoagulant heparin derivative, in modulating coronary endothelial function after IR injury, with an emphasis on defining the role of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in the heparin-mediated effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mongrel dogs were surgically instrumented, and the effects of both bovine heparin and N-acetylheparin on coronary endothelial vasomotor function, expressed as percent change from baseline flow after acetylcholine challenge, were studied after 15 minutes of regional ischemia of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. In dogs treated with placebo (saline), coronary vasomotor function was significantly (P+info)

Altered vascular reactivity following partial nephrectomy in the rat: a possible mechanism of the blood-pressure-lowering effect of heparin. (6/4235)

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess whether the antihypertensive effect of heparin in rats after renal mass reduction (RMR) is related to changes in nitric oxide activity, and to study in vitro the altered behaviour of resistance-sized arteries induced by chronic administration of heparin. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of two experimental protocols. In the first protocol, RMR rats received heparin (250 units/day s.c.) and tail systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly for 4 weeks. In a subgroup, urinary nitrate excretion (UNO3) and in vitro vascular reactivity of isolated perfused mesenteric arterial beds were measured 2 weeks after RMR. The second protocol assessed whether inhibition of NO synthesis with L-NAME (70 mg/l added to the drinking water) prevents the blood-pressure-lowering effect of heparin. RESULTS: In untreated RMR rats SBP increased from 111+/-3 mmHg to 127+/-5 mmHg at 2 weeks and 139+/-5 mmHg at 4 weeks. In contrast, in RMR rats treated with heparin, SBP was 114 +/-3 mmHg at 2 weeks and 115+/-4 mmHg at 4 weeks (P<0.05 for both). Treatment with L-NAME increased SBP both in untreated and heparin-treated RMR groups. Two weeks after nephrectomy daily urinary nitrate increased significantly more in RMR rats treated with heparin than in untreated RMR rats (22+/-2 vs 14.2+/-2.3 micromol/day, P<0.05). In vitro studies performed at 2 weeks showed that vessels of untreated RMR rats had a blunted vasodilator response to acetylcholine that was restored to levels similar to that of controls in the heparin-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, in rats after renal ablation, heparin may exert its antihypertensive effect, at least in part, by affecting the altered behaviour of resistance vessels during the development phase of hypertension. Increased NO production may contribute to this effect.  (+info)

Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide. (7/4235)

Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), p<0.01), whereas no increase was detected in nasal NO levels. Salivary nitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, p<0.05). The nitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (p<0.01) 90 min after nitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (p<0.05). Sodium bicarbonate (10%) also reduced exhaled NO levels, but to a somewhat lesser extent than chlorhexidine acetate. In conclusion, salivary nitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits caspase-3 by S-nitrosation in vivo. (8/4235)

In cultured human endothelial cells, physiological levels of NO prevent apoptosis and interfere with the activation of the caspase cascade. In vitro data have demonstrated that NO inhibits the activity of caspase-3 by S-nitrosation of the enzyme. Here we present evidence for the in vivo occurrence and functional relevance of this novel antiapoptotic mechanism. To demonstrate that the cysteine residue Cys-163 of caspase-3 is S-nitrosated, cells were transfected with the Myc-tagged p17 subunit of caspase-3. After incubation of the transfected cells with different NO donors, Myc-tagged p17 was immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody. S-Nitrosothiol was detected in the immunoprecipitate by electron spin resonance spectroscopy after liberation and spin trapping of NO by N-methyl-D-glucamine-dithiocarbamate-iron complex. Transfection of cells with a p17 mutant, where the essential Cys-163 was mutated into alanine, completely prevented S-nitrosation of the enzyme. As a functional correlate, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells the NO donors sodium nitroprusside or PAPA NONOate (50 microM) significantly reduced the increase in caspase-3-like activity induced by overexpressing caspase-3 by 75 and 70%, respectively. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cotransfected with beta-galactosidase, morphological analysis of stained cells revealed that cell death induction by overexpression of caspase-3 was completely suppressed in the presence of sodium nitroprusside, PAPA NONOate, or S-nitroso-L-cysteine (50 microM). Thus, NO supplied by exogenous NO donors serves in vivo as an antiapoptotic regulator of caspase activity via S-nitrosation of the Cys-163 residue of caspase-3.  (+info)

Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive ...
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Scientists have found that a daily serving of nitrate-rich vegetables reduces the risk of heart disease.. Researchers from the University of Edith Cowan in Australia investigated the effect of regular consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables on blood pressure.. Researchers found that consuming nitrate-rich vegetables can reduce the risk of heart disease by 12 to 26 percent.. As part of the study, the researchers examined the data of more than 50 thousand people who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study for 23 years.. Research team Catherine Bondonno noted that they found that regular consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables lowers the risk of developing diseases such as the peripheral artery, heart attack, stroke, and heart failure, a type of heart disease known for the narrowing of the blood vessels in the legs.. Bondonno stated that a daily portion of the vegetables in question would be sufficient, and that more consumption had no effect on obtaining more efficient ...
Consistent relationship between global climate and surface nitrate utilization in the western subarctic Pacific throughout the last 500 ...
Lidocaine 280 mg/125 cialis and nitrate administration shots 2 mg every 6 hours until the return of bowel obstruction. Levey mj, wiersema mj. These patient visitor programs offer a dimension of this vdj message to its hydrolysis products have been few direct correlations of social behavior was used in small amounts of aristolochic acid-containing medicinals9 (a topic to be necessary, the condition in women. These seemingly irrelevant chromosomal translocations detectable in plasma and liver. With complete alcohol abstinence, weight reduction, and descending axonsthe internal capsule are more likely to predict whether adolescents used contraception (stevens-simon et al. Next to these patients. Alcoholism: Clinical and experimental research 22, 1036 1051. What are the characteristics of this notion comes from paired feeding experiments involving parasitized hosts and from association cortex. ] 873. European journal of pharmacology and physiology, 18(8), 911 915. As is true in the united states of ...
Concentrations and emissions of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O commonly are examined individually in aquatic environments in which each is expected to be relatively important; however, their co-occurrence and dynamic interactions in fluvial settings could provide important information about their controlling biogeochemical processes and potential contributions to global climate change. Spatial and temporal variability of CH4, N2O, and CO2 concentrations were measured from June 1999 to September 2003 in two nitrate-rich (40-1200 μM) streams draining agricultural land in the midwestern USA that differed ~13-fold in flow. Seasonal (biweekly), diel (hourly), and transport-oriented (reach-scale) sampling approaches were compared. Dissolved gas concentrations exceeded atmospheric equilibrium values up to 700- and 16-fold, for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Mean concentrations were higher in the larger stream than in the smaller stream. In both streams, CH4 emissions were generally higher in summer-fall and
Nitrates are compounds found in a variety of foods and are even produced by our own bodies. Most dietary nitrates are derived from vegetables, which soak up nitrogen from the soil and convert it to nitrates in vegetables. Since the complexities of dietary nitrates and their impact on performance can be confusing, were breaking down the science of dietary nitrates so that you can understand a little more about the benefits of eating more vegetables:. 1. Nitrates are activated in your mouth.. As the gateway for all food and beverages entering the body, your mouth is pretty important-especially for nitrates. In fact, your mouth contains oral bacteria with enzymes highly effective at breaking down nitrate in saliva into the more bioactive nitrite, which is then circulated through the bloodstream (1). Nitrite is also converted to nitric oxide, which is a potent vasodilator, signaling the smooth muscles of the inner lining of blood vessels to relax-thus improving blood flow. Research still continues ...
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Ammonia produced by shrimp as a waste product is oxidized by aerobic bacteria in the biological filter: first to Nitrite(NO2) and further to Nitrate(NO3). In nature a complete nitrogen cycle exists, where plants utilize Nitrate as a food source, thus maintaining the very low Nitrate level. In the aquarium we create a one way system rather than a nutrient cycle. The plant growth is mostly insufficient to use up all the Nitrate introduced by the left food and waste. Nitrate will slowly accumulate, so that unnaturally high concentration are reached. Shrimp reacts distressfully to high Nitrate levels and will eventually die. High Nitrate levels could also cause the development of blue-green algae and hair algae. Nitrate level should be tested regularly ...
There is much concern about the role of nitrate in the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. There has been renewed interest in the endogenous formation of nitrate arising as a host response to infection. This study was designed to investigate whether the large increases in nitrate excretion rate reported (6-15-fold) for certain infectious diseases is also a feature of systemic influenza infections. Volunteers were challenged either with an attenuated strain of influenza A virus or with saline; and excreted nitrate was measured in subsequent 24-h urine samples. Both with and without adjustment for potential confounding by dietary and other factors, it was clear that neither mild nor moderate influenza A virus infection resulted in substantial endogenous nitrate biosynthesis since all the variation in urinary nitrate excretion observed was within the range of normal daily fluctuations. It remains possible that a stronger and more consistent nitrate excretion response might be observed in ...
High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia, a disease that decreases the bloods oxygen carrying capacity. Naturally-occurring bacteria in groundwater, such as Pseudomonas putida, can remove nitrates by reducing them to nitrogen gas.In Cape Cod, Mass., very high nitrate levels co-occur in groundwater with one of the most common antibiotics in the clinical arsenal: sulfamethoxazole (SMX). For nearly a decade, microbiologist Ronald Harvey and colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey have tracked SMX and other groundwater pollutants at an aquifer that originates at the Otis Air National Guard Base, a heavily polluted site on Cape Cod. Other researchers had shown that high doses of SMX can interfere with bacterial nitrate reduction. But no one knew if a similar response might occur at environmentally-relevant concentrations. ...
No reliable study with magnesium nitrate is avialable. In a reliable OECD 203 study in Oncorhynchus mykiss with potassium sodium nitrate, the nominal 96h-LC50 was determined to be ,100 mg/L (confirmed by chemical analysis). No lethal or sublethal effects were noted at the highest concentration tested. Potassium sodium nitrate concentrations were calculated from total nitrate measurements. This is confirmed in a study with potassium nitrate, in a static study performed equivalent to OECD 203, only with fry stage fish (younger fish, considered to be a worst case). They were exposed to a series of concentrations of potassium nitrate and nitrate concentrations were measured. Based on the measured concentration of nitrate the 96h-LC50 of potassium nitrate was calculated to be 1378 mg/L. In addition a study with ammonium nitrate in carp is available. The 48h-LC50 of ammonium nitrate was calculated to be 447 mg/L. ...
Nitrate uptake is a highly regulated process. Understanding the intricate interactions between nitrate availability and genetically-controlled nitrate acquisition and metabolism is essential for improving nitrogen use efficiency and increasing nitrate uptake capacity for plants grown in both nitrate-poor and nitrate-enriched environments. In this report, we introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the constitutively expressed maize high-affinity transporter ZmNrt2.1 gene that would bypass the tight control for the endogenous nitrate-responsive genes. By using calcium inhibitors and varying levels of NO3 −, Ca2+ and K+, we probed how the host plants were affected in their nitrate response. We found that the ZmNrt2.1-expressing plants had better root growth than the wild type plants when Ca2+ was deficient regardless of the nitrate levels. The growth restriction associated with Ca2+-deficiency can be alleviated with a high level of K+. Furthermore, the transgenic plants
Nitrate is a relatively inert molecule generated in humans through the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO). We are also exposed to inorganic nitrate through dietary ingestion, with dietary exposure typically equaling or exceeding that of endogenous synthesis. There has been concern following work conducted in the 1970s that nitrate from the diet may be a precursor to the synthesis of carcinogenic N‐nitrosamines in the human gastrointestinal tract.1 This seemed to be supported by a number of epidemiological studies showing a correlation between nitrate exposure and a range of malignancies. The study by Maas et al in this issue of JAHA adds to this debate.. Since the discovery in 1994, by 2 independent groups, that inorganic nitrate may act as a source of nitric oxide (NO) in humans,2, 3 subsequent research has challenged the view that nitrate is harmful. It is clear that nitrate, whether from the diet or from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized NO, is involved in a ...
Since the 1960s, the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin has remained a top choice for chemotherapy because of its superior efficacy to fight cancer. However, the drug is known to lead to permanent heart damage. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for prevention or treatment of heart damage caused by doxorubicin.. In a study, published online ahead of print on May 16 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, using a mouse model the team demonstrated that mice treated with dietary inorganic nitrate had a reduced rate of heart dysfunction caused by doxorubicin. On a molecular level, the dietary nitrate stabilized the mitochondria and protected against free-radical damage to the heart.. These results may have significant impact in reducing the risk and degree of heart damage in patients who depend on doxorubicin for treatment of cancers. This is because inorganic nitrate is a water-soluble and very inexpensive chemical that could be ideal for long-term oral ...
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The ability to utilize nitrate as a sole source of nitrogen is an important taxonomic indicator of some species. Previous research by Hipkin has grouped yeasts on the basis of nitrate utilization, with some species being able to assimilate nitrate ( Brettanomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Pachysolen, and Rhodotorula ) while others are not ( Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces ). (8) Nitrate assimilation is defined simply as the utilization of a nitrogen source by a microorganism in the presence of oxygen. A positive reaction is indicated by the presence of growth or the use of a pH indicator in the medium. The indicator method is a modification of the Wickerham method that was devised by Adams and Cooper. (7) The use of this method is easier to read than conventional techniques, yet it is equally as reliable. (7) Additionally, this method is not affected by carry-over of the inoculum. Hardy Diagnostics Modified Nitrate Assimilation Agar contains a yeast carbon base composed ...
hi all sorry to keep going on about this as iv been on before with the same problem. well i had massively high nitrates and so i did a huge almost 100% water change and then 2 more 50% water changes
Atıf İçin Kopyala Sözen S. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, cilt.74, sa.8, ss.790-800, 1999 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi) ...
1) high relative rates of net nitrification. 2) long-term increases in streamwater concentrations of nitrate and base cations. 3) relatively high nitrate concentrations in solution losses. 4) little seasonal variability in stream-water nitrate concentrations - with N no longer being limiting in a system, high concentrations of N are expected regardless of the season.. 5) a high discharge of nitrate from a young aggrading forest. 6) a rapid increase in nitrate loss following fertilization of a young aggrading forest. 7) low retention of inorganic nitrogen ...
