Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Lanolin: A yellow fat obtained from sheep's wool. It is used as an emollient, cosmetic, and pharmaceutic aid.Papilloma, Intraductal: A small, often impalpable benign papilloma arising in a lactiferous duct and frequently causing bleeding from the nipple. (Stedman, 25th ed)Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Linuron: A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Maternal-Child Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Lingual Frenum: MUCOUS MEMBRANE extending from floor of mouth to the under-surface of the tongue.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Diaper Rash: A type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with a diaper and occurring most often as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine, feces, or retained soap or detergent.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Mastectomy, Subcutaneous: Excision of breast tissue with preservation of overlying skin, nipple, and areola so that breast form may be reconstructed.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Nipple Aspirate Fluid: Fluid collected from nipple by gentle aspiration. The fluid contains cells and extracellular fluid from the breast ductal epithelium.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Tissue Expansion Devices: Devices used to generate extra soft tissue in vivo to be used in surgical reconstructions. They exert stretching forces on the tissue and thus stimulate new growth and result in TISSUE EXPANSION. They are commonly inflatable reservoirs, usually made of silicone, which are implanted under the tissue and gradually inflated. Other tissue expanders exert stretching forces by attaching to outside of the body, for example, vacuum tissue expanders. Once the tissue has grown, the expander is removed and the expanded tissue is used to cover the area being reconstructed.Mastectomy, Simple: Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hypertrichosis: Excessive hair growth at inappropriate locations, such as on the extremities, the head, and the back. It is caused by genetic or acquired factors, and is an androgen-independent process. This concept does not include HIRSUTISM which is an androgen-dependent excess hair growth in WOMEN and CHILDREN.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Milk, HumanReceptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Apolipoproteins D: A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.Body Piercing: The perforation of an anatomical region for the wearing of jewelry.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Mastodynia: Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Seroma: Tumor-like sterile accumulation of serum in a tissue, organ, or cavity. It results from a tissue insult and is the product of tissue inflammation. It most commonly occurs following MASTECTOMY.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infant's tongue massages the milk out ... thought that massage of the nipples before the birth of the baby would help to toughen them up and thus avoid possible nipple ... Breast-Feeding Content Resources WHO reports on Breast Feeding. *Breastfeeding and Breast Milk US National Institute of Health ... called the breast crawl[31] and begins to feed. After feeding, it is normal for a baby to remain latched to the breast while ...
Breastfeeding can be really difficult, especially without the support of other moms!Id love to open this thread as a place to ... My nipples were cracked, bleeding, sore, and horribly in pain...but then they toughen up and you cant feel anything. We are ... Most pediatricians push formula feeding over breastfeeding, even if they dont realized they are doing it. Its sad, but the ... Their mouths should cover most of the nipple, and their lips should be totally visable, (not tucked in.) Ask, ask, and ask for ...
My little girl was only born on Aug 1st and I am having to resort to pumping to give her breast milk because the pain is so ... I have had my latch checked but am still getting sore cracked nipples. ... Im not really bothered by that except that I would like to be able to breast feed instead of feeding breast milk thru a bottle ... You need your nipples to toughen up and that going to happen by nursing through the pain. It will get better. Mine always take ...
Your nipple and the dark area around the nipple, the areola, may increase in size and the colour becomes darker. Small glands ... These glands release an oily fluid that lubricates and protects the nipples. ... Your body prepares for breastfeeding while you are pregnant. Most breasts grow in size during the first few months of pregnancy ... Before you give birth, preparing your nipples for breastfeeding is not necessary. Rubbing or toughening your nipples removes ...
... we explain how your breast structure changes and offer self-care tips. ... to after you stop breastfeeding your little one, ... Nipple formers If you have inverted or flat nipples, Medela ... And if anyone suggests toughening your nipples for breastfeeding by pinching or rubbing, ignore them! ... During the first three months or so of breastfeeding, your breasts will probably still feel quite full before a feed. As your ...
I have been breastfeeding for 4 weeks and feels like... Find the best answer on Mamapedia - mom trusted since 2006. ... or did) when my youngest was breast feeding, my nipple literally tore. i cant tell you the amount of pain that i went thru each ... So, perhaps, they are just still tender and will toughen up soon. I did use a breast shield on one of my nipples when it was ... When I was breast feeding my son suck my nipples so hard i got sores and my doctor told me use A & D ointment which healed my ...
Knowing how to ease the pain and initial problems of breastfeeding can turn it into a rewarding experience for Mother and Baby. ... Breastfeeding can be tough even on veteran Moms. ... Breastfeeding. Cant Breast Feed? How to Pump Exclusively. by ... The hospital gave me a good tip for sore nipples (from feeding), which was to put a bottle teat over the nipple and let the ... What I remember helping heal/toughen best was actual b. milk (express a little and rub on nipple). Learned that in a BF class ...
