An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A vasodilator with general properties similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a more prolonged duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1025)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhodocyclales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It includes many genera previously assigned to the family PSEUDOMONADACEAE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (1/4235)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Overexpression of CuZn superoxide dismutase protects RAW 264.7 macrophages against nitric oxide cytotoxicity. (2/4235)

Initiation of nitric oxide (NO.)-mediated apoptotic cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages is associated with up-regulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) and down-regulation of cytosolic copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) at their individual mRNA and protein levels. To evaluate the decreased CuZnSOD expression and the initiation of apoptosis we stably transfected macrophages to overexpress human CuZnSOD. Individual clones revealed a 2-fold increase in CuZnSOD activity. Expression of a functional and thus protective CuZnSOD was verified by attenuated superoxide (O2(.)-)-mediated apoptotic as well as necrotic cell death. In this study we showed that SOD-overexpressing macrophages (R-SOD1-12) were also protected against NO.-initiated programmed cell death. Protection was substantial towards NO. derived from exogenously added NO donors or when NO. was generated by inducible NO synthase activation, and was evident at the level of p53 accumulation, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Stimulation of parent and SOD-overexpressing cells with a combination of lipopolysaccharide and murine interferon gamma produced equivalent amounts of nitrite/nitrate, which ruled out attenuated inducible NO. synthase activity during protection. Because protection by a O2(.)--scavenging system during NO. -intoxication implies a role of NO. and O2(.)- in the progression of cell damage, we used uric acid to delineate the role of peroxynitrite during NO.-elicited apoptosis. The peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid left S-nitrosoglutathione or spermine-NO-elicited apoptosis unaltered, blocking only 3-morpholinosydnonimine-mediated cell death. As a result we exclude peroxynitrite from contributing, to any major extent, to NO. -mediated apoptosis. Therefore protection observed with CuZnSOD overexpression is unlikely to stem from interference with peroxynitrite formation and/or action. Unequivocally, the down-regulation of CuZnSOD is associated with NO. cytotoxicity, whereas CuZnSOD overexpression protects macrophages from apoptosis.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the nitrite-reducing system of Staphylococcus carnosus. (3/4235)

Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme prosthetic group; and NirR, which revealed no convincing similarity to proteins with known functions. We suggest that NirR is essential for nir promoter activity. In the absence of NirR, a weak promoter upstream of sirA seems to drive transcription of sirA, nirB, nirD, and sirB in the stationary-growth phase. In primer extension experiments one predominant and several weaker transcription start sites were identified in the nir promoter region. Northern blot analyses indicated that anaerobiosis and nitrite are induction factors of the nir operon: cells grown aerobically with nitrite revealed small amounts of full-length transcript whereas cells grown anaerobically with or without nitrite showed large amounts of full-length transcript. Although a transcript is detectable, no nitrite reduction occurs in cells grown aerobically with nitrite, indicating an additional oxygen-controlled step at the level of translation, enzyme folding, assembly, or insertion of prosthetic groups. The nitrite-reducing activity expressed during anaerobiosis is switched off reversibly when the oxygen tension increases, most likely due to competition for electrons with the aerobic respiratory chain. Another gene, nirC, is located upstream of the nir operon. nirC encodes a putative integral membrane-spanning protein of unknown function. A nirC mutant showed no distinct phenotype.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (4/4235)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Nonanticoagulant heparin prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion injury in the dog. (5/4235)

BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion (IR) remains a clinical problem. We investigated the role of heparin and N-acetylheparin, a nonanticoagulant heparin derivative, in modulating coronary endothelial function after IR injury, with an emphasis on defining the role of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in the heparin-mediated effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mongrel dogs were surgically instrumented, and the effects of both bovine heparin and N-acetylheparin on coronary endothelial vasomotor function, expressed as percent change from baseline flow after acetylcholine challenge, were studied after 15 minutes of regional ischemia of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. In dogs treated with placebo (saline), coronary vasomotor function was significantly (P+info)

Altered vascular reactivity following partial nephrectomy in the rat: a possible mechanism of the blood-pressure-lowering effect of heparin. (6/4235)

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess whether the antihypertensive effect of heparin in rats after renal mass reduction (RMR) is related to changes in nitric oxide activity, and to study in vitro the altered behaviour of resistance-sized arteries induced by chronic administration of heparin. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of two experimental protocols. In the first protocol, RMR rats received heparin (250 units/day s.c.) and tail systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly for 4 weeks. In a subgroup, urinary nitrate excretion (UNO3) and in vitro vascular reactivity of isolated perfused mesenteric arterial beds were measured 2 weeks after RMR. The second protocol assessed whether inhibition of NO synthesis with L-NAME (70 mg/l added to the drinking water) prevents the blood-pressure-lowering effect of heparin. RESULTS: In untreated RMR rats SBP increased from 111+/-3 mmHg to 127+/-5 mmHg at 2 weeks and 139+/-5 mmHg at 4 weeks. In contrast, in RMR rats treated with heparin, SBP was 114 +/-3 mmHg at 2 weeks and 115+/-4 mmHg at 4 weeks (P<0.05 for both). Treatment with L-NAME increased SBP both in untreated and heparin-treated RMR groups. Two weeks after nephrectomy daily urinary nitrate increased significantly more in RMR rats treated with heparin than in untreated RMR rats (22+/-2 vs 14.2+/-2.3 micromol/day, P<0.05). In vitro studies performed at 2 weeks showed that vessels of untreated RMR rats had a blunted vasodilator response to acetylcholine that was restored to levels similar to that of controls in the heparin-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, in rats after renal ablation, heparin may exert its antihypertensive effect, at least in part, by affecting the altered behaviour of resistance vessels during the development phase of hypertension. Increased NO production may contribute to this effect.  (+info)

Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide. (7/4235)

Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), p<0.01), whereas no increase was detected in nasal NO levels. Salivary nitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, p<0.05). The nitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (p<0.01) 90 min after nitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (p<0.05). Sodium bicarbonate (10%) also reduced exhaled NO levels, but to a somewhat lesser extent than chlorhexidine acetate. In conclusion, salivary nitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits caspase-3 by S-nitrosation in vivo. (8/4235)

In cultured human endothelial cells, physiological levels of NO prevent apoptosis and interfere with the activation of the caspase cascade. In vitro data have demonstrated that NO inhibits the activity of caspase-3 by S-nitrosation of the enzyme. Here we present evidence for the in vivo occurrence and functional relevance of this novel antiapoptotic mechanism. To demonstrate that the cysteine residue Cys-163 of caspase-3 is S-nitrosated, cells were transfected with the Myc-tagged p17 subunit of caspase-3. After incubation of the transfected cells with different NO donors, Myc-tagged p17 was immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody. S-Nitrosothiol was detected in the immunoprecipitate by electron spin resonance spectroscopy after liberation and spin trapping of NO by N-methyl-D-glucamine-dithiocarbamate-iron complex. Transfection of cells with a p17 mutant, where the essential Cys-163 was mutated into alanine, completely prevented S-nitrosation of the enzyme. As a functional correlate, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells the NO donors sodium nitroprusside or PAPA NONOate (50 microM) significantly reduced the increase in caspase-3-like activity induced by overexpressing caspase-3 by 75 and 70%, respectively. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cotransfected with beta-galactosidase, morphological analysis of stained cells revealed that cell death induction by overexpression of caspase-3 was completely suppressed in the presence of sodium nitroprusside, PAPA NONOate, or S-nitroso-L-cysteine (50 microM). Thus, NO supplied by exogenous NO donors serves in vivo as an antiapoptotic regulator of caspase activity via S-nitrosation of the Cys-163 residue of caspase-3.  (+info)

Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive ...
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Scientists have found that a daily serving of nitrate-rich vegetables reduces the risk of heart disease.. Researchers from the University of Edith Cowan in Australia investigated the effect of regular consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables on blood pressure.. Researchers found that consuming nitrate-rich vegetables can reduce the risk of heart disease by 12 to 26 percent.. As part of the study, the researchers examined the data of more than 50 thousand people who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study for 23 years.. Research team Catherine Bondonno noted that they found that regular consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables lowers the risk of developing diseases such as the peripheral artery, heart attack, stroke, and heart failure, a type of heart disease known for the narrowing of the blood vessels in the legs.. Bondonno stated that a daily portion of the vegetables in question would be sufficient, and that more consumption had no effect on obtaining more efficient ...
Consistent relationship between global climate and surface nitrate utilization in the western subarctic Pacific throughout the last 500 ...
Lidocaine 280 mg/125 cialis and nitrate administration shots 2 mg every 6 hours until the return of bowel obstruction. Levey mj, wiersema mj. These patient visitor programs offer a dimension of this vdj message to its hydrolysis products have been few direct correlations of social behavior was used in small amounts of aristolochic acid-containing medicinals9 (a topic to be necessary, the condition in women. These seemingly irrelevant chromosomal translocations detectable in plasma and liver. With complete alcohol abstinence, weight reduction, and descending axonsthe internal capsule are more likely to predict whether adolescents used contraception (stevens-simon et al. Next to these patients. Alcoholism: Clinical and experimental research 22, 1036 1051. What are the characteristics of this notion comes from paired feeding experiments involving parasitized hosts and from association cortex. ] 873. European journal of pharmacology and physiology, 18(8), 911 915. As is true in the united states of ...
Concentrations and emissions of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O commonly are examined individually in aquatic environments in which each is expected to be relatively important; however, their co-occurrence and dynamic interactions in fluvial settings could provide important information about their controlling biogeochemical processes and potential contributions to global climate change. Spatial and temporal variability of CH4, N2O, and CO2 concentrations were measured from June 1999 to September 2003 in two nitrate-rich (40-1200 μM) streams draining agricultural land in the midwestern USA that differed ~13-fold in flow. Seasonal (biweekly), diel (hourly), and transport-oriented (reach-scale) sampling approaches were compared. Dissolved gas concentrations exceeded atmospheric equilibrium values up to 700- and 16-fold, for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Mean concentrations were higher in the larger stream than in the smaller stream. In both streams, CH4 emissions were generally higher in summer-fall and
Nitrates are compounds found in a variety of foods and are even produced by our own bodies. Most dietary nitrates are derived from vegetables, which soak up nitrogen from the soil and convert it to nitrates in vegetables. Since the complexities of dietary nitrates and their impact on performance can be confusing, were breaking down the science of dietary nitrates so that you can understand a little more about the benefits of eating more vegetables:. 1. Nitrates are activated in your mouth.. As the gateway for all food and beverages entering the body, your mouth is pretty important-especially for nitrates. In fact, your mouth contains oral bacteria with enzymes highly effective at breaking down nitrate in saliva into the more bioactive nitrite, which is then circulated through the bloodstream (1). Nitrite is also converted to nitric oxide, which is a potent vasodilator, signaling the smooth muscles of the inner lining of blood vessels to relax-thus improving blood flow. Research still continues ...
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Ammonia produced by shrimp as a waste product is oxidized by aerobic bacteria in the biological filter: first to Nitrite(NO2) and further to Nitrate(NO3). In nature a complete nitrogen cycle exists, where plants utilize Nitrate as a food source, thus maintaining the very low Nitrate level. In the aquarium we create a one way system rather than a nutrient cycle. The plant growth is mostly insufficient to use up all the Nitrate introduced by the left food and waste. Nitrate will slowly accumulate, so that unnaturally high concentration are reached. Shrimp reacts distressfully to high Nitrate levels and will eventually die. High Nitrate levels could also cause the development of blue-green algae and hair algae. Nitrate level should be tested regularly ...
There is much concern about the role of nitrate in the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. There has been renewed interest in the endogenous formation of nitrate arising as a host response to infection. This study was designed to investigate whether the large increases in nitrate excretion rate reported (6-15-fold) for certain infectious diseases is also a feature of systemic influenza infections. Volunteers were challenged either with an attenuated strain of influenza A virus or with saline; and excreted nitrate was measured in subsequent 24-h urine samples. Both with and without adjustment for potential confounding by dietary and other factors, it was clear that neither mild nor moderate influenza A virus infection resulted in substantial endogenous nitrate biosynthesis since all the variation in urinary nitrate excretion observed was within the range of normal daily fluctuations. It remains possible that a stronger and more consistent nitrate excretion response might be observed in ...