Okay, my tank will turn 3yrs in January. I measured my Nitrate levels today and they are undetectable. What I would like to know is: HOW OLD IS YOUR TANK AND WHAT IS ITS NITRATE LEVEL.
It has long been known that straw or strawy manure when added to the soil may bring about a reduction in the nitrate content of the soil due to a stimulation of certain biological processes. The conclusion has been drawn that the nitrate may disappear as a result of denitrification, nitrate reduction or nitrate assimilation.
It has been known for years that nitric oxide NO production is plays a huge role in helping in conferring tolerance to hypoxia, our studies have shown that Tibetan highlanders have higher nitrate a
To address the aims a proof-of-concept study will be conducted to ascertain whether a dietary nitrate approach might prove useful adjunctive therapy improving vascular function in patients with stable angina post elective angioplasty.. Design: A prospective randomised, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Patients with stable angina and single/multiple coronary artery stenosis undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who are haemodynamically stable (systolic BP,100 mmHg). These patients will be recruited at The Barts Health Heart Centre, based at St. Bartholomews Hospital. This is one of the biggest centres in the United Kingdom, serving a population of almost two million people from The City of London and The North East up to the M25 and is a 24/7 centre performing approximately 2000 non-primary angioplasties a year.. The study will take place in the Clinical Trials Unit, William Harvey Heart Centre.. Target population: A total of 246 patients ...
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Sodium nitrate is used to keep preserved meats looking pink and delicious. Unfortunately, its been linked to a higher risk of cancer. Check your ham, bacon,beefand sausage products to make sure they dont contain nitrates, which arent really necessary, now that we have freezing and refrigeration. ...
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Australia and its perspectives on the global market for sodium nitrate. The report
8-Nitro-cGMP (8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate) is a nitrated derivative of cGMP, which can function as a unique electrophilic second messenger involved in regulation of an antioxidant adaptive response in cells. In the present study, we investigated chemical and biochemical regulatory mechanisms involved in 8-nitro-cGMP formation, with particular focus on the roles of ROS (reactive oxygen species). Chemical analyses demonstrated that peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation and myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of nitrite in the presence of H2O2 were two major pathways for guanine nucleotide nitration. Among the guanine nucleotides examined, GTP was the most sensitive to peroxynitrite-mediated nitration. Immunocytochemical and tandem mass spectrometric analyses revealed that formation of 8-nitro-cGMP in rat C6 glioma cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus pro-inflammatory cytokines depended on production of both superoxide and H2O2. Using the mitochondria-targeted chemical ...
Dietary nitrate can be absorbed into our circulation and converted to nitric oxide (NO) in our body.2,3 NO relaxes blood vessels and has been associated with blood pressure reduction by improving blood flow.4,5 Intake of nitrates may also help repair vascular injury and have anti-clotting effect.6,7 Considering these effects, consuming nitrates may benefit heart health.. ...
The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We ...
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Why Some Nitrates Are Healthy While Others Are Harmful Nitrate-rich plant foods are a valuable part of your diet as they help promote heart health. Meanwhile, the nitrates in cured and processed meats such as bacon and hotdogs are known to be carcinogenic. So, whats the deal? Why are plant-based nitrates healthy and…
Nitrate levels are best kept under 0.5ppm. Nitrates are introduced by the bio-load of your aquarium. Water Change is always the way to go. Busy individuals can use these to aid you to make sure your fishes and corals live in a less hazy condition
Nutrient deficiencies or excesses often manifest themselves through clear-cut symptoms, so by keeping an eye on your aquarium, you can adjust your dosing regimen as needed. For example, if you have green spot algae on the glass, your tank needs more phosphate. If you have hair algae, your nitrate levels are likely out of balance with phosphate. Black brush algae often indicates low nitrates or CO2, as does blue-green algae. If your plants are pale or yellowish, they are likely suffering from iron deficiencies. Extremely red or even purple plants often mean your nitrate levels are low. Pinholes in your leaves indicate a pottasium deficiency. While, there is often some overlap between these symptoms and other factor can be at play, getting a feel for these kinds of things make you more adept at adverting tragedy if let to progress.. Driving Factors. When developing your dosing routine, it is very important to realize the other driving forces involved in plant growth. The more intense your ...
SAN LUIS OBISPO -- Morro Bay city officials have said theyd likely pursue legal action against about a dozen Morro Valley property owners -- most of them growers -- if they dont stop excessive use of nitrogen-based fertilizers suspected of tainting a key source of drinking water.
Its great we can improve athletic performance by eating a few beets, but so what if you run 5% faster? It can be a fun experiment to eat a can of beets and maybe shave a minute off your 5k time, but there are people who could really benefit from a more efficient use of oxygen: those suffering from emphysema. Young, healthy adults eating greens and beets can swim, run, and cycle faster and farther, but what about those who get out of breath just walking up the stairs? Do nitrate-rich vegetables work where it counts? Yes-. Time on the treadmill in COPD pateints was significantly extended after two shots of beet juice. I discuss these benefits of nitrate-rich vegetables in my video Oxygenating Blood with Nitrate-Rich Vegetables.. Beet juice can also decrease blood pressure in young, healthy adults, but what about in those who need it--older, overweight subjects? Just one shot a day of beet juice (versus berry juice as a control) led to a significant drop in blood pressure in a few weeks. But ...
The transport and transformation of nitrogen within streams receiving high nitrate loads has become increasingly important as restrictions on water quality continue to tighten due to an increased awareness that pollutant loading impacts the environment at concentrations lower than previously recognized. Silver Creek in Park City, Utah, is one of many streams in the state of Utah being evaluated for its ability to process high nitrate loads coming from a water reclamation facility. Previous modelling techniques at Silver Creek revealed that the lack of information on site-specific nitrogen transformation rates left modelers unable to represent the true processes occurring within the system. To address these concerns, six in situ benthic chambers were installed in Silver Creek downstream of the confluence with the Silver Creek Water Reclamation Facility discharge. Isotope dilution and pairing techniques using labeled nitrate (N 15O3−) were used to track the transport and transformation of nitrogen
There are various ways that a bacterium can utilize nitrate as the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration. The first obvious product of reduction to look for is reduction to N2 gas, called denitrification, within the Durhm tube. This is looked for FIRST before any reagents are added.. If there is no nitrogen gas, there are still a couple of possible interpretations---nitrate reduction to nitrite (NO2), reduction to ammonia, or no reduction of nitrate at all.. A red color will be produced in the medium only when nitrite is present in the medium.. There may be 2 explanations for the lack of nitrite:. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Sodium nitrate-15N products. View information & documentation regarding Sodium nitrate-15N, including CAS, MSDS & more.
35000 IG plaster pool & spa Initially the pool was eating up chlorine. Then we saw some small sites of algae. Had water tested on 6-22-13 6-22-13 test FC = 0 TC = 0 Calc Hardness = 390 CYA = 30 Total Alkalinity = 70
Hi, i just started using a API Mast Test Kit over the last month or so. My Nitrate Readings with this test have always been coming up as 80ppm +. So ive been doing 2-3 10-33% water changes every week and the readings have not changed one bit over the month. I have a 50 gallon tank with a Butterfly Koi, Comet goldfish, and two Rope fish and a Reaction 4 Canister Filter . Fish do not appear to be stressed and there isnt to much waste at the bottom of the tank either. Only thing i can think
ACTATRADE is a privately owned SWISS International Commodities trading company with offices in Geneva; Athens; Istanbul; Porto Alegre, Brazil; Mexico City and Medellin, Columbia. We have long standing relations with major fertilizer products and the main products we trade are Urea, DAP, AN, MAP, AS, TSP, CAN, NP/NPK, UAN and Rock Phosphate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-Term Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Does Not Prevent Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. AU - Matthews, V. B.. AU - Hollingshead, R.. AU - Koch, H.. AU - Croft, K. D.. AU - Ward, N. C.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vascular signaling molecule that plays a role in vascular homeostasis. A reduction in NO bioavailability is thought to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, an early risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, may provide an alternate source of NO when the endogenous eNOS system is compromised. In addition to a role in the vascular system, NO may also play a role in the metabolic syndrome including obesity and glucose tolerance. Aim. To investigate the effect of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation on development of the metabolic syndrome in mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods. Following 1 week of ...
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Dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, has a number of potentially advantageous effects in COPD. These include improving the response to pulmonary rehabilitation programme, making muscle contraction more efficient so it uses less oxygen, and improving how far people with low oxygen levels because of their lung disease can walk. Although COPD is a lung disease, people with the condition are at a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. There is also some evidence that beetroot juice can reduce blood pressure, but studies so far have been short term. A nutritional treatment that could produce a lasting reduction in blood pressure would be appealing, especially if it also improves peoples ability to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate the prolonged treatment effects of daily beetroot juice on blood pressure in people with COPD. The researchers will also look at how far people can walk, make measurements of how well blood vessels function, and take blood ...
Palacin Lizarbe, Carlos; Camarero, Lluís ; Hallin, Sara; Jones, Christopher M.; Catalán, Jordi. Scientific Reports 10 : 3003 (2020) DIGITAL CSIC. During the last decades, atmospheric nitrogen loading in mountain ranges of the Northern Hemisphere has increased substantially, resulting in high nitrate concentrations in many lakes. Yet, how increased nitrogen has affected denitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal, is poorly understood. We measured actual and potential (nitrate and carbon amended) denitrification rates in sediments of several lake types and habitats in the Pyrenees during the ice-free season. Actual denitrification rates ranged from 0 to 9 μmol N2O m−2 h−1 (mean, 1.5 ± 1.6 SD), whereas potential rates were about 10-times higher. The highest actual rates occurred in warmer sediments with more nitrate available in the overlying water. Consequently, littoral habitats showed, on average, 3-fold higher rates than the deep zone. The highest denitrification potentials ...
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Determining how vegetables confer protection against CVD and exploiting this to therapeutic advantage are likely to have considerable health and economic implications. Recently, it has been suggested that dietary nitrate found in high levels in vegetables might underlie some of the beneficial effects of vegetable-rich diets.12,14⇓ In the present study we have shown that inorganic nitrate capsules or a dietary nitrate load, in the form of beetroot juice, results in dose-dependent increases in plasma nitrite concentration via bioconversion in vivo. Stieglitz postulated,20 ,80 years ago, that the beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate (bismuth subnitrate) in hypertensive patients were because of conversion to nitrite in vivo, and our findings confirm that this bioactive nitrite, after reduction to NO, causes dose-dependent decreases in BP and prevents IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in healthy volunteers.. Ingestion of KNO3 capsules caused rises in circulating plasma nitrate and thence ...
The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP) and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ) or a placebo juice (PL). Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM). Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL) not consumed on the first visit. Overall, there
Peroxynitrite formation in vivo is implicated in numerous human diseases and there is considerable interest in the use of antioxidants and natural products such as thiols as peroxynitrite scavengers. We therefore investigated the effects of a recently identified constituent of onions, 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (3-MP), for its ability to inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated processes in vitro and using cultured human cells and compared its effectiveness against glutathione. 3-MP significantly inhibited peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and inactivation of α1-antiproteinase to a greater extent than glutathione at each concentration tested (15-500μM). 3-MP also inhibited peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity, intracellular tyrosine nitration, and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in human HepG2 cells in culture to a greater extent than glutathione. These data suggest that 3-MP has the potential to act as an inhibitor of ONOO--mediated processes in vivo and that the ...
In Arabidopsis the plasma membrane nitrate transceptor (transporter/receptor) NRT1.1 governs many physiological and developmental responses to nitrate. Alongside facilitating nitrate uptake, NRT1.1 regulates the expression levels of many nitrate assimilation pathway genes, modulates root system architecture, relieves seed dormancy and protects plants from ammonium toxicity. Here, we assess the functional and phenotypic consequences of point mutations in two key residues of NRT1.1 (P492 and T101). We show that the point mutations differentially affect several of the NRT1.1-dependent responses to nitrate, namely the repression of lateral root development at low nitrate concentrations, and the short-term upregulation of the nitrate-uptake gene NRT2.1, and its longer-term downregulation, at high nitrate concentrations. We also show that these mutations have differential effects on genome-wide gene expression. Our findings indicate that NRT1.1 activates four separate signalling mechanisms, which have ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation regulates peroxynitrite-mediated peptide nitration. AU - Shi, Wei Qun. AU - Cai, Hui. AU - Xu, Dian Dou. AU - Su, Xiao Yang. AU - Lei, Peng. AU - Zhao, Yu Fen. AU - Li, Yan Mei. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the financial support from both the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (SRFDP) of MOE No.:20030003049 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFCBIC20320130046 and No.: 20532020).. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - Proteins are targets of reactive nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite and nitrogen dioxide. Among the various amino acids in proteins, tyrosine and tryptophan residues are especially susceptible to attack by reactive nitrogen species. On the other hand, protein tyrosine phosphorylation has gained much attention in respect to cellular regulatory events and signal transduction. Peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peptide YPPPPPW and ...
Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10 mM (High) or 1 mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, ...
BioAssay record AID 717093 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of nitric oxide release in 0.1 mM phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 assessed as nitrate/nitrite level after 10 to 150 mins by Griess assay.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of sludge disposal on groundwater nitrate concentrations. AU - Spalding, R. F.. AU - Exner, M. E.. AU - Martin, G. E.. AU - Snow, D. D.. PY - 1993/2. Y1 - 1993/2. N2 - More than 100 groundwater samples were collectd and analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, δ15N of the nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride. Multilevel samplers and nested monitoring wells were located beneath and down-gradient from an irrigated cornfield on which human waste sludge was injected. The sampling delineated a 1.3 km × 0.3 km plume of nitrate contamination. Both the nitrate-nitrogen concentrations and the δ15N values within the plumes centroid were homogeneous. The levels were 34 ± 3 mg 1-1 and + 13.4 ± 1.2%, respectively. A retarding zone of clayey silt split the plume and separated the oxic water from the deeper anoxic water. Nitrate levels were lower in the anoxic water and declined rapidly with depth. The significant association (r = - 0.91) between increasing δ15N values and ...
Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypotheses that acute beetroot supplementation would increase the rate of cutaneous rewarming following a local cold challenge and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cold sensitive individuals. Thirteen cold sensitive participants completed foot and hand cooling (separately, in 15 °C water for 2 minutes) with spontaneous rewarming in 30°C air whilst skin temperature and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured (Baseline). On two further separate visits, participants consumed 140 ml of either concentrated beetroot juice (nitrate supplementation) or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (Placebo) 90 minutes before resting seated blood ...
This cohort study uses Nurses Health Study data to investigate associations between dietary nitrate intake and primary open-angle glaucoma.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [A Pavani Sowjanya, Meera Rao, Haripriya Vedantham, Basany Kalpana, Usha Rani Poli, Morgan A Marks, M Sujatha].
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In early spring, there is a need to treat large volumes of cool tile water containing high nitrate concentrations. However, lower nitrate removal rates in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors have been observed when hydraulic retention time (HRT) and water temperature are low. One potential approach to improve woodchip bioreactor performance is to provide an alternative and readily available energy source to the denitrifying microorganisms through electrical stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of bio-electrochemical reactors (BER) to remove a variety of water contaminants, including nitrate, with the presence of a soluble carbon source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the denitrification rate of electrically augmented woodchip bioreactors and conduct a simple TEA to understand the possibilities and limitations for full-scale BER implementation for treatment of agricultural drainage. Three duplicated up-flow column woodchip bioreactors were studied: two controls (non
The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of dietary nitrate ingestion on parameters of submaximal and supramaximal exercise and time trial (TT) performance in trained kayakers. Eight male kayakers completed four exercise trials consisting of an initial discontinuous graded exercise test to exhaustion and three performance trials using a kayak ergometer. The performance trials were composed of 15 min of paddling at 60% of maximum work rate, five 10-s all-out sprints, and a 1 km TT. The second and third trials were preceded by ingestion of either 70 ml nitrate-rich concentrated beetroot juice (BR) or tomato juice (placebo [PLA]) 3 hr before exercise using a randomized crossover design. Plasma nitrate (PLA: 33.8 ± 1.9 μM, BR: 152 ± 3.5 μM) and nitrite (PLA: 519.8 ± 25.8, BR: 687.9 ± 20 nM) were higher following ingestion of BR compared with PLA (both p , .001). VO2 during steady-state exercise was lower in the BR trial than in the PLA trial (p = .010). There was no difference ...
Sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite are food additives used in processed meat products to give them a fresh appearance, smell and taste. Nitrates also appear...
A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective NO endogenously. In the present study, two separate randomly controlled, single-blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured over a 24 h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500 g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NOx) was measured at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 24 h post-ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose-dependent manner, lowered systolic BP (SBP, P , 0·01) and diastolic BP (DBP, P , 0·001) over a period of 24 h, compared with water control. Furthermore, bread products enriched with 100 g red or white beetroot lowered SBP and DBP over a period of 24 h (red beetroot-enriched ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ursodeoxycholate inhibits induction of NOS in human intestinal epithelial cells and in vivo. AU - Invernizzi, Pietro. AU - Salzman, Andrew L.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. AU - Ueta, Ikuya. AU - OConnor, Michael. AU - Setchell, Kenneth D R. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) has anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Because overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of these conditions, we investigated the ability of UDCA to inhibit NO production in transformed human intestinal epithelial (DLD-1) cells. Nitrite/nitrate production was measured by the Griess reaction, enzymatic activity of iNOS was assessed by conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, and protein and mRNA were measured by Western and Northern blotting. Dose-dependent inhibition of interleukin- 1β- and interferon-γ-stimulated nitrite/nitrate production was ...
The majority of nitrogen absorbed by plant roots is in the nitrate form, and in normal weather conditions, nitrate is rapidly converted into plant proteins. When pearlmillet and sorghum-sudangrass become stressed this conversion stops and nitrates begin to accumulate in the plant. High nitrate accumulation in forages is often the result of a heavy nitrogen application followed by drought conditions. In mild drought conditions, roots continue to absorb nitrate, but plant protein conversion does not take place. In a severe drought, nitrate absorption will cease because of a lack of moisture, but nitrates will be rapidly absorbed following a rain and will likely accumulate to high levels. It can take 7-14 days after a drought-ending rain for nitrates to be metabolized below a toxic level. An energy source is required for nitrate reduction, so extended periods of cloudy weather can contribute to nitrate accumulation, especially when coupled with wet days following a severe drought. Extreme ...
project of lead nitrate on gold recovery_Gold cyanidation WikipediaGold cyanidation (also known as the cyanide process or the MacArthur-Forrest process) is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by ...Co
At the NIH-Center for Environmental Health (Jackson, MS), a study was designed to analyze the impacts of lead nitrate, a component that has been greatly reduced in paint and ceramic products, and yet its exposure levels in humans remain a concern. Because industrial sources of lead persist in our environment, these researchers evaluated its effects on the DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells (HL-60). The Cellometer Vision was used to measure live and necrotic cells with propidium iodide. After exposure to lead nitrate, the cells showed significant increases in necrotic death, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The results reported here provide new evidence of lead-based mechanisms of cellular damage and its downstream effects on human health.. Read the full publication here. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide synthesis in patients with infective gastroenteritis. AU - Forte, P AU - Dykhuizen, R S AU - Milne, Eric. AU - McKenzie, A AU - Smith, C C AU - Benjamin, N PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Background-There is evidence that endogenous nitrate synthesis is notably increased in patients with infective gastroenteritis.Aims-To determine whether this is due to nitric oxide (NO) production via the L-arginine/NO pathway.Methods-Seven male patients with community acquired bacterial gastroenteritis and 15 healthy male volunteers participated in this study, All patients had stool culture positive infective gastroenteritis. A bolus of 200 mg L-[N-15](2)-arginine was administered intravenously after an overnight fast. Urine was collected for the next 36 hours. Urinary [N-15:N-14]nitrate ratio was assessed by dry combustion in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer.Results-Mean 36 hour total urinary nitrate excretion in the gastroenteritis group was 5157 (577) mu mol compared with 2594 ...
The effect of inorganic nitrate on systemic energy homeostasis in a setting of perturbed energy balance: implications for diabetes and obesity., School of Medicine, University of Leeds
In a study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, dietary nitrate in helping to provide sustained blood pressure lowering abilities was analysed.. We assessed whether dietary nitrate might provide sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients, noted the study.. It added: We randomly assigned 68 hypertensive patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive daily dietary supplementation for four-weeks with either dietary nitrate (250mL daily, as beetroot juice) or a placebo.. The study found that daily supplementation with dietary nitrate was associated with a reduction in blood pressure.. These findings suggest a role for dietary nitrate as an affordable, readily-available, adjunctive treatment in the management of hypertensive patients.. ...
The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in the finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of sodium nitrate to ...
The Gulf of Mexicos Dead Zone has been largely attributed to agricultural runoff from the Midwest. Agriculture has been similarly targeted closer to home, where amounts of nitrogen in Iowas drinking water supplies have increased dramatically throughout the past century.. For example, in a 2000 U.S. Geological Survey study, average annual nitrate concentrations in the Des Moines and Cedar Rivers have increased nearly seven times over the last 100 years, from about 0.6 milligrams per liter to as much as 4.6 mg/l.. And data provided by Des Moines Water Works dating back to the 1930s shows nitrate levels in the Raccoon River stayed consistently below 1 mg/l until the mid 1960s. Since then, nitrate levels have increased to as high as 10.2 mg/l in 2002. Over the last 20 years, average nitrate levels in the Raccoon River average 7.3 mg/l.. Linda Kinman, public policy analyst with Des Moines Water Works, says she and other watershed advocates agree that elevated nitrate levels in many of Iowas ...
We used a series of whole stream experiments to quantify the impacts of inorganic-nitrogen concentration on stream nitrogen cycling and transport in prairie streams. We conducted 15NO3- stable isotope tracer experiments to measure the nitrogen cycling dynamics in 9 streams with a wide range (over 5 orders of magnitude) of nitrate concentrations. The major nitrogen-transforming processes, including uptake, nitrification, and denitrification, increased approximately 2 to 3 orders of magnitude and did not show signs of Michaelis-Menten type saturation across streams. Denitrification only accounted for a small proportion of total nitrate uptake. The observed functional relationships of biological nitrogen transformations and chronic nitrate concentration were best described by a Log-Log relationship. A series of inorganic-nitrogen addition experiments were conducted to quantify the impacts of acute nitrogen inputs on nitrogen cycling. These experiments showed that uptake saturated in response to ...
dietary nitrate/nitrite could be a compensatory fuel for a disrupted nitrate/nitrite/NO pathway and related disorders in diabetes
Nitrate Ion Selective Combination Electrode, Polymer Membrane, Beckman Coulter - Each : Combination electrode with epoxy body develops a potential at
Why is it not so great for you? Well, if the above section does not convince you that such an all-in-one food product couldnt possibly be good for you, here is what some research has found. The National Institutes of Health published an article last year showing the connection between processed meat (i.e. hot dogs, bacon, lunch meat) and colorectal cancers. There have been numerous studies showing the connection between consumption of red meat and this cancer but this study showed the connection specifically with the processed meats. There are a lot of research studies out there but this article summed of the gist of them well. I recall reading somewhere (cant remember where now!) about how there was an attempt to have Sodium Nitrate removed as a food preservative in 2005, but that a large group of meat lobbyist had it disbanded ...
Formate dehydrogenase allows E.coli to use formate as major electron donor during anaerobic respiration, when nitrate is used as electron acceptor. The beta subunit FdnH is an electron transfer unit containing 4 iron-sulfur clusters; it serves as a conduit for electrons that are transferred from the formate oxidation site in the alpha subunit (FdnG) to the menaquinone associated with the gamma subunit (FdnI) of formate dehydrogenase-N. Formate dehydrogenase-N is part of a system that generates proton motive force, together with the dissimilatory nitrate reductase (Nar).
i did some research and this is what i found...There are two reasons for adding this chemical to processed meats:It prevents the growth of the bacteria that spoils meat and preserves the meat as a red or pink color. There is some evidence that it also prevents botulism. And Sodium nitrate is not added to chicken or tuna, as there is no red color to preserve. Thats it!. ...
Read Polythermal study of the salting-out of triethylamine from aqueous solutions with sodium nitrate, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
a 6.54 g sample consisting of a mixture of silver nitrate and sodium nitrate is dissolved in water. this mixture then reacts with barium chloride to for 3.50 g of silver chloride. calculate the percent by mass of silver nitrate in the first mixture ...
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Hungary and its perspectives on the global market for sodium nitrate. The report will
Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of less than six months of age. High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause blue baby syndrome. Nitrate levels may rise quickly for short periods-of-time because of rainfall or agricultural activity. If you are caring for an infant, and detected nitrate levels are above 5 ppm, you should ask advice from your health care provider.. If arsenic is less than or equal to the MCL, your drinking water meets EPAs standards. EPAs standard balances the current understanding of arsenics possible health effects against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. EPA continues to research the health effects of low levels of arsenic, which is a mineral known to cause cancer in humans at high concentrations and is linked to other health effects such as skin damage and circulatory problems.. LEAD: If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. ...
Nitrate forms when nitrogen from fertilizers, animal wastes, septic systems, municipal sewage sludge, decaying plants and other sources combines with oxygenated water. In infants under six months of age, nitrate exposure can cause a serious condition called methemoglobinemia or blue-baby syndrome. Infants with this condition need immediate medical care because it can lead to coma and death. Test for nitrate if a pregnant woman or infant will be drinking the water. Everyone should have their water tested for nitrate at least once. If you live in an area within ¼ mile of a corn, soybean or vegetable field, you should test your water for nitrate regularly. Well owners should also test for nitrate regularly if their well is located near an area where fertilizers are manufactured or handled; or an animal feed lot or manure-storage area ...
Dr Brynmor Breese recently received a travel grant from the UK Physiological Society to undertake a research project at Kobe University in Japan investigating the effects of nitrate supplementation on muscle deoxygenation responses during exercise. This project is the first of its kind to use innovative time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) across multiple sites within quadriceps muscle to further explore the promising effects that have been reported during exercise after ingesting nitrate-rich beetroot juice. The research study was delivered under the supervision of Professor Shunsaku Koga and consisted of performing thirty-two exercise trials using human volunteers after consuming four days of either nitrate-rich beetroot or placebo juice (supplied by James White Drinks, Ipswich, UK). The TRS system was developed by Hamamatsu Photonics and is capable of measuring the absorption and scattering of near-infrared light emitted at different wavelengths into skeletal muscle tissue. Using this technology ...
If the city gives its approval, city staff will apply for a grant to help modify one of the citys three sewer plants to reduce nitrates to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards.
Thankfully, many companies are offering natural versions of these products. They dont last as long in the refrigerator, but Im quite alright with that. Applegate Farms (carried at Whole Foods) makes a wide variety of meat products without these preservatives, and they are so tasty! Every now and then, places like Food Lion and Walmart will have an organic hot dog in the case, but it isnt consistent so far. Oscar Mayer was also carrying a natural hot dog for a while, but I havent been able to find it lately, and Im not seeing it on the Web site. Jimmy Dean makes a delicious all natural sausage that I buy at Lowes Foods or Super Target. Hormel has also jumped on the bandwagon by creating a line of natural deli meats ...
So let me explain trickle towers and filters work in the following and have to be built with this concept in mind. First off, they are biological filtering towers used scrictly to encourage the growth of Nitrosomanas and Nitrobacters bacteria that convert ammonia or ammonium too nitrite then nitrite too nitrate (the simple explanation). Under normal circumstances (will explain later) the nitrate by product cannot and will never be eliminated in said tower simply because the bacteria or enzymes that are required to do so live and thrive in a completely different environment. The reason why TT are so affective for the conversion process is simple. The bacteria used require 5 main environmental factors to thrive = humidity, oxygen, darkness, media to grow on and a food source. These conditions are very well met in a TT if properly made. The added benefit if water flow is well balanced is increased oxygen levels for the pond. Despite the fact that these bacteria consume and require lots of oxygen ...