Your nipples will toughen up over time. (One day your baby will do a full 360 on your nipple and youll barely notice.) PurLan ... Breastfeeding is by far the best way to feed your baby. Even many manufacturers of baby formula are saying this! Breast milk is ... Washing nipples before each feeding makes breastfeeding unnecessarily complicated and washes away protective oils from the ... Breastfeeding has the word FEEDING in it for a reason. Ive yet to have a bad experience while breastfeeding in public, even ...
Time to separate fact from fiction! Here, we debunk the most common myths about breastfeeding. Myth 1: Theres nothing you can ... "Toughening" your nipples wont make breastfeeding any more of a breeze - in fact, it will only make that tender, already- ... Stretched skin and frequent feeding can be a tough combo for your delicate, sensitive skin. Turn to a nipple cream like ... FREE Breast Pump * Products Products * New Arrivals * Breast Pumps & Parts * Breast Care & Nursing Pads ...
Understanding how breastfeeding works is information every nursing mother should know. Learn about breastfeeding and breast ... Many breastfeeding mothers experience sore nipples, fatigue, and doubts about milk supply. Your encouragement and nurturing ... To minimize the amount a bottle-fed baby swallows, try to always keep the nipple full of formula as you feed. Regardless of the ... This is natural; they arent accustomed to this type of work and need some time to toughen up. ...
Offer your breast whenever your baby shows any feeding cues (smacking lips, licking, sucking, or looking for the breast), or at ... Your nipples do not require any special preparation to nurse. You do not need to rub them with a towel or "toughen them up." ... Some mothers may introduce a bottle with a slow flow nipple and use it when they must be away from baby. It is a good idea to ... Take a breastfeeding class, watch a breastfeeding video, read a breastfeeding book, attend a breastfeeding mothers group and ...
Having suffered with cracks and bleeding from week 1 of BF and having forced myself to drop the nipple shields, we now appear ... and the pain is all around the areola and nipple, but inside the breast rather than at skin level. The tip of the nipple is ... Please join us at the new LLLI Breastfeeding Support Community on Inspire.com, or in the LLLI Breastfeeding Support Facebook ... This feels very counterintuitive, but it really helps! Lean back a bit while you feed so that the baby is more on top and is ...
Humans have been breastfeeding for nearly half a million years. Its only in the last 60 years that we have begun to give ... breastfeeding. Instead, many modern mothers practice mixed feeding - combining breastfeeding with artificial baby milks and ... In some hospitals, women are still advised to limit the amount of time, at first, that a baby sucks on each breast, to toughen ... which help it find the nipple) and muscle coordination (necessary to latch properly onto the breast) were severely impaired. ...
Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infants tongue massages the milk out ... thought that massage of the nipples before the birth of the baby would help to toughen them up and thus avoid possible nipple ... Breast-Feeding Content Resources WHO reports on Breast Feeding. *Breastfeeding and Breast Milk US National Institute of Health ... called the breast crawl[31] and begins to feed. After feeding, it is normal for a baby to remain latched to the breast while ...
I tried breastfeeding a few times while he was in the NICU, always with a nipple shield. Since he got home, Ive been ... I was encouraged to pump to get my milk supply started from the start, which I did and my baby was fed my milk in a bottle. ... It was quite uncomfortable from the start and caused pain on my right nipple. ... I had planned to breastfeed, but was not very educated about it. He was in the NICU for two weeks. ...
I still want to keep the option of bottle feeding her breast milk open. Problem is, I have never breastfed her successfuly. I ... As far as pain goes, I think that it just takes time for your nipples to toughen up. I used Lansinoh, which seemed to help. You ... As long as she is opening wide and her lips are flanged around the areola and not sucking on the nipple only, that should do it ... Sorry I should have added that putting her to the breast is the best way to get her the milk she needs but if that is not an ...
8. Care for your nipple skin. 9. Express some milk after each feed, rub it on your nipples and let it dry. This is a successful ... You may get sore nipples sooner than a schedule-feeding woman, but your soreness will disappear before hers, your breastfeeding ... and the good news is that their skin toughens as the days go by. Or your baby may have been feeding with the breast poorly ... 12. If your nipples dont stand out well, try using breast shells for half an hour before a feed. This lets your baby take a ...
Combining breast and bottle feeding is known as mixed feeding and allows other people, such as your partner, to feed the baby ... Although some pain is to be expected when you start breastfeeding, and nipples do eventually toughen up, pain can also indicate ... Uncomfortable, heavy and engorged breasts, sore or cracked nipples, block nipple ducts and thrush are just some of the things ... Keep persevering one feed at a time and try to find local breastfeeding clinics. Your breastfeeding journey is unique and you ...
The cracked, bleeding nipples will go away soon! Just keep using nipple cream, and they will "toughen" up. Will Adriana move to ... Our baby did not or has not taken to bottle at all, I feel more comfortable breast feeding her. I tried to pump in the earlier ... My son was a lazy latched right from birth so I had to use a nipple shield to breastfeed him… Oh the stories. Hands waving, ... So I put on the nipple shields and I had instant relief - no more nipples rubbing against my bra or t-shirt! It was progress. ...