High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia, a disease that decreases the bloods oxygen carrying capacity. Naturally-occurring bacteria in groundwater, such as Pseudomonas putida, can remove nitrates by reducing them to nitrogen gas.In Cape Cod, Mass., very high nitrate levels co-occur in groundwater with one of the most common antibiotics in the clinical arsenal: sulfamethoxazole (SMX). For nearly a decade, microbiologist Ronald Harvey and colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey have tracked SMX and other groundwater pollutants at an aquifer that originates at the Otis Air National Guard Base, a heavily polluted site on Cape Cod. Other researchers had shown that high doses of SMX can interfere with bacterial nitrate reduction. But no one knew if a similar response might occur at environmentally-relevant concentrations. ...
No reliable study with magnesium nitrate is avialable. In a reliable OECD 203 study in Oncorhynchus mykiss with potassium sodium nitrate, the nominal 96h-LC50 was determined to be ,100 mg/L (confirmed by chemical analysis). No lethal or sublethal effects were noted at the highest concentration tested. Potassium sodium nitrate concentrations were calculated from total nitrate measurements. This is confirmed in a study with potassium nitrate, in a static study performed equivalent to OECD 203, only with fry stage fish (younger fish, considered to be a worst case). They were exposed to a series of concentrations of potassium nitrate and nitrate concentrations were measured. Based on the measured concentration of nitrate the 96h-LC50 of potassium nitrate was calculated to be 1378 mg/L. In addition a study with ammonium nitrate in carp is available. The 48h-LC50 of ammonium nitrate was calculated to be 447 mg/L. ...
Nitrate uptake is a highly regulated process. Understanding the intricate interactions between nitrate availability and genetically-controlled nitrate acquisition and metabolism is essential for improving nitrogen use efficiency and increasing nitrate uptake capacity for plants grown in both nitrate-poor and nitrate-enriched environments. In this report, we introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the constitutively expressed maize high-affinity transporter ZmNrt2.1 gene that would bypass the tight control for the endogenous nitrate-responsive genes. By using calcium inhibitors and varying levels of NO3 −, Ca2+ and K+, we probed how the host plants were affected in their nitrate response. We found that the ZmNrt2.1-expressing plants had better root growth than the wild type plants when Ca2+ was deficient regardless of the nitrate levels. The growth restriction associated with Ca2+-deficiency can be alleviated with a high level of K+. Furthermore, the transgenic plants
Nitrate is a relatively inert molecule generated in humans through the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO). We are also exposed to inorganic nitrate through dietary ingestion, with dietary exposure typically equaling or exceeding that of endogenous synthesis. There has been concern following work conducted in the 1970s that nitrate from the diet may be a precursor to the synthesis of carcinogenic N‐nitrosamines in the human gastrointestinal tract.1 This seemed to be supported by a number of epidemiological studies showing a correlation between nitrate exposure and a range of malignancies. The study by Maas et al in this issue of JAHA adds to this debate.. Since the discovery in 1994, by 2 independent groups, that inorganic nitrate may act as a source of nitric oxide (NO) in humans,2, 3 subsequent research has challenged the view that nitrate is harmful. It is clear that nitrate, whether from the diet or from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized NO, is involved in a ...
Since the 1960s, the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin has remained a top choice for chemotherapy because of its superior efficacy to fight cancer. However, the drug is known to lead to permanent heart damage. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for prevention or treatment of heart damage caused by doxorubicin.. In a study, published online ahead of print on May 16 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, using a mouse model the team demonstrated that mice treated with dietary inorganic nitrate had a reduced rate of heart dysfunction caused by doxorubicin. On a molecular level, the dietary nitrate stabilized the mitochondria and protected against free-radical damage to the heart.. These results may have significant impact in reducing the risk and degree of heart damage in patients who depend on doxorubicin for treatment of cancers. This is because inorganic nitrate is a water-soluble and very inexpensive chemical that could be ideal for long-term oral ...
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The ability to utilize nitrate as a sole source of nitrogen is an important taxonomic indicator of some species. Previous research by Hipkin has grouped yeasts on the basis of nitrate utilization, with some species being able to assimilate nitrate ( Brettanomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Pachysolen, and Rhodotorula ) while others are not ( Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces ). (8) Nitrate assimilation is defined simply as the utilization of a nitrogen source by a microorganism in the presence of oxygen. A positive reaction is indicated by the presence of growth or the use of a pH indicator in the medium. The indicator method is a modification of the Wickerham method that was devised by Adams and Cooper. (7) The use of this method is easier to read than conventional techniques, yet it is equally as reliable. (7) Additionally, this method is not affected by carry-over of the inoculum. Hardy Diagnostics Modified Nitrate Assimilation Agar contains a yeast carbon base composed ...
hi all sorry to keep going on about this as iv been on before with the same problem. well i had massively high nitrates and so i did a huge almost 100% water change and then 2 more 50% water changes
Atıf İçin Kopyala Sözen S. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, cilt.74, sa.8, ss.790-800, 1999 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi) ...
1) high relative rates of net nitrification. 2) long-term increases in streamwater concentrations of nitrate and base cations. 3) relatively high nitrate concentrations in solution losses. 4) little seasonal variability in stream-water nitrate concentrations - with N no longer being limiting in a system, high concentrations of N are expected regardless of the season.. 5) a high discharge of nitrate from a young aggrading forest. 6) a rapid increase in nitrate loss following fertilization of a young aggrading forest. 7) low retention of inorganic nitrogen ...
Okay, my tank will turn 3yrs in January. I measured my Nitrate levels today and they are undetectable. What I would like to know is: HOW OLD IS YOUR TANK AND WHAT IS ITS NITRATE LEVEL.
It has long been known that straw or strawy manure when added to the soil may bring about a reduction in the nitrate content of the soil due to a stimulation of certain biological processes. The conclusion has been drawn that the nitrate may disappear as a result of denitrification, nitrate reduction or nitrate assimilation.
It has been known for years that nitric oxide NO production is plays a huge role in helping in conferring tolerance to hypoxia, our studies have shown that Tibetan highlanders have higher nitrate a
To address the aims a proof-of-concept study will be conducted to ascertain whether a dietary nitrate approach might prove useful adjunctive therapy improving vascular function in patients with stable angina post elective angioplasty.. Design: A prospective randomised, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Patients with stable angina and single/multiple coronary artery stenosis undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who are haemodynamically stable (systolic BP,100 mmHg). These patients will be recruited at The Barts Health Heart Centre, based at St. Bartholomews Hospital. This is one of the biggest centres in the United Kingdom, serving a population of almost two million people from The City of London and The North East up to the M25 and is a 24/7 centre performing approximately 2000 non-primary angioplasties a year.. The study will take place in the Clinical Trials Unit, William Harvey Heart Centre.. Target population: A total of 246 patients ...
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Sodium nitrate is used to keep preserved meats looking pink and delicious. Unfortunately, its been linked to a higher risk of cancer. Check your ham, bacon,beefand sausage products to make sure they dont contain nitrates, which arent really necessary, now that we have freezing and refrigeration. ...
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Australia and its perspectives on the global market for sodium nitrate. The report
8-Nitro-cGMP (8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate) is a nitrated derivative of cGMP, which can function as a unique electrophilic second messenger involved in regulation of an antioxidant adaptive response in cells. In the present study, we investigated chemical and biochemical regulatory mechanisms involved in 8-nitro-cGMP formation, with particular focus on the roles of ROS (reactive oxygen species). Chemical analyses demonstrated that peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation and myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of nitrite in the presence of H2O2 were two major pathways for guanine nucleotide nitration. Among the guanine nucleotides examined, GTP was the most sensitive to peroxynitrite-mediated nitration. Immunocytochemical and tandem mass spectrometric analyses revealed that formation of 8-nitro-cGMP in rat C6 glioma cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus pro-inflammatory cytokines depended on production of both superoxide and H2O2. Using the mitochondria-targeted chemical ...
Dietary nitrate can be absorbed into our circulation and converted to nitric oxide (NO) in our body.2,3 NO relaxes blood vessels and has been associated with blood pressure reduction by improving blood flow.4,5 Intake of nitrates may also help repair vascular injury and have anti-clotting effect.6,7 Considering these effects, consuming nitrates may benefit heart health.. ...
The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We ...
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Why Some Nitrates Are Healthy While Others Are Harmful Nitrate-rich plant foods are a valuable part of your diet as they help promote heart health. Meanwhile, the nitrates in cured and processed meats such as bacon and hotdogs are known to be carcinogenic. So, whats the deal? Why are plant-based nitrates healthy and…
Nitrate levels are best kept under 0.5ppm. Nitrates are introduced by the bio-load of your aquarium. Water Change is always the way to go. Busy individuals can use these to aid you to make sure your fishes and corals live in a less hazy condition
Nutrient deficiencies or excesses often manifest themselves through clear-cut symptoms, so by keeping an eye on your aquarium, you can adjust your dosing regimen as needed. For example, if you have green spot algae on the glass, your tank needs more phosphate. If you have hair algae, your nitrate levels are likely out of balance with phosphate. Black brush algae often indicates low nitrates or CO2, as does blue-green algae. If your plants are pale or yellowish, they are likely suffering from iron deficiencies. Extremely red or even purple plants often mean your nitrate levels are low. Pinholes in your leaves indicate a pottasium deficiency. While, there is often some overlap between these symptoms and other factor can be at play, getting a feel for these kinds of things make you more adept at adverting tragedy if let to progress.. Driving Factors. When developing your dosing routine, it is very important to realize the other driving forces involved in plant growth. The more intense your ...
SAN LUIS OBISPO -- Morro Bay city officials have said theyd likely pursue legal action against about a dozen Morro Valley property owners -- most of them growers -- if they dont stop excessive use of nitrogen-based fertilizers suspected of tainting a key source of drinking water.
Its great we can improve athletic performance by eating a few beets, but so what if you run 5% faster? It can be a fun experiment to eat a can of beets and maybe shave a minute off your 5k time, but there are people who could really benefit from a more efficient use of oxygen: those suffering from emphysema. Young, healthy adults eating greens and beets can swim, run, and cycle faster and farther, but what about those who get out of breath just walking up the stairs? Do nitrate-rich vegetables work where it counts? Yes-. Time on the treadmill in COPD pateints was significantly extended after two shots of beet juice. I discuss these benefits of nitrate-rich vegetables in my video Oxygenating Blood with Nitrate-Rich Vegetables.. Beet juice can also decrease blood pressure in young, healthy adults, but what about in those who need it--older, overweight subjects? Just one shot a day of beet juice (versus berry juice as a control) led to a significant drop in blood pressure in a few weeks. But ...
The transport and transformation of nitrogen within streams receiving high nitrate loads has become increasingly important as restrictions on water quality continue to tighten due to an increased awareness that pollutant loading impacts the environment at concentrations lower than previously recognized. Silver Creek in Park City, Utah, is one of many streams in the state of Utah being evaluated for its ability to process high nitrate loads coming from a water reclamation facility. Previous modelling techniques at Silver Creek revealed that the lack of information on site-specific nitrogen transformation rates left modelers unable to represent the true processes occurring within the system. To address these concerns, six in situ benthic chambers were installed in Silver Creek downstream of the confluence with the Silver Creek Water Reclamation Facility discharge. Isotope dilution and pairing techniques using labeled nitrate (N 15O3−) were used to track the transport and transformation of nitrogen
There are various ways that a bacterium can utilize nitrate as the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration. The first obvious product of reduction to look for is reduction to N2 gas, called denitrification, within the Durhm tube. This is looked for FIRST before any reagents are added.. If there is no nitrogen gas, there are still a couple of possible interpretations---nitrate reduction to nitrite (NO2), reduction to ammonia, or no reduction of nitrate at all.. A red color will be produced in the medium only when nitrite is present in the medium.. There may be 2 explanations for the lack of nitrite:. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Sodium nitrate-15N products. View information & documentation regarding Sodium nitrate-15N, including CAS, MSDS & more.