So let me explain trickle towers and filters work in the following and have to be built with this concept in mind. First off, they are biological filtering towers used scrictly to encourage the growth of Nitrosomanas and Nitrobacters bacteria that convert ammonia or ammonium too nitrite then nitrite too nitrate (the simple explanation). Under normal circumstances (will explain later) the nitrate by product cannot and will never be eliminated in said tower simply because the bacteria or enzymes that are required to do so live and thrive in a completely different environment. The reason why TT are so affective for the conversion process is simple. The bacteria used require 5 main environmental factors to thrive = humidity, oxygen, darkness, media to grow on and a food source. These conditions are very well met in a TT if properly made. The added benefit if water flow is well balanced is increased oxygen levels for the pond. Despite the fact that these bacteria consume and require lots of oxygen ...
Abstract. Over the last decades, the impact of human activities on the global nitrogen (N) cycle has drastically increased. Consequently, benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while in oligotrophic systems its understanding is still scarce. Here we report on benthic solute fluxes and on rates of denitrification, anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) studied by in situ incubations with benthic chamber landers during two cruises to the Gulf of Bothnia (GOB), a cold, oligotrophic basin located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Rates of N burial were also inferred to investigate the fate of fixed N in these sediments. Most of the total dissolved fixed nitrogen (TDN) diffusing to the water column was composed of organic N. Average rates of dinitrogen (N2) production by denitrification and anammox (range: 53-360 µmol N m−2 day−1) were comparable to those from Arctic and subarctic sediments worldwide (range: ...
... is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ... Ternary salts, with the addition of calcium nitrate or lithium nitrate, have been found to improve the heat storage capacity in ... The sand itself is dug out and leached for nitrates which were then converted to potassium nitrate using potash, as above. ... An alternative way of producing potassium nitrate without a by-product of ammonia is to combine ammonium nitrate, found in ...
In Europe problems with high nitrate concentrations in run-off are being addressed by the European Union's Nitrates Directive.[ ... A few percent of the nitrogen fertilizer market (4% in 2007)[6] has been met by calcium ammonium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 · NH4NO3 · ... Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is also widely used. Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is ... Nitrate pollution[edit]. Only a fraction of the nitrogen-based fertilizers is converted to plant matter. The remainder ...
Iron(III) nitrate. Nickel(II) nitrate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 ... Each nitrate ion coordinates to three cobalts.[3] The dihydrate is a two-dimensional polymer, with nitrate bridges between Co( ... Cobalt Nitrate is the Inorganic compound with the formula Co(NO3)2.xH2O. It is cobalt(II) salt. The most common form is the ... The hexahydrate is better described as hexaaquacobalt(II) nitrate, [Co(OH2)6][NO3]2, as it consists of discrete [Co(OH2)6]2+ ...
Nitrate concentrations in polar ice[edit]. When solar energetic particles reach the Earth's atmosphere they cause ionisation ... An examination of fourteen ice cores from Antarctic and Arctic regions showed large nitrate spikes: however, none of them were ... Attempts have been made to detect past solar superflares from nitrate concentrations in polar ice, from historical observations ... The core contained an annual variation of nitrate concentration, accompanied by a number of 'spikes' of different amplitudes. ...
Copper(II) nitrate, also known as cupric nitrate, is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is Cu(NO3)2. It contains copper ... It can be used to add nitrate ions to organic chemicals. Safety[change , change source]. Copper ions are toxic, like many other ... Copper(II) nitrate is a blue solid. It is an oxidizing agent. It is blue whether it contains water (hydrated) or not (anhydrous ... It can also be made by reacting copper with nitric acid or silver nitrate. ...
Nitrates. Could possibly reduce the effects of sublingual tablets of nitrates (failure to dissolve under tongue owing to dry ...
Common antimicrobial preservatives are presented in the table.[2][3][4] Nitrates and nitrites are also antimicrobial.[5][6] The ... During their experimenting in the 1920s they realized this mixture of salts were nitrates (saltpeter) that prevented ...
... minerals, especially nitrate minerals, are economically important in Peru and Chile. Nitrate minerals are often mined ... Nitrates: nitratine (soda niter) and niter. *Borates: typically found in arid-salt-lake deposits plentiful in the southwestern ...
In Europe, problems with high nitrate concentrations in runoff are being addressed by the European Union's Nitrates Directive. ... as much of the nitrogen that is not taken up by plants is transformed into nitrate which is easily leached. Nitrate levels ... Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is also widely used. Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is ... The resultant nitric acid was then used as a source of nitrate (NO3−). A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and ...
... and original nitrate prints are generally stored separately to prevent a nitrate fire from destroying other non-nitrate films; ... NitrateEdit. Nitrate film base was the first transparent flexible plasticized base commercially available, thanks to celluloid ... Because cellulose nitrate contains oxygen, nitrate fires can be very difficult to extinguish. The US Navy has produced an ... Usually nitrate collections are even split up into several different fireproof rooms to minimize damage to an entire collection ...
In October 2006 the Stern Review on the effect of climate change on the world's economy was released for the British government. This report recommended a range of measures including ecotaxes to address the market failure represented by climate change with the least amount of economic and social disruption. In response to this report and subsequent pressure from the Kim Beazley led Labor opposition, in December 2006 the Howard Government established the Prime Ministerial Task Group on Emissions Trading, chaired by Peter Shergold, to advise on the implementation of an emissions trading scheme (ETS) in Australia.[14][15] In opposition, Kevin Rudd called for a cut to greenhouse gas emissions by 60% before 2050.[16] Both the incumbent Howard Government and the Rudd Labor opposition promised to implement an emissions trading scheme (ETS) before the 2007 federal election. Following the release of the final Shergold report, the Howard government committed to introduce an ETS in June 2007.[17][18] Going ...
... or potassium nitrate (KNO3).[9][10] Does not contain potassium oxide (K2O), which plants do not take up.[11] However, the ...
Nitrate Reduction Positive Hydrogen Sulfide (TSI) Negative Urea Hydrolysis Negative Oxidase Negative ...
... is miscible in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. It will dissolve ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins.[8] Unlike ethanol or methanol, isopropyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer.[9] Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C (176.67 °F) and a composition of 87.7 wt% (91 vol%) isopropyl alcohol. Water-isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points.[9] It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink.[9][10] Isopropyl alcohol becomes increasingly viscous with decreasing temperature and will freeze at −89 °C (−128 °F). Isopropyl alcohol has a maximum absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet-visible spectrum.[11][12] ...
or nitrates: Ca(NO3)2 → CaO + 2NO2 + 1/2O2. The oxides exhibit basic character: they turn phenolphthalein red and litmus, blue ... which is dissolved with other elements to form other compounds, such as barium nitrate. These in turn are thermally ...
The Menke nitration is the nitration of electron rich aromatic compounds with cupric nitrate and acetic anhydride. The reaction ... ISBN 978-0-470-63885-9. Menke JB (1925). "Nitration with nitrates". Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas. 44: 141. doi: ...
"Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases". Chem. Soc. Rev. 43 (2): 676-706. doi:10.1039/c3cs60249d. ISSN 1460-4744. PMC ... Binkerd, E. F; Kolari, O. E (1 January 1975). "The history and use of nitrate and nitrite in the curing of meat". Food and ... It should be added that the presence of nitrate can cause the same effect due to its transformation to nitrite in the digestive ... VOLUME 94 - Ingested Nitrate and Nitrite, and Cyanobacterial Peptide Toxins - IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic ...
"Chile Nitrates Exports". 1994-03-09. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-23. Cook, George ... The export product was sodium nitrate, a salt mined in the northern part of Chile which is often called Chilean saltpeter. With ... At the outbreak of World War I, the leading global exporter of nitrates for gunpowder was Chile. Chile had maintained ... The National Defense Act of 1916 directed the president to select a site for the artificial production of nitrates within the ...
Fresh meat contains 0.4-0.5 mg/kg nitrite and 4-7 mg/kg of nitrate (10-30 mg/kg nitrate in cured meats). The presence of ... However, nitrates are found in commercially available vegetables and a study in an intensive agricultural area in northern ... One method uses molten sodium nitrate as the salt, and lead which is oxidized, while a more modern method uses scrap iron ... "Sodium nitrate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. International Chemical Safety Card 1120. Nitrite ...
In Europe problems with high nitrate concentrations in run-off are being addressed by the European Union's Nitrates Directive.[ ... A few percent of the nitrogen fertilizer market (4% in 2007)[6] has been met by calcium ammonium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 · NH4NO3 · ... Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is also widely used. Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is ... The resultant nitric acid was then used as a source of nitrate (NO3−). A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and ...
Silver Nitrate Films. Brink Films. Distributed by. Newmarket Capital Group. Release date ...
Nitrates or nitrites? the first sentence refers to nitrates but the second specifies a nitrite. I believe the interaction is ...
A nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids is used to nitrate toluene to a mixture of mono- and di- ... During the 20th century, amatol, a mixture of TNT with ammonium nitrate was a widely used military explosive. ... removing xylene and similar hydrocarbons from the toluene feedstock and other nitrotoluene isomer byproducts from the nitrating ...
According to this chart, there were eight wells which had nitrate levels above the 10 mg/L MCL, out of 90 sampled for nitrates ... usually as nitrates". Between the 1950s and 1980s, when nitrogen fertilizer use grew sixfold, nitrate concentrations in ... Nitrates are of concern because it interferes with the blood's ability to carry oxygen, and can have severe health effects on ... Because nitrates interfere with blood's capacity to carry oxygen, infants are at high risk of death from blue-baby syndrome, ...
Reacts with nitrates, except ammonium nitrate, yielding nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and heat (the reaction is slow at room ... Calcium nitrate - also a red-orange colorant. Ammonium nitrate - used in some less common composite rocket propellants, ... In contact with potassium nitrate (e.g. in black powder) produces potassium perchlorate and hygroscopic ammonium nitrate; no ... Barium nitrate - most common oxidizer/colorant for green and white colors, but with somewhat weak colorant effect;requires a ...
Wachter, RM; Remington, SJ (1999). "Sensitivity of the yellow variant of green fluorescent protein to halides and nitrate". ... YFP fluorescence is sensitive to various small anions with relative potencies iodine > nitrate > chloride > bromide > formate ...
Nitrate. Retrieved 2019-09-04. Arthur W. Coolidge at the political graveyard ...
... nitrate; pH; phosphorus; potassium; sodium; and sulfate, as well as the presence of pesticides. Water-testing services are ...
Nitrate Nitrate is an important limiting nutrient for phytoplankton and nitrate abundance can determine limits of phytoplankton ... Nitrate is measured with a UV spectrometer since nitrate is absorbed in a distinct spectrum that can be used to calculate ... nitrate, pH, and chlorophyll. With the expansion of new biogeochemical sensors has come the need to develop methods to make the ... "Nitrate". Biogeochemical Argo. http://www. ...
Cranky Critic called it "Bloody damned good", as well as saying that it was "A perfect date flick." Nitrate said that "Notting ... Savada, Elias (28 May 1999). "Notting Hill". Nitrate. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007. Puccio ...
nitrate (en); azotan (pl); nitrate (fr); nitrat (nn) salt or ester of nitric acid (en); sól lub ester kwasu azotowego (pl); ... Media in category "Nitrates". The following 114 files are in this category, out of 114 total. ... Salts and esters of nitric acid (HNO3), including compounds containing the nitrate ion (NO3−) anion. ... The occurence and distribution of nitrates and nitrites in food, feces and urine (1909)‎ (30 F) ...
Beryllium nitrate is a toxic chemical, like all other beryllium compounds. It is also an irritant in small doses. When burned, ... Beryllium nitrate, also known as beryllium dinitrate, is an ionic beryllium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Be( ... Beryllium nitrate can be prepared by reacting beryllium hydroxide in nitric acid. s "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards # ... 0054". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Beryllium Nitrate (ICSC)". IPCS INCHEM. Retrieved 13 ...
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ... Ternary salts, with the addition of calcium nitrate or lithium nitrate, have been found to improve the heat storage capacity in ... The sand itself is dug out and leached for nitrates which were then converted to potassium nitrate using potash, as above. ... An alternative way of producing potassium nitrate without a by-product of ammonia is to combine ammonium nitrate, found in ...
Nitrates are produced by natural biological and physical oxidations and therefore are ubiquitous in the environment (Ridder and ... Nitrate (NO3-) (CAS No. 014797-55-8) is an inorganic anion resulting from the oxidation of elemental nitrogen. It is an ... Explosives - Nitrate esters. Nitrate (NO3-) (CAS No. 014797-55-8) is an inorganic anion resulting from the oxidation of ... Explosives - Nitrate esters *NG [Nitroglycerin ] *PETN [Pentaerythritol tetranitrate] *EGDN [ethylene glycol dinitrate] ...
ethylammonium nitrate (CHEBI:63882) has part nitrate (CHEBI:17632). nitrate salt (CHEBI:51082) has part nitrate (CHEBI:17632). ... diethanolammonium nitrate (CHEBI:63877) has part nitrate (CHEBI:17632). ethanolammonium nitrate (CHEBI:63878) has part nitrate ... triethanolammonium nitrate (CHEBI:63960) has part nitrate (CHEBI:17632). nitric acid (CHEBI:48107) is conjugate acid of nitrate ... nitrate (CHEBI:17632) is a monovalent inorganic anion (CHEBI:79389) nitrate (CHEBI:17632) is a nitrogen oxoanion (CHEBI:33458) ...
HistoryCellulose nitrate based films were produced in the early 20th century until 1952. They were developed to replace glass ... Nitrate films are never paper-based but may be hard to distinguish between acetate and polyester films. The Kodak Companys ... Cellulose nitrate based films were produced in the early 20th century until 1952. They were developed to replace glass plate ... Nitrate based films are inherently unstable and will deteriorate in temperatures around 70°F and humidity greater than 50%. ...
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The organic nitrates, including nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate, act as prodrugs for nitric ... Systematic review of controlled trials of nitrates for acute heart failure syndromes concluded that "nitrates appeared to be ... The rationale for nitrates in angina pectoris.[Can J Cardiol. 1995]. The rationale for nitrates in angina pectoris.. Held P, ... A daily, 8 to 10 hour nitrate free period is recommended as diminished efficacy can occur due to nitrate tolerance with ...