It is painful in the first few weeks but your nipples toughen up, you get used to it and it becomes a wonderful painless ... I had cracked bleeding nipples and was in tears at feeding times from the pain. But the midwifes in the hospital and the ... and it says in most cases breastfeeding actually corrects this problem as the baby is sucking on the nipple and streching and ... breastfeeding counciler and of course from my wonderful mum who made a mad dash to the 24h supermarket to buy a breast pump at ...
Complications include breast pain, breast infection, cracked nipples and nipple pain. Each of these can be addressed by ... For many women, breast feeding proceeds with no difficulty and a plentiful supply of milk, along with comfort and ease for ... Soaps and other toughening techniques actually damage tissue and remove this necessary oil. During later pregnancy, hormonal ... One of the most common complaints in the first days of breastfeeding is nipple soreness. There is usually a transient nipple ...
... "toughen up their nipples" but now research has shown, (thank heavens) that "nipple toughening" makes no difference. Here are ... No doubt, Giving-Breast-to-Baby offers the best, most nourishing noshings. So why then has feeding a nurseling in public become ... Breastfeeding is so much more than nutrition-its brain wiring!. 6. SCHEDULED OR FEED ON DEMAND. Baby led feeding is lovely! ... If you are breastfeeding, eating a nourishing diet not only helps you feel better, it can increase the quality of your breast ...
Pregnancy and breastfeeding breast myths. *Myth: Use a toothbrush or rough cloth to toughen up nipples for breastfeeding.There ... Support for breast changes in the third trimester. As the body prepares to feed the growing baby, the breasts again enter a ... Breast changes common in pregnancy- third trimester. *Some discharge or dried flakes of colostrum may be noticed on the nipple. ... breast changes, breast size and breastfeeding, Breastfeeding, breastfeeding and body changes, breastfeeding and pregnancy, Cake ...
Mothers often wonder if any special care or preparation of the breast is required for breastfeeding. Heres what you need to ... the nipples of the breast invert inward or do not protrude at all outward. Contrary to popular belief, nipples do not need to ... Before birth, there is not really anything a mother should be doing to prepare or toughen breasts for breastfeeding. Mothers ... This is an example of nipple shield, mentioned above. Use of shields is best managed in consultation with a breastfeeding ...
"Your nipples will toughen up. Hang in there." "Use a nipple shield, that helped my sore nipples heal. I couldnt have breastfed ... "Feeding the Baby Enough is Always the #1 Rule in Breastfeeding.". Helping the baby feed effectively is also the next step. A ... If her baby is not gaining weight, she wants to give her baby enough to eat, preferably breast milk. In a culture where we can ... Posted in breastfeeding support , Tagged breastfeeding forums, mother-to-mother support, sore nipples, tongue tie , Leave a ...
It is now known that sore nipples are the result of improper positioning of the baby on the breast, not of inadequate nipple ... "Toughening" the nipples with a towel is no longer recommended.. Read about breastfeeding. Buy a book and take it to the ... Alternate the breast that you offer your baby first at each feeding because his initial sucking will be the strongest. By ... Nipple Preparation. The use of nipple preparation to prevent sore nipples has varied over the years. ...
  • Infant Feeding & Early Parenting, Food For Thought. (analyticalarmadillo.co.uk)
  • I was told the Infant Feeding Co-Ordinator would come to see us, but she never turned up in the 7 days we were there. (analyticalarmadillo.co.uk)
  • The Infant Feeding Survey tells us that in 2010 64% of mothers in NI began breastfeeding. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Lactation Consultants (LC) are registered nurses who have gained additional training and experience in infant feeding difficulties, and are more likely to recognize and correctly diagnose tongue-tie than other clinicians. (drnevillewilson.com)
  • Infant feeding, a subject that upon superficial thought seems so simple that the majority of medical students are apt to pass it by as pertaining to the nurse and not the doctor. (neonatology.org)
  • The politics and safety of infant feeding is even the center of international concern and multi-national industrial enterprise. (neonatology.org)
  • In studying the history of infant feeding, one must assume that the human breast was the sole source of nutrition in man's primitive beginnings. (neonatology.org)
  • Tracing this inquisitiveness of man, and the evolution of "artificial" or alternative methods of infant feeding shall be the prime purpose of this chapter. (neonatology.org)
  • Many mothers choose to practice this form of infant feeding but get discouraged at some point either by the opinions of family members or the advice of poorly trained health workers,or even by several myths surrounding exclusive breastfeeding . (theinformedmum.org)
  • Let us therefore join hands to promote this great infant feeding practice which has the potential to save countless lives. (theinformedmum.org)
  • During the second trimester, you may notice your nipples and areolae (the circles of skin surrounding them) becoming larger and darker," says breastfeeding research associate at Medela Dr Danielle Prime. (medela.com)
  • It's common for nipples and areolas to become darker, and you might even notice your nipples growing in size too. (lansinoh.com)