35000 IG plaster pool & spa Initially the pool was eating up chlorine. Then we saw some small sites of algae. Had water tested on 6-22-13 6-22-13 test FC = 0 TC = 0 Calc Hardness = 390 CYA = 30 Total Alkalinity = 70
Hi, i just started using a API Mast Test Kit over the last month or so. My Nitrate Readings with this test have always been coming up as 80ppm +. So ive been doing 2-3 10-33% water changes every week and the readings have not changed one bit over the month. I have a 50 gallon tank with a Butterfly Koi, Comet goldfish, and two Rope fish and a Reaction 4 Canister Filter . Fish do not appear to be stressed and there isnt to much waste at the bottom of the tank either. Only thing i can think
ACTATRADE is a privately owned SWISS International Commodities trading company with offices in Geneva; Athens; Istanbul; Porto Alegre, Brazil; Mexico City and Medellin, Columbia. We have long standing relations with major fertilizer products and the main products we trade are Urea, DAP, AN, MAP, AS, TSP, CAN, NP/NPK, UAN and Rock Phosphate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-Term Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Does Not Prevent Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. AU - Matthews, V. B.. AU - Hollingshead, R.. AU - Koch, H.. AU - Croft, K. D.. AU - Ward, N. C.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vascular signaling molecule that plays a role in vascular homeostasis. A reduction in NO bioavailability is thought to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, an early risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, may provide an alternate source of NO when the endogenous eNOS system is compromised. In addition to a role in the vascular system, NO may also play a role in the metabolic syndrome including obesity and glucose tolerance. Aim. To investigate the effect of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation on development of the metabolic syndrome in mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods. Following 1 week of ...
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Dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, has a number of potentially advantageous effects in COPD. These include improving the response to pulmonary rehabilitation programme, making muscle contraction more efficient so it uses less oxygen, and improving how far people with low oxygen levels because of their lung disease can walk. Although COPD is a lung disease, people with the condition are at a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. There is also some evidence that beetroot juice can reduce blood pressure, but studies so far have been short term. A nutritional treatment that could produce a lasting reduction in blood pressure would be appealing, especially if it also improves peoples ability to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate the prolonged treatment effects of daily beetroot juice on blood pressure in people with COPD. The researchers will also look at how far people can walk, make measurements of how well blood vessels function, and take blood ...
Palacin Lizarbe, Carlos; Camarero, Lluís ; Hallin, Sara; Jones, Christopher M.; Catalán, Jordi. Scientific Reports 10 : 3003 (2020) DIGITAL CSIC. During the last decades, atmospheric nitrogen loading in mountain ranges of the Northern Hemisphere has increased substantially, resulting in high nitrate concentrations in many lakes. Yet, how increased nitrogen has affected denitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal, is poorly understood. We measured actual and potential (nitrate and carbon amended) denitrification rates in sediments of several lake types and habitats in the Pyrenees during the ice-free season. Actual denitrification rates ranged from 0 to 9 μmol N2O m−2 h−1 (mean, 1.5 ± 1.6 SD), whereas potential rates were about 10-times higher. The highest actual rates occurred in warmer sediments with more nitrate available in the overlying water. Consequently, littoral habitats showed, on average, 3-fold higher rates than the deep zone. The highest denitrification potentials ...
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Determining how vegetables confer protection against CVD and exploiting this to therapeutic advantage are likely to have considerable health and economic implications. Recently, it has been suggested that dietary nitrate found in high levels in vegetables might underlie some of the beneficial effects of vegetable-rich diets.12,14⇓ In the present study we have shown that inorganic nitrate capsules or a dietary nitrate load, in the form of beetroot juice, results in dose-dependent increases in plasma nitrite concentration via bioconversion in vivo. Stieglitz postulated,20 ,80 years ago, that the beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate (bismuth subnitrate) in hypertensive patients were because of conversion to nitrite in vivo, and our findings confirm that this bioactive nitrite, after reduction to NO, causes dose-dependent decreases in BP and prevents IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in healthy volunteers.. Ingestion of KNO3 capsules caused rises in circulating plasma nitrate and thence ...
The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP) and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ) or a placebo juice (PL). Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM). Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL) not consumed on the first visit. Overall, there
Peroxynitrite formation in vivo is implicated in numerous human diseases and there is considerable interest in the use of antioxidants and natural products such as thiols as peroxynitrite scavengers. We therefore investigated the effects of a recently identified constituent of onions, 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (3-MP), for its ability to inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated processes in vitro and using cultured human cells and compared its effectiveness against glutathione. 3-MP significantly inhibited peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and inactivation of α1-antiproteinase to a greater extent than glutathione at each concentration tested (15-500μM). 3-MP also inhibited peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity, intracellular tyrosine nitration, and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in human HepG2 cells in culture to a greater extent than glutathione. These data suggest that 3-MP has the potential to act as an inhibitor of ONOO--mediated processes in vivo and that the ...
In Arabidopsis the plasma membrane nitrate transceptor (transporter/receptor) NRT1.1 governs many physiological and developmental responses to nitrate. Alongside facilitating nitrate uptake, NRT1.1 regulates the expression levels of many nitrate assimilation pathway genes, modulates root system architecture, relieves seed dormancy and protects plants from ammonium toxicity. Here, we assess the functional and phenotypic consequences of point mutations in two key residues of NRT1.1 (P492 and T101). We show that the point mutations differentially affect several of the NRT1.1-dependent responses to nitrate, namely the repression of lateral root development at low nitrate concentrations, and the short-term upregulation of the nitrate-uptake gene NRT2.1, and its longer-term downregulation, at high nitrate concentrations. We also show that these mutations have differential effects on genome-wide gene expression. Our findings indicate that NRT1.1 activates four separate signalling mechanisms, which have ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation regulates peroxynitrite-mediated peptide nitration. AU - Shi, Wei Qun. AU - Cai, Hui. AU - Xu, Dian Dou. AU - Su, Xiao Yang. AU - Lei, Peng. AU - Zhao, Yu Fen. AU - Li, Yan Mei. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the financial support from both the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (SRFDP) of MOE No.:20030003049 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFCBIC20320130046 and No.: 20532020).. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - Proteins are targets of reactive nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite and nitrogen dioxide. Among the various amino acids in proteins, tyrosine and tryptophan residues are especially susceptible to attack by reactive nitrogen species. On the other hand, protein tyrosine phosphorylation has gained much attention in respect to cellular regulatory events and signal transduction. Peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peptide YPPPPPW and ...
Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10 mM (High) or 1 mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, ...
BioAssay record AID 717093 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of nitric oxide release in 0.1 mM phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 assessed as nitrate/nitrite level after 10 to 150 mins by Griess assay.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of sludge disposal on groundwater nitrate concentrations. AU - Spalding, R. F.. AU - Exner, M. E.. AU - Martin, G. E.. AU - Snow, D. D.. PY - 1993/2. Y1 - 1993/2. N2 - More than 100 groundwater samples were collectd and analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, δ15N of the nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride. Multilevel samplers and nested monitoring wells were located beneath and down-gradient from an irrigated cornfield on which human waste sludge was injected. The sampling delineated a 1.3 km × 0.3 km plume of nitrate contamination. Both the nitrate-nitrogen concentrations and the δ15N values within the plumes centroid were homogeneous. The levels were 34 ± 3 mg 1-1 and + 13.4 ± 1.2%, respectively. A retarding zone of clayey silt split the plume and separated the oxic water from the deeper anoxic water. Nitrate levels were lower in the anoxic water and declined rapidly with depth. The significant association (r = - 0.91) between increasing δ15N values and ...
Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypotheses that acute beetroot supplementation would increase the rate of cutaneous rewarming following a local cold challenge and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cold sensitive individuals. Thirteen cold sensitive participants completed foot and hand cooling (separately, in 15 °C water for 2 minutes) with spontaneous rewarming in 30°C air whilst skin temperature and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured (Baseline). On two further separate visits, participants consumed 140 ml of either concentrated beetroot juice (nitrate supplementation) or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (Placebo) 90 minutes before resting seated blood ...
This cohort study uses Nurses Health Study data to investigate associations between dietary nitrate intake and primary open-angle glaucoma.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [A Pavani Sowjanya, Meera Rao, Haripriya Vedantham, Basany Kalpana, Usha Rani Poli, Morgan A Marks, M Sujatha].
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In early spring, there is a need to treat large volumes of cool tile water containing high nitrate concentrations. However, lower nitrate removal rates in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors have been observed when hydraulic retention time (HRT) and water temperature are low. One potential approach to improve woodchip bioreactor performance is to provide an alternative and readily available energy source to the denitrifying microorganisms through electrical stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of bio-electrochemical reactors (BER) to remove a variety of water contaminants, including nitrate, with the presence of a soluble carbon source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the denitrification rate of electrically augmented woodchip bioreactors and conduct a simple TEA to understand the possibilities and limitations for full-scale BER implementation for treatment of agricultural drainage. Three duplicated up-flow column woodchip bioreactors were studied: two controls (non
The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of dietary nitrate ingestion on parameters of submaximal and supramaximal exercise and time trial (TT) performance in trained kayakers. Eight male kayakers completed four exercise trials consisting of an initial discontinuous graded exercise test to exhaustion and three performance trials using a kayak ergometer. The performance trials were composed of 15 min of paddling at 60% of maximum work rate, five 10-s all-out sprints, and a 1 km TT. The second and third trials were preceded by ingestion of either 70 ml nitrate-rich concentrated beetroot juice (BR) or tomato juice (placebo [PLA]) 3 hr before exercise using a randomized crossover design. Plasma nitrate (PLA: 33.8 ± 1.9 μM, BR: 152 ± 3.5 μM) and nitrite (PLA: 519.8 ± 25.8, BR: 687.9 ± 20 nM) were higher following ingestion of BR compared with PLA (both p , .001). VO2 during steady-state exercise was lower in the BR trial than in the PLA trial (p = .010). There was no difference ...
Sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite are food additives used in processed meat products to give them a fresh appearance, smell and taste. Nitrates also appear...
A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective NO endogenously. In the present study, two separate randomly controlled, single-blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured over a 24 h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500 g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NOx) was measured at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 24 h post-ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose-dependent manner, lowered systolic BP (SBP, P , 0·01) and diastolic BP (DBP, P , 0·001) over a period of 24 h, compared with water control. Furthermore, bread products enriched with 100 g red or white beetroot lowered SBP and DBP over a period of 24 h (red beetroot-enriched ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ursodeoxycholate inhibits induction of NOS in human intestinal epithelial cells and in vivo. AU - Invernizzi, Pietro. AU - Salzman, Andrew L.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. AU - Ueta, Ikuya. AU - OConnor, Michael. AU - Setchell, Kenneth D R. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) has anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Because overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of these conditions, we investigated the ability of UDCA to inhibit NO production in transformed human intestinal epithelial (DLD-1) cells. Nitrite/nitrate production was measured by the Griess reaction, enzymatic activity of iNOS was assessed by conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, and protein and mRNA were measured by Western and Northern blotting. Dose-dependent inhibition of interleukin- 1β- and interferon-γ-stimulated nitrite/nitrate production was ...