For references, please go to or scan the QR ...
... has part (R)-miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:82886) miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:6924) has part (S)- ... miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:82888) miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:6924) has part miconazole (CHEBI:6923) miconazole nitrate (CHEBI: ... miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:6924) is a imidazole antifungal drug (CHEBI:87069) miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:6924) is a racemate ( ... miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:6924) has role glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (CHEBI:82891) miconazole nitrate (CHEBI:6924) is a ...
Ammonium nitrate is stable at lower temperatures, but tends to decompose explosively when heated to temperatures above 200°C ( ... 390°F). Source for information on Ammonium Nitrate: Chemical Compounds dictionary. ... Ammonium NitrateOVERVIEWAmmonium nitrate (uh-MOH-ni-um NYE-trate) is a white crystalline substance first made artificially in ... Ammonium Nitrate. OVERVIEW. Ammonium nitrate (uh-MOH-ni-um NYE-trate) is a white crystalline substance first made artificially ...
Ground water tests indicated that nitrates had exceeded the maximum contamination level for the area. Nitrates in drinking ... Agronomy students will monitor the absorption of nitrates in their plants.. "We knock on doors - Can I get a pail of water ... "They gained some experience on a real site and at the same time we could put together creative solutions to the nitrate problem ... They tested the soil and reported on the nitrate concentration and distribution at the site. The students saw an opportunity to ...
nitrate. Title (Click to Sort). Fact Sheet Number Tags Household Well Water Testing AEX-314 well water, water treatment, water ...
The sulfate nitrates are a family of double salts that contain both sulfate and nitrate ions (NO3−, SO42−). They are in the ... Two sulfate nitrates are in the class of anthropogenic compounds, accidentally made as a result of human activities in ... A new rare nitrate-sulphate mineral from a guano deposit at Punta de Lobos, Chile". American Mineralogist. 97 (10): 1783-1787. ... Crystallographic Properties of the Ammonium Nitrate-Sulfates 3NH 4 NO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 2NH 4 NO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4". Journal ...
... has announced that 2017 Nitrates Derogation applications can now be submitted online. ... The Nitrates Derogation provides farmers an opportunity to farm at higher stocking rates, subject to certain conditions ... The Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Michael Creed, has announced that 2017 Nitrates Derogation applications can ... The Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Michael Creed, has announced that 2017 Nitrates Derogation applications can ...
Do I have any other options? can I carbon dose my tank like a saltwater to lower nitrates? Any input would be helpful! ... and nitrates at 30-40 based off of my api test kit. Ive started this tank and beginning to cycle already due to the fact I ... And Nitrates would never go below 40, also a problem. The tank is 60 gallons so id rather not do a 50% water change with RO ... Tap water has Ammonia and Nitrates!? ammonia is around 1ppm, ph 6.7, nitrites 0, and nitrates at 30-40 based off of my api test ...
Media in category "Cadmium nitrate". The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
The salts of nitric acid are ionic compounds containing the nitrate ion, NO-3, and a positive ion, such as NH4+ in ammonium ... Nitrate, any member of either of two classes of compounds derived from nitric acid, HNO3. ... nitrate. Esters of nitric acid are covalent compounds having the structure R―O―NO2, ... Though both nitrites and nitrates may be used to make organic nitrogen-containing molecules, nitrates are especially useful for ...
Nitrate and nitrite can also be produced in the body. In nature, plants utilize nitrate as an essential nutrient. In commerce, ... How can nitrate and nitrite affect children?. Children can experience the same effects as adults from overexposure to nitrate ... Exposure to nitrate and nitrite mainly occurs by ingestion of water and foods that contain these chemicals. Excess nitrate and ... Inhaling nitrate or nitrite is not a likely exposure route of concern for the general population, although nitrates are ...
Find out what health conditions may be a health risk when taken with Miconazole Nitrate Topical ... WebMD provides common contraindications for Miconazole Nitrate Topical. ... Drugs & MedicationsMiconazole Nitrate 2 % Topical Cream. Who should not take Miconazole Nitrate 2 % Topical Cream?. The ...
F. nitrate.] Chem. A salt of nitric acid.. Nitrate of silver, a white crystalline salt (AgNO3), used in photography and as a ... ammonium nitrate. Nitrogen Cycle. Caltrop. 2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine. Giuliano Bugialli. Prescription Medications: the ... However, plants are not as sensitive to increase in ammonia and nitrate levels as they are with phosphates.. Sewage is the main ... which is oxidized to form nitrites and nitrates. Like the problems with phosphate, eutrophication problems occur with the ...
Sodium nitrate is also used as a color fixative in cured meat and poultry products. Some examples of nitrate containing meats ... Is your fruit and veggie rich diet, also high in nitrates? Heres some great information about the nitrates in your food. ... Could the Michigan State Universitys findings shed a new, positive light on nitrates? Nitrates are natural constituents of ... The difference is that nitrate contains three oxygens, and nitrite contains two. The body readily converts nitrate into nitrite ...
Vegetables, for example, can be rich in nitrates. ... People often see nitrates and nitrites as harmful, but this may ... Nitrates are a form of preservative, and bacon thats low in nitrates may not last as long. You can preserve it for longer by ... Where nitrates and nitrites are found. Food producers often add nitrates and nitrites to processed meats, such as bacon, ham, ... Nitrates also occur naturally in water. In some areas, fertilizer use may lead to high levels of nitrates that can be harmful ...
... Calotype process. Negative 1 Under red lighting best quality writing paper is dipped in weak silver ... 2 One side is coated with an exciting solution of gallic acid and silver nitrate, applied with a brush. The sensitised paper ... nitrate solution, followed by potassium iodide solution, and wiped dry. ...
Nitrite is readily oxidized (combines with oxygen) to form nitrate. Nitrate is generally stable in the environment; however, it ... Nitrate and nitrite are naturally occurring ionic species that are part of the earth’s nitrogen cycle. They typically exist ... Toxicological Profile for Nitrate and Nitrite. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly ... Toxicological profile for Nitrate and Nitrite. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service ...
Get the best deals on nitrate remover when you shop the largest online selection at Free shipping on many items , ... Seachem De*Nitrate 100mL Bagged Filter Media Removes Nitrates Ammonia Organics. $7.99 ... de*nitrate Reducer Anaerobic Aquarium Filter Media Denitrate Seachem 500ml(17oz). 5 out of 5 stars ... Biopellets, Aquarium Nitrate & Phosphate Reducing PHA Granules, 3lbs Free Ship!. 5 out of 5 stars ...
Get the best deals on calcium nitrate when you shop the largest online selection at Free shipping on many items , ... Beet Root Nitric Oxide Supplement Prime Flow Daily Dietary Nitrate Lower Blood 4 out of 5 stars ... Hydro Calcium Nitrate Vegetables Hat Snapback Cap Beige Veggies Food USA. $16.00 ... Cellucor NO3 Chrome Nitric Oxide Pump Amplifier w/ Arginine Nitrate 90 capsules. 5 out of 5 stars ...
Subject: Ammonium Nitrate and decommposition. Date: Tue Dec 18 17:23:13 2007. Posted by Brandon. Grade level: 7-9 School: Queen ... Re: Ammonium Nitrate and decommposition Current Queue , Current Queue for General Biology , General Biology archives Try the ... i injected the ammonium nitrate and water mixture into raw meat and a pig carcus to serve as a more realistic human analog! so ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Although nitrate levels in freshwater are usually less than 1 mg/L, human-created sources of nitrate may elevate levels above 3 ... Nitrate ions found in freshwater samples result from a variety of natural and industrial sources. Nitrates are an important ... Runoff from fertilized fields is still a significant source of nitrate.. Objectives. *Determine the concentration of nitrate ... The concentration of nitrate will be expressed throughout this section in units of mg/L NO3--N. The unit, NO3--N, means simply ...
  • Ammonium nitrate (uh-MOH-ni-um NYE-trate) is a white crystalline substance first made artificially in 1659 by the German chemist Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604-1670). (
  • Ammonium nitrate is stable at lower temperatures, but tends to decompose explosively when heated to temperatures above 200°C (390°F). Its two most important uses today are in fertilizers and explosives. (
  • Ammonium nitrate is made commercially by passing ammonia gas (NH 3 ) and a water solution of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) through a pipe. (
  • The ammonia combines with the nitric acid to form ammonium nitrate. (
  • The solution of ammonium nitrate in water is allowed to evaporate, leaving behind pure white crystals of the compound. (
  • The primary use of ammonium nitrate is the manufacture of fertilizers. (
  • In 2005, about 2 million metric tons (2.2 million short tons) of ammonium nitrate fertilizer was used in the United States . (
  • Ammonium nitrate is also an important component of some explosives. (
  • One common type of explosive is made of ammonium nitrate mixed with fuel oil and called ANFO (Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil). (
  • When the mixture is heated, ammonium nitrate breaks down to release oxygen, which causes the rapid combustion (explosion) of the fuel oil. (
  • An ammonium nitrate explosion in Texas City, Texas, on April 16, 1947, was responsible for the worst industrial accident in U.S. history. (
  • While being loaded into two ships at the Texas City harbor, more than 7.5 million kilograms (17 million pounds) of the ammonium nitrate was exposed to flames and exploded. (
  • Two American men, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, used a truckload of ammonium nitrate and other materials to blow up the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City , Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995. (
  • Chemical Profile for Ammonium Nitrate. (
  • Two sulfate nitrates are in the class of anthropogenic compounds, accidentally made as a result of human activities in fertilizers that are a mix of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, and also in the atmosphere as polluting ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide react with the oxygen and water there to form solid particles. (
  • The salts of nitric acid are ionic compounds containing the nitrate ion, NO - 3 , and a positive ion , such as NH 4 + in ammonium nitrate . (
  • i injected the ammonium nitrate and water mixture into raw meat and a pig carcus to serve as a more realistic human analog! (
  • nitrogen is available in two forms: ammonium and nitrate. (
  • It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate . (
  • [6] Accidental ammonium nitrate explosions have killed thousands of people since the early 20th century. (
  • After the solution is formed, typically at about 83% concentration, the excess water is evaporated off to leave an ammonium nitrate (AN) content of 95% to 99.9% concentration (AN melt), depending on grade. (
  • The products, calcium carbonate and ammonium nitrate, may be separately purified or sold combined as calcium ammonium nitrate . (
  • As ammonium nitrate is a salt , both the cation, NH 4 + , and the anion, NO 3 − , may take part in chemical reactions. (
  • Solid ammonium nitrate decomposes on heating. (
  • A variety of related salts are known including calcium ammonium nitrate decahydrate and calcium potassium nitrate decahydrate. (
  • it contains ammonium nitrate and water , as the "double salt" 5Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .NH 4 NO 3 ·10H 2 O. This is called calcium ammonium nitrate . (
  • Explosive devices which employ it are sometimes described as "fertilizer bombs," but this term is more frequently applied to bombs based on ammonium nitrate, which is another commonly used fertilizer. (
  • According to Verified Market Research, Global Ammonium Nitrate Market was valued at USD 4.72 Billion in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 6.16 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 3.4% from 2019 to 2026. (
  • The major factor such as the rising usage of ammonium nitrate in fertilizer production to enhance quality and yield of crops is expected to propel the growth of the global ammonium nitrate market. (
  • Moreover, the rising demand for ammonium nitrate in surface treatment and plasticizer applications along with rising demand for the product as a preservative from the food sector is likely to anticipate the market growth. (
  • However, rising consumption of urea owing to its easy handling and cost-effectiveness and strict rules and regulations on the use of ammonium nitrate in fertilizers might hamper the demand for the products and restrain the market growth. (
  • The purpose of this project was to summarize the available information on the different forms of Ammonium Nitrate and how they are classified. (
  • In the most recent revision of NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code, the Technical Committee (TC) classified Ammonium Nitrate as a Class 2 Oxidizer. (
  • There are also discrepancies between the NFPA and International Fire Code (IFC) classifications of Ammonium Nitrate. (
  • An examination of existing data involving the reactivity of AN will assist the NFPA 400 TC in determining the appropriate classification of Ammonium Nitrate, and perhaps point to a need for future Ammonium Nitrate testing. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about inorganic nitrate and nitrite. (
  • Exposure to nitrate and nitrite mainly occurs by ingestion of water and foods that contain these chemicals. (
  • Excess nitrate and nitrite can cause methemoglobinemia, which decreases the ability of the blood to transport oxygen. (
  • Nitrate and nitrite are two of the nitrogen compounds that are used by plants and animals and eventually return to the air as nitrogen gas. (
  • Nitrate and nitrite can also be produced in the body. (
  • Nitrate and nitrite are also used in food preservation, some pharmaceutical drugs, and the production of munitions and explosives. (
  • What happens to nitrate and nitrite when they enter the environment? (
  • In nature, nitrate and nitrite can be found in igneous and volcanic rocks. (
  • Nitrate and nitrite salts completely dissolve in water. (
  • Bacteria in soil and plants use oxygen to change nitrite into more stable nitrate, which can be converted back to nitrite by other bacteria when oxygen is lacking. (
  • How might I be exposed to nitrate and nitrite? (
  • Some meats and meat products contain sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite as preservatives. (
  • Your body naturally produces some nitrate and nitrite. (
  • Release of nitrate and/or nitrite to soil and water at waste disposal sites could result in contamination of drinking water sources and increased uptake by plants you eat. (
  • Inhaling nitrate or nitrite is not a likely exposure route of concern for the general population, although nitrates are sometimes inhaled to relieve painful angina attacks. (
  • How can nitrate and nitrite affect my health? (
  • How likely are nitrate and nitrite to cause cancer? (
  • under these conditions, IARC determined that ingested nitrate and nitrite is probably carcinogenic to humans. (
  • The EPA has not classified nitrate or nitrite for carcinogenicity. (
  • How can nitrate and nitrite affect children? (
  • Children can experience the same effects as adults from overexposure to nitrate or nitrite. (
  • As aquatic plants and animals die , bacteria break down large protein molecules into ammonia , which is oxidized to form nitrite s and nitrate s. (
  • The difference is that nitrate contains three oxygens, and nitrite contains two. (
  • The body readily converts nitrate into nitrite through the action of naturally occurring bacteria in the saliva. (
  • This may oxidize to the nitrite and nitrate nitrogen ion forms. (
  • The presence of significant levels of nitrite and nitrate may indicate additional groundwater contamination conditions, which should be investigated and addressed. (
  • Nitrite consumption is primarily determined by the amount of processed meats eaten, and the concentration of nitrates in these meats. (
  • Anti-hypertensive diets, such as the DASH diet, typically contain high levels of nitrates, which are first reduced to nitrite in the saliva, as detected in saliva testing, prior to forming nitric oxide. (
  • Almost all methods for detection of nitrate rely on its conversion to nitrite followed by nitrite-specific tests. (
  • The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is effected by copper-cadmium material. (
  • The two areas of possible concern are that (i) nitrate could be a precursor to nitrite in the lower gut, and nitrite is a precursor to nitrosamines, which are implicated in carcinogenesis, and (ii) nitrate is implicated in methemoglobinemia, a disorder of red blood cells hemoglobin. (
  • Bacterial action during curing converts the sodium nitrate into sodium nitrite , which kills the bacteria that cause botulism, and combines with the myoglobin in the meat to form the pink color associated with ham. (
  • These days, sodium nitrite replaces most of the sodium nitrate used in cured meats, except for that used in slow cured country ham. (
  • Cook as quickly as possible to prevent bacteria from acting against them by converting nitrate to nitrite and nitrosamines, which are the most harmful substances. (
  • Northern blotting results with wild-type cells show that (i) control of crnA expression is subject to nitrate (and nitrite) induction as well as nitrogen metabolite repression and (ii) regulation of the crnA gene is exerted at the level of mRNA accumulation, most likely at transcription, in response to the nitrogen source in the growth medium. (
  • Bacteria complicate the problem as they convert nitrate to the more toxic nitrite. (
  • Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity: What Are Nitrates and Nitrites? (
  • Inorganic nitrate (NO 3 -) and nitrite (NO 2 -) are water soluble (as a result of their interaction with the positively charged portions of polar water molecules) ( Figure 1 ) and commonly exist as salts of nitric acid and nitrous acid, respectively. (
  • The organic forms of nitrates and nitrites are more complex and most are synthesized medicinal products (except ethyl nitrite) [Omar et al. (
  • Inappropriate storage of cooked vegetables can result in in situ conversion of nitrate to nitrite, resulting in an increased potential for causing methaemoglobinaemia. (
  • That's why so many natural meat products proudly display "nitrate-free" and "nitrite-free" claims on packaging. (
  • But, near the turn of the 20th century, meat producers made an important discovery: When sodium nitrate interacts with bacteria in meat, it converts to sodium nitrite. (
  • Sodium nitrate, not nitrite, is used in curing country ham because of the long aging time required. (
  • The team compared the effects of nitrite versus control treatments of either saline or nitrate. (
  • Nitrate is similar chemically to nitrite, but it cannot convert to nitric oxide in the blood and therefore does not have the blood vessel dilating properties that nitrite does. (
  • Nearly 4 million Americans drink water that contains unsafe levels of nitrates, a naturally occurring chemical frequently found in pesticide residue, an Environmental Protection Agency study shows. (
  • But the five-year study found that 1.2 percent of 564 community wells surveyed and 2.4 percent of the 783 rural wells tested contained unsafe levels of nitrates. (
  • In some areas, fertilizer use may lead to high levels of nitrates that can be harmful to children. (
  • Some people often use beetroot or beetroot juice for this purpose, because they contain high levels of nitrates. (
  • High levels of nitrates can cause health problems, including methemoglobinemia, commonly known as "blue baby syndrome. (
  • Older children and adults are able to withstand higher levels of nitrates than babies because of stronger stomach acids that kill the bacteria. (
  • Drinking water (especially well water) can contain high levels of nitrates from fertilizer run-off. (
  • While further research is needed, this would make it unlikely that natural systems can accommodate the high levels of nitrates that have made their way from farmland and other sources into the river network's waterways. (
  • Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula K N O 3 . (
  • It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K + and nitrate ions NO 3 − , and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate . (
  • Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre . (
  • Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers , tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks . (
  • [6] In processed meats , potassium nitrate reacts with hemoglobin and generates a pink color. (
  • Potassium nitrate, because of its early and global use and production, has many names. (
  • Potassium nitrate has an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms to a trigonal system at 129 °C (264 °F). (
  • Potassium nitrate is moderately soluble in water, but its solubility increases with temperature. (
  • The earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya ( The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices ). (
  • In this book, al-Rammah describes first the purification of barud (crude saltpeter mineral) by boiling it with minimal water and using only the hot solution, then the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes ) to remove calcium and magnesium by precipitation of their carbonates from this solution, leaving a solution of purified potassium nitrate, which could then be dried. (
  • Negative 1 Under red lighting best quality writing paper is dipped in weak silver nitrate solution, followed by potassium iodide solution, and wiped dry. (
  • Most other nitrates will also produce a similar effect, but potassium nitrate is less effective because it is less soluble and some other nitrates may give off very toxic nitrogen dioxide when they decompose. (
  • Potassium Nitrate is a potassium salt of nitric acid. (
  • I have received many questions lately asking where people can buy potassium nitrate for their homemade smoke grenades. (
  • If you do not have access to these types of stores, your next best bet is to purchase potassium nitrate from an online retailer. (
  • In my opinion, Amazon is the best pace to buy potassium nitrate. (
  • If you do not want to purchase Potassium Nitrate from Amazon, there are other alternatives you may pursue. (
  • If you need potassium nitrate you do not have to buy it all the time. (
  • This is by no means a cost effective method of obtaining potassium nitrate, but it is something that you may want to try one day in the name of science. (
  • If I want to make a smoke grenades, I know where to get Potassium Nitrate. (
  • Visit your local garden supply store and look for potassium nitrate by its most common alternative name--saltpeter. (
  • You can purchase potassium nitrate online from several different sellers. (
  • Visit the The Science Company website (see Resources) and purchase potassium nitrate there. (
  • Visit the website (see Resources) to purchase Humco SaltPetre Powder (potassium nitrate). (
  • The North Carolina State University Extension Service says that to add 1 to 3 lbs. of potassium per 1,000 sq. ft., you need to use 1.7 to 5 lbs. potassium chloride, 2.3 to 6.8 lbs. potassium nitrate or 2.1 to 6.3 lbs potassium sulfate. (
  • Ultradent Opalescence Boost PF, a chemically activated 40 percent hydrogen peroxide gel that contains potassium nitrate and fluoride. (
  • Moreover, a Cochrane Database Systematic Review failed to find strong evidence supporting the efficacy of potassium nitrate toothpaste for dentine hypersensitivity (26). (
  • Potassium sulphate, potassium nitrate and potassium chloride were use as potassium sources as described in Tables 1 and 2. (
  • Hanson Logistics, express hazardous substance consent for storage of potassium nitrate , potassium permanganate, chromic acid, sodium percorbonate, sodium nitrate (400 tonnes total across the six substances), 9 Ashgrove Road, Deighton. (
  • The utilization of carbon and nitrogen nutrition was studied by replacing the sucrose and potassium nitrate in the basal medium with various nitrogen and carbon compounds on the molecular weight basis. (
  • Potassium nitrate has a chemical formula of KNO3. (
  • The chemical formula is derived from the compound's combination of the potassium ion, written as K with a charge of plus one, and nitrate, written with the formula NO3-, indicating that the ion carries a charge of minus one. (
  • The formula for the compound potassium nitrate indicates that it is a compound containing one atom of potassium, one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of oxygen in each molecule. (
  • Potassium nitrate is found in explosive substances such as fertilizer, gunpowder and fireworks. (
  • It is used for making potassium nitrate, fertilizers, explosives, in the production of high-strength glass, some limited pharmaceuticals and to preserve meats. (
  • It is known to be used as a substitute for potassium nitrate in black powder propellant, though it's performance is less. (
  • Product name: POTASSIUM NITRATE Chemical formula: KNO3 Molecular weight: 101,102 Physical state, form and color: White and hygroscopic crystals or prills CAS No. 7757 79 1 UN identification number: 1486 Hazard class or Division: 5.1 (Oxidizer) The chemical compound potassium nitrate is a naturally occurring mineral source of nitrogen. (
  • One of the most useful applications of potassium nitrate is in the production of nitric acid, by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to an aqueous solution of potassium nitrate, yielding nitric acid and potassium sulfate which are separated through fractional distillation. (
  • 2 One side is coated with an 'exciting' solution of gallic acid and silver nitrate, applied with a brush. (
  • Where can I find information on whether silver nitrate is regulated by the federal government as a prescription drug or has been deregulated as a prescription drug? (
  • For instance, there is this entry in the database: SILVER NITRATE 1% 0002-1608-02 100 AMP SOL R showing that a 1% solution of silver nitrate, in ampule form is specifically regulated as a prescription drug. (
  • Other forms of silver nitrate are listed as well. (
  • In addition, the FDA has specifically prohibited the use of silver salts (which includes silver nitrate) in the sale of over-the-counter medications. (
  • The entries in the FDA database show that there are instances where silver nitrate is being sold as a prescription drug. (
  • While this is helpful information, what I am really trying to find out is whether there are any regulations or requirements that silver nitrate must be sold under a prescription (and your answer regarding the silver salts partially answers this question) or whether there is anything stating that the sale of silver nitrate does not require a prescription. (
  • Silver nitrate is a fairly common industrial chemical and is used (among other things)to make photographic film. (
  • So, the answer to your question is: a prescription is not needed for non-medical uses of silver nitrate. (
  • A total of 9 drugs (53 brand and generic names) are known to interact with silver nitrate topical. (
  • Show all medications in the database that may interact with silver nitrate topical. (
  • The process of tintype begins by pouring collodion (a flammable, syrupy solution of cellulose nitrate in ether and alcohol) onto a metal plate or sheet of glass, where it firms slightly and is then put it into a dark box filled with silver nitrate to sensitize the plate. (
  • Is Silver Nitrate Used to Cauterize? (
  • Silver nitrate is used for chemical cauterization of canker sores. (
  • Silver nitrate is a caustic agent that can be an effective treatment option for aphthous stomatitis, also referred to as canker sores, according to the National Institutes of Health's PubMed. (
  • The results of a study, which was conducted on some subjects with this condition, showed that cauterization treatment with silver nitrate helped with ulcer pain and the healing time was faster. (
  • Cauterization with silver nitrate may also be appropriate for umbilical granuloma, which occurs when a child's umbilical stump develops a small lump consisting of red tissue, notes eMedicineHealth. (
  • How do I separate a mixture of Silver Nitrate and Sand and loose as little silver nitrate as possible. (
  • I know silver nitrate is water soluble, so I was going to dissolve all the silver nitrate and then filter out the sand, but is there a better way in which less silver nitrate will be lost. (
  • You can be exposed by drinking water from wells containing nitrate from sources such as animal waste and/or fertilizer runoff. (
  • Although fertilizer in runoff is most often blamed, there is evidence that concentration of livestock in feedlots is now the major source of agricultural nitrate pollution. (
  • A vegetable's nitrate level depends on factors such as vegetable type, age of plant, growing temperature, sunlight exposure, soil moisture and composition, and amount of nitrate-containing fertilizer used. (
  • Nitrates are chemicals found in fertilizer. (
  • Overuse of agricultural fertilizer has saturated large swathes of American soil with nitrates. (
  • A cohort of 2,131 male nitrate fertilizer workers was evaluated for cancer morbidity from 1963 to 1986. (
  • In a cohort of 1,148 male fertilizer workers who had never been exposed to nitrate, there was an increased incidence of lung cancer (SMR = 151,95% CI = 103-220) but not of stomach cancer or prostate cancer. (
  • The basin's complex ground-water system is exposed to five human-related sources of nitrate: septic tanks, feedlots, explosives, fertilizer, and land applications of food waste. (
  • Problem - There are a variety of nitrate sources present in the Umatilla basin including septic tanks, CAFOs, explosives, fertilizer, and food processing waste (Grondin and others, 1995). (
  • NaNO3 Uses Sodium Nitrate is used as a fertilizer because it contains available nitrogen which is essential for plant growth. (
  • Possibly, in very sandy or bottomland soils, nitrogen fertilizer applied in excess of crop needs or when there is no crop actually growing contributes to nitrate in shallow water supplies. (
  • Researchers' maps show agricultural areas with a history of heavy fertilizer use have some of the worst nitrate contamination problems. (
  • Nitrates are a salt -- they're a byproduct of fertilizer, dairy farms, and leaky septic tanks. (
  • Burow has found that most of the nitrate concentration from fertilizer applied over the last 50 to 60 years is affecting groundwater in shallower private wells, like the one the Vargases use. (
  • Part of the remaining fertilizer N still residing in the soil is predicted to continue to be taken up by crops and to leak toward the groundwater in the form of nitrate for at least another five decades, much longer than previously thought. (
  • Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. (
  • Urea and nitric acid are both manufactured on a huge scale for use in the fertilizer industry - urea is itself a widely used fertilizer - and the availability of these raw materials in bulk quantities combined with the ease of urea nitrate synthesis has led to this explosive often being favored by terrorist groups. (
  • In commerce, the majority of nitrate is used in inorganic fertilizers. (
  • Animal wastes and nitrogen-containing fertilizers increase concentrations of nitrate in the environment. (
  • Sodium nitrate is also used as an ingredient in fertilizers, pyrotechnics, as a food preservative, and as a solid rocket propellant, as well as in glass and pottery enamels, and has been mined extensively for those purposes. (
  • The greatest source of nitrates in water in the USA is fertilizers that are used to provide nitrates to crops. (
  • Nitrates are common components of fertilizers and explosives. (
  • Nitrates are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their high solubility and biodegradability. (
  • Organic vegetables are usually lower in nitrates because they haven't been exposed to nitrate-containing fertilizers. (
  • Most of the nitrates come from fertilizers. (
  • One compound, nitrate, is a major component of inorganic fertilizers that has helped make the area encompassed by the Mississippi River network the biggest producer of corn, soybeans, wheat, cattle and hogs, in the United States. (
  • While the biggest source of nitrates in the Mississippi River network are industrial fertilizers, nitrates also come from animal manure, urban areas, wastewater treatment and other sources, according to USGS. (
  • Increasing use of nitrogen fertilizers has been considered a source of nitrate in water. (
  • Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. (
  • The excesive use of fertilizers in intensive agriculture and the discharges of sewage and slurry from livestock contaminate the water with nitrates. (
  • The nitrogen from sodium nitrate fertilizers are immediately available to plant roots. (
  • As we all known, excessive nitrates (NO3-) exist in surface and underground water due to the overuse of nitrogen-based fertilizers and the discharge of industrial and domestic sewages, threating the human health. (
  • Salts and esters of nitric acid (HNO 3 ), including compounds containing the nitrate ion (NO 3 − ) anion. (
  • Beryllium nitrate is a toxic chemical, like all other beryllium compounds. (
  • Most nitrate compounds are strong oxidizing agents and some can react violently with oxidizable substances and may explode if exposed to heat or shock. (
  • Nitrate , any member of either of two classes of compounds derived from nitric acid , HNO 3 . (
  • Esters of nitric acid are covalent compounds having the structure R―O―NO 2 , in which R represents an organic combining group, such as ethyl (C 2 H 5 ) in ethyl nitrate. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites are compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites are compounds that occur naturally in the human body and some foods, such as vegetables. (
  • Nitrates are nitrogen-oxygen chemical units that combine with various organic and inorganic compounds, or may be present in water in ionic form. (
  • Nitrate compounds for gunpowder were historically produced, in the absence of mineral nitrate sources, by means of various fermentation processes using urine and dung. (
  • The second major application of nitrates is as oxidizing agents, most notably in explosives where the rapid oxidation of carbon compounds liberates large volumes of gases (see gunpowder for an example). (
  • The explorer robot has discovered evidence of nitrates, the nitrogen compounds that are some of the key nutrients for life, in rocks at three places near its landing site. (
  • The sediment operates as a chemical filter in that microbes in the sand, gravel and mud gobble up compounds such as oxygen and nitrates from the water before the water discharges back into the stream. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites are both naturally occurring chemical compounds found in soil, water, plants, and even our own bodies. (
  • Recent cases of eutrophication and the excessive presence of nitrogen compounds (nitrates) in surface and ground waters can cause serious consequences for human health and negative effects on ecosystems. (
  • When we talk about wastewater of an industrial nature (factories, agricultural and farming sector, etc.), in addition to nitrogen compounds in a short form (NTK), there are also large contributions of nitrogen in oxidized form (nitrites and nitrates). (
  • The removal of these nitrogen compounds (ammonia, organic nitrogen, nitrites, nitrates) in urban and industrial wastewater and drinking water will depend fundamentally on the characteristics of the substrate, the nutrient ratios, the oxygen supply, the water temperature, salinity and the presence of toxic elements or inhibitors. (
  • In the case of urea nitrate, as with most commercial and military explosives, the fuel and the oxidizer are present in the same molecule, and like most compounds of this type, it is classed as a high explosive. (
  • Nitrate compounds are generally soluble in water. (
  • When mixed with hydrocarbons, nitrate compounds can form a flammable mixture. (
  • Nitrates are excellent precursors for production of ultra high purity compounds and certain catalyst and nanoscale ( nanoparticles and nanopowders ) materials. (
  • Sewage is the main source of nitrates added by humans to rivers and can cause eutrophication. (
  • Keep in mind that the source of nitrates and nitrites, whether from its addition to cure meats or its natural occurrence in fruits and vegetables, is most likely what determines its impact on health. (
  • And baby food isn't the only dietary source of nitrates. (
  • High nitrate concentrations also contribute to a condition in lakes and ponds called eutrophication , the excessive growth of aquatic plants and algae. (
  • Elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater are mainly due to intensive agriculture. (
  • Concentrations of nitrate in the basin's ground water frequently exceed national drinking-water standards. (
  • Molecular genetic evidences demonstrate that roots sense and respond to local and global concentrations of inorganic phosphate and nitrate, in a fashion that depends on the shoot nutrient status. (
  • Blue-baby syndrome" can be caused by high nitrate concentrations in the drinking water of infants under six months of age. (
  • So we are seeing increases deeper in the system, and the question will be, how long is it going to take until that really high concentration of water gets down deeper in the system, and are we going to effectively fill up the bathtub with nitrate concentrations? (
  • WASHINGTON, Sept. 18 (UPI) -- A recently completed 16-year U.S. ground water study shows statistically significant increases in concentrations of nitrates in seven of 24 well networks. (
  • Results of the U.S. Geological Survey study were analyzed to characterize near decade-long trends in nitrate concentrations in ground water between 1988 and 2004 in samples from 495 wells in 24 well networks across the nation. (
  • However the concentrations of nitrate in spinach have the potential to increase dietary nitrate exposure to levels at which a health concern can not be excluded for some young children. (
  • Salts containing this ion are called nitrates. (
  • Nitrate salts are found naturally on earth as large deposits, particularly of nitratine, a major source of sodium nitrate. (
  • All metallic nitrates are inorganic salts of a given metal cation and the nitrate anion. (
  • Nitrates (NO3) consist of one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. (
  • In this disease, nitrate converts hemoglobin into a form that can no longer transport oxygen. (
  • Excessive nitrate in groundwater feeding ponds and streams contributes to algal growth and oxygen depletion, affecting aquatic life. (
  • Lightning strikes in earth's nitrogen-oxygen rich atmosphere produce a mixture of oxides of nitrogen which form nitrous ions and nitrate ions which are washed from the atmosphere by rain or in occult deposition. (
  • This condition occurs because the nitrates, converted to nitrites, inhibit the absorption of oxygen. (
  • The amount of nitrates flowing into the gulf from the Mississippi has already created the world's second biggest dead zone, an oxygen-depleted area where fish and other aquatic life can't survive. (
  • Both nitrates and aging can increase in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). (
  • This study will attempt to assess 1) the nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopic signature in ground water from each type of nitrate source if not adequately defined in the literature and 2) the age of the water carrying the nitrate to determine whether the nitrate is from current or historical land management practices. (
  • Nitrates are linked to blue-baby syndrome, a condition that cuts off oxygen to the organs of fetuses and infants. (
  • Urea nitrate is a colorless, crystalline compound of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen with the chemical formula (NH 2 ) 2 CO.HNO 3 . (
  • The goal of this continuing education program is to explain the role of dietary nitrates in lowering blood pressure, reducing the oxygen cost of exercise and improving athletic performance. (
  • The nitrate anion is a univalent (-1 charge) polyatomic ion composed of a single nitrogen atom ionically bound to three oxygen atoms (Symbol: NO3) for a total formula weight of 62.05. (
  • Nitrates are very soluble, and do not bind with soil so the potential is high for them to migrate to ground water. (
  • Almost all inorganic nitrates are soluble in water. (
  • Nitrate is water-soluble and can move with water on and through the soil, porous rock and sand layers to underground water supplies. (
  • Inorganic nitrates and nitrites are generally more water soluble than organic nitrates and nitrates. (
  • Tantalum Nitrate is a highly water soluble crystalline Tantalum source for uses compatible with nitrates and lower (acidic) pH. (
  • The tests described here are used to measure the concentration of nitrate ions, NO 3 - , in a water sample. (
  • Nitrate ions found in freshwater samples result from a variety of natural and industrial sources. (
  • Determine the concentration of nitrate ions, NO 3 − , in a water sample from a stream or lake. (
  • The glass item is first immersed in a sodium nitrate bath which enriches the surface of the glass with sodium ions increasing the strength of the finished product. (
  • Nitrate pollution of surface and groundwater has become a major ecological problem in some agricultural areas. (
  • The only preventive factors are clays that limit groundwater flow and deep chemically reductive zones that convert nitrate back to ammonia and nitrogen gas. (
  • Nitrate exceeds the limit value of 25 mg/l in groundwater at almost 15 % of the monitoring sites across Switzerland. (
  • Groundwater naturally contains very little nitrate. (
  • Nitrate in groundwater (2019) and open arable land. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • A new method of measuring the interaction of surface water and groundwater along the length of the Mississippi River network adds fresh evidence that the network's natural ability to chemically filter out nitrates is being overwhelmed. (
  • But nitrates are starting to leach down further to the deeper groundwater that supplies municipalities and cities. (
  • Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. (
  • Salher develops treatments to avoid pollution and reduce the impact of nitrates in groundwater. (
  • In blue baby syndrome, nitrates are reduced to nitrites by bacteria in an infant's stomach. (
  • Some nitrate-reducing bacteria are known to form heavy growths on well screens and equipment. (
  • Nitrates are produced by a number of species of nitrifying bacteria in the natural environment using ammonia or urea as a source of nitrogen. (
  • Nitrates themselves are not harmful - the problem happens when nitrates are converted to nitrites by bacteria in a baby's gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The good news: when an infant is around three months old, his stomach begins to produce more hydrochloric acid, which destroys most of the nitrate-converting bacteria. (
  • When we drink water contaminated with nitrates, these are converted into nitrites by the action of intestinal bacteria. (
  • When we eat nitrates in plants, bacteria in our mouth convert them to-you guessed it-nitrites. (
  • Nitrate (NO3-) (CAS No. 014797-55-8) is an inorganic anion resulting from the oxidation of elemental nitrogen. (
  • The nucleotide sequence of the Aspergillus nidulans crnA gene for the transport of the anion nitrate has been determined. (
  • 7 ] demonstrated that in vivo nitrate use was associated with an endothelial-dependent production of superoxide anion, an important mechanistic development in the understanding of nitrate tolerance. (
  • Munzel's work was further supported by the association of reduced superoxide anion production with inclusion of a nitrate-free period in vivo [ 8 ]. (
  • The compound is ionic in nature with the urea - bonded to the hydrogen atom from the nitric acid - forming the cation, and the nitrate (NO3-) group forming the anion. (
  • By the 15th century, Europeans referred to it as saltpeter [8] and later as nitrate of potash, as the chemistry of the compound was more fully understood. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites are two different types of compound. (
  • Although nitrites are the nitrogen compound chiefly used in meat curing, nitrates are used as well. (
  • Nitrates are bad because they react with hemoglobin, turning the hemoglobin into a compound called methemoglobin. (
  • Oxiconazole nitrate cream, 1% contains the antifungal active compound oxiconazole nitrate. (
  • Calcium nitrate , also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter), is an inorganic compound with the formula Ca(NO 3 ) 2 . (
  • Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound present in vegetables, the consumption of which can contribute significantly to nitrate dietary exposure. (
  • Sodium nitrate is a colorless, odorless, crystalline compound, sometimes referred to as soda niter, nitrate of soda or Chile saltpeter. (
  • Sodium nitrate is often used as a nitrogen containing, control compound, rather than an active ingredient in medicine. (
  • A simple field test can identify urea nitrate by exploiting its reaction with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (P-DMAC) to form a strongly colored red compound. (
  • Following an explosion, however, it is difficult to verify chemically if this compound was involved as it would then be present only in trace amounts and the decomposition products are similar to those of some other nitrate-based explosives. (
  • Most of the excess nitrates in the environment originate from inorganic chemicals manufactured for agriculture. (
  • The excess nitrates not used by the plants are carried through the soil to ground water in a process called "leaching. (
  • Aquifers in Spain are increasingly at risk of chemical contamination by excess nitrates in their waters. (
  • Chemically, econazole nitrate is 1-[2-{(4-chloro-phenyl) methoxy}-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole mononitrate. (
  • Chemically, oxiconazole nitrate is 2',4'-dichloro-2-imidazol-1-ylacetophenone (Z) -[ 0 -(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime], mononitrate. (
  • But not much of the water - only 24 percent - lingers long enough for nitrate to be chemically extracted. (
  • Nitrate is not held by soil particles and not chemically fixed in the soil. (
  • Sodium nitrate is involved in a two-stage process for making chemically strengthened glass. (
  • at most, approximately five percent of our daily nitrate intake comes from cured meats. (
  • The harmful effects are thought to result from consuming "added nitrates" in cured meats, and contaminated water. (
  • A diet rich in a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables is ideal, and look for cured meats processed without nitrates, especially during summer grilling season! (
  • Food producers often add nitrates and nitrites to processed meats , such as bacon, ham, sausages, and hot dogs. (
  • Nitrates are present in small amounts in processed meats and in larger amounts in healthy foods like vegetables. (
  • One of the most common forms is a natural salt called sodium nitrate, which is exceptionally good at preserving meats and has been used for this purpose for generations. (
  • But here's the shocker: For all the fuss that's been made about nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines, cured meats only account for a minuscule 6% of our dietary nitrate intake. (
  • Sodium nitrate is a preservative found in processed meats, such as hot dogs, bologna, salami, ham and other deli meats. (
  • Ground water tests indicated that nitrates had exceeded the maximum contamination level for the area. (
  • Contamination from nitrates is one of the problems that can arise after severe flooding or heavy rains in rural areas. (
  • Ion exchange, used along with a water softening system, can provide a whole-house solution for nitrate contamination. (
  • But danger lurks in that good-looking meal, primarily in the form of nitrate contamination and botulism. (
  • Homemade baby food carries the risk of nitrate contamination. (
  • This news comes just when the European Commission gives an ultimatum to the Spanish Government to act against the nitrate contamination of its waters. (
  • The organic nitrates, including nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate, act as prodrugs for nitric oxide and are used to treat or prevent acute attacks of angina pectoris. (
  • The organic nitrates, including nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate, act as prodrugs for nitric oxide (NO) which is a potent vasodilator gas. (
  • The three forms of organic nitrates are described separately in this document, but their mechanism of action is similar as are their clinical effects and adverse event profiles. (
  • Organic nitrates are efficacious drugs for treatment of angina pectoris attacks, acute coronary syndromes, pulmonary edema, and hypertensive crisis. (
  • However, the use of organic nitrates is limited by the rapid development of nitrate tolerance. (