The majority of nitrogen absorbed by plant roots is in the nitrate form, and in normal weather conditions, nitrate is rapidly converted into plant proteins. When pearlmillet and sorghum-sudangrass become stressed this conversion stops and nitrates begin to accumulate in the plant. High nitrate accumulation in forages is often the result of a heavy nitrogen application followed by drought conditions. In mild drought conditions, roots continue to absorb nitrate, but plant protein conversion does not take place. In a severe drought, nitrate absorption will cease because of a lack of moisture, but nitrates will be rapidly absorbed following a rain and will likely accumulate to high levels. It can take 7-14 days after a drought-ending rain for nitrates to be metabolized below a toxic level. An energy source is required for nitrate reduction, so extended periods of cloudy weather can contribute to nitrate accumulation, especially when coupled with wet days following a severe drought. Extreme ...
project of lead nitrate on gold recovery_Gold cyanidation WikipediaGold cyanidation (also known as the cyanide process or the MacArthur-Forrest process) is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by ...Co
At the NIH-Center for Environmental Health (Jackson, MS), a study was designed to analyze the impacts of lead nitrate, a component that has been greatly reduced in paint and ceramic products, and yet its exposure levels in humans remain a concern. Because industrial sources of lead persist in our environment, these researchers evaluated its effects on the DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells (HL-60). The Cellometer Vision was used to measure live and necrotic cells with propidium iodide. After exposure to lead nitrate, the cells showed significant increases in necrotic death, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The results reported here provide new evidence of lead-based mechanisms of cellular damage and its downstream effects on human health.. Read the full publication here. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide synthesis in patients with infective gastroenteritis. AU - Forte, P AU - Dykhuizen, R S AU - Milne, Eric. AU - McKenzie, A AU - Smith, C C AU - Benjamin, N PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Background-There is evidence that endogenous nitrate synthesis is notably increased in patients with infective gastroenteritis.Aims-To determine whether this is due to nitric oxide (NO) production via the L-arginine/NO pathway.Methods-Seven male patients with community acquired bacterial gastroenteritis and 15 healthy male volunteers participated in this study, All patients had stool culture positive infective gastroenteritis. A bolus of 200 mg L-[N-15](2)-arginine was administered intravenously after an overnight fast. Urine was collected for the next 36 hours. Urinary [N-15:N-14]nitrate ratio was assessed by dry combustion in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer.Results-Mean 36 hour total urinary nitrate excretion in the gastroenteritis group was 5157 (577) mu mol compared with 2594 ...
The effect of inorganic nitrate on systemic energy homeostasis in a setting of perturbed energy balance: implications for diabetes and obesity., School of Medicine, University of Leeds
In a study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, dietary nitrate in helping to provide sustained blood pressure lowering abilities was analysed.. We assessed whether dietary nitrate might provide sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients, noted the study.. It added: We randomly assigned 68 hypertensive patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive daily dietary supplementation for four-weeks with either dietary nitrate (250mL daily, as beetroot juice) or a placebo.. The study found that daily supplementation with dietary nitrate was associated with a reduction in blood pressure.. These findings suggest a role for dietary nitrate as an affordable, readily-available, adjunctive treatment in the management of hypertensive patients.. ...
The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in the finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of sodium nitrate to ...
The Gulf of Mexicos Dead Zone has been largely attributed to agricultural runoff from the Midwest. Agriculture has been similarly targeted closer to home, where amounts of nitrogen in Iowas drinking water supplies have increased dramatically throughout the past century.. For example, in a 2000 U.S. Geological Survey study, average annual nitrate concentrations in the Des Moines and Cedar Rivers have increased nearly seven times over the last 100 years, from about 0.6 milligrams per liter to as much as 4.6 mg/l.. And data provided by Des Moines Water Works dating back to the 1930s shows nitrate levels in the Raccoon River stayed consistently below 1 mg/l until the mid 1960s. Since then, nitrate levels have increased to as high as 10.2 mg/l in 2002. Over the last 20 years, average nitrate levels in the Raccoon River average 7.3 mg/l.. Linda Kinman, public policy analyst with Des Moines Water Works, says she and other watershed advocates agree that elevated nitrate levels in many of Iowas ...
We used a series of whole stream experiments to quantify the impacts of inorganic-nitrogen concentration on stream nitrogen cycling and transport in prairie streams. We conducted 15NO3- stable isotope tracer experiments to measure the nitrogen cycling dynamics in 9 streams with a wide range (over 5 orders of magnitude) of nitrate concentrations. The major nitrogen-transforming processes, including uptake, nitrification, and denitrification, increased approximately 2 to 3 orders of magnitude and did not show signs of Michaelis-Menten type saturation across streams. Denitrification only accounted for a small proportion of total nitrate uptake. The observed functional relationships of biological nitrogen transformations and chronic nitrate concentration were best described by a Log-Log relationship. A series of inorganic-nitrogen addition experiments were conducted to quantify the impacts of acute nitrogen inputs on nitrogen cycling. These experiments showed that uptake saturated in response to ...
dietary nitrate/nitrite could be a compensatory fuel for a disrupted nitrate/nitrite/NO pathway and related disorders in diabetes
Nitrate Ion Selective Combination Electrode, Polymer Membrane, Beckman Coulter - Each : Combination electrode with epoxy body develops a potential at
Why is it not so great for you? Well, if the above section does not convince you that such an all-in-one food product couldnt possibly be good for you, here is what some research has found. The National Institutes of Health published an article last year showing the connection between processed meat (i.e. hot dogs, bacon, lunch meat) and colorectal cancers. There have been numerous studies showing the connection between consumption of red meat and this cancer but this study showed the connection specifically with the processed meats. There are a lot of research studies out there but this article summed of the gist of them well. I recall reading somewhere (cant remember where now!) about how there was an attempt to have Sodium Nitrate removed as a food preservative in 2005, but that a large group of meat lobbyist had it disbanded ...
Formate dehydrogenase allows E.coli to use formate as major electron donor during anaerobic respiration, when nitrate is used as electron acceptor. The beta subunit FdnH is an electron transfer unit containing 4 iron-sulfur clusters; it serves as a conduit for electrons that are transferred from the formate oxidation site in the alpha subunit (FdnG) to the menaquinone associated with the gamma subunit (FdnI) of formate dehydrogenase-N. Formate dehydrogenase-N is part of a system that generates proton motive force, together with the dissimilatory nitrate reductase (Nar).
i did some research and this is what i found...There are two reasons for adding this chemical to processed meats:It prevents the growth of the bacteria that spoils meat and preserves the meat as a red or pink color. There is some evidence that it also prevents botulism. And Sodium nitrate is not added to chicken or tuna, as there is no red color to preserve. Thats it!. ...
Read Polythermal study of the salting-out of triethylamine from aqueous solutions with sodium nitrate, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
a 6.54 g sample consisting of a mixture of silver nitrate and sodium nitrate is dissolved in water. this mixture then reacts with barium chloride to for 3.50 g of silver chloride. calculate the percent by mass of silver nitrate in the first mixture ...
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Hungary and its perspectives on the global market for sodium nitrate. The report will
Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of less than six months of age. High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause blue baby syndrome. Nitrate levels may rise quickly for short periods-of-time because of rainfall or agricultural activity. If you are caring for an infant, and detected nitrate levels are above 5 ppm, you should ask advice from your health care provider.. If arsenic is less than or equal to the MCL, your drinking water meets EPAs standards. EPAs standard balances the current understanding of arsenics possible health effects against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. EPA continues to research the health effects of low levels of arsenic, which is a mineral known to cause cancer in humans at high concentrations and is linked to other health effects such as skin damage and circulatory problems.. LEAD: If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. ...
Nitrate forms when nitrogen from fertilizers, animal wastes, septic systems, municipal sewage sludge, decaying plants and other sources combines with oxygenated water. In infants under six months of age, nitrate exposure can cause a serious condition called methemoglobinemia or blue-baby syndrome. Infants with this condition need immediate medical care because it can lead to coma and death. Test for nitrate if a pregnant woman or infant will be drinking the water. Everyone should have their water tested for nitrate at least once. If you live in an area within ¼ mile of a corn, soybean or vegetable field, you should test your water for nitrate regularly. Well owners should also test for nitrate regularly if their well is located near an area where fertilizers are manufactured or handled; or an animal feed lot or manure-storage area ...
Dr Brynmor Breese recently received a travel grant from the UK Physiological Society to undertake a research project at Kobe University in Japan investigating the effects of nitrate supplementation on muscle deoxygenation responses during exercise. This project is the first of its kind to use innovative time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) across multiple sites within quadriceps muscle to further explore the promising effects that have been reported during exercise after ingesting nitrate-rich beetroot juice. The research study was delivered under the supervision of Professor Shunsaku Koga and consisted of performing thirty-two exercise trials using human volunteers after consuming four days of either nitrate-rich beetroot or placebo juice (supplied by James White Drinks, Ipswich, UK). The TRS system was developed by Hamamatsu Photonics and is capable of measuring the absorption and scattering of near-infrared light emitted at different wavelengths into skeletal muscle tissue. Using this technology ...
If the city gives its approval, city staff will apply for a grant to help modify one of the citys three sewer plants to reduce nitrates to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards.
Thankfully, many companies are offering natural versions of these products. They dont last as long in the refrigerator, but Im quite alright with that. Applegate Farms (carried at Whole Foods) makes a wide variety of meat products without these preservatives, and they are so tasty! Every now and then, places like Food Lion and Walmart will have an organic hot dog in the case, but it isnt consistent so far. Oscar Mayer was also carrying a natural hot dog for a while, but I havent been able to find it lately, and Im not seeing it on the Web site. Jimmy Dean makes a delicious all natural sausage that I buy at Lowes Foods or Super Target. Hormel has also jumped on the bandwagon by creating a line of natural deli meats ...
So let me explain trickle towers and filters work in the following and have to be built with this concept in mind. First off, they are biological filtering towers used scrictly to encourage the growth of Nitrosomanas and Nitrobacters bacteria that convert ammonia or ammonium too nitrite then nitrite too nitrate (the simple explanation). Under normal circumstances (will explain later) the nitrate by product cannot and will never be eliminated in said tower simply because the bacteria or enzymes that are required to do so live and thrive in a completely different environment. The reason why TT are so affective for the conversion process is simple. The bacteria used require 5 main environmental factors to thrive = humidity, oxygen, darkness, media to grow on and a food source. These conditions are very well met in a TT if properly made. The added benefit if water flow is well balanced is increased oxygen levels for the pond. Despite the fact that these bacteria consume and require lots of oxygen ...
So let me explain trickle towers and filters work in the following and have to be built with this concept in mind. First off, they are biological filtering towers used scrictly to encourage the growth of Nitrosomanas and Nitrobacters bacteria that convert ammonia or ammonium too nitrite then nitrite too nitrate (the simple explanation). Under normal circumstances (will explain later) the nitrate by product cannot and will never be eliminated in said tower simply because the bacteria or enzymes that are required to do so live and thrive in a completely different environment. The reason why TT are so affective for the conversion process is simple. The bacteria used require 5 main environmental factors to thrive = humidity, oxygen, darkness, media to grow on and a food source. These conditions are very well met in a TT if properly made. The added benefit if water flow is well balanced is increased oxygen levels for the pond. Despite the fact that these bacteria consume and require lots of oxygen ...
Abstract. Over the last decades, the impact of human activities on the global nitrogen (N) cycle has drastically increased. Consequently, benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while in oligotrophic systems its understanding is still scarce. Here we report on benthic solute fluxes and on rates of denitrification, anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) studied by in situ incubations with benthic chamber landers during two cruises to the Gulf of Bothnia (GOB), a cold, oligotrophic basin located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Rates of N burial were also inferred to investigate the fate of fixed N in these sediments. Most of the total dissolved fixed nitrogen (TDN) diffusing to the water column was composed of organic N. Average rates of dinitrogen (N2) production by denitrification and anammox (range: 53-360 µmol N m−2 day−1) were comparable to those from Arctic and subarctic sediments worldwide (range: ...
In organic chemistry, peroxyacyl nitrates (also known as Acyl peroxy nitrates, APN or PANs) are powerful respiratory and eye ... LaFranchi, B. W.; Wolfe, G. M. (2009). "Closing the peroxy acetyl nitrate budget: observations of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, ... They are nitrates produced in the thermal equilibrium between organic peroxy radicals by the gas-phase oxidation of a variety ... For example, peroxyacetyl nitrate, CH3C(O)OONO2: Hydrocarbons + O 2 + NO 2 + light ⟶ CH 3 COOONO 2 {\displaystyle {\ce { ...
Double nitrates of cerium also exist. Anhydrous cerous nitrate, also called cerium(III) nitrate, is the anhydrous salt with the ... Ceric magnesium nitrate Mg[Ce(NO 3) 6.8H 2O] Ceric zinc nitrate Zn[Ce(NO 3) 6.8H 2O] Ceric nickel nitrate Ni[Ce(NO 3) 6.8H 2O] ... Ceric rubidium nitrate Rb 2[Ce(NO 3) 6] is reddish yellow. Ceric caesium nitrate Cs 2[Ce(NO 3) 6] is very insoluble in nitric ... Ceric nitrate is quite soluble in non polar solvents such as ethyl ether. Ether will extract the cerium nitrate from 5N nitric ...
The sulfate nitrates are a family of double salts that contain both sulfate and nitrate ions (NO3−, SO42−). They are in the ... Two sulfate nitrates are in the class of anthropogenic compounds, accidentally made as a result of human activities in ... CS1 German-language sources (de), Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Sulfates, Nitrates, ... A new rare nitrate-sulphate mineral from a guano deposit at Punta de Lobos, Chile". American Mineralogist. 97 (10): 1783-1787. ...
... is a polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NO− 3. Salts containing this ion are called nitrates. Nitrates are common ... While nitrate is much less toxic than ammonia, levels over 30 ppm of nitrate can inhibit growth, impair the immune system and ... Almost all inorganic nitrates are soluble in water. An example of an insoluble nitrate is bismuth oxynitrate. The ion is the ... Nitrate formation with elements of the periodic table: v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion Ammonium ...
... is an inorganic compound with the idealized chemical formula Be(NO3)2. The formula suggests a salt, but, as ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion v t e (Use dmy dates from March 2021, Chemical ... "When added to water, brown fumes are evolved; when hydrolyzed in sodium hydroxide solution, both nitrate and nitrite ions are ... Unlike the basic acetate, with its six lipophilic methyl groups, the basic nitrate is insoluble in most solvents. NIOSH Pocket ...
... CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion (Articles ... At elevated temperatures, barium nitrate decomposes to barium oxide: 2Ba(NO3)2 → 2BaO + 4NO2 + O2 Barium nitrate is used in the ... the high density of barium nitrate results in baratol being quite dense as well. Barium nitrate mixed with aluminium powder, a ... Nitrates, Nitrate minerals, Pyrotechnic oxidizers, Pyrotechnic colorants, Oxidizing agents). ...
... (abbreviated: PVN) is a high-energy polymer with the idealized formula of [CH2CH(ONO2)]. Polyvinyl nitrate is ... Because of the nitrate groups of PVN, polyvinyl nitrate is mainly used for its explosive and energetic capabilities. ... PVN can be prepared by nitrating polyvinyl alcohol with an excess of nitric acid. Because PVN is also a nitrate ester like ... The NO2+ attaches to the oxygen in the PVA and creates a nitrate group, producing polyvinyl nitrate. This method results in a ...
... is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)ONO2. It is classified as the mixed anhydride of nitric and ... Louw, Robert "Acetyl nitrate" e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2001, 1-2. doi:10.1002/047084289X.ra032 ( ...
... is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO 3. This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as ... The sand itself is dug out and leached for nitrates which were then converted to potassium nitrate using potash, as above. From ... Ternary salts, with the addition of calcium nitrate or lithium nitrate, have been found to improve the heat storage capacity in ... O2 Potassium nitrate has a wide variety of uses, largely as a source of nitrate. Historically, nitric acid was produced by ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula LiNO3. It is the lithium salt of nitric acid (an alkali metal nitrate ... Berchiesi, Gianfrancesco; Vitali, Giovanni; Amico, Antonio (1985). "Transport properties of lithium nitrate and calcium nitrate ... Lithium nitrate can be toxic to the body when ingested by targeting the central nervous system, thyroids, kidneys, and cardio- ... Lithium nitrate can be synthesized by reacting nitric acid and lithium carbonate. Li2CO3 + 2 HNO3 → 2 LiNO3 + H2O + CO2 ...
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NO− 3 Nitrate or nitrates may also refer to: Nitrates, a group of salts ... in photography it is a synonym for chemical nitrocellulose Nitrate City, Alabama All pages with titles containing Nitrate ... Nitrite This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Nitrate. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
... is a sensitive explosive. When ignited it burns extremely fiercely with a gray-blue flame. Methyl nitrate is a ... As well as being an explosive, methyl nitrate is toxic and causes headaches when inhaled. Methyl nitrate has not received much ... H2O A newer method uses methyl iodide and silver nitrate: CH3I + AgNO3 → CH3NO3 + AgI Methyl nitrate can be produced on a ... Methyl nitrate is the methyl ester of nitric acid and has the chemical formula CH3NO3. It is a colourless explosive volatile ...
... is an organomercury compound with powerful antiseptic and antifungal effects. It was once commonly used ... "Antifungal effect of ophthalmic preservatives phenylmercuric nitrate and benzalkonium chloride on ocular pathogenic filamentous ...
... or ethylamine nitrate (EAN) is a salt with formula C 2H 8N 2O 3 or (C 2H 5)NH+ 3·NO− 3. It is an odorless ... Ethylammonium nitrate can be produced by heating ethyl nitrate with an alcoholic solution of ammonia or by reacting ethylamine ... Ethylammonium nitrate is used as an electrically conductive solvent in electrochemistry and as a protein crystallization agent ... Garlitz, Jennifer A.; Summers, Catherine A.; Flowers, Robert A.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O. (1999). "Ethylammonium nitrate: a ...
... may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable ... and as a nitrating agent. The nonahydrate and other hydrated aluminium nitrates have many applications. These salts are used to ... aluminium nitrate nonahydrate, Al(NO3)3·9H2O. Aluminium nitrate cannot be synthesized by the reaction of aluminium with ... Aluminium nitrate is a white, water-soluble salt of aluminium and nitric acid, most commonly existing as the crystalline ...
Due to its instability, it is often produced from chlorine nitrate as needed[citation needed]. Fluorine nitrate is formed when ... Fluorine nitrate is an unstable derivative of nitric acid with the formula FNO 3. It is shock-sensitive. ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion v t e (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Articles ... "The Reaction of Fluorine with Nitric acid and with Solid Potassium Nitrate to Form NO3F". Communication. {{cite journal}}: Cite ...
The silver nitrate reacts with copper to form hairlike crystals of silver metal and a blue solution of copper nitrate: 2 AgNO3 ... A typical reaction with silver nitrate is to suspend a rod of copper in a solution of silver nitrate and leave it for a few ... Silver nitrate is known to be a skin and eye irritant. Silver nitrate has not been thoroughly investigated for potential ... "silver nitrate". Retrieved 2014-07-20. Meyer, P.; Rimsky, A.; Chevalier, R. (1978). "Structure du nitrate ...
Uranyl nitrates are common starting materials for the synthesis of other uranyl compounds because the nitrate ligand is easily ... Uranyl nitrate is a water-soluble yellow uranium salt with the formula UO2(NO3)2 · n H2O. The hexa-, tri-, and dihydrates are ... Uranyl nitrate can be prepared by reaction of uranium salts with nitric acid. It is soluble in water, ethanol, and acetone. As ... In the equatorial plane of the complex are six U-O bonds to bidentate nitrate and two water ligands. At 245 pm, these U-O bonds ...
First, nitrate assimilation is initiated by the uptake of nitrate from the root system, reduced to nitrite by nitrate reductase ... Nitrate reductase can be used to test nitrate concentrations in biofluids. Nitrate reductase promotes amino acid production in ... Prokaryotic nitrate reductases have two major types, transmembrane nitrate reductases and periplasmic nitrate reductases. The ... assimilatory nitrate reductases (Nas), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar), and periplasmic nitrate reductases (Nap). The ...
... can be prepared by nitrating ethanol with fuming nitric acid or a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and nitric ... the water is saturated with alkyl nitrates, likely formed by natural processes. Ethyl nitrate has been prepared by bubbling ... Ethyl nitrate is found in the atmosphere, where it can react with other gases to form smog. Originally thought to be a ... Ethyl nitrate is the ethyl ester of nitric acid and has the chemical formula C2H5NO3. It is a colourless, volatile, explosive, ...
... (Dutch: Lyrisch Nitraat) is a 1991 collage film by Peter Delpeut. The film consists of clips from various ... Lyrical Nitrate at IMDb MUBI Chicago Reader Review (Articles containing Dutch-language text, IMDb ID same as Wikidata, 1991 ... The Forbidden Quest, Delpeut's unofficial sequel to Lyrical Nitrate. Lost film BAMPFA Canby, Vincent (1991-10-11). "The Beauty ... silent films printed on decaying nitrate film stock, including shorts, documentaries, and travelogues. There is no formal ...
... can refer to: Mercury(I) nitrate, Hg2(NO3)2 Mercury(II) nitrate, Hg(NO3)2 This set index page lists chemical ...
A common nitrate test, known as the brown ring test can be performed by adding iron(II) sulfate to a solution of a nitrate, ... A Nitrate Test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrate ion in solution. Testing for the presence of ... The nitrate anion is an oxidizer, and many tests for the nitrate anion are based on this property. However, other oxidants ... Nitrate can also be detected by first reducing it to the more reactive nitrite ion and using one of many nitrite tests. ...
... has a good thermal stability. Its weight loss rate at 100 °C is slower than that of ammonium nitrate. Its ... Hydrazine nitrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H4·HNO3. It has usage in liquid explosives as an ... Hydrazine nitrate is produced by the reaction of hydrazine and nitric acid: N2H4 + HNO3 → N2H5NO3 Liu, Jiping (2015). Liquid ... D. G. Karraker (1981). "Cu(II) - Catalyzed Hydrazine Reduction of Ferric Nitrate" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. ...
... ammonium nitrate, TNT and RDX) ANFO (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) DBX (ammonium nitrate, RDX, TNT and aluminum powder) Tovex ... ammonium nitrate and hydrazine rocket fuel) Amatol (ammonium nitrate and TNT) Ammonal (ammonium nitrate and aluminum powder) ... ammonium nitrate and methylammonium nitrate) Minol (explosive) (ammonium nitrate, TNT and aluminum powder) Goma-2 (ammonium ... Ammonium nitrate has an LD50 of 2217 mg/kg, which for comparison is about two-thirds that of table salt. Ammonium nitrate ...
Fact Sheet 30[permanent dead link] "Nitric Acid, Butylester." Butyl Nitrate (928-45-0),Butyl Nitrate (928-45-0) Manufacturers ... Butyl nitrate is a colorless oil. It is often confused with butyl nitrite, which is sometimes used as a recreational inhalant. ... Butyl nitrate is an explosive.[citation needed] It reacts explosively with Lewis acids such as boron trifluoride and aluminium ... Alkyl nitrates, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... (IPN, 2-propyl nitrate) is a colorless liquid monopropellant. It is used as a diesel cetane improver. IPN is ... Isopropyl nitrate was also sold by the Turbonique company under the brand name "Thermolene" as a fuel for their line of turbine ... Isopropyl nitrate was previously used in a jet engine rapid starting system for military interceptor aircraft (a requirement ... "Shock initiation and detonability of isopropyl nitrate" (PDF). "11: Starting and Ignition". The Jet Engine. Rolls-Royce. 1986. ...
... at v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion v t e (Articles with short ... Neodymium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula Nd(NO3)3. It is typically encountered as the hexahydrate, Nd(NO3)3· ... Van Vuuren, C.P.J.; Strydom, C.A. (1986). "The thermal decomposition of neodymium nitrate". Thermochimica Acta. 104: 293-298. ... Nitrates, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Scandium(III) nitrate, Sc(NO3)3, is an ionic compound. It is an oxidizer, as all nitrates are. The salt is applied in optical ... v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion v t e (Chemical pages without ChemSpiderID, Articles without EBI source ... Nitrates, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Its correct name is guanidinium nitrate, but the colloquial term guanidine nitrate is widely used. Although it is the salt ... Guanidine nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula [C(NH2)3]NO3. It is a colorless, water-soluble salt. It is produced ... It is less toxic than the mixture used in older airbags of sodium azide, potassium nitrate and silica (NaN3, KNO3, and SiO2), ... It has a relatively high monopropellant specific impulse of 177 seconds (1.7 kN·s/kg). Guanidine nitrate's explosive ...
Calcium channel blockers and nitrates both decrease LES pressure but do not improve LES relaxation. Approximately 10% of ...