  • 4 Interestingly, the organic nitrate pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), which is well tolerated and effective in patients with stable coronary artery disease, 5 is devoid of the development of nitrate tolerance at least in part by inducing HO-1 expression. (
  • Organic nitrates have been employed in the treatment of ischemic heart disease for more than a century and remain the most frequently prescribed and utilized medications for treating the ischemic heart disease population worldwide, of which the elderly are a major constituent. (
  • In a state-wide survey of nitrate levels in well water, MU agronomists found that in the 6,000 water supplies analyzed, the major sources of nitrate were animal manures, inadequate human waste treatment systems and soil organic matter. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites can be categorized into inorganic and organic forms based on their chemical structure. (
  • Nitrates and Nitrites exist in organic and inorganic forms. (
  • Organic nitrates and nitrites are mostly synthesized medicinal products. (
  • The concentration of nitrate will be expressed throughout this section in units of mg/L NO 3 - -N. The unit, NO 3 - -N, means simply "nitrogen that is in the form of nitrate. (
  • Although nitrate levels in freshwater are usually less than 1 mg/L, human-created sources of nitrate may elevate levels above 3 mg/L. These sources include animal feedlots, runoff from fertilized fields, or treated municipal wastewater being returned to streams. (
  • To help resource managers in the the Lower Umatilla Basin Ground Water Management Area (GWMA), the USGS is developing tools to identify sources of nitrate in specific wells in the GWMA. (
  • The USGS is evaluating the effectiveness of tools that use isotopes and tracers to "fingerprint" the different sources of nitrate. (
  • Therefore, development of isotopic tools to distinguish which of the five sources of nitrate have contributed to contaminating particular areas is needed in order to assist agencies in effectively focusing their resources on reducing nitrate loading to the ground-water system. (
  • Objectives - The objective of this study is to develop isotopic and tracer tools to identify sources of nitrate in ground water in the Lower Umatilla Basin Ground Water Management Area (GWMA). (
  • This project will develop a tool to allow EPA and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality to better determine the sources of nitrate in the ground-water of the Lower Umatilla Basin. (
  • They tested the soil and reported on the nitrate concentration and distribution at the site. (
  • The students chose to plant native grasses like big and little bluestem and cottonwood trees to reduce nitrate levels and water movement within the soil. (
  • After weighing the costs and benefits of each plan, KDHE approved the combination plan, involving the movement of nitrate-heavy soil to nearby fields for fertilization and planting nitrogen-absorbing plants on the site. (
  • Incidents such as heavy rains, flooding, chemical spills, or failed sewage systems can cause nitrates to enter soil near your private water well, too. (
  • Nitrates are chemicals that are naturally present in plants and soil. (
  • Plants love them because nitrates release nitrogen into the soil. (
  • But nitrates aren't contained by the soil. (
  • High nitrate content of many water supplies in north Missouri appears to be associated with long-time livestock production where shallow water supplies are found at the junction of the pervious wind blown soil (loess) and tight, glacial clays (Figure 1). (
  • Contaminated wells may be located on high ground with good drainage, but the underground water supply contains nitrate originating from a considerable distance by its leaching through pervious soil or porous, fissured rock. (
  • The EPA has approved certain methods for removing nitrates and nitrites, including reverse osmosis and ion exchange. (
  • More than 85 percent of a person's daily intake comes from nitrates in common vegetables included in a healthy diet. (
  • The effects of naturally occurring nitrates in fruits and vegetables have not been extensively studied, but the recent evaluation of the DASH diet reveals the possibility of positive health benefits. (
  • In fact, according to one study, people obtain around 80% of their dietary nitrates from vegetables ( 6 ). (
  • NO− 3 (inorganic nitrate) is the viable active component within beetroot juice and other vegetables. (
  • Leafy green and root vegetables are highest in nitrates. (
  • The report also suggested that "some commercially prepared infant food vegetables are voluntarily monitored for nitrate content by private industry, including spinach, squash, and carrots. (
  • Don't avoid serving healthy vegetables to your baby in fear of nitrate exposure. (
  • Until recently nitrate - which is abundant in green leafy vegetables - had been considered merely as an inert end product of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism or as a potentially toxic constituent in our diet. (
  • In this context, it is tempting to speculate that the lowering of the metabolic rate by nitrate in vegetables represents an evolutionary favorable metabolic response to preserve energy. (
  • RxPG] London, Dec 28 - Nitrates, a chemical found in vegetables like spinach and lettuce, may be responsible for keeping blood vessels healthy, says a new study. (
  • The researchers claimed to have found nitrates in vegetables like spinach and lettuce, which they say may be Mother Nature's way of keeping blood pressure in check. (
  • The European Food Safety Authority Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) issued an opinion on 'Nitrate in vegetables' in 2008. (
  • This course will provide healthcare professionals with the most current information on the role of dietary nitrates, how nitrate-rich vegetables improve metabolic outcomes for patients and athletes and which foods are the best sources of dietary nitrates. (
  • The Vargases are among a growing number of Californians whose drinking water is polluted with nitrates -- colorless and odorless contaminants that can cause health problems. (
  • Considering that the dissociation energy of N-O bonds in nitrates is only 204 kJ mol-1 and ammonia can be easily reclaimed from its aqueous solution, it is of great interest to use nitrate contaminants as nitrogen source and water as hydrogen source for the electrochemical synthesis of high value-added ammonia. (
  • In 2005, the American Academy of Pediatrics stated that "because the intake of naturally occurring nitrates from foods such as green beans, carrots, squash, spinach, and beets can be as high as or higher than that from well water, these foods should be avoided before three months of age. (
  • Furthermore, similar studies with mutants of nirA and areA control genes and the niaD nitrate reductase structural gene show that crnA expression is mediated by the products of nirA (nitrate induction control gene), areA (nitrogen metabolite repression control gene), and niaD (involved in autoregulation of nitrate reductase). (
  • The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nar-2, nar-3, and nar-4 genes, which are within a nitrate-regulated gene cluster containing the nitrate reductase structural gene nit-1, have been related to nitrate transport. (
  • In fact, boiling will increase the concentration of nitrates in water. (
  • however, if this absorbance is not balanced, in agreement to the requirements of the crop, it becomes in a factor that limits the normal growth of the plants [ 4 ] affecting drastically the crops production, mainly by the deficiency or toxicity of the nitrates [ 5 ]. (
  • The acute toxicity of nitrate is low. (
  • In this work, we evaluated the potential of exogenous nitrate (NO3-) on relieving NO2- toxicity, putatively facilitated by NarK, a NO3-/NO2- transporter encoded in the anammox genome. (
  • Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the nitrate ion can be represented by resonance structures: A rich source of inorganic nitrate in the human diets come from leafy green foods, such as spinach and arugula. (
  • The dose of nitrate used in this study was the equivalent to that consumed in 200 to 300 grams of spinach, 2-3 beetroot, said the researchers. (
  • Each participant rotated between taking a daily dose of nitrate supplement equivalent to the amount normally found in 150 to 250 gm of a nitrate-rich vegetable -- such as spinach, lettuce, or beetroot -- for three days, and taking a placebo for a different three days. (
  • The European Commission subsequently requested more information on potential acute effects of nitrate exposure in infants and young children consuming lettuce or spinach, taking into account the possibility of establishment of slightly higher maximum levels as an alternative to local derogations. (
  • Nitrate exposure at the current or proposed maximum levels for nitrate in spinach cooked from fresh is unlikely to be a health concern, although a risk for some infants eating more than one spinach meal in a day cannot be excluded. (
  • Enforcing the current maximum levels for nitrate in lettuce and spinach, or proposed maximum levels at 500 mg/kg higher than the current maximum levels, would have a minor impact compared to the situation of local derogations from the maximum levels, because only about 1 % of lettuce samples and 5 % of spinach samples exceeded the respective current maximum levels. (
  • The CONTAM Panel noted that infants and children with bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract are more sensitive to nitrate, and recommended against feeding spinach to such children. (
  • Nitrates can turn into nitrites, which can then form either nitric oxide (good) or nitrosamines (bad). (
  • Nitrates lead to the formation of nitrosamines. (
  • For specific information on the NFPA 40 regulations, consult the code handout "NFPA 40: Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film" , available for purchase on-line at the NFPA website. (
  • Eastman Kodak manufactured cellulose nitrate film at Rochester, NY by dissolving silver bars in nitric acid, drawing clean water from Lake Ontario and pumping the dirty stuff into the Genesee River. (
  • It will also show how increasing dietary nitrate intake may help athletes improve their performance. (
  • Oxiconazole nitrate cream, 1% contains 10 mg of oxiconazole per gram of cream in a white to off-white cream base of cetyl alcohol, polysorbate 60, propylene glycol, purified water, stearyl alcohol, white petrolatum, and benzoic acid 0.2% as a preservative. (
  • Sodium Nitrate is also a preservative used in the food and medical industries. (
  • Sodium nitrate is listed as the inactive ingredient in a variety of eye drops, presumably as a preservative. (
  • Although cities are required to remove nitrates before they reach the tap, many communities don't have access to that kind of cleanup technology. (
  • This course will focus on inorganic nitrates. (
  • Inorganic nitrates and nitrites are produced endogenously and exogenously. (
  • The flammable nature of nitrate films is not the only health hazard to those working with the collection. (
  • Nitrate film stock is extremely flammable - it was replaced by more stable stock in the 1950s. (
  • Nitrocalcite is the name for a mineral which is a hydrated calcium nitrate that forms as an efflorescence where manure contacts concrete or limestone in a dry environment as in stables or caverns . (
  • Most of the world's calcium nitrate is now made in Porsgrunn . (
  • Calcium nitrate is also used to control certain plant diseases. (
  • For example, dilute calcium nitrate (and calcium chloride ) sprays are used to control bitter pit and cork spot in apple trees. (
  • Calcium nitrate is used in waste water pre-conditioning for odour emission prevention. (
  • Calcium nitrate is used in set accelerating concrete admixtures. (
  • Nitrate Films main content. (
  • The best way is cooking them in water, so that it dissolves the nitrate content. (
  • What Is Urea Nitrate? (
  • urea nitrate is classed as a secondary explosive, as a small explosive charge is normally required to provide sufficient shock to cause detonation. (
  • Urea nitrate does not normally explode if ignited, but burns easily in air, producing carbon dioxide , water and oxides of nitrogen. (
  • It is thought that urea nitrate was the main explosive used in the 1993 car bomb attack on the World Trade Center. (
  • From your description, very little, if any, urea nitrate would be formed, though I don't know what quantities you are using. (
  • If you are concerned about leaving an explosive residue, you can dilute with lots of water when you are finished, which should dissolve any urea nitrate, then you can dispose of it safely. (
  • Econazole Nitrate Cream 1% contains the antifungal agent, econazole nitrate 1% in a water miscible base consisting of pegoxol 7 stearate, peglicol 5 oleate, mineral oil, benzoic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and purified water. (
  • Dietary nitrates and nitrites can also change into nitric oxide, dilate the blood vessels, and lower blood pressure ( 17 ). (
  • Increased plasma nitrate stimulates the production of nitric oxide. (
  • Rapid advances in the understanding of how dietary nitrates lead to increased nitric oxide production can improve athletic performance and reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • The four studies in this review included 634 patients with AHFS and employed two types of nitrates (isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin). (
  • To quantify the effect of different nitrate preparations (isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin) and the effect of route of administration of nitrates on clinical outcome, and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of nitrates in the management of AHFS. (
  • Randomised controlled trials comparing nitrates (isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin) with alternative interventions (frusemide and morphine, frusemide alone, hydralazine, prenalterol, intravenous nesiritide and placebo) in the management of AHFS in adults aged 18 and over. (
  • With this information, these agencies can focus on the appropriate management practices to reduce nitrate levels in the basin. (
  • Beryllium nitrate, also known as beryllium dinitrate, is an ionic beryllium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Be(NO3)2. (
  • Currently, biosensors based on genetic constructions, based on the response of promoter gene fused to Gene Fluorescent Protein (GFP), are gaining popularity, because they improve the accuracy of measurements of nitrate by avoiding the interference of carriers ion, high salt conditions, and other factors. (
  • Magnesium Nitrate is an inorganic salt. (
  • Its common names include saltpetre (from Medieval Latin sal petrae: "stone salt" or possibly "salt of Petra"), American English saltpeter, Chilean saltpetre, Nitrate of potash and nitre. (
  • Geology students are using private wells for more precise and localized samples to test for any reduction in nitrates. (
  • Results showed a 4.2% reduction in the resting metabolic rate following nitrate consumption for three days, compared to placebo. (
  • A new nitrate reduction practice called saturated buffers diverts water from drainage tiles, then relies on trees, shrubs to take up the nitrates before it hits waterways. (
  • Inorganic nitrites are also produced endogenously through oxidation of nitrous oxide (NO) formed from the enzymatic degradation of L-arginine and through the reduction of nitrate with xanthine oxidoreductase [Omar et al. (
  • However, the competitive reaction of H2 generation and the complex eight-electron reduction process retard the FE and selectivity of ammonia during electrocatalytic nitrate reduction reactions. (
  • The heterostructured Co/CoO NSAs with electron-deficient Co exhibited excellent performances for the electrochemical reduction of nitrates to ammonia: 93.8% of Faraday efficiency and 91.2% of selectivity, which were much higher than that of the Co NSAs. (
  • This work offers a facile strategy to construct efficient electrocatalysts for ammonia synthesis from nitrate reduction powered by renewable electricity. (
  • Nitrates in drinking water are a concern as levels as little as 10 milligrams per liter of water can cause methemoglobinemia, a blood disorder frequently called 'blue baby syndrome' which affects children especially under the age of five. (
  • Nitrates aren't the only cause of methemoglobinemia. (
  • However, nitrate tolerance develops rapidly with persistent exposure and these agents are given in a way that allows for an 8 to 12 hour nitrate free period to restore efficacy. (
  • The efficacy of nitrates for reducing risk of fracture should be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial," the authors conclude. (
  • The aim of this review was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of nitrate vasodilators in AHFS. (