The Manufacture of nitric acid and nitrates /. Title:. The Manufacture of nitric acid and nitrates /. ...
Nitrate and nitrite are also made in the body.. In industry, the majority of nitrate is used as fertilizers for crops or lawns ... What are nitrate and nitrite?. Nitrate and nitrite are two nitrogen compounds that are needed by plants and animals to live and ... How can nitrate and nitrite affect my health?. Exposure to nitrate and nitrite mainly occurs through eating or drinking food ... What happens to nitrate and nitrite in the environment?. Nitrate and nitrite are naturally present in soils, water, air, and ...
Propyl nitrate, n-. CAS No: 627-13-4. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Propyl nitrate, n-. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
... the high density of barium nitrate results in baratol being quite dense as well. Barium nitrate mixed with aluminium powder, a ... Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. It, like most barium salts, is colorless, toxic, ... Barium nitrate is used in the production of BaO-containing materials. Military[edit]. Although no longer produced, Baratol is ... At elevated temperatures, barium nitrate decomposes to barium oxide: 2Ba(NO3)2 → 2BaO + 4NO2 + O2. Applications[edit]. ...
Evaluation of Nitrate Treatment Methods Under Uncertainty There are several methods of removing nitrate from drinking water ... Groundwater Nitrate in Coastal Florida Citrus Groves Removal of Nitrates in Saturated Soils Using Zero-Valent Iron and ... Experiments and Numerical Simulations of Nitrate Transport in Ando Soils Simulating the Drainage and Nitrate Leaching with OPUS ... Construction of a New Tollway Below the Groundwater Table with Nitrate Remediation Remediation of Nitrate Contaminated Surface ...
Nitrates, nitrites et composés N-nitroso / document publié sous la double égide de l Organisation mondiale de la Santé et ... Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water: background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality  ... Nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme ... WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Nitrates , Nitrites and N-Nitroso Compounds (‎Organisation mondiale de la ...
English: Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ... Nitrate de potasse; 7757-79-1; Nitrate et de potassium; KNO3; E252; Salpetre; калевая салетра; Nitrato de potassio; Salitre do ... Potassium nitrate; azotan potasu; പൊട്ടാസ്യം നൈട്രേറ്റ്; Šalitra; nitrat de potassi; potassium nitrate; Potasyum nitrat; 硝酸鉀; ... Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter. Major uses of ...
... crisis and need for substantial changes in the management of nitrogen inputs to agricultural land to comply with the Nitrates ... Fourth Review of Irelands Nitrates Action Programme. An Taisce highlights the worsening water quality crisis and need for ... Irelands Fifth Nitrates Action Programme 2022 - 2025. Ireland has chance to reverse our worsening water quality in the next ... nor are they proposed in the consultation documentation for the next Nitrates Action Programme (NAP).. ...
Cellulose nitrate. The 19th-century development that allowed for the nitration of cellulose fibres obtained from cotton linters ... By the end of the 20th century the only unique application of note for cellulose nitrate was in table tennis balls. It also ... The deficiencies inherent in cellulose nitrate raised the possibility of producing other esters of cellulose, particularly the ... Hyatt produced the first commercially successful plastic in the late 1860s by mixing solid cellulose nitrate and camphor. The ...
... nitrate, and sulfate in atmospheric wet deposition (rain, snow, sleet, and hail) by chemically suppressed ion chromatography (1 ... Standard Test Method for Determination of Chloride, Nitrate, and Sulfate in Atmospheric Wet Deposition by Chemically Suppressed ... Range of Range Method Tested MDL (mg/L)(2) (mg/L) (mg/L) Chloride 0.03 0.09-2.0 0.15-1.36 Nitrate 0.03 0.09-5.0 0.15-4.92 ... 1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in atmospheric wet deposition (rain, ...
Nitrate. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Nitrate results for Fishermans ... Nitrate. Fishermans Retreat. Nitrate, a fertilizer chemical, frequently contaminates drinking water due to agricultural and ... Excessive nitrate in water can cause oxygen deprivation in infants and increase the risk of cancer. Click here to read more ... The EWG Health Guideline of 0.14 ppm for nitrate was defined by EWG . This health guideline protects against cancer and harm to ...
... was 4160 Metric Tons. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... Poland - Sodium Nitrate Fertilizer Production Metric Tons - 2014 to 2019. Since 2014, Poland Sodium Nitrate Fertilizer ... How does Poland rank in Sodium Nitrate Fertilizer Production?. #. 4 Countries. Metric Tons. Last. YoY. 5‑years CAGR. ... At 4,160 Metric Tons in 2019, the country was number 2 comparing other countries in Sodium Nitrate Fertilizer Production. ...
Econazole nitrate cream contains the antifungal agent, econazole nitrate USP 1%, in a water-miscible base consisting of apricot ... ECONAZOLE NITRATE (UNII: H438WYN10E) (ECONAZOLE - UNII:6Z1Y2V4A7M) ECONAZOLE NITRATE. 10 mg in 1 g. ... It is not known whether econazole nitrate is excreted in human milk. Following oral administration of econazole nitrate to ... ECONAZOLE NITRATE cream. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ...
It may be that cows will have to be housed for at least part of the year in order to reduce nitrate leaching and this will have ... In addition, there is legislation being introduced on nitrates in water that may have a profound impact on dairy production. ...
... Scientists explain an unexpected algae super bloom. *. Share ... "Lava doesnt contain any nitrate.". The researchers believe the nitrogen was stirred up from the deep ocean. As the hot lava ... a fertile mix of higher nitrate levels, silicic acid, iron and phosphate. ...
The Nitrate Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) can be used to measure the concentration of Nitrate (NO3-) in aqueous samples. ... Use the Nitrate ISE to determine the concentration of the nitrate ion in a water sample. ... The Nitrate ISE has a combination-style, non-refillable, gel-filled electrode. Like all other PVC ISE membranes, the membrane ... Nitrate concentration, which can be increased by acidic rainfall, fertilizer runoff from fields, and plant or animal decay or ...
However, incorporation can exacerbate nitrate (NO3⁻) leaching. We sought to assess the trade-offs in NH3 and N … ... Low-disturbance manure incorporation effects on ammonia and nitrate loss J Environ Qual. 2012 May-Jun;41(3):928-37. doi: ... However, incorporation can exacerbate nitrate (NO3⁻) leaching. We sought to assess the trade-offs in NH3 and NO3⁻ losses caused ...
5.4 Test Method D7781 uses a nitrate reductase enzyme for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Cadmium is considered a toxic ... 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and combined nitrite-nitrate nitrogen in ... The nitrate test method (Test Method D992) has been shown to have relatively large errors when used in wastewaters and also has ... 5.3 These test methods replace Test Methods D1254 (Nitrite) and D992 (Nitrate). The nitrite test method (Test Method D1254) ...
A panel of MPs is set to hold an inquiry into a key piece of legislation for reducing nitrates pollution in England. ... Committee members are expected to discuss Defras implementation of the 1991 Directive, whether levels of nitrate pollution ... Rural Affairs Committee announced on Tuesday that it will examine Defras consultation on the implementation of the Nitrates ... have reduced, and the costs and benefits of the revised Nitrates Action Programme. ...
An excessive intake of nitrates, however, can put you and your family at risk for numerous health problems, which include ... Nitrates are esters or salts released from nitric acid in some of the foods you consume. ... Nitrates are esters or salts released from nitric acid in some of the foods you consume. An excessive intake of nitrates, ... Nitrate-Free Vegetables While vegetables naturally contain nitrates, the soil and amount of fertilizer used on the crop can ...
Rathier, T.M.; Frink, C.R. 1989: Nitrate in runoff water from container grown juniper and alberta spruce under different ... Rathier, T.M. 1983: Nitrate in runoff water from container grown junipers juniperus horizontalis cultivar youngstown under ... Colangelo, D.J.; Brand, M.H. 2001: Nitrate leaching beneath a containerized nursery crop receiving trickle or overhead ... Nitrate and phosphate concentrations in container nursery runoff from four overhead irrigation regimes. Warsaw, A.; Fernandez, ...
Nitrates Group glossary term at educational reference guide ...
An EC legal ruling has led to all new development projects in sensitive catchments to be nitrate neutral. Achieving nitrate ... The proposed research will create an evidenced based nitrate reduction strategy, informed by greater understanding of nitrate ... Thorough evaluation of existing nitrate reduction strategies, alongside generation of novel ideas for nitrate reduction. ... Improving understanding of nitrate sources and their impact on water bodies, through a case study on the East Hampshire ...
Nitrate in European rivers, 1994-96 This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript is ... data-and-maps/figures/ga-downloads/CF9C2A95-2397-4091-B91A-A657C22138AB/nitrate-in-european-rivers-1994-96 ... For references, please go to or scan the QR ...
... Identifiers CAS number 7761-88-8 Properties Molecular formula AgNO3 Molar mass 169.87 Appearance ... Silver nitrate is a soluble chemical compound with chemical formula AgNO3. This nitrate of silver is a versatile precursor to ... Dentists sometimes use silver nitrate infused swabs to heal oral ulcers. Silver nitrate is also used by some podiatrists to ... Treatment of silver nitrate with base gives silver oxide:[2] 2 AgNO3 + 2 NaOH → Ag2O + 2 NaNO3 + H2O Organic synthesis. Silver ...
The addition of potassium nitrate to a fertilizer mix has the identical effect on plant growth as other forms of potassium. To ... Because of its high cost, potassium nitrate is not widely used in fertilizer mixes, according to the University of Minnesota ...
Potassium Nitrate Solution KNO3 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. ... About Potassium Nitrate Solution. Potassium Nitrate Solutions are moderate to highly concentrated liquid solutions of Potassium ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Potassium Nitrate Solution. Nitrates. Research & Laboratory. Solutions. ... Acentric La3(IO3)8(OH) and La(IO3)2(NO3): Partial Substitution of Iodate Anions in La(IO3)3 by Hydroxide or Nitrate Anion. ...
... said videos of Tuesdays blast showed that while ammonium nitrate may have been present in the warehouse, he does not believe ... Ammonium nitrate, a compound of ammonia and nitrogen, is best known for being used in fertilizers and -- because its ... No yellow smoke: May said when he was in Baghdad, the telltale sign of an ammonium nitrate explosive was a yellow smoke cloud. ... This is not just ammonium nitrate, former CIA operative says of explosion. Robert Baer, a former CIA operative with extensive ...
  • Lebanon's prime minister said an investigation would focus on an estimated 2,750 metric tons of the explosive ammonium nitrate stored at a warehouse. (
  • Robert Baer, a former CIA operative with extensive experience in the Middle East, said videos of Tuesday's blast showed that while ammonium nitrate may have been present in the warehouse, he does not believe it was responsible for the massive explosion that ensued. (
  • Lebanon's Prime Minister, Hassan Diab, later said that 2,750 metric tons of ammonium nitrate, a highly explosive material used in fertilizers and bombs, had been stored for six years at a port warehouse without safety measures, "endangering the safety of citizens," according to a statement. (
  • It was not fertilizer like ammonium nitrate. (
  • Baer noted that white powder seen in the videos of the incident before the major blast are likely an indicator that ammonium nitrate was present and burning. (
  • Baer said while he believes the explosion does not look like solely ammonium nitrate, there's still no evidence that this was an attack. (
  • What is ammonium nitrate? (
  • Authorities are still investigating what exactly caused Tuesday's deadly explosion in Beirut, but public statements from key Lebanese officials have begun to focus on ammonium nitrate that was kept in a warehouse near the port. (
  • Ammonium nitrate, a compound of ammonia and nitrogen, is best known for being used in fertilizers and -- because it's incredibly volatile -- bombs. (
  • The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995, which killed 169 people and injured 467, was carried out using two US tons of ammonium nitrate. (
  • One of the worst accidents in US history involving a form of ammonia occurred in April 1947, when a ship loaded with ammonium nitrate caught fire while docked in Texas City. (
  • Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri on Tuesday called for identifying the side that imported the ammonium nitrate shipment that caused the catastrophic 2020 port explosion as well as the causes of the devastating blast. (
  • Ammonium nitrate - a lesson to re-learn? (
  • as well as the 100th anniversary of an ammonium nitrate explosion in Oppau, Germany, which resulted in over 500 fatalities. (
  • The model approximately reproduced PM2.5 SO42- concentration, but clearly overestimated PM2.5 NO3- concentration, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). (
  • The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system clearly overestimated the concentration of fine particulate nitrate in the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate. (
  • Anharmonic effects in ammonium nitrate and hydroxylammonium nitrate clusters. (
  • Density functional theory and second-order vibrational perturbation theory are applied to describe the covalent and ionic clusters of ammonium nitrate and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate. (
  • It's actually rather difficult to find ammonium nitrate based cold packs here. (
  • On April 17, 2013, an ammonium nitrate explosion occurred at the West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites are nitrogen-oxygen chemical units that naturally occur in soil, water, and some foods. (
  • Young infants' digestive systems convert nitrates to nitrites and can be fatal. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites are very soluble and cannot be precipitated from water. (
  • Nitrates and nitrites in foodstuffs / text drawn up by L. J. Schuddeboom. (
  • by WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Nitrates , Nitrites. (
  • Nitrates, nitrites et composés N-nitroso / document publié sous la double égide de l' Organisation mondiale de la Santé et du Programme des Nations Unies pour l' environnement. (
  • Purigen controls ammonia, nitrites and nitrates by removing nitrogenous organic waste that would otherwise release these harmful compounds. (
  • Nitrate and nitrite are two nitrogen compounds that are needed by plants and animals to live and grow. (
  • Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter. (
  • An Taisce highlights the worsening water quality crisis and need for substantial changes in the management of nitrogen inputs to agricultural land to comply with the Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. (
  • 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and combined nitrite-nitrate nitrogen in water and wastewater in the range from 0.05 to 1.0 mg/L nitrogen. (
  • Various factors can even affect organic vegetables, such as factors that increase the nitrate content, including the nitrogen content of compost used, the water supply and the temperature during growth. (
  • The type of fertilizer, the water supply and the nitrogen content of the soil can lead to varying nitrate levels, even among the same fruit. (
  • A thick gravel bed in your tank may have some anaerobic bacteria in the lower part which convert nitrates to nitrogen gas, but this is a slower process and extremely doubtful this would have any impact in your tank of 25 fish. (
  • Studies assessing connections between nitrate and cancer in humans have focused on excess exposure from drinking water or food grown in areas where use of nitrogen-based fertilizers is common. (
  • Some of the highest levels of nitrate have been measured in shallow wells and surface water supplies that are subject to runoff from nitrogen fertilizers and confined animal feedlot operations and resulting excrement and contamination from leaking septic tanks and sewage. (
  • Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have discovered that nitrate from nitrogen-based fertilizers end up in groundwater , which then takes 10 years and longer to travel into streams and rivers. (
  • How can nitrogen/nitrates/ammonia be measured? (
  • This may be because higher levels of nitrate compensate for the lack of planktonic food organisms and particulate organic nitrogen available to corals in the wild. (
  • Along its winding route, nitrogen, which converts to nitrate in water, presents two serious problems. (
  • Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula K N O 3 . (
  • Treatment with solutions of halide ions gives a precipitate of AgX (X = Cl, Br, I). When making photographic film, silver nitrate is treated with halide salts of sodium or potassium to form insoluble silver halide in situ in photographic gelatin , which is then applied to strips of tri-acetate or polyester. (
  • The addition of potassium nitrate to a fertilizer mix has the identical effect on plant growth as other forms of potassium. (
  • Because of its high cost, potassium nitrate is not widely used in fertilizer mixes, according to the University of Minnesota Extension. (
  • Potassium Nitrate Solutions are moderate to highly concentrated liquid solutions of Potassium Nitrate. (
  • They are an excellent source of Potassium Nitrate for applications requiring solubilized materials. (
  • We also produce Potassium Nitrate Powder. (
  • Biological assimilation and denitrification converts the nitrate added into carbonate alkalinity, so there is no accumulation of sodium or potassium, which are difficult to test for. (
  • 5 You will appear in the first positions of Google as the best in places to buy potassium nitrate in. (
  • High nitrate concentrations in sensitive water bodies, such as the harbours and Solent around Portsmouth, cause environmental degradation through eutrophication and are now a major issue affecting development in the region. (
  • Maintaining nitrate concentrations slightly higher than natural reef levels has been observed by many aquarists to be beneficial to coral health and coloration. (
  • We focused on a contaminated aquifer in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA that has large gradients of pH and widely varying concentrations of uranium, nitrate, and many other inorganic ions. (
  • The model results were compared with observed concentrations of PM2.5 sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium, and gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3). (
  • High concentrations of nitrates in drinking water can lead to anemia and cyanosis (especially in children of up to 2 years of age). (
  • In industry, the majority of nitrate is used as fertilizers for crops or lawns. (
  • The use of fertilizers and waste from animals adds to the amount of nitrate in the environment. (
  • In addition, workers who manufacture these fertilizers can have high exposures to dusts that contain nitrate. (
  • Hydrologic researchers from the USGS found that nitrate from fertilizers takes decades to travel through groundwater and into streams, disturbing the water quality of streams and even large rivers for many more years to come. (
  • The primary sources of nitrates in water are human sewage, livestock manure, and fertilizers. (
  • One big threat is nitrate, caused mainly by many decades of crop fertilization with chemical fertilizers and dairy manure. (
  • Your water supply could contain nitrates because of nitrate contamination, which is a concern when you use water for cooking. (
  • Areas with a high density of septic tanks and animal agriculture in close proximity to the drinking water source are most vulnerable to contamination by nitrates. (
  • The best residential treatments for nitrate contamination are reverse osmosis, distillation, and anion exchange. (
  • In order to identify those areas where the groundwater was most at risk of contamination by nitrate from agriculture, data on land use, soil permeability and rainfall were combined to produce a nitrate leaching potential map for Scotland. (
  • Les résultats de diverses études fournissent des preuves d'une contamination fécale de la plupart des approvisionnements en eau de boisson. (
  • More than 30% of the wells tested had high levels of nitrate contamination. (
  • The slow traveling nitrate makes it difficult for water quality experts to closely estimate the amount of nitrate that is expected to be in those waterways in the future. (
  • The farmers in these zones have to adhere to strict rules designed to reduce the amount of nitrate leaching. (
  • We are proud to introduce B-Ionic Nitrate which is a concentrated source of nitrate in the form of a highly purified calcium nitrate solution. (
  • Side note, what product do you source your calcium nitrate from in Bunnings? (
  • Wow, the solubility difference between calcium nitrate and ammonium sulfate in etoh is impresssive. (
  • Nitrate and nitrite dissolve easily in water and will therefore move quickly through the soil into surface water and groundwater. (
  • Drinking water from wells containing nitrate from sources such as animal waste and/or fertilizer runoff and eating plants grown in contaminated soil will increase your exposure to these chemicals. (
  • Exposure to nitrate and nitrite mainly occurs through eating or drinking food and water that contain these chemicals. (
  • 6 months of age) who drank formula made with water having higher than recommended nitrate at levels. (
  • If you live near an agricultural field and use well water, have your water tested for nitrate and nitrite and, if necessary, take the needed steps to protect yourself. (
  • Water quality constituents of concern in irrigation return flow include sediment, nitrate, pesticides, and trace elements. (
  • There are several methods of removing nitrate from drinking water with varying degrees of cost and system perfonnance. (
  • We recommend that Ireland should not seek a further derogation, as water quality data indicates that to date we clearly do not have the necessary safeguards in place, nor are they proposed in the consultation documentation for the next Nitrates Action Programme (NAP). (
  • Ireland has chance to reverse our worsening water quality in the next Nitrates Action Programme. (
  • Nitrate, a fertilizer chemical, frequently contaminates drinking water due to agricultural and urban runoff, and discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants and septic tanks. (
  • Excessive nitrate in water can cause oxygen deprivation in infants and increase the risk of cancer. (
  • Econazole nitrate cream contains the antifungal agent, econazole nitrate USP 1%, in a water-miscible base consisting of apricot kernel oil/PEG-6, benzoic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, mineral oil, PEG-6-32 stearate/glycol stearate and purified water. (
  • In addition, there is legislation being introduced on nitrates in water that may have a profound impact on dairy production. (
  • Nitrate concentration, which can be increased by acidic rainfall, fertilizer runoff from fields, and plant or animal decay or waste, is an important parameter in nearly all water quality studies. (
  • Use the Nitrate ISE to determine the concentration of the nitrate ion in a water sample. (
  • Even if you are consuming nitrate-free foods, using nitrate-contaminated water when washing or preparing these foods will increase your nitrate intake. (
  • Should You Be Worried About the Nitrates in Your Water? (
  • This will provide councils and developers with greater options for achieving nitrate neutrality with long-term viability as well as generate targeted improvement the water quality of environmentally sensitive areas. (
  • Improving understanding of nitrate sources and their impact on water bodies, through a case study on the East Hampshire catchment. (
  • When taken into the body by drinking water and through other dietary sources, nitrate and nitrite can react with amines and amides to form N-nitroso compounds (NOC), which are known to cause cancer in animals and may cause cancer in humans. (
  • Oral tobacco also may contribute to nitrate intake, but is minor compared to diet or contaminated drinking water. (
  • Studies have shown increased risks of colon, kidney, and stomach cancer among people with higher ingestion of water nitrate and higher meat intake compared with low intakes of both, a dietary pattern that results in increased NOC formation. (
  • Once the nitrate makes it into those waterways, the water quality is negatively affected for several years. (
  • This study provides direct evidence that nitrate can take decades to travel from recharge at the land surface to discharge in streams," said Jerad Bales, acting USGS associate director for water. (
  • Then they used an age dating tracer to find out how long it takes the groundwater to reach the stream, discovering that the nitrate levels found in the water was older than a decade. (
  • Research has shown an increase in nitrates in water as both agriculture and population grows. (
  • While nitrates used to be a "well water" problem, many urban water suppliers now having to work to keep nitrate levels down. (
  • The foremost health hazard associated with excessive levels of nitrates in water is blue baby syndrome, a condition that affects the blood usually in infants 6 months old or younger. (
  • If nitrates aren't going down with large water changes, they are in the water you are using. (
  • This probably would break down the existing ammonia in tap water and that would become nitrates. (
  • Infants can not drink water with high levels of nitrate. (
  • A water sample showed high levels of nitrate, above the federal standard. (
  • The city asks that you not give water to infants six months or younger because they cannot process nitrates like adults can. (
  • New research by U.S. Department of Agriculture microbiologist Mark Borchardt shows nitrate and coliform in the water mostly comes from agriculture - and not human waste. (
  • However, these cycles are interrupted by the activities of humans, as the increasing amounts of nitrates and phosphates cannot be processed by water ecosystems. (
  • Are there simple tests for nitrates in well water? (
  • of aquarium water adds 1 ppm nitrate. (
  • It is very soluble in water and is also a good source of nitrate anion, which is greatly used by many industries. (
  • Whilst nitrate pollution arises from a number of sources, including in particular agricultural run-off and outfalls, new occupied dwellings would add to the pressures through the waste water generated. (
  • The Trust is proposing that land which is currently releasing nitrates in the catchment, such as fertilised arable land, could be managed differently in order to reduce nitrate pollution entering water-bodies, reducing the amount of nutrients ultimately reaching the Solent. (
  • In addition to the direct nitrate balancing, the proposed scheme has the potential to deliver a number of additional water quality and biodiversity benefits, through wider pollution reduction and expanding and enhancing vital wildlife habitats. (
  • Health hazards from nitrates in drinking-water : report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, 5-9 March 1984. (
  • Developed specifically for the removal of nitrates from water for drinking water. (
  • Specialized filter media target harmful toxins such as ammonias and nitrates in order to keep your water and pets safe from contaminants. (
  • To make it safe, the Water Works have to remove nitrates that come from farms upstream. (
  • More than two hundred of Iowa's community water systems struggle with high nitrate levels, periodically issuing "Do Not Drink" orders. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires utilities to deliver tap water with no more than 10 milligrams of nitrates per liter. (
  • Nationwide, utilities spent $4.8 billion to remove nitrates from public drinking water supplies in 2011, the last year for which data are available. (
  • With the help of studies by UC Davis, monitoring from the Regional Water Board, and industry-designated monitoring wells, we've found that 94% of the nitrate pollution surrounding dairies is coming from applying manure to land. (
  • Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. (
  • It may be that cows will have to be housed for at least part of the year in order to reduce nitrate leaching and this will have a significant impact on costs. (
  • Consider eating less of those foods that contain high levels of nitrate or nitrite, especially infants and small children. (
  • The legal limit for nitrate, established in 1962, was developed to protect infants from acute methemoglobinemia, a life-threatening disorder of oxygen transport in the body. (
  • The presence of chloride , bromide, or iodide ions can be tested by adding silver nitrate solution. (
  • Aim: This study evaluated the surface roughness, topography and permeability of bovine enamel by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with and without silver nitrate solution, after exposure to different bleaching agents. (
  • For permeability evaluation, the samples were immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution and analyzed using a backscattered electron and secondary electron mode. (
  • An excessive intake of nitrates, however, can put you and your family at risk for numerous health problems, which include cancer, intrauterine growth retardation and sudden infant death syndrome. (
  • Excessive nitrate or nitrate exposure can also result in acute acquired methemoglobinemia, a blood abnormality that causes blood to lose its ability to carry oxygen to tissues (anoxia). (
  • 1] The leaching of nitrate to both ground and surface waters is a natural consequence of agricultural activity but excessive levels of nitrates can alter the natural ecology of rivers and pollute drinking waters. (
  • Watermelon was classified as very low in nitrates, with less than 20 milligrams of nitrates per 100 grams of fruit, according to the study published in "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (
  • The researchers also found that apple sauce, fruit mix and oranges contained less than 1 milligram of nitrate per 100 grams of fruit, while bananas contained 4.5 milligrams per 100 grams of fruit. (
  • Ham is lower in nitrates, with 0.90 milligrams per 100 grams of meat. (
  • Somewhat later, in 1846, the German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein accidently treated cotton with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids and obtained cellulose nitrate, which soon became commonly known as nitrocellulose . (
  • Nitrates are esters or salts released from nitric acid in some of the foods you consume. (
  • Silver nitrate crystals can be produced by dissolving silver metal in a solution of nitric acid and evaporating the solution. (
  • The deficiencies inherent in cellulose nitrate raised the possibility of producing other esters of cellulose, particularly the esters of organic acids. (
  • Silver nitrate is used as many ways in organic synthesis, e.g. for deprotection and oxidations. (
  • Higher nitrate levels may also assist organic breakdown and prevent hydrogen sulfide in anoxic/anaerobic areas of rock and sand. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Use of organic nitrates in gastroenterology. (
  • Ray J, Chawla Y. Use of organic nitrates in gastroenterology. (
  • Nitrates, organic. (
  • Nitrate salts are bounded within the mineral caliche ore and serves as the main source of sodium nitrate till the 20th century. (
  • A panel of MPs is set to hold an inquiry into a key piece of legislation for reducing nitrates pollution in England. (
  • Committee members are expected to discuss Defra's implementation of the 1991 Directive, whether levels of nitrate pollution have reduced, and the costs and benefits of the revised Nitrates Action Programme . (
  • Environmental surveys to identify sources of nitrate pollution in the South Hampshire catchment region. (
  • Engagement with local stakeholders such as developers, local authorities, and government bodies to discuss and develop a holistic approach to nitrate pollution management. (
  • Whilst these responsive measures have enabled some quick fixes to parts of the development pipeline, a much more comprehensive investigation is required to ensure nitrate neutral solutions are both viable in the long-term, and effectively addressing the core issue of environmental pollution. (
  • The Wildlife Trust has put forward a scheme which could see nitrate pollution in the Solent reduced, with added benefits for local people and wildlife. (
  • Natural England's decision to halt any development which would contribute to nitrate pollution in the Solent, follows recent European Court of Justice rulings on the issue. (
  • Commenting on the scheme, Debbie Tann, Chief Executive of Hampshire & Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust said: "Our local seas are being suffocated by untenable levels of pollution and we have to find ways of reducing the levels of nitrates entering the Solent. (
  • Iowa is the largest corn producer in the U.S.-and the second largest producer of nitrate pollution in the Mississippi River Basin. (
  • Their study shows that the green plume in the ocean around the volcano contained the perfect cocktail for plant growth - a fertile mix of higher nitrate levels, silicic acid, iron and phosphate. (
  • RUDN University biotechnologists worked with biotechnologists from Lomonosov MSU and Kurchatov Institute to make a significant contribution to the technology of biocapture of nitrate and phosphate from wastewater by making use of Lobosphaera algae placed on filters. (
  • Biotechnologists from RUDN University in collaboration with Lomonosov MSU and Kurchatov institute made an important contribution to the technology of phosphate and nitrate biocapture from wastewater using Lobosphaera algae fixed on the filters. (
  • When phosphate levels are already high, increasing food input can be problematic when trying to raise nitrate levels because food also imports phosphate. (
  • B-Ionic Nitrate provides a solution by raising nitrate without increasing phosphate. (
  • Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba ( NO 3 ) 2 . (
  • There must be nitrates or else you'd have ammonia and nitrite, and your fish would appear really sick. (
  • Your tank is fully cycled once nitrates are being produced (and ammonia and nitrite levels are zero). (
  • So i need to do a test and when ammonia and nitrite is zero and nitrates are up. (
  • In the United States John W. Hyatt produced the first commercially successful plastic in the late 1860s by mixing solid cellulose nitrate and camphor. (
  • By the end of the 20th century the only unique application of note for cellulose nitrate was in table tennis balls. (
  • Sartorius Cellulose Nitrate Membrane Filters are excellently suited for diagnostic kits. (
  • Cellulose nitrate filters are highly flammable. (
  • The tank does have a pretty deep gravel bed, I've never really dealt with deep gravel beds but heard they can house de-nitrate bacteria. (
  • The contaminants investigated were nitrate, coliform bacteria, human fecal microbes, bovine fecal microbes and other fecal microbes regardless of the source. (
  • If you have a well , at the very least check it once for mineral content, lead, and radon (where radon is a threat) and once or twice a year for bacteria and nitrates. (
  • Once the nitrate-forming bacteria take hold, nitrite levels fall, nitrate levels rise, and the tank is fully cycled. (
  • Niles' group advocates for practices such as applying manure to fields twice a year rather than once in order to minimize nitrate density, and planting cover crops to absorb more manure. (
  • For the short term we need to use less manure on lands where nitrate leaching is a problem. (
  • We're also working with Sustainable Conservation on some promising biological solutions ―including a pilot project to use high quantities of earthworms to decompose nitrate coming from manure. (
  • During their study, researchers looked at surface and ground waters at seven different sites across the U.S. and discovered that watersheds with the most groundwater held the highest nitrate levels. (
  • Other studies have shown modest evidence that higher nitrate intake can increase the risk of thyroid cancer and ovarian cancer among women. (
  • In animal studies, changes in thyroid function were seen in rats that were fed or drank high levels of nitrate or nitrite. (
  • By limiting your exposure to nitrates from the foods you consume, you can reduce your risk of the adverse health effects associated with toxic levels. (
  • EPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) are 10 mg/L for nitrate and 1 mg/L for Nitrite. (
  • The existing high levels of nitrates are causing harm to the ecosystem and failure of environmental standards. (
  • At the same time, nitrate therapy was not associated with significantly better 6-minute-walk distance, natriuretic-peptide levels, or quality-of-life scores in the 110-patient trial, reported today at the American Heart Association (AHA) 2015 Scientific Sessions . (
  • Dr Clyde Yancy (Northwestern University, Chicago IL) called the adverse effect on activity levels with the nitrate "a very peculiar observation. (
  • The average daily accelerometer units during the 120-mg phase, the primary end point, showed a trend shy of significance ( P =0.06) suggesting lower activity levels during nitrate therapy compared with the placebo period. (
  • The SEM micrographs indicated changes on enamel topography and different levels of silver nitrate penetration in the samples of the bleached groups. (
  • Some studies have linked high nitrate levels with birth defects and, in adults, various cancers and thyroid problems. (
  • This ToxFAQs™ information is taken from the 2017 Toxicological Profile for Nitrate and Nitrite produced by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in Atlanta, GA. (
  • While vegetables naturally contain nitrates, the soil and amount of fertilizer used on the crop can increase nitrate content. (
  • the high density of barium nitrate results in baratol being quite dense as well. (
  • I just got home yesterday and was curious how high the nitrates got. (
  • The biggest source of nitrate exposure is dietary consumption of certain types of vegetables which are naturally high in nitrate. (
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  • Silver nitrate is a soluble chemical compound with chemical formula AgNO 3 . (
  • Like all soluble barium compounds, barium nitrate is toxic by ingestion or inhalation. (
  • Private wells are at a higher risk of containing nitrates because of agriculture runoff and proximity to feed lots. (
  • In 2014 the state released a Nutrient Reduction Strategy that calls for slashing nitrate runoff by 41 percent. (
  • Achieving nitrate neutrality is a new and complex challenge that continues to impede development on England's South coast, a region with ambitious housing targets and strong economic growth. (
  • Some meats and meat products contain sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite as preservatives. (
  • Econazole nitrate exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity against the following organisms in vitro , but the clinical significance of these data is unknown. (
  • The antifungal activity test demonstrated that miconazole nitrate -microparticles possessed the same anti- Candida albicans activity as the pure drug . (
  • Nitrates and phosphates reach the wastewater along with household and industrial waste, specifically detergents. (
  • Wastewater treatment involves using unique equipment and microorganisms, such as microalgae that use up nitrates and phosphates. (
  • The algae on the filter were able to capture the nutrients more effectively compared to those suspended in the wastewater: Particularly, they used up nitrates 1.3 times and phosphates 16.7 times quicker. (
  • In solid silver nitrate, the silver ions are three-coordinated in a trigonal planar arrangement. (
  • 5.4 Test Method D7781 uses a nitrate reductase enzyme for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. (
  • The proposed research will create an evidenced based nitrate reduction strategy, informed by greater understanding of nitrate sources and flows, and a holistic assessment of nitrate reduction options. (
  • Thorough evaluation of existing nitrate reduction strategies, alongside generation of novel ideas for nitrate reduction. (
  • single nucleotide polymorphisms, a deletion mutation, and Niacin production and nitrate reduction were detected as phenotypic traits, confirming it as a cause of tuberculosis in described by Kent and Kubica (9). (
  • Available at . (
  • Meats that contain nitrates, including bacon, salami, hot dogs, bologna, corned beef, sausage, luncheon meats and cured meats, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and the United Stated Department of Agriculture as to their nitrate content. (
  • As time passes, chitosan would degrade without any harm to the surroundings, and the algae would serve as a source of collected nitrates and phosphates for the plants. (
  • At 4,160 Metric Tons in 2019, the country was number 2 comparing other countries in Sodium Nitrate Fertilizer Production. (
  • LCHD will continue to educate the community on health effects of nitrates and other contaminants, especially targeting individuals moving into or choosing to build in identified vulnerable areas. (
  • Being available as a natural resource, sodium nitrate is mined extensively to meet its huge demand till the 20th century. (
  • Econazole nitrate has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. (
  • Barium nitrate mixed with aluminium powder , a formula for flash powder , is highly explosive. (
  • Nitrate and nitrite are also used in food preservation, some pharmaceutical drugs, and in the production of munitions and explosives. (
  • under these conditions, IARC determined that ingested nitrate and nitrite is probably carcinogenic to humans. (
  • Intravaginal administration in humans has not shown prolonged gestation or other adverse reproductive effects attributable to econazole nitrate therapy. (
  • Barium nitrate is manufactured by two processes that start with the main source material for barium, the carbonate. (
  • 5.3 These test methods replace Test Methods D1254 (Nitrite) and D992 (Nitrate). (
  • DIY methods for nitrate detection in food